Family Onychiuridae Lubbock, 1867.
Sub-family Onychiurinae Bagnall, 1935.
Genus Onychiurus Gervais, 1841.
Furcula if present then rudimentary. Pseudocelli present and with definite chitinous borders. Cuticle finely-granulate. Three species and one variety belonging to this genus are known from New Zealand, but none of these are endemic. They are world-wide species; and whether they were present in this country before the advent of European civilization is a question of some doubt.
|1.||With anal spines.||2|
|Without anal spines.||3|
|2.||(a) Senory organ on Ant. III with sensory clubs like a blunch of grapes. Post-antennal organ with 16–32 simple lobes.||O. armatus Tullberg|
|(b) As above, but without anal spines.||subsp. inermis Axelson|
|3.||Sensory clubs of Ant. III smooth. Post-antennal organ with 12–16 bunches of tubercles.||O. fimetarius Linné|
Onychiurus armatus Tullberg, 1869. Plate 47, figs. 122–126.
1937. Onychiurus makarensis Salmon.
1894. Lipura incerta Moniez.
Clothing: Sparsely clothed with short setae.
Body: Length from 0·6 mm. to 2·5 mm. Antennae shorter than head. Sensory organ on Ant. III with sensory clubs rather like bunch of grapes. Post-antennal organ with from 16–32 simple tubercles. Anal spines present, long, slightly curved, and on papillae. Pseudocelli variable.
Legs: Claw without any teeth. Empodial appendage needle-like almost as long as claw.
Mr H. Womersley, of the South Australian Museum, Adelaide, drew my attention to the fact that my species O. makarensis possibly was the cosmopolitan species armatus; and I now have to confirm his view. Further localities for this species include:—Mount Manganui, Tauranga, amongst pine needles under a grove of pine-trees; Newbury, Palmerston North, in the soil along the banks of a stream; specimens have been taken also at several localities in the Urewera Country, notably in leaf mould in the bush around Lake Waikaremoana. From Tauhara Mountain, Taupo, specimens have been obtained under the bark of beech trees at an elevation of 3000 ft.; Makara coast and Orongorongo coast among roots of rushes; Lake Rotoroa in leaf mould; Lake Pukaki, under stones on edge of lake; Mount Cargill, Dunedin, in soil.
Subsp. inermis Axelson.
Similar to armatus but the anal spines absent.
Localities: From leaf debris under tree-ferns in the Awakino Valley and from amongst stones at the Whangarei Falls and Lake Waikaremoana, in leaf mould by lake.
Onychiurus fimetarius Linné, 1766. Plate 47, figs. 127–130.
Body: Length up to 2 mm. Antennae shorter than the head. Sensory organ of Ant. III with smooth sense clubs. Postantennal organ with 12–16 bunches of tubercles. Pseudocelli present dorsally as follows:—2 on antennal base, 1 posterior to base, 2 posteriorly on head, 2 on Th. I, 4 on each of Th. II and III, 6 on Abds. I to III inclusive, 10 on Abd. IV and 6 on Abd. V. Anal spines absent.
Legs: Claw without any teeth. Empodial appendage needle-like, slightly curved, and from a half to as long as the claw. Furcula absent.
Localities: Reported in New Zealand in 1936 by Womersley from Manurewa and Hillsborough, Auckland. Also now found on the Huiarau Range at an elevation of 3,200 ft., under the bark of a rimu tree, and at Te Whaiti in old logs and amongst leaf mould in the bush; Mount Ngamoko, Lake Waikaremoana, in old log, 3,600 ft.; in Wellington Botanical Gardens from roots of flax plants, and at Te Kuiti, in leaf mould (coll. by W. P. Bradley).