Go to National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa
Volume 70, 1940-41
This text is also available in PDF
(23 MB) Opens in new window
– 376 –

Genus Urewera Salmon, 1938.

Claw always with well-developed exterior lateral basal teeth. Scaled species, the body scales apically rounded and heavily striated. Scales of antennae and furcula are narrow, elongate and apically more pointed than are those of body. Ciliated and flexed setae and both-riotrichia present. Ocelli present, eight to each side with typically the anterior pair the largest and the posterior inner two the smallest. Ant. IV generally with apical sensory knob. Mucrodens apically always with a long narrow bow-like lamella stretching across the mucrodens junction and, generally, the dens near apex on ventral side with a distinct notch. (Fig. 381 and Fig. 393.) This structure must be carefully searched for as it is often obscured by the heavy clothing of ciliated setae.

Womersley, in his “Primitive Insects of South Australia,” criticises this genus on the grounds that exterior lateral basal teeth are present and well-developed in Lepidosira, but apparently he is not clear on the nature of these teeth. Exterior lateral teeth are present in Lepidosira but they are not basal as in Urewera. However, a re-examination of my Urewera material has brought to light a further distinct feature, mentioned above, in connection with the mucrodens, and which definitely does not occur in any species of Lepidosira. These two characters should now definitely establish the validity of the genus Urewera.

In this connection, to clarify the matter, I have endeavoured but without success to obtain specimens of Schött's species Lepidosira montana, the species described when he erected the genus in 1925. I have, however, many specimens of L. coerulea Schött, including one from Australia sent to me by Womersley. Schött did not name a genotype for his Lepidosira, but as he unhesitatingly referred L.

– 377 –

coerulea to this genus and as L. coerulea appears to be the commonest species of the genus found in both Australia and New Zealand, I suggest that L. coerulea be regarded as the genotype for the genus Lepidosira.

Urewera is represented in New Zealand by eleven species and four subspecies, all endemic.

Key to the Species of Urewera.
1. Claws with five inner teeth. 2
Claws with four inner teeth. 5
Claws with three inner teeth. 9
2. Heavily scaled irridescent species, scales in several layers. U. splendida sp. nov.
Not so heavily scaled, scales usually in one layer only, not irridescent 3
3. Yellowish species with dark bluish bands and markings. 4
Purplish-grey to violet species with deep blue bands. U. ianthina sp. nov.
4. Large species, mucrodens without notch, but with bow-like lamella. U. fuchsiata Salmon.
Small species, mucrodens with both notch and lamella. U. parva sp. nov.
5. Empodial appendage not reaching first distal tooth. 6
Empodial appendage longer, reaching to first distal tooth, second distal or apical tooth of claw sometimes missing. U. inconstans Salmon
6. Deep indigo-blue species with yellow head and yellow bands on Abds. IV, V, and VI. U. quadradentata sp. nov.
Not so:—
(a) Ground colour yellowish. 7
(b) Ground colour dull ochreous to brown. 8
7. Ground colour bright yellow or yellowish-green with dark pigment confined to narrow band and small lateral patches on Abd. IV. U. flava Salmon
Bright yellow with broad violet band on Abd. IV occupying almost whole segment. U. flava subspec. dorsalis nov.
8. Ochreous-brown with dark violet bands and markings. Generally a broad “V”-shaped mark dorsally on Abd. IV. U. magna Salmon
Ochreous ground colour suffused with pale violet. U. magna subspec. violacea Salmon
Body mottled with irregular black patches. U. magna subspec. lichenata Salmon
9. Body ground colour purple. 10
Body ground colour ochreous. 11
10. Body entirely purple coloured. U. purpurea Salmon
Body purple with ochreous bands. U. purpurea subspec. reducta Salmon
11. Pigment violet to blue, notch and bow-like lamella of dens both present. U. fuscata (Womersley)
Pigment reddish-brown. Apical notch of dens absent, bow-like lamella present. U. okarita (Salmon)
– 378 –

Urewera ianthina sp. nov. Plate 63, figs. 379–380.

Colour: In life, purplish-grey; mounted, head, body, and all appendages a beautiful deep but warm violet. Joints of legs paler and sometimes ochreous, furcula paler than body and sometimes blue, last two segments of antennae a deep blue-violet. Generally sides of head, anterior margin of mesothorax, ventral edges of thoracic pleura and Abds. I, II, and III and basal segments of the legs are picked out in an intense Prussian blue. Ocelli on black fields.

Clothing: Of very large oval and smaller rounded scales, light brown in colour with darker brown longitudinal striations made up of a series of short ribs. A large tuft of long flexed setae at apex of mesotergum. Flexed setae also occur on head and thorax, while around tip of abdomen and on legs are many long ciliated setae. Setae of antennae are simple, and the first three antennal segments are scaled. Bothriotrichia occur on Abds. II, III, and IV.

Body: Length up to 2·4 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the four segments related as 9: 18: 16: 20. Head approximately equal in length to thorax. Eight ocelli to each side—the anterior two very large, the next two smaller, the posterior outer two still smaller, and the posterior inner two extremely small. Ventral tube short. Abd. III three times longer than Abd. I and Abd. IV four and a-half times longer than Abd. III. Mesothorax very slightly overlies rear of head.

Legs: Claw with a pair of small inner teeth at one-quarter, a pair of larger inner teeth at two-thirds, and a very small inner tooth at about seven-eighths. The two outer lateral basal teeth reach almost to the level of the first inner teeth. Empodial appendage outwardly curved, lanceolate, and reaching to about half-way down claw. A single strong clavate tenent hair about as long as claw to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube. Manubrium to mucrodens as 5: 6. Dens finely annulated and corrugated with many long ciliated setae and long narrow scales. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, the apical tooth the smaller, and over-reached by long ciliated setae. Uncorrugated portion of dens one and a-half times the length of mucro. Bow-like lamella present at apex of dens but notch absent.

Localities: Waipoua Kauri Forest and Trounson's Kauri Park, on trunks of kauri trees and in leaf debris on the floor of the kauri forest.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/788, Figured Paratype: Slide 3/789, Dominion Museum Collection.

Remarks: This species may be very common on one kauri tree and yet completely absent from adjacent trees. Similarly, it may be found on one small area of forest floor and entirely absent from surrounding areas. This erratic distribution applies to Collembola in general in the kauri forests. Distinguished from U. magna violacea by its complete violet colouring, the blue pigmentation, and the different structure of the claw.

– 379 –

Urewera fuchsiata Salmon, 1938. Plate 63, figs. 390–393.

Colour: In life, pale olive-green to dark green, with darker bluish-green markings. Mounted, a body colour of pale yellowish-cream, with intersegmental margins marked by narrow posterior bands of blue. Patches of blue and greenish pigment occur irregularly over body, particularly on Abd. IV. Ventral edges of thoracic pleura and Abds. I, II, and III deep blue. A cross-hatched blue band anteriorly on Abd. IV. Antennae and legs pale ochreous, the latter with bands of dark blue. Scales greenish-brown, prominently striated.

Clothing: More or less evenly clothed with scales and occasional setae. Prominent tufts of flexed setae occur on head and at apex of mesotergum. Strongly ciliated setae surround tip of abdomen. Antennae thickly clothed with hair and occasional long setae. First three antennal segments scaled, these scales long, narrow, and pointed at the apex. Ventral tube invested at tip with a number of long, curved ciliated setae. Legs scaled and bearing numerous long setae. Furcula thickly clothed with long setae, many of which are ciliated. Dens scaled dorsally only, with long, narrow and easily rubbed off scales.

Body: Length 2·5–4 mm. Head diagonal somewhat longer than mesothorax. Antennae slightly longer than half the body, four-segmented, the segments related as 15: 30: 26: 34. Ocelli typical of genus, eight to each side, situated on dark pigment patches joined by a dark frontal line, often incomplete. Anterior pair of ocelli very large, four of remainder medium, and the posterior inner two small. Abd. IV 3–3 ½ times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with a pair of inner teeth about one-third from base, a distal pair at a little over two-thirds, and a single apical tooth a little past half-way between distal pair and apex. The two long outer basal teeth reaching to the level of the first pair of inner teeth. Empodial appendage about two-thirds as long as claw, lanceolate. A single clavate tenent hair almost as long as claw, to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube. Dens slightly longer than manubrium, corrugated, and annulated, the uncorrugated portion half as long again as mucro. Mucro bidentate with a single external basal spine. Dens apically without notch but with bow-like lamella.

Localities: North Island—Waihui Gorge, Urewera Country, from under the bark of native fuchsia trees; Waimana Gorge, Bay of Plenty, under stones. South Island—Bench Island, Dunedin (Prof. Marples); Haast Pass, near summit, from under bark of beech trees.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/82, Figured Paratype: Slide 3/198, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera parva sp. nov. Plate 63, fig. 381.

Colour: In life, yellowish; mounted, pale yellow with deep violet edging to thoracic and first four abdominal pleura. Pale violet broad intersegmental bands on posterior margins of metathorax, Abds. I, II, III, IV and V, and an elongate area of violet on each side of Abd. IV. Antennae pale violet, becoming very dark on IV. Legs and furcula pale yellow, but tibio-tarsi deep violet. Ocelli on dark brown fields.

– 380 –

Clothing: Of scales and ciliated setae which are exceedingly long on Abds. IV, V, and VI. Flexed setae occur on head and mesothorax. Bothriotrichia occur on Abd. II, one dorsal, and on Abd. III, one dorsal.

Body: Length up to 1·2 mm. Antennae twice length of head, the four segments related as 4: 6: 6: 10. Ocelli, eight to each side, unequal, two very large, two large, two smaller, and two very small. Abd. IV four times longer than Abd. III. Ventral tube short.

Legs: Claw with two long exterior lateral basal teeth reaching to one-third down the claw, and five inner teeth, one pair at centre, one pair at three-quarters, and a single small distal tooth near apex. Empodial appendage reaching to second pair of teeth and truncate on inner margin. A well-developed clavate tenent hair, longer than claw to each foot.

Furcula: Dens only slightly longer than manubrium, annulated and corrugated. Mucro bidentate, with basal spine, the apical tooth the smaller; over-reached by long, strongly ciliated setae. Uncorrugated portion of dens three times as long as mucro. Dens with distinct notch from which bow-like lamella reaches to mucro.

Localities: Bullock Creek, South Westland, under bark of rimu trees; Lake Mapourika, under bark of kahikatea trees.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/806, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera splendida sp. nov. Plate 63, figs. 382–386.

Colour: Fully clothed with scales. In life, jet black and highly irridescent. Denuded of scales, body colour dark orange-brown with dark violet pigment along ventral edge of thoracic and first two abdominal pleura. Meso and metathorax violet dorsally, and generally also partly down sides. Abd. I and Abd. II with violet bands around anterior margins and with further irregular patches of violet. Abd. III violet dorsally and half-way down each side with a sharp finish. Abd. IV with irregular patches of violet dorsally, laterally, and ventrally. Abd. V violet on posterior dorsal half and extending down sides as on Abd. III. Legs brown to black, ochreous at joints. Furcula lighter ochreous. Ant. I and II ochreous brown, III and IV darker brown to violet.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with many layers of dark brown, strongly striated scales. In reflected light these scales are highly irridescent and the whole insect glitters with many colours. Bothriotrichia occur on Abds. II, III and IV. On Abd. IV and around the tip of abdomen are many long ciliated setae, and similar setae occur on legs and antennae. Antennae scaled on first three segments and all segments heavily clothed with short ciliated setae. A very thick tuft of flexed setae at apex of mesotergum and numerous similar setae occur dorsally on head and thorax.

Body: Length up to 2·4 mm. Antennae two and a-half times as long as head, the four segments related as 9: 19: 18: 20. Ant. IV with retractile organ at apex protected by six short bristles. Abd. IV 3 ½–4 times longer than Abd. III. Ocelli, eight to each side, anterior pair very large, first inner pair very small; remainder medium.

– 381 –

Legs: Claw with outer lateral basal teeth outwardly curved, and from ⅓ to ½ as long as claw. A pair of small inner teeth at about one-third, a larger pair at three-quarters, and a smaller tooth at two-thirds from distal tooth to apex of claw. Empodial appendage lanceolate and almost reaching to second pair of teeth. A strong clavate tenent hair as long as claw to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube. Manubrium and mucrodens approximately equal in length. Dens strongly annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated portion twice length of mucro. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, the apical tooth much smaller than the pre-apical, which latter tooth has a slight return slope. Mucro surrounded and over-reached by strongly ciliated setae. Bow-like lamella present at apex of dens but notch is small and very shallow.

Locality: Awahuri, Palmerston North, under bark of kowhai trees and in old logs under kowhai trees.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/782 and Figured Paratype: Slide 3/783, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera inconstans Salmon, 1938. Plate 64, figs. 394–396.

Colour: Ochreous brown in mounted specimens, with a broad band of deep violet along ventral edges of thoracic pleura and those of Abds. I, II and III. Abds. II and III entirely violet. Violet pigment along posterior edge of sides of Abd. IV. Sometimes thorax may be lightly suffused more or less all over with pale violet. Legs bluish, ochreous at joints. Basal two antennal segments brown; terminal two dark blue.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with short ciliated setae and scales. Bothriotrichia arise one from Abd. II and one from Abd. III. A tuft of long ciliated setae on each side of the posterior extremity of ventral groove. A row of short spines across posterior margin of head. Furcula clothed by ciliated setae which are very long towards tip of dens and considerably over-reach mucro. Dens heavily scaled. Scales of body oval in shape to round, narrower and pointed elsewhere, heavily striated.

Body: 1·8–2 mm. in length. Antennae a little more than one-third length of body; four-segmented, the first two segments scaled, and the four related in length as 6: 11: 8: 13. Ocelli typical. Head diagonal almost equal to thorax in length. Abd. IV from 4 to 4 ½ times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with a pair of inner teeth at one-third, a single distal tooth at about two-thirds, and generally, but not always, a third smaller tooth near apex of claw. Empodial appendage long, narrow, and lance-like, reaching as far as or just past first distal tooth. A single clavate tenent hair equal in length to claw, to each foot. Outer lateral basal teeth reaching to the level of the front pair of inner teeth.

Furcula: Manubrium and mucrodens related as 6: 7. Mucro elongate and bidentate, with basal spine, the sub-terminal tooth larger than the apical and with a slight return slope.

– 382 –

Localities: In leaf mould, Waihui Gorge; Lake Waikaremoana, in leaf mould on the shores of the lake; Huiarau Range, 3,200 ft., in leaf mould; under bark of rimu trees at Lake Waikareiti and Hopuruahine Gorge; Mount Ngamoko, 3,600 ft., under bark of beech trees; Blue Lake, Rotorua, in leaf mould; Akatarawa, in leaf mould; Cascade Creek, Eglinton Valley, under the bark of beech trees.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/107, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera quadradentata sp. nov. Plate 63, figs. 387–389.

Colour: In life, black; mounted, a deep indigo-blue, almost a black-blue, or a deep violet-black, except for the head, which is deep yellow, and the dorsal anterior half of Abd. IV, which is deep orange-brown. Abd. VI is deep yellow, and there is a deep yellow band around the anterior margin of Abd. V. Furcula yellow, legs blue with yellow joints, antennae brown on I and II, violet on III and IV. Depigmented spots occur on Abd. IV.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with oval, strongly-striated scales and occasional ciliated setae, the latter especially around tip of abdomen, and on legs and antennae. Antenne scaled with narrow scales on first three segments.

Body: Length 1·6–2·5 mm. Antennae slightly over twice as long as head, the four segments in the proportion of 6: 17: 17: 17. Ocelli, eight to each side, anterior two largest, posterior inner two smallest, remainder all large. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax, Abd. IV 4 ½–5 times longer than Abd. III. Ventral tube short, cylindrical, and darkly-pigmented except for tip, which is yellow. Abd. VI with a pronounced posterior finger-like process bearing many long ciliated setae.

Legs: Claw with two long outer lateral basal teeth reaching to the level of the first inner teeth, a pair of inner teeth at one-quarter, a long single tooth at three-quarters, followed by a smaller single distal tooth. Empodial appendage lanceolate almost reaching to second tooth. A single well-developed clavate tenent hair as long as claw, to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to thorax, manubrium to mucrodens as 24: 30. Dens annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated portion being twice length of mucro. Mucro long, bidentate, with basal spine, the apical tooth much shorter than the pre-apical. Notch of dens small, being from apex about one and a-half times length of mucro; bow-like lamella present.

Localities: Lake Mapourika, under the bark of kahikatea trees; Buller Gorge, near Westport, in old logs; Lower Hollyford Valley, under bark of rimu trees; Lake Brunner, in bush soil and debris; Fish River Gorge, Haast Pass, under bark of totara trees; Weheka, South Westland, under the bark of rata trees; Ohinekuku Hill, Taupo-Napier Road, under bark of matai trees.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/795; Figured Paratype: Slide 3/796, Dominion Museum Collection.

– 383 –

Urewera flava Salmon, 1938. Plate 64, fig. 400.

Colour: Typically bright yellow, with or without dark markings. Readily recognized in life by the predominant bright yellow or sometimes yellowish-green body colour. Pigment if present may be brown or violet as stated in the original description or a brilliant but deep blue. It is confined to a narrow band or edging on the anterior region of the mesothorax and the ventral edges of the thoracic and first three abdominal pleura, a dorsal transverse band on Abd. III, and to restricted patches, being one on each side of Abd. IV and one on each side of Abd. V. Abd. IV ventrally is also shaded blue. Legs brown, yellowish at joints, tarsi bluish. Antennae brown, darkening to deeper colour or violet towards apex.

Clothing: As in U. magna. Body scales oval and yellow to pale brown in colour, heavily striated. Scales of legs, antennae and dens long, narrow, and apically-pointed.

Body: Length 2·5–2·75 mm. General facies very similar to U. magna. Antennae about equal to half the body in length. Four-segmented, the segments related as 11: 25: 25: 27. Abd. IV four times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw and empodial appendage as in U. magna with proximal paired teeth at about one-third from claw base.

Furcula: Similar to U. magna.

Localities: Under bark of beech and rimu trees, Mount Ngamoko, Lake Waikaremoana, from 2,500 ft., to summit, 3,640 ft.; Flat Point Hills, in leaf mould in beech forest and under beech bark; Opepe Bush, Taupo, under bark and in bush soil; Karori, Wellington, amongst grass of a lawn; Lake Rotoroa, under beech bark; Bullock Creek, South Westland, under bark of rimu trees.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/100, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera flava, subspecies dorsalis nov. Plate 64, fig. 401.

Colour: In life, bright yellow with dark brown markings; mounted, ground colour of ochreous yellow with violet pigment as follows:—Dorsal portion of Abd. IV almost wholly violet, the pigment being broken up somewhat around posterior border; posterior three-quarters of Abd. V deep violet. Very narrow violet bands around posterior margins of mesothorax (pale) and Abd. I and Abd. II. Ventral edges of thoracic and first three abdominal pleura deep violet. Legs brown to violet-brown, yellow at joints. Antennae dark brown, darker at joints.

Length: Up to 2 mm.; otherwise similar to U. flava.

Localities: Lake Rotoroa, under the bark of beech trees; Maruia Valley, under the bark of beech trees.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/779, Dominion Museum Collection.

– 384 –

Urewera okarita (Salmon, 1938). Plate 64, figs. 404–405.

1938. Lepidosira okarita Salmon.

Colour: In life, reddish-brown; mounted specimen shows basal body colour of pale ochreous with bright orange-brown pigment on front of head, along anterior ventral edge of mesothorax, and on basal segments of legs. Antennae basally pale brown, shading to pale violet apically. Legs ochreous, violet on tibio-tarsi. Body colour becomes darker or lighter as clothing of scales is heavy or light.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with scales of which there are two types: (1) Pale coffee-coloured, heavily striated, either oval or almost round in shape. On head and thorax they are mostly oval; on remainder of the body almost entirely round. Some of these scales are very large, a round one measuring up to 0·6 mm. in diameter. Basally, the scale-colour is very pale, becoming stronger at about one-third from base of scales. (2) Bright yellow scales, which are very transparent and lightly-striated, either round or oval in shape, many of them quite large. They occur mainly as bands between the segments, principally between abdominal segments II and III or III and IV. A few isolated yellow scales occur on Abd. IV. On antennae, legs, and furcula, particularly on the dens, the scales become long, narrow and lancet-like in shape. Antennae, legs, and furcula scaled and clothed with short ciliated setae. A row of short spines occurs across posterior dorsal margin of head. Numerous fine ciliated setae fringe ventral edge of thoracic pleura and abdominal segments III and IV. Bothriotrichia on Abd. II.

Body: Length 2·1 mm. Head slightly longer than mesothorax. Ocelli, eight to each side, five large, three small, on dark pigment patches. Retractile organ at apex of Ant. IV. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 7: 19: 15: 18. Abd. IV four times longer than Abd. III. Ventral tube short and yellow in colour.

Legs: Claw with paired inner teeth at about one-third from base and single distal tooth at about two-thirds. Basal external lateral teeth almost reaching level of proximal inner teeth. Empodial appendage lanceolate and reaching to distal inner tooth. A single clavate tenent hair to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube. Manubrium to mucrodens as 33: 38. Dens annulated and corrugated. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, the apical tooth the smaller. Strongly ciliated setae over-reach the mucro. Apical notch of dens absent but lamella well developed.

Localities: Lake Okarita, Rotorua, in leaf mould under tree-ferns; Mamaku Hill, Rotorua, in leaf mould.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/117, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera magna (Salmon, 1937). Plate 64, figs. 397–399.

1938. Urewera tridentifera (Salmon.)

1937. Pseudosinella magna Salmon.

Colour: In life, the insect appears greenish-orange, irridescent, with very dark markings. Between Abd. III and rear of Abd. IV an angular area, apex directed posteriorly, of light ochreous colour,

– 385 –

bounded by lines of dark pigment. In the typical form mounted specimens have basal body colour pale ochreous with areas of deep violet to purple pigment as follows:—Across front and along sides of head, along ventral edges of thoracic pleura and Abd. I; across anterior and posterior portions of mesothorax, across and slightly down sides of posterior halves of metathorax and abdominal segments I and II, extending right down sides of Abdomen III, and on rear and sides of Abds. IV and V. Antennal segments I and II pale brown, III darker brown, IV very dark brown, with tinge of violet. Legs dark violet, ochreous at joints.

Clothing: More or less completely clothed by pale brown, oval-shaped scales, heavily striated. A tuft of flexed setae at apex of mesotergum. Occasional long, ciliated setae occur at random over body; but from Abdomen IV back numerous exceedingly long, ciliated setae extend out from body in all directions. Around tip of abdomen there often are a number of shorter plumose setae which probably are a sexual adornment. Bothriotrichia occur on Abd. II and Abd. IV. Antennae four-segmented, scaled on first three segments, thickly clothed with ciliated hairs and occasional long setae. Legs scaled, and bearing many ciliated setae. Furcula thickly clothed with ciliated setae which towards tip of dens become very long, over-reaching the mucro. The dens scaled, with long, narrow, apically-pointed scales.

Body: Length 2·8–4 mm. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax. Head double the length of the metathorax. Ocelli as in fuchsiata. Antennae four-segmented. I: II: III: IV as 18: 36: 34: 34. Abd. IV 3 ½–4 times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with inner proximal paired teeth situated about one-quarter down from claw base. A distal tooth at about three-quarters, and a third smaller apical tooth at about midway between distal tooth and apex of claw, exterior lateral basal teeth reaching to one-third of the length of the claw. Empodial appendage lanceolate, approximately half length of claw, never reaching down as far as the distal tooth. A single clavate tenent hair about equal in length to claw to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching forward to ventral tube. Mucrodens a little longer than manubrium. Dens corrugated and annulated. Mucro somewhat long, bidentate, with a single basal spine. Dens apically with notch and bow-like lamella.

Localities: Particularly common under the bark of old trees and fallen, decaying branches and logs in all native bush and amongst decaying leaves and debris on the forest floor or collected in the forks of trees; Waipoua Kauri Forest, under the bark of kauri trees; Urewera country, up to altitudes of about 2,500 ft.; Coromandel Peninsula, under the bark of rimu trees; Mount Egmont, in bush debris, 3,170 ft.; Opepe Bush, Taupo, in old logs; Awahuri, Palmerston North, under the bark of kowhai trees; Akatarawa Valley and divide, amongst leaf debris; Karori, Wellington, amongst grass of a lawn; Maruia Valley, under the bark of beech and fuchsia trees; Fish River Gorge, Haast Pass, under the bark of beech trees; Weheka,

– 386 –

South Westland, under the bark of rata trees; Lower Hollyford Valley, under beech and rimu bark; Eglinton Valley, under fuchsia bark.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/96, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera magna subspecies lichenata Salmon, 1938.

This distinct form found generally in association with lichens on tree-trunks has a suffusion of more or less irregular small black pigment patches all over the body. In life, it appears orange-brown with very dark brown markings.

Localities: Aniwaniwa Arm, Lake Waikaremoana, on tree-trunks in forest and under fuchsia bark; Akatarawa, in old logs; Waioeka Valley, on lichen on tree-trunks, 2,000 ft.; Lower Hollyford Valley, under the bark of beech and rimu trees.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/86, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera magna subspecies violacea Salmon, 1938.

Another distinct form in which the body is completely diffused with pale violet or purple pigment, except for the head, where a tendency to pale ochreous may still persist. The areas of pigmentation occurring in the type are picked out in this variety as areas of deeper violet or purplish pigmentation. In life, dark greenish-brown with darker markings, sometimes approaching to an almost complete irridescent blue-black.

Localities: Ohinekuku Hill, Napier-Taupo Road, under the bark of matai trees; Aniwaniwa Arm, Lake Waikaremoana, under the bark of beech trees; Hopuruahine Gorge, under bark of beech trees; Akatarawa, under bark of fuchsia trees; Bullock Creek, South Westland, under the bark of rimu trees.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/92, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera purpurea Salmon, 1938. Plate 64, figs. 402–403.

Colour: In life, pale purple to pale greyish-purple; mounted, head, thorax, and abdominal segments I, II, and III are wholly purple in colour. Anterior portion of Abd. IV paler and ground colour of body may show through as pale ochreous. The posterior portion of Abd. IV, Abd. V and Abd. VI deep purple. The dorsal surface of head generally paler in colour than the sides. Antennae purple, changing to deep violet on segments III and IV. Legs purple, with deep violet tarsi. Furcula purple at base, passing into pale ochreous on dentes.

Clothing: Heavily scaled with pale purple coloured scales, heavily striated. Setae as in U. inconstans. A single bothriotrichia arises vertically from Abd. II. A row of short spines across posterior dorsal margin of head. First two segments of antennae with long, narrow, pointed scales and ciliated setae. Third segment with plain setae and terminal segment clothed with short fine hairs. Legs clothed with ciliated setae and scales. Furcula clothed by ciliated setae, dens scaled. A prominent ring of stout scales on manubrium at junction with dens.

– 387 –

Body: Length 1·9–2·4 mm. Ocelli typical. Head approximately equal to thorax in length. Antennae four-segmented and less than half the body in length, the segments related as 4: 10: 7: 10. Abd. IV 3–3 ½ times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with three inner teeth, a pair at about one-quarter from base, a distal at two-thirds. Outer lateral basal teeth not quite reaching to level of inner pair. Empodial appendage reaching to distal tooth, narrow and lanceolate. A single clavate tenent hair shorter than claw, to each foot.

Furcula: Manubrium and mucrodens equal. Dens corrugated and annulated. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, somewhat elongate and surrounded by ciliated setae. Apical notch and bow-like lamella present.

Localities: Mount Ngamoko, in old log, 3,000 ft., and among forest debris, 3,600 ft.; Waihui Gorge and Aniwaniwa Arm, Lake Waikaremoana, among leaf mould; Blue Lake, Rotorua, in leaf mould; Opepe Bush, Taupo, in old log.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/143, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera purpurea subspecies reducta Salmon, 1938.

Specimens in which body is ochreous in colour with concentrations of purple pigment along ventral edges of terga and toward posterior region of Abd. IV and on Abd. V. Narrow, very pale bands of purple encircle anterior portion of each segment.

Localities: Mount Ngamoko, 3,600 ft., in log; Aniwaniwa Arm, Lake Waikaremoana, in old log; Waihui Gorge, in bush soil.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/150, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera fuscata (Womersley, 1930). Plate 65, figs. 419–420.

1930. Lepidocyrtoides fuscata (Womersley).

1936. Lepidosira fuscata Womersley.

Colour: Brownish-yellow to yellow with edges of segments blue. Ant. I and II violet; III and IV deep blue. Legs blue. Furcula yellow, ocellar fields black and connected across front of head by a dark frontal line.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with brown, striated, oval and round scales. Ant. I and II dorsally with scales. Dens heavily scaled ventrally. Ciliated setae posteriorly on abdomen, and on furcula and legs.

Body: Length up to 2 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the segments related as 2: 7: 7: 10. Ocelli, eight on each side, the anterior two the largest, posterior inner two the smallest, remainder medium. Abd. IV six times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with a pair of large inner teeth at one-third, a large distal inner tooth at two-thirds and external basal lateral teeth reaching about one-quarter down outer edge. Empodial appendage lanceolate and reaching to distal tooth of claw. A single clavate tenent hair to each foot about as long as claw.

– 388 –

Furcula: Mucrodens slightly longer than manubrium. Dens annulated and corrugated. Bow-like lamella and deep apical notch both present. Mucro with small apical tooth, large slightly recurved sub-apical tooth, and basal spine. Much over-reached by long ciliated setae.

Locality: Kumara, under stones and under bark of rimu trees.

Type: In South Australian Museum, Adelaide.