Go to National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa
Volume 70, 1940-41
This text is also available in PDF
(23 MB) Opens in new window
– 350 –

Genus Entomobrya Rondani, 1861.

Pigmentation generally well-developed. Ocelli, eight to each side. Scales absent. Clavate tenent hair usually present and well-developed. Abd. IV several times longer than Abd. III.

The species of this genus differ only slightly from one another in morphological details, and are separated mainly by their colour and colour markings. Entomobrya forms a large and unwieldy genus which, in my opinion, could with advantage be simplified by the splitting-off of a new genus characterized by the absence of the large external lateral basal teeth to the claw. For this new genus I propose the name Pseudentomobrya.

Large external lateral basal teeth present. Entomobrya Rondani
Large external lateral basal teeth present. Pseudentomobrya gen. nov.

The genus Entomobrya thus constituted contains at the present time in New Zealand twenty-one species and six subspecies, of which seventeen species and three subspecies are endemic. Of the remainder one species and one subspecies are Australian and the rest cosmopolitan.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Entomobrya.
1. Species of more or less uniform colour 2
Species with transverse bands or irregular markings. 5
Species with irregular black mottling. 13
2. Colour entirely blue or violet. 3
Colour otherwise. 4
– 351 –
3. Deep blue with yellowish streaks and spots on Abd. IV. E. lamingtonensis Schött
Deep blue to blue-blackish, whole cuticle pitted, sometimes with paler intersegmental bands. E. totapunctata sp. nov.
4. Entirely yellowish to green except for ocellar fields and a dark spot between antennae E. nivalis subsp. immaculata Schaeffer.
Greenish-yellow species with deep violet edging to thoracic terga, a deep violet band between antennal bases, and patch on sides of head. Entomobrya penicillata sp. nov.
Entirely a deep, rich brown. E. divafusca sp. nov.
Golden-yellow to pale orange; Th. II whitish dorsally, sometimes with a little scattered black pigment on head and thorax. E. clitellaria subsp. newmani Womersley
Pale to dark ochreous with suffusion of pale violet on sides of thorax and Abds. I, III, and IV. Black spot between antennae. Pale violet V on top of head. E. nonfasciata sp. nov.
5. Irregular or broken stripes on sides of thorax and Abds. I, II, and III. Whole ventral surface of Abd. IV violet. Orange or golden coloured species. E. auricorpa sp. nov.
Whitish-yellow with irregular black spots forming more or less longitudinal streaks. Ocelli normal. E. varia Schött
Similar to E. varia, but Abd. III dorsally dark and with narrow anterior marginal band down sides. Six ocelli very large, two very small, and all touching. E. obscuroculata sp. nov.
Narrow bands or broad bands on certain segments only. 6
6. One to three broad bands. 7
Many transverse bands. 8
7. Golden to orange coloured, with a single black band covering posterior portion of mesothorax, metathorax, and Abd. I. E. clitellaria subsp. australasia nov.
Yellow with dorsal violet saddle across posterior half of Abd. II and all Abd. III to halfway down sides. E. ephippiaterga sp. nov.
Body blue except for anterior portion of mesothorax. Abd. VI and head deep blue. E. livida sp. nov.
Ochreous-brown, with anterior half of mesoterga, Th. III, Abds. I, II, and III, and posterior two-thirds of Abd. IV deep blue. E. egmontia sp. nov.
Yellow, with Abds. II and III wholly blue. broad posterior blue bands on Abd. IV and Abd. V. E. salta sp. nov.
8. Ground colour whitish or yellowish. 10
Ground colour blue or violet. 9
– 352 –
9. Violet or ochreous-violet, with narrow posterior dark violet intersegmental bands on Th. II, Th. III, Abd. I, Abd. II, Abd. III, and broader bands on Abd. IV and Abd. V. E. exoricarva sp. nov.
Deep blue-black or violet, with occasional yellow spots on Th. II and Abd. IV. Narrow black intersegmental bands around posterior margins of all segments. On top of head a V-shaped mark. E. saxatila sp. nov.
10. Transverse bands only. 11
Bands lateral, stripes and edging to terga. 12
11. Abd. IV with two irregular but broken bands. Narrow posterior marginal bands on all segments, sometimes broken medially. E. multlifasciata Tullberg
Yellowish forms with blue anterior marginal bands on all segments. Four oval blue patches on each side of Abd. IV. E. aniwaniwaensis sp. nov.
12. Continuous latero-ventral band around body and narrow posterior marginal bands on all segments. E. nivalis Linné
Yellowish with a continuous lateral violet band and a broad discontinuous mid-dorsal band from apex of thorax to Abd. III. Abd. III wholly violet. Irregular posterior marginal bands on Abds. IV and V and violet patches on Abd. IV. E. opotikiensis sp. nov.
Pale-yellow, with a broad blue ventrolateral stripe along Th. II and III. Adbs. I, II, III, and IV. Broad dark blue posterior marginal bands on Abd. IV and Abd. V. E. duofascia sp. nov.
As above with additional bands around middle of Abd. IV and posterior margins of Th. II, Abd. I, Abd. II, and Abd. III. E. duofascia subsp. maxima nov.
As above, but with two or three of additional bands reduced or absent. E. duofascia subsp. variabila nov.
13. Pale yellowish with narrow blue posterior marginal bands on Th. II, Th. III, Abds. II, III, IV, and V. A violet V-shaped mark on top of head. Body mottled all over with black. E. nigranota sp. nov.
Pale yellowish species without blue band, but with body mottled with black. E. nigranota subsp. sinfascia nov.
Orange-brown to purplish, with deep purple-black mottled pigment along lower part of sides of body. E. hurunuiensis sp. nov.

Entomobrya totapunctata sp. nov. Plate 57, figs. 294–297.

Colour: Deep blue to blue-black, sometimess with violet tinge and generally with narrow darker-coloured intersegmental bands. Legs and furcula blue, becoming paler towards their extremities. Antennae dark blue. Whole cuticle has a finely-pitted or “pock-marked” appearance all over. Top of head ochreous.

Clothing: Sparsely clothed with short setae and occasional long flexed setae, the latter especially along top of head and at apex of mesotergum. Several very long, slender, ciliated hairs on Abd.

– 353 –

III and Abd. IV, and long, heavily-ciliated setae on Abds. V and VI. Legs lightly clothed with plain and ciliated setae and furcula with many finely-ciliated setae.

Body: Length 1·2–1·4 mm. Tergum of mesothorax almost completely covers prothorax. Antennae almost half as long as body, four-segmented, the segments related as 5: 10: 10: 14. Ocelli, eight to each side, two very large, four large and two very small. Ventral tube short and cylindrical. Abd. IV three times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw long, with one external tooth about middle of outer edge, two long lateral teeth and four inner teeth. there being one prominent pair about half-way down claw, another tooth at three-quarters, and a smaller one near apex. Sometimes latter tooth may be absent. Empodial appendage lanceolate, reaching about three-quarters down claw. A single clavate tenent hair to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching forward to ventral tube. Dens corrugated and annulated, related to manubrium as 25: 20. Mucro bidentate with slightly curved basal spine, sub-apical tooth large. Mucro surrounded by, generally, three long strongly-ciliated setae.

Localities: Awahuri, Palmerston North, in old log under kowhaitrees; Akatarawa, under bark of fuchsia trees and in soil; Butterfly Creek, in old logs; Ferguson's Bush, West Coast, under bark of rimu trees; Maruia Valley, under bark of fuchsia trees.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/207, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya lamingtonensis Schött, 1917. Plate 57, figs. 302–303.

This Australian species was reported by Womersley in 1930, from Kumara, under stones. I have taken it at Lake Brunner under bark of kahikatea trees.

In colour it is entirely blue with yellowish spots and streaks on the anterior part of Abd. IV. Abd. IV 2 ⅓ times as long as Abd. III. Claw similar to multifasciata. Mucro narrow and elongate, tridentate with basal spine. Dens corrugated; uncorrugated portion four times as long as mucro. Mucro surrounded by long ciliated setae.

Entomobrya divafusca sp. nov. Plate 57, figs. 298–300.

Colour: Head, body, antennae and legs all a deep, rich brown. Furcula paler brown. Antennae very dark brown at tips. A suggestion of narrow darker brown cross bands around posterior margins of segments, but it is not very strongly marked. Abd. VI is very dark brown. A dark patch between bases of antennae and diffuse blackish-coloured blotches, not very strongly marked, occur on body, principally on thorax.

Clothing: Very heavily clothed with close coating of short setae and numerous longer setae. Along dorsal surface, especially on head and thorax, many long flexed setae. Many long ciliated hairs and shorter ciliated setae occur around posterior portion of abdomen both dorsally and ventrally. A long, backwardly-directed ciliated wavy hair arises from near posterior margin of Abd. IV. There are

– 354 –

many long, finely-ciliated hairs on legs and antennae, except on Ant. IV, where clothing is of short setae only. Furcula heavily clothed with ciliated setae.

Body: Length 1·6 mm. Antennae four-segmented and two and a-half times length of head; segments related as 12: 20: 12: 17. Ocelli, eight to each side on black pigment patches. Anterior pair very large, four others large, and posterior inner pair small. Ventral tube short and plump. Abd. IV three times as long as Abd. III. Head almost equal to thorax in length.

Legs: Claw with long external tooth reaching half-way down claw, two short lateral teeth, and five inner teeth. Proximal pair in centre of inner groove large and prominent, distal pair at about three-quarters down from base of claw not so large. Fifth tooth smaller and a little past half-way from distal teeth to apex of claw. A single long slender clavate tenent hair to each foot. Empodial appendage broad and lanceolate and about two-thirds as long as claw.

Furcula: Dens a little longer than manubrium and strongly annulated. Unannulated portion twice length of mucro. Mucro small, but rather elongate, with prominent apical and sub-apical teeth and a basal spine. Mucro surrounded with long and strongly ciliated setae which over-reach it.

Locality: Mount Egmont, in leaf debris, 2,000 ft., south side.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/703, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya nonfasciata sp. nov. Plate 57, fig. 301.

Colour: Pale to dark ochreous with a faint trace of very pale violet on sides of thorax and Abd. I. A more definite suffusion of pale violet on sides of Abd. III and IV. First two antennal segments pale brown and last two pale violet. Legs and furcula pale ochreous. A black spot lies between antennae, and a line of very pale violet joins ocelli and bases of antennae. A very pale violet outlined triangular mark on top of head.

Clothing: Of short setae and numerous flexed setae, the latter especially along dorsal surface. Around tip of abdomen numerous long ciliated hairs and setae. Legs and antennae bear numerous long setae except on last segment of antennaee, where clothing is of very fine setae only. At least two fine ciliated sensory hairs on Abd. IV.

Body: Length up to 2 mm. Antennae two and a-half times length of head, four-segmented, the segments related as 7: 13: 12: 15. Ocelli on black pigment patches, eight to each side, six large and two slightly smaller. Ventral tube short and fat. Abd. IV approximately three times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with one outer tooth, two lateral teeth, half as long as claw, and five inner teeth; proximal pair about centre of inner groove, distal pair just past three-quarters down from claw base. Fifth single tooth near apex of claw. Empodial appendage lanceolate and two-thirds as long as claw. A heavy clavate tenent hair to each foot, slightly longer than the claw.

– 355 –

Furcula: Dens strongly annulated, the unannulated portion at apex twice length of mucro. Mucro bidentate with a basal spine which reaches above sub-apical tooth, and surrounded by very long, strongly-ciliated setae. Edge of sub-apical tooth forms ledge along hinder portion of mucro.

Locality: Mount Egmont, in leaf debris, 2,000 ft., south side.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/705, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya auricorpa sp. nov. Plate 58, figs. 304–306.

Colour: In life, bright orange with traces of dark pigment on sides; mounted, golden dorsally, becoming yellowish ventrally. A narrow edging of violet pigment runs along ventral edges of thoracic pleura and expands into a small patch of violet pigment which extends along sides of Abd. II and Abd. III, terminating at posterior margin of latter. Whole ventral surface of Abd. IV violet, extending upwards as a narrow, incomplete intersegmental band between Abds. III and IV. Small patches of violet on posterior margin of Abd. V and a broken line of violet along middle of sides of meso and metathorax and Abds. I–III. Ventral surface of head violet. Legs orange; violet on tibio-tarsi. Furcula pale orange. Ant. I orange, remainder dark orange-brown. Ant. IV being deep blue at tip.

Clothing: Densely clothed with short ciliated setae and around posterior region many long, wavy, ciliated setae. Dorsally very heavily clothed, especially on head and thorax, with long, flexed setae. Bothriotrichia on Abds. II and IV. Antennae with several long, ciliated sensory hairs.

Body: Length up to 2·1 mm. Antennae about three times as long as head, the four segments related as 10: 8: 15: 21. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorx. Ocelli eight to each side on dark pigment patche, five large and three small. Abd. IV 4 ½ to 5 times longer than Abd. III. Ventral tube long and cylidrical.

Legs: Claw with two short exterior lateral basal teeth and five inner teeth; one pair at centre, one pair at two-thirds, and a single distal tooth. Empodial appendage long and narrow, lanceolate and almost reaching to distal tooth. A single clavate tenent hair about equal in length to claw, to each foot.

Furcula: Manubrium to mucrodens as 32: 43. Dens prominently annulated and corrugated. Mucro typical, apical and sub-apical teeth equal. Surrounded by short but strongly-ciliated setae. Non-annulated portion of dens 1 ½ times length of mucro.

Locality: Lake Manapouri, under stones on the edge of the lake.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/673. Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya varia Schött, 1917. Plate 59, fig. 318.

A widely-distributed Australian species reported in New Zealand in 1936 by Womersley, from Niger Bay, Hillsborough, Auckland. It has not been found elsewhere since.

It is a white to yellowish-coloured species with a series of irregular black marks on the sides of the segments, which tend to from longitudinal stripes. Body length up to 2·0 mm. In other respects similar to multifasciata.

– 356 –

Entomobrya clitellaria Guthrie, 1903, subsp. australasia nov. Plate 58, fig. 307.

This variety of E. clitellaria Guthrie has the blue-black band commencing on posterior portion of mesothorax and ending abruptly at posterior boundary of Abd. I. Except for a slight shading on sides of head, remainder of body a bright orange-yellow. This form was first mentioned from Australia by Womersley (1934), who, however, did not raise it to varietal rank. In his original description of the species Guthrie states that the colour markings are remarkably constant, the blue-black band extending from anterior margin of metathorax to posterior margin of Abd. III. The reduced colour band on the New Zealand specimens is also remarkably constant and warrants, in my opinion, the erection of a specific variety.

Locality: From gardens at Karori, Wellington.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/1003, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya clitellaria subsp. newmani Womersley, 1934.

In this subspecies newmani, from Australia, the blue-black band is entirely absent. In morphological detail these forms agree with E. multifasciata. Subspecies newmani has been found in New Zealand at Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, and in gardens at Karori, Wellington.

Entomobrya ephippiaterga sp. nov. Plate 58, figs. 308–309.

Colour: In life, yellow, with dark dorsal saddle on Abd. III; mounted, yellow, with transverse violet band on Abd. III extending half-way down each side. This band generally extends forward over Abd. II almost to its anterior margin, giving the appearance of a saddle. Similar very narrow bands may occur on posterior margins of meso and metathorax and Abd. V. Furcula yellow, legs yellow with violet tibio-tarsi. Antennae yellow on Ant. I, becoming reddishviolet on II and dark bluish-violet on III and IV. Ocelli on black fields. No frontal line joining ocelli.

Clothing: Densely clothed with short, coarsely-serrated setae with longer ciliated setae around tip of abdomen and on the legs and furcula. Numerous dorsal flexed setae on head and thorax. Setae of the antennae finely ciliated.

Body: Length up to 1·3 mm. Antennae twice length of head, the four segments related as 5: 12: 10: 15. Ocelli, eight to each side, posterior inner two small, others large. Mesotergum completely covers prothorax, and is approximately equal in length to the meta-thorax. Abd. IV five times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw similar to that of E. aniwaniwaensis.

Furcula: Reaching forward to ventral tube. Manubrium to mucrodens as 16: 25. Dens prominently annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated portion four times length of mucro. Mucro short, bidentate, with basal spine, apical tooth slightly smaller than preapical. Mucro surrounded by long, strongly-ciliated setae.

Locality: Lake Roto-iti, South Island, under the bark of manuka trees.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/690, Dominion Museum Collection.

– 357 –

Entomobrya salta sp. nov. Plate 58, figs. 310–312.

Colour: Yellow, with deep indigo-blue edging and posterior bands to mesothorax, metathorax, and sides only of Abd. I. The whole of Abds. II and III, the posterior two-thirds of Abd. IV, and posterior half of Abd. V all deep indigo-blue. A similar-coloured band joins the ocellar patches in front, while behind they are joined by a violet area which projects posteriorly as a broad “V.” Furcula pale yellow, legs yellow or pale violet, antennae violet with yellow showing on second segment, the last segment very dark violet. Ocelli on dark blue-black patches.

Clothing: Of ciliated setae, which posteriorly and on legs may be very long. Dorsally on head and thorax are many long flexed setae. Bothriotrichia are present on Abds. II, III, and IV.

Body: Length up to 1·8 mm. Antennae twice length of head, the four segments related as 5: 12: 11: 15. Ocelli, eight to each side, the posterior inner two smaller than remainder. Abd. IV 6–8 times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with two outer lateral basal teeth, one external tooth near base, and five inner teeth, the first pair at centre, another pair just past three-quarters, and a distal single tooth. Empodial appendage lanceolate, reaching to the first pair of inner teeth. A well-developed clavate tenent hair longer than claw to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube. Manubrium to mucrodens as 18: 22. Dens strongly annulated and corrugated, uncorrugated portion two and a-half times length of mucro. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, apical tooth slightly smaller than pre-apical. Mucro over-reached by long, ciliated setae.

Locality: Arthur's Pass, 3,000 ft.and higher, under stones and moss.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/698, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya livida sp. nov. Plate 58, figs. 313–314.

This species is closely allied to E. salta, from which it differs as follows:—

Colour: Body entirely deep indigo-blue, except for Abd. VI, anterior three-quarters of mesothorax and head. A deep indigo-blue edging to mesothorax. Legs and dens pale yellow with manubrium blue. Antennae yellowish-brown, violet at apex. “V”-shaped area at top of head not so pronounced.

Claw: Similar to E. salta, but with empodial appendage longer, reaching to the second pair of teeth, and truncate on inner margin.

Furcula: Similar to E. salta.

Localities: Arthur's Pass, 3,000 ft., under stones and moss. Waiho Gorge, South Westland, and in the Lower Hollyford Valley, under the bark of fuchsia trees.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/699, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya egmontia sp. nov. Plate 59, fig. 319.

Colour: Thorax, first three abdominal segments and posterior two-thirds of Abd. IV deep sapphire-blue. Anterior third of Abd. IV and whole of Abd. V and Abd. VI yellowish-brown. A broad but

– 358 –

irregular ochreous band extends around posterior half of mesothorax. Head ochreous brown suffused with paler blue pigment than that on the other part of body. Proximal segments of legs blue, distal segments pale yellow. Manubrium blue and mucrodens pale yellow. Antennal segment I and the beginning of II ochreous, remainder deep violet. Ocelli situated on dark pigment patches.

Clothing: Thickly clothed with short setae and along dorsal surface especially on head and thorax, many long flexed setae. Abd. IV bears six to eight long, fine, ciliated sensory hairs and around tip of abdomen many ciliated setae. Legs and furcula clothed with long, plain setae.

Body: Length 1·6 mm. Head slightly shorter than thorax. Antennae twice as long as head, four-segmented, with a basal ring or papilla, the segments related as 8: 14: 12: 15. Ocelli, eight to each side, anterior two very large, four others medium size, and two, the posterior inner two, very small. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax. Ventral tube cylindrical and pointed. Abd. IV 3 ¼ to 4 times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with two outer lateral teeth almost half as long as claw and five inner teeth, the first pair about centre of inner groove, the second pair about two-thirds down from claw base, and a fifth single tooth between this and claw tip. Empodial appendage half as long as claw, narrow and acutely truncate on inner margin. A single clavate tenent hair about as long as the claw to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube. Mucrodens slightly longer than manubrium. Dens corrugated and annulated, unannulated portion 2 ½ times length of mucro. Mucro with prominent apical and sub-apical teeth and small basal spine and surrounded by long, ciliated setae.

Locality: Mount Egmont, in leaf debris in bush, 2,000 ft., south side.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/693, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya exoricarva sp. nov. Plate 58, figs. 315–317.

Colour: In life, violet with darker markings; mounted, a ground colour of ochreous tinged with violet and with deep violet narrow intersegmental bands on posterior margins of thoracic and first three abdominal segments. A dark violet band joining ocelli and bases of antennae. Abd. IV dorsally and laterally deep-violet on posterior four-fifths, and with posterior three-quarters of Abd. V also deep violet. A narrow, broken, deep violet mid-dorsal stripe runs back on to Abd. IV. Irregular patches of deep violet occur on sides and dorsal surface of thoracic and first three abdominal segments. Legs pale violet-ochreous with wide, deeper violet bands. Antennae violet, darkening towards apex. Furcula yellow with some violet on the manubrium.

Clothing: Of short, ciliated setae, longer around tip of abdomen and on legs and antennae, with dorsally on head, thorax and first two abdominal segments many flexed setae.

– 359 –

Body: Length up to 2 mm. Antennae just over twice length of head, the four segments related as 8: 15: 14: 19. Ocelli, eight to each side, all large, except the posterior inner two, which are extremely small. Abd. IV 4–5 times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with two outer lateral basal teeth, a pair of large inner teeth at centre, a further large pair at three-quarters, and a very small single tooth near apex. Empodial appendage lanceolate and reaching to second pair of teeth. A long, clavate, tenent hair to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube. Dens finely annulated and corrugated, uncorrugated portion three times length of mucro. Mucro long, bidentate, with basal spine. pre-apical tooth the larger, and surrounded by long, ciliated setae.

Locality: Upper Waitohi, in leaf debris at mouth of shallow cave.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/682, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya saxatila sp. nov. Plate 59, figs. 320–322.

Colour: In life, a deep blue-black; mounted, very deep reddish-violet, with the head ochreous on top. Between the ocellar patches a broad “V”-shaped violet mark with its apex directed posteriorly and area between it and bases of antennae filled with distinct reddish-violet pigment. Very narrow black intersegmental bands on posterior margins of all segments. Legs and furcula pale violet. Spots of yellow show through ground colour, particularly on mesothorax and Abd. IV. Ant. I and II violet, III and IV deep bluish-violet.

Clothing: Of ciliated setae with longer ones around posterior portion of abdomen and, dorsally, on head and thorax, numerous long, flexed setae. Bothriotrichia present on Abds. II and IV.

Legs: Claw with outer tooth, a pair of outer lateral basal teeth and inner teeth as follows:—A pair at centre, a single tooth at three-quarters, and a very small distal tooth. Empodial appendage lanceolate and about two-thirds as long as claw. A single clavate tenent hair as long as claw to each foot.

Furcula: Manubrium and mucrodens approximately equal in length. Dens strongly annulated and corrugated, uncorrugated portion twice length of mucro. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, apical tooth almost recurved and smaller than pre-apical. Mucro surrounded by strongly-ciliated setae.

Locality: Lake Manapouri, under stones on the edge of the lake.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/704, Dominion Museum Collection.

Remarks: This species is close to E. marginata Tulb. and E. griseo-olivata Pack. from the former of which it differs in the presence of a “V”-shaped mark on the head and in the form of the mucro. From the latter it differs mainly in the colour and the relative proportions of the antennal segments and of Abd. III and Abd. IV.

Entomobrya multifasciata Tullberg, 1871. Plate 59, figs. 323–325.

Colour: Yellowish-brown with a definite but irregular dark blue band around posterior margin of each segment and with an extra

– 360 –

band around middle of Abd. IV. Ventral edge of terga dark blue. Bands of Abds. II and III with lateral forward extensions.

Clothing: Typically clothed with stout ciliated setae with longer ones on Abds. IV–VI. Dorsally on head and thorax many flexed setae.

Body: Length up to 2·0 mm. Antennae three times as long as head, segments related as 10: 18: 18: 18. Ocelli, eight to each side. Abd. IV three times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with one outer tooth, two lateral basal teeth, and three pairs of inner teeth. Empodial appendage lanceolate, about half as long as claw. A single clavate tenent hair equal to claw in length to each foot.

Furcula: Dens slightly longer than manubrium, strongly corrugated and annulated. Mucro small, bidentate, with basal spine and surrounded by ciliated setae.

Localities: First recorded in New Zealand in 1895 by W. W. Smith as associating with ants. I can now record it from:—Mount Egmont, in leaf debris in bush, at 2,000 ft.; Lake Brunner, in old logs; Lake Wanaka, under stones on hillsides; Lake Wakatipu, southern end, among and under stones, or in earth-filled clefts in stony outcrops on hillsides rising from the lake.

Entomobrya aniwaniwaensis sp. nov. Plate 59, figs. 329–331.

Colour: In life, pale ochreous-brown with dark bluish-black markings; mounted specimens show a body colour of pale ochreous to yellow with dorsal and lateral bands of dark blue, as follows:—On head between and around bases of antennae, along sides, and a short dark longitudinal line in the middle of the top. On mesothorax a narrow band extends around anterior margin, and a short narrow dorsal band extends across the segment near posterior margin. On metathorax and first three abdominal segments broad bands extend around anterior margins of respective segments. A narrow band around anterior margin of Abd. IV and four oval-shaped blue patches on each side of the posterior half of this segment. Abdominal segments V and VI have broad anterior blue bands, or Abd. V may be entirely dark blue. Legs and furcula pale ochreous, antennae pale brown, becoming darker towards tips, the joints being bluish.

Clothing: More or less evenly clothed with short, fine setae. Numerous long, flexed setae occur over body, particularly along dorsal surface and at apex of mesotergum. Mingled with these are ciliated setae, particularly on the head. A group of long, ciliated setae occurs at tip of abdomen; and a single, long, wavy, ciliated seta occurs on each side of Abd. IV towards posterior margin. Antennae clothed with hairs and occasional long setae. Last antennal segment with short hairs only, which towards tip are ciliated. Furcula heavily clothed with setae, many of which are ciliated. The legs with hairs and occasional long setae.

Body: Length 1·7–1·9 mm. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax. Head almost equal to thorax in length. Antennae four-segmented, the segments related as 8: 14: 13: 17, and almost twice as long as head. Ocelli, eight to each side, situated on dark

– 361 –

blue pigment patches. Front outer ocellus extra large, five of remainder large and two very small. Ventral tube moderately long. Abd. IV 4 ½ times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with a pair of exterior lateral teeth reaching half-way down claw, and a short external outer tooth, a pair of inner teeth about middle of its length, a second pair midway between this and apex, and a smaller fifth tooth generally present near apex. Empodial appendage about two-thirds length of claw, narrow, and sharply-pointed. A single clavate tenent hair to each foot about equal to claw in length.

Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube, mucrodens to manubrium as 32: 25. Dens corrugated and annulated, narrowing considerably towards mucro. Mucro bidentate with a single basal spine; the sub-apical tooth inclined slightly backwards. Mucro surrounded by long ciliated setae which over-reach it.

Locality: From old log on beach and from under stones on beach, Lake Waikaremoana.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/179, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya nivalis Linné, 1758, sensu stricto. Plate 59, figs. 327–328.

Colour: Yellow to greenish with black ocellar fields and a dark band joining these and the antennal bases. A generally continuous (but somewhat broken) lateral, longitudinal, stripe across all segments. All segments with a dark posterior cross-band which is broken mid-dorsally, and which on thoracic and first two abdominal segments is broad and lengthened anteriorly at the sides and in the centre. Abd. IV dorsally with a large irregular “V”-shaped mark and lateral ventral stripes. Generally a black ventral edging to all segments.

Length: Up to 2 mm. Structural detail as in multifasciata.

Localities: This is a cosmopolitan species first reported in New Zealand by Womersley in 1936 from Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland. I can now add the following additional localities:—Maruia Valley, under the bark of beech trees; Haast Pass, under the bark of beech trees and in old logs; Tauhara Mountain, Taupo, under the bark of beech trees at 3,000 ft. elevation; Newbury, Palmerston North, along the banks of a stream; Waipoua Kauri Forest, under the bark of kauri trees.

Subspecies immaculata Schaeffer, 1896. Plate 59, fig. 326.

Differs in the entire absence of pigmentation except for a spot between the antennae. Usually found in association with the principal form.

Localities: Newbury, Palmerston North; Waioeka Valley, in grass, 2,000 ft. (not in association with typical forms).

Entomobrya obscuroculata sp. nov. Plate 60, figs. 340–342.

Colour: In life, apparently yellowish; but mounted, the type specimen is pinkish, which Womersley states in a letter to me in due to the action of the mounting medium. Rather similar generally to E. varia, but with Abd. III dorsally to half-way down the sides

– 362 –

dark violet, with a downward extension as a narrow band on the anterior margin. Antennae, legs and furcula unpigmented. Ocelli on restricted black patches. A black spot between the antennae.

Clothing: Of short ciliated setae and dorsally many flexed setae.

Body: Length 1·8 mm. Antennae two and a-half times as long as head, the four segments related as 8: 17: 14: 20. Ocelli, eight to each side, six being very large, while the other two are very small and smothered with pigment, making them very difficult to detect. Superficially, the appearance is of six ocelli only. The ocelli are all in contact and extend out over the pigment area (fig. 341).

Legs: Claw with outer basal tooth, and a pair of outer lateral basal teeth and four inner teeth—a pair at one-third, a single large tooth at two-thirds, and a small distal tooth. Clavate tenent hair about as long as claw.

Furcula: Normal, mucro bidentate, teeth equal and with basal spine overtopping pre-apical tooth.

Locality: Niger Bay, Manukau, Auckland. Collected by Mr. E. D. Pritchard.

Type: In the South Australian Museum, Adelaide.

The specimen described above was kindly sent to me by Mr. Womersley, of the South Australian Museum, to whom it had been sent by Mr. E. D. Pritchard.

Entomobrya opotikiensis sp. nov. Plate 60, fig. 339.

Colour: Pale yellowish-cream ground with dark violet-blue markings, as follows:—A narrow band joins the two ocellar patches across front of head; a broad lateral band extends from apex of mesotergum to Abd. III, where it meets a broad band passing around dorsal half of Abd. III. A mid-dorsal band extends, with breaks, from thorax, to Abd. III. A mid-dorsal patch occurs on Abd. IV and broad posterior bands extend around this segment and Abd. V. Irregular-shaped pigment patches occur on sides of Abd. IV. Antennae violet-blue, deepening on last two segments. Legs yellowish with broad bands of pale violet.

Clothing: Thickly clothed with very long flexed setae, especially along dorsal surface and around posterior region. Two long ciliated setae occur dorsally on Abd. V. Antennae and legs clothed with hairs and occasional long setae. Furcula heavily clothed with setae, many of which are ciliated.

Body: Length 1·5 to 1·75 mm. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax. Head slightly less than thorax in length. Antennae four-segmented, the segments related as 5: 10: 9: 11, and twice as long as head. Ocelli situated on deep blue-black pigment patches, eight to each side, the posterior interior two, small; others large equal. Ventral tube very long, with a distinct foot. Abd. IV 4 ½ times to 5 times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with a single external outer tooth about one-quarter down from base; a pair of short lateral external basal teeth; a pair of well-developed inner teeth about middle of claw, a single well-developed tooth about three-quarters down from base, and a further

– 363 –

very small tooth midway between this and apex of claw. Empodial appendage reaching to distal tooth, narrow and truncate. A single clavate tenent hair to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching forward to ventral tube. Mucrodens and manubrium practically equal in length. Dens corrugated and annulated, the unannulated portion of dens about twice as long as mucro. Mucro bidentate with a single basal spine and surrounded by three long ciliated setae.

Locality: Under pohutukawa trees on the coast at Opotiki.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/218, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya duofascia sp. nov. Plate 60, fig. 333.

Subspecies maxima nov. Plate 60, fig. 332.

Subspecies variabila nov. Plate 60, fig. 334.

This is a very variable species with two colour varieties as well as the principal form.

Colour: Pale yellow with a broad longitudinal dark blue stripe along ventral edges of pleura, commencing on mesothorax and continuing unbroken to posterior margin of Abd. IV. It does not pass around anterior margin of mesothorax as a transverse band. Always a broad transverse dark blue band around posterior margin of Abd. IV, and a second similar band around posterior three-quarters of Abd. V. There also may be a broad transverse dark blue band (a) around the middle of Abd. IV, (b) posteriorly around Abd. III, (c) similarly around Abd. II, (d) narrow transverse dark blue bands around posterior margins of Abd. I and metathorax, respectively.

Forma principalis: If (a), (b), (c), and (d) are all very much reduced or absent.

Subsp. maxima if (a), (b), (c), and (d) are all present and well-developed.

Subsp. variabila if one or more of (a), (b), (c), or (d), but not all are very much reduced or entirely absent. In all forms legs and furcula are pale yellow with tibio-tarsi pale blue. Ant. I and II orange-brown, III and IV violet. Ocelli on black fields joined around bases of antennae by a line of dark blue pigment.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with short ciliated setae and, dorsally, on head and thorax with numerous long, flexed setae. Occasional longer ciliated setae occur over body and appendages and around tip of abdomen.

Body: Length 1·7 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the four segments related as 7 : 15 : 15 : 20. Ocelli, eight to each side, the posterior inner two extremely small, remainder large and equal. Abd. IV three and a-half times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with two long outer lateral basal teeth and five inner teeth, one pair just past centre, another pair just beyond three-quarters and a further small distal tooth. Empodial appendage narrow, lanceolate, and about two-thirds as long as claw. A single long clavate tenent hair as long as claw to each foot.

– 364 –

Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube. Dens a little longer than manubrium, strongly annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated portion three times as long as mucro. Mucro bidentate, with a basal spine with apical tooth slightly shorter than pre-apical. Mucro surrounded and over-reached by long, strongly-ciliated setae.

Localities: Homer Saddle, 3,000 ft., under beech bark; Lake Gunn, Eglinton Valley, under beech bark; Lake Wakatipu, south end, under stones.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Forma principalis, slide 3/676; subsp. maxima, slide 3/677; subsp. variabila, slide 3/679, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya nigranota sp. nov. Plate 60, figs. 335–336.

Colour: Ochreous to pale yellowish-white with narrow bluish-violet pigment bands around posterior margins of meso and metathorax, and Abds. II, III, IV and V. An irregular broken band around middle of Abd. IV and Abd. VI almost entirely pigmented except for apex. A band of blue between the ocelli and a very dark spot between the antennae. A triangular patch of violet on top of the head with its apex directed backwards and a suffusion of violet along sides of head. All over body, with the exception of the head, are large blotches which appear white in reflected light and black in transmitted light. A narrow broken band of darker bluish-violet extends along ventral edge of the terga. Ant. I bluish-violet, Ant. II ochreous, Ant. III ochreous, becoming violet towards joint with Ant. IV, which is darker violet. Legs ochreous with traces of pigment at all joints. Furcula ochreous. Ocelli on black pigment patches.

Clothing: Thickly clothed with small fine setae and occasional long flexed setae, which latter occur prominently along dorsal surface. Numerous long ciliated setae occur around tip of abdomen and several long fine ciliated hairs arise from Abds. II, III, and IV. Legs and furcula heavily clothed with moderately long setae.

Body: Length 1·8 mm. Antennae four-segmented, twice as long as head, the segments related as 11: 15: 15: 17. There is a prominent basal papilla to each antenna. Ant. I rather broader than long. Ocelli, eight to each side, five large, one medium and two, the posterior inner two, small. Ventral tube short. Abd. IV three times as long as Abd. III. Abd. VI constricted and projecting like a finger at the rear.

Legs: Claw with external tooth on outer edge, two long outer lateral teeth and five inner teeth; proximal pair about middle of inner groove, distal pair midway between this and apex of claw, followed by fine single tooth. Empodial appendage long and narrow, reaching to distal pair of teeth. A single clavate tenent hair as long as claw to each foot.

Furcula: Just reaching ventral tube. Manubrium to mucrodens as 25: 30. Dens strongly annulated. Mucro bidentate with basal spine and surrounded with long ciliated setae.

Locality: Mount Egmont, in leaf debris in bush, 2,000 ft., south side.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/707, Dominion Museum Collection.

– 365 –

Entomobrya nigranota subspec. sinfascia nov.

This subspecies differs from the main species in that the bluish-violet pigment bands are entirely wanting. In all other respects the two forms are identical.

Locality: Mount Egmont, in leaf debris, 2,000 ft., south side.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/709, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya hurunuiensis sp. nov. Plate 60, figs. 337–338.

Colour: Orange-brown to purple with deep purplish-black mottled pigment converging on lower part of sides of thorax and abdominal segments I, II, and III, ventral and ventro-lateral portions of Abd. IV, and sides of Abds. V and VI. Bands of dark pigment on sides of head and between bases of antennae. Antennae dark brown to black except for a trace of light brown on Ant. I and around base of Ant. II. Legs light brown, darker at joints, the coxal segments dark. Furcula light brown.

Clothing: Sparingly clothed with short ciliated setae and occasional long flexed setae with many ciliated setae around tip of abdomen. Legs clothed with fine, moderately-long, ciliated setae; antennae and furcula with fine, short, curved, ciliated setae.

Body: Length up to 1·7 mm. Head diagonal, slightly longer than thorax. Antennae about twice as long as head, four-segmented, the segments related as 6: 9: 9: 10. Ocelli, eight to each side, six large and two, the posterior inner two, very small, situated on dark pigment patches. Ventral tube very short and stumpy. Abd. IV four times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with one external tooth about one-third down outer edge, two short lateral teeth and two pairs of internal teeth, one pair situated about half-way down from claw base, the other about three-quarters down. Generally, a single small tooth is present between this and apex of claw. Empodial appendage long, narrow and lanceolate, reaching to second pair of teeth. A single clavate tenent hair to each foot.

Furcula: Manubrium to dens as 20: 36. Dens annulated and corrugated, the unannulated portion twice length of mucro. Mucro bidentate with basal spine. Towards its apex the dens bears numerous long, ciliated setae. There is a marked angle between dens and mucro at their junction.

Locality: Upper Hurunui River Bank, under stones. Collected by Mrs H. Dykes.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/230, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya penicillata sp. nov. Plate 61, figs. 344–345.

Colour: In life, greenish-yellow. Mounted, greenish-yellow with depigmented spots and streaks. Ventral edges of the thoracic terga pigmented with deep violet, and a similar-coloured patch on each side of the head adjacent to the ocelli, and across front of head as a band between the antennal bases. Legs and furcula yellow. Antennae reddish-violet, paler at joints.

– 366 –

Clothing: Thickly clothed with very short ciliated setae and heavily clothed all over with long, flexed setae, giving the insect the appearance of a bottle brush. Long ciliated setae occur posteriorly around the tip of the abdomen and on the legs, furcula and antennae.

Body: Length up to 1·9 mm. Antennae two and a-half times as long as head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 24: 32: 35: 42. Each antenna with a large base almost equivalent to a segment. Ocelli, eight to each side, the posterior inner two smaller than remainder. Ocellar fields dark. Abd. IV three times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with two outer lateral basal teeth reaching to about one-quarter down, a pair of strong outer teeth at about centre of outer edge, and four inner teeth, being a large pair just past centre, a small single tooth at about three-quarters, and a very small distal tooth between this and apex of claw. A single strongly-clavate tenent hair as long as claw or slightly longer, to each foot. Empodial appendage lanceolate and three-quarters as long as claw.

Furcula: Mucrodens a little longer than manubrium. Dens annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated portion twice length of mucro. Mucro small bidentate, with basal spine and surrounded by long, ciliated setae.

Locality: Karori, Wellington, on newly-dug ground.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/1006, Dominion Museum Collection.