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Volume 70, 1940-41
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Tribe Lepidophorellini Womersley, 1939.
Genus Lepidophorella Schaeffer, 1897.

Scaled species with dentes annulated and mucro falciform. Dentes with spines and often with spine-like scales. Ocelli present. Antennae not annulated.

This genus is well represented in New Zealand by five species and one variety. Two of these species range to Australia and one beyond. The remaining three are endemic.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Lepidophorella.
1. Species with strongly ribbed scales in which ribbing is plainly visible. 2
Species in which ribbing is not plainly visible and scales are more or less hyaline, ground colour of body bright reddish-brown. L. rubicunda sp. nov.
2. With one, three or four teeth to claw. 3
With two teeth to claw. 4
3. With one tooth to claw. L. unadentata sp. nov.
Three teeth to claw. L. communis Salmon
Four teeth to claw. L. brachycephala Moniez
4. Body colour straw-yellow or creamy-white. L. australis Carpenter
Body colour dark brown. L. australis subsp. fusca nov.

Lepidophorella brachycephala Moniez, 1894. Plate 54, fig. 251.

1894. Drepanura brachycephala Moniez.

This species is similar in general facies to L. australis, from which it differs in having four prominent inner teeth to the claw and the mucro relatively shorter.

First recorded in New Zealand by Carpenter in 1925 from Mount Algidus, Rakaia Gorge, and Ben More, Canterbury. The following further localities may now be added:—Lake Pukaki and Tasman Glacier moraine, under stones; Buller Gorge, in leaf debris in bush; Haast Pass, under moss on tree trunks; Ribbonwood Valley, Cass, in leaf debris of beech forest, 2,300 ft.; Lewis Pass, in leaf debris, 3,100 ft.; Craigieburn Mountains, in beech forest, 2,650 ft.

Lepidophorella australis Carpenter, 1925. Plate 54, fig. 252.

Colour: Variable, straw-yellow to creamy-white, with typically dark dorsal patches on Th. II and Abds. I, II, IV, and V. These dark dorsal patches may extend to all segments or may be completely absent. Dark purple basal rings on Ant. II, and Ant. IV wholly dark purple.

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Clothing: Densely clothed with large, prominently-ribbed greyish to brown coloured scales and occasional setae. Long, ciliated setae around posterior region. At apex of mesotergum a bunch of stiff, straight setae sometimes ciliated but apically always divided into 3–4 short finger-like processes.

Body: Length up to 4 mm. Antennae three-quarters again as long as head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 12: 27: 27: 36. Ocelli eight to each side, all large and equal and on black fields. Th. II two and a-quarter times as long as Th. III. Abd. III a third as long again as Abd. IV. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax.

Legs: Claws with two large inner teeth inside basal half and two strong outer lateral teeth. Empodial appendage lanceolate and up to three-quarters as long as claw. Two short non-clavate tenent hairs to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching at least to middle pair of legs. Manubrium to mucrodens as 3: 4. Dens annulated and corrugated, heavily scaled and with numerous ventral spines. Mucro falciform and slightly curved.

Localities: Originally described by Carpenter from Campbell Island. I have taken this species from the following localities:—North Island—Urewera Country, from Lake Waikaremoana to Te Whaiti, in leaf debris in the forest; Waioeka Valley, under stones of shingle slide; Manawatu District, in open and in bush country; Newbury, Palmerston North, in old logs (coll. by D. K. Ross); Karori and Khandallah hills, Wellington, in old logs; Akatarawa, in bush debris and leaf mould; Butterfly Creek, Wellington, in leaf debris in forest. South Island—Lake Roto-iti and Lake Rotoroa, in leaf mould; Maruia Saddle, 1,900 ft., in leaf mould; Buller Gorge, in old logs; Haast Pass, under moss and under bark of beech trees; Fish River Gorge, Haast Pass, under bark of rimu trees; Lake Brunner, under bark of kahikatea trees; Alex Knobb, Waiho, 3,000 ft., in leaf debris; Monkey Flat, Hollyford Valley, under stones; Bench Island Dunedin (from a collection kindly sent to me by Prof. Marples, of Dunedin); Chaslands Bush, Otago, in old logs; Mount Cargill, Dunedin, in leaf mould.

Lepidophorella australis subsp. fusca nov.

Similar to the typical form except that the body colour is dark brown, the clothing of scales very heavy, and the scales relatively large and more deeply pigmented. Specimens of the variety attain a length of 6·3 mm.

Locality: Little Akatarawa River Bank, amongst leaf mould.

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Type: Slide 3/6, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepidophorella communis Salmon, 1937. Plate 54, figs. 245–250.

Colour: Varies from pale cream to jet irridescent black according to denseness of clothing of scales. Pigment patches present or absent. If present they are, as in L. australis, brown or purple and with top of head and Abd. V dark.

Clothing: More or less completely clothed with scales. Scales are easily rubbed and specimens may be found in all intermediate stages and exhibiting, accordingly, varying degrees of colour pattern.

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A tuft of short, stout bristles occurs at apex of tergum of mesothorax, branching at their tips into from three to seven short, finger-like processes. Occasional slender setae occur on head and trunk, especially towards posterior region. Terminal antennal segment generally scaled on lower half and clothed with short, slender hairs.

Body: Length 3·5–4 mm. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers that of prothorax. Ventral tube elongate, bi-lobed at its distal end and invested with a few short hairs. Tenaculum bifid and situated on posterior half of third abdominal segment. Abd. III: Abd. IV as 7: 6. Antennae four-segmented, the segments related as 5: 11: 11: 14. Eight large, regularly-arranged ocelli on each side.

Legs: Claw with three large inner teeth and two long exterior lateral teeth. Empodial appendage lanceolate and about two-thirds length of claw, and with small external basal tooth. A single non-clavate stout tenent hair shorter than claw to each foot.

Furcula: Dentes slightly longer than manubrium, strongly corrugated ventrally. Mucro falciform, gently curved, with or without basal scale.

Localities: North Island, Urewera Country, in leaf debris in native forest from Lake Waikaremoana to Te Whaiti; Morere Springs, in leaf mould in nikau bush; Rotorua, from leaf mould in native bush; Aratiatia Rapids, in soil; Opepe Bush and Tauhara Mountain, Taupo, in leaf mould, and on tree trunks; Flat Point Hills, Wairarapa, in leaf mould in beech forest; Mount Egmont, in leaf debris in forest, 3,270 ft.; Coast at Orongorongo, in soil; Karori, Wellington, in soil; Akatarawa, in leaf mould; Newbury, Palmerston North, in soil (coll. by D. K. Ross). In the South Island—Lake Brunner, under the bark of kahikatea trees; Lake Kanieri, in debris in kahikatea forests; Arthur's Pass, 2,000 ft., in leaf debris in beech forests; Fish River Gorge, Haast Pass, under bark of totara trees; Haast Pass, near summit, under bark of beech trees; Lake Gunn, Eglinton Valley, under bark of beech trees; Monkey Flat, Hollyford Valley, under stones; Tuatapere, Southland, in old logs in forest; Mount Cargill, Dunedin, in leaf mould; Hays Bush, Banks Peninsula (coll. by E. W. Moore).

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Type: Slide 3/16, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepidophorella unadentata sp. nov. Plate 54, fig. 253–254.

Colour: Ochreous brown, antennae with a tinge of dark brown at joints, Ant. IV dark brown; legs and furcula ochreous.

Body: Length 1·2 mm. General facies of the Lepidophorella type. Antennae 1: 2: 3: 4 as 4: 5: 6: 11. Ocelli, eight to each side, equal, on dark pigment patches. Abd. III and Abd. IV equal.

Legs: Foot claw with two large external basal teeth and a single very prominent inner tooth a little past one-third down from claw base. Empodial appendage lanceolate and about half as long as claw.

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Furcula: Typical, with falciform mucro and manubrium related to mucrodens as 15: 20. Mucro long and strongly curved with small basal inner lamella.

Locality: Lake Waikare-iti Track, Urewera, under bark, 2,200 ft. altitude.

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Type: Slide 3/235, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepidophorella rubicunda sp. nov. Plate 54, figs. 255–257.

Colour: Ground colour of granulated, bright reddish-brown pigment with narrow, pale yellow transverse intersegmental bands on posterior margins of Abd. I and II. On Abd. IV a similar band on the anterior margin. Legs and manubrium orange, furcula pale yellow. Ant. I orange, II greyish-violet, III violet, IV very dark greyish-violet.

Clothing: Body heavily clothed with broad, oval-shaped pale grey scales, which are very translucent and almost invisible except when seen edge on. Longitudinal ribbing of scales much more difficult to detect than in other species of Lepidophorella. On top of head and at apex of mesotergum, groups of stiff bristles bearing typical finger-like processes at their tips. Those at apex of mesotergum also are finely-ciliated for their full length. Occasional short setae occur on body.

Body: Length up to 2·4 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the four segments related as 2: 16: 17: 23. Ocelli, eight to each side, all large and equal, and arranged in two rows, an outer row of five and an inner row of three, respectively. Abd. III only slightly longer than Abd. IV. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax and slightly overlies rear of head.

Legs: Claw with four inner teeth and two long outer lateral basal teeth. Empodial appendage two-thirds as long as claw. Tenent hair very short, weak, and non-clavate.

Furcula: Manubrium to mucrodens as 36: 53. Mucro falciform, strongly curved, with broad inner lamella and surrounded by large scales. Dens with spines and heavily scaled, prominently annulated and corrugated, uncorrugated portion being six times length of mucro.

Localities: Tasman Glacier, under stones on terminal moraine near where vegetation is commencing to grow; Lindis Pass, under stones by stream.

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Type: Slide 3/625, Dominion Museum Collection.

Remarks: This species is close to L. brachycephala Moniez, from which it is readily distinguished by its reddish-brown ground colour and hyaline scales.