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Volume 70, 1940-41
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Genus Lepidosira Schött, 1925.

Claws with lateral teeth, but never with exterior lateral basal teeth. Scales present, heavily striated. Scales of body generally longer and apically more pointed than in Urewera. Scales of the antennae and furcula narrow, elongate and pointed. Ocelli present, eight to each side. Mucro bidentate, with basal spine. Ant. IV always with apical sensory knob.

Ten species of Lepidosira occur in New Zealand, eight of which are endemic, the other two ranging to Australia, from whence they were first described.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Lepidosira.
1. Distinctly segmented species. 2
Segmentation more or less indistinct. Brown species, claw without any teeth. L. indistincta Salmon
2. Claw with four inner teeth to claw. 3
Claw with less than four inner teeth to claw. 4
3. Entirely blue species. L. coerulea Schött
Yellowish species with dark blue, saddle-shaped band posteriorly on Abd. III. Claw with proximal paired teeth and two single distal teeth. L. sagmarius Schött
4. With three inner teeth to claw 5
With two inner teeth to claw. 6
With only one inner tooth to claw. 7
5. Small brownish coloured species with Th. III, Abds. I, II and III, posterior portion of IV and V and VI with purplish pigment. Mucro normal. L. minuta Salmon
Yellow to dark-brown species with dark, narrow, posterior intersegmental bands on Th. II, Th. III. and Abds. I, II and III. Mucro normal. L. omniofusca sp. nov.
6. Empodial appendage truncate ochreous or brown-coloured species. 8
Empodial appendage lamellate and bluntly-pointed on inner margin. L. bidentata Salmon
7. Small violet-coloured species. L. minima Salmon
Large deep blue-coloured species. L. rotorua Salmon
8. Body with three dorso-lateral pigment spots on each side of abdomen. L. sexmacula Salmon
Body without spots. 9
9. Ant. III near its apex with large dome-like swelling. Scales normal. L. glebosa sp. nov.

Lepidosira indistincta Salmon, 1938. Plate 64, fig. 407.

Colour: A uniform pale ochreous. Legs and furcula ochreous or pale violet. Basal antennal segments ochreous with a violet tinge, distal segments deep violet.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with typical pale brown striated scales. Numerous long ciliated setae occur over the body, especially

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on abdominal segments IV, V, and VI. A prominent tuft of flexed setae at apex of mesothorax. Scales of furcula lancet-like. Legs not scaled but thickly clothed with short, heavily-ciliated setae. Mucro surrounded by long, ciliated setae.

Body: Length 2·7 mm. Head diagonal, slightly longer than mesothorax. Ocelli, eight to each side, one large, five medium, and two small, situated on dark pigment patches joined across front of head by deep violet band, which also skirts bases of antennae. Antennae slightly less than half the body in length, four-segmented, related as 7: 12: 10: 17. Scaled on first two segments and well-clothed by setae, many of which are ciliated. Ant. IV bears very short setae only. A row of short spines across posterior dorsal margin of head. Segmentation very indistinct. Abd. IV about three times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw without any properly-defined teeth, but a slight irregularity like a rudimentary tooth about one-quarter from base. Empodial appendage sharply pointed with distinct inner and outer lamellae and “mid-rib.” A single tenent hair to each foot about equal in length to claw.

Furcula: Dens only feebly corrugated and annulated. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, somewhat long and parallel-sided.

Localities: Waioeka Valley, Urewera Country, from old rotten tree stump, 2,000 ft.; Lake Okarita, in leaf debris in bush; Mamaku Hill, Rotorua, 1,600 ft., in leaf mould.

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Type: Slide 3/47, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepdosira coerulea Schött, 1917. Plate 64, figs. 408–409.

Colour: Entirely blue with sometimes some yellowish spots on Th. II and Abd. IV. Furcula yellow.

Clothing: Of scales with flexed setae dorsally on head and thorax, and long ciliated setae posteriorly.

Body: Length 2·3 mm. Antennae twice as long as head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 5: 12: 11: 16. Ant. IV with apical sensory knob. Ocelli, eight to each side. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax and may very slightly overlap rear of head. Abd. IV 3 ½ times to 4 times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with outer lateral teeth at about two-fifths down outer edge, and two pairs of inner teeth, one at centre, the other at about three-quarters. Empodial appendage lanceolate and from half to two-thirds as long as claw. A single clavate tenent hair about as long as the claw, to each foot.

Furcula: Manubrium slightly longer than mucrodens. Mucro bidentate, with basal spine, the pre-apical tooth the larger and slightly recurved.

Localities: First reported from New Zealand by Womersley in 1929 from Ross, South Westland, and later at Davies Bush, Manurewa, Auckland (coll. by E. D. Pritchard), in 1936; this species can now be recorded from Waipoua Kauri Forest, North Auckland, on the bark of kauri trees.

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Lepidosira sagmarius (Schött, 1917). Plate 64, fig. 406; Plate 66, fig. 430.

Colour: Yellowish with a dark saddle-shaped blue-black band posteriorly on Abd. III. There is a similar-coloured lateral posterior patch on each side of Abd. IV, on the sides of Th. II and around the posterior margin of Abd. VI. Antennae basally brown and distally blue.

Clothing: Of brownish scales with short but distinct striae.

Body: In length this species varies from 2 to 2·25 mm. Antennae about two and a-half times as long as head. Ant. IV with three-lobed apical knob. Ocelli, eight to each side, the posterior inner two smaller than the rest. Th. II longer than Th. III and slightly overlying the head. Abd. IV four times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with a pair of inner teeth at about one-quarter and two distal inner teeth at three-quarters and seven-eighths respectively; paired lateral outer teeth at about one-quarter down. A single clavate tenent hair longer than the claw to each foot. Empodial appendage lanceolate and from one-third to a-half as long as claw.

Furcula: Mucrodens about one-third longer than manubrium. Dens annulated and corrugated. Mucro bidentate with a basal spine.

Locality: A single specimen of this species was identified by Womersely in 1930 from Kumara. It has not been found elsewhere.

Lepidosira minuta Salmon, 1938. Plate 65, figs. 417–418.

Colour: Ochreous brown to dark reddish-brown, with darker purple-brown markings along ventral edges of thoracic pleura. Metathorax, abdominal segments I, II, and III and from hinder portion of Abd. IV to tip of abdomen, dark purple-brown. Head ochreous-violet anteriorly. Antennae ochreous at base, changing to deep violet on terminal segment. Legs proximally brown, merging into dark violet distally. Furcula ochreous.

Clothing: Body scaled with brown oval or rounded, heavily-striated scales. Flexed setae occur on head and occasionally on body, with a prominent tuft at apex of thorax. Groups of long, ciliated setae occur around Abds. IV, V, VI. All antennal segments scaled and clothed by moderately long setae, the scales long, narrow, and apically-pointed. Legs covered with fine clothing of hairs and moderately long setae, the majority of which are finely ciliated. Furcula clothed with setae. Dens scaled with long, narrow, pointed scales.

Body: Length 1·4–1·6 mm. Head about equal to thorax in length. Ocelli, eight to each side, seven large and one small, on dark pigment patches. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 4: 8: 6: 11. Abd. IV four times as long as Abd. III. Ventral tube long and with two distinct lips.

Legs: Claw with three inner teeth, the larger and proximal tooth about one-third claw base, distal about two-thirds, and half-way between this and apex is a third very small tooth. Empodial appendage reaching almost to second tooth. A clavate tenent hair about equal in length to the claw, to each foot. No outer teeth to claw.

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Furcula: Reaching forward to hind pair of legs. Manubrium to mucrodens as 17: 14, dens corrugated and annulated. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, surrounded by long, ciliated setae. Apical tooth of mucro smaller than pre-apical.

Localities: Lake Waikare-iti, 2,300 ft., from old log; Mount Ngamoko, Lake Waikaremoana, in old log, 2,900 ft.

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Type: Slide 3/120, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepidosira omniofusca sp. nov. Plate 65, figs. 421–422.

Colour: In life, varying from yellowish to very dark brown. Mounted specimens show a ground colour of yellowish-brown varying to dark brown, with generally darker violet-brown or reddish-brown narrow intersegmental bands on posterior margins of thoracic and first three abdominal segments. A similar narrow band around anterior margin of mesothoracic terga. Abds. II and III generally have dorsally a distinct broad area of darker reddish-brown reaching halfway down the sides, and similar coloration extends along ventral half of the sides of Abd. IV and Abd. V. Ant. I yellow-brown, II purple, III violet, and IV deep bluish-violet. Furcula pale brown. Legs pale brown, becoming violet on tibio-tarsi. Ocelli on very dark brown fields.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with very large brown heavily striated scales, which, on body, are rounded to oval in shape, but elongate and pointed on antennae, legs, and fulcula. A tuft of ciliated setae at apex of mesotergum and a few on top of the head and around tip of abdomen. Antennae and legs with many short ciliated setae.

Body: Length 0·75–2 mm. Antennae two and a-half times as long as head, the four segments related as 15: 30: 25: 37. The head is deeper than it is long. Ocelli eight to each side, the posterior inner two small, reainder all large. Ventral tube short and eylindrical. Abd. IV 4–4 ½ times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with a pair of strong inner teeth at one-fifth and a long single inner tooth at two-thirds; a pair of very small outer lateral teeth about one-fifth down outer edge. A single clavate tenent hair shorter than claw to each foot. Empodial appendage reaching just beyond distal tooth, sharply pointed, with a narrow outer lamella and a very broad, curved inner lamella.

Furcula: Manubrium to mucrodens as 25: 30. The dens strongly annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated portion twice the length of the mucro and unannulated portion one and a-half times. Mucro large, with equal apical and sub-apical teeth and basal spine; surounded and over-reached by several strongly ciliated setae.

Locality: Lake Brunner, under the brak of kahikatea trees.

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Type: Slide 3/819, Figured Paratype: Slide 3/820, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepidosira bidentata Salmon, 1938. Plate 64, figs. 410–411.

Colour: Yellowish-brown, with deep blue to violet patches on sides and ventral surface of head and body segments. Legs bluish with femurs brown. Antennae deep blue with joints pale brown.

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Clothing: Scaled with brown, heavily striated and somewhat hyaline scales. A tuft of stout setae occurs at apex of thorax, and long strongly ciliated setae arise around posterior region of abdomen. Antennae thickly clothed with short setae, but no scales. Dens heavily clothed by ciliated setae, many of which overreach the mucro, and scaled with long, lancet-like scales.

Body: Length 2–3·25 mm. Antennae not quite as long as half the body, the segments related as 12: 23: 20: 34. Ocelli eight to each side, all large, on dark blue pigment patches joined by a line of dark blue pigment across front of head. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax. Abd. IV five times as long as Abd. III. Ventral tube long.

Legs: Claw without any outer teeth, but with one pair of large inner teeth at about one-quarter from base. Empodial appendage broadly lamellate, bluntly pointed on inner margin and sharply pointed apically. A single clavate tenent hair about equal to claw in length to each foot.

Fucula: Reaching forward to mesothorax. Manubrium slightly shorter than mucrodens. Mucro bidentate, with a single basal spine, the subterminal tooth very large. Dens annulated and corrugated.

Localities: Aniwaniwa Arm, Lake Waikaremona; Opepe Bush, Taupo, under bark.

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Type: Slide 3/125, Dominion Museum Collection.

Remarks: Examination of further specimens of this species obtained recently has to a certain degree left me in doubt as to whether it is a Lepidosira or a Lepidocyrtus. Most of the scales are very much more hyaline than is usual in Lepidosira, though not quite so hyaline as is usual in a Lepidocyrtus. The scales generally are more visible on the surface of the body than it is usual to expect in a Lepidocyrtus, and this, combined with the fact that some definite dark, heavily striated scales do occur on the body, inclines me to the belief that the species is best left in the genus Lepidosira. It may perhaps be best regarded as an in-between or transitional species between the two genera.

Lepidosira minima Salmon, 1936. Plate 65, figs. 414–416.

Colour: In life, pale violet; mounted, basal body colour very pale cream, more or less tinged with violet. A heavy violet line along ventral edges of pleura and broad violet bands around posterior margins of all segments, except Abd. IV. Abd. III all violet, and Abd. IV with broad violet band around middle. Head violet. Antennae violet, deepening towards apex. Legs violet; pale at joints. Furcula pale cream. Top of head ochreous.

Clothing: Scales scarce, the few present being yellowish-brown and striated. Flexed setae occur on top of the head and at apex of mesothorax. Occasional setae occur over body, and several long, slender setae arise from the posterior portion of Abd. IV and from Abds. V and VI. Antennae clothed with short setae. Legs with moderately long setae. Furcula clothed with setae, which around mucrones are long and ciliated. Dens scaled lightly with long, thin scales.

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Body: Length 0·75 mm. Antennae almost twice as long as head diagonal, the segments related as 3: 6: 6: 8. Ocelli eight to each side, all large, on dark pigment patches. Abd. IV three times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with single external basal tooth and one inner tooth near apex. Empodial appendage a little longer than half the claw. A single clavate tenent hair longer than the claw to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching forward to ventral tube. Manubrium to mucrodens as 11: 13. Mucro bidentate with basal spine; the terminal tooth shorter and over-reached by long, very strongly ciliated setae.

Locality: Akatarawa, in leaf mould.

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Type: Slide 3/146, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepidosira rotorua Salmon, 1938. Plate 65, figs. 426–429.

Colour: In life, a very deep blue; in mounted specimens, body and appendages all a deep blue. Generally trace of yellowness along dorsal surface of thorax and abdominal segments I, II, III, and V.

Clothing: Lightly scaled with brownish scales strongly striated, a tuft of stiff setae at apex of mesothorax, and occasional similar setae over the body. Short, stiff, ciliated setae around tip of abdomen. Tufts of long, ciliated setae at ventral posterior edge of each side of ventral groove. Antennae scaled on first three segments and heavily clothed with short, finely ciliated setae. Legs and furcula with scales and ciliated setae. Scales of the dens are elongate and lancet-shaped.

Body: Length 2·8–3 mm. Head slightly longer than meso-thorax. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 9: 14: 12: 20. Ocelli eight to each side—six large, two small, on dark pigment patches. Mesothorax considerably longer than metathorax as 19: 10. Ventral tube short and stout. Abd. IV five times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with paired inner teeth at about one-third from base and small external tooth. Empodial appendage about two-thirds length of claw, finely-pointed, and truncate on inner margin. A single clavate tenent hair slightly less than the claw in length, to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching forward to ventral tube. Manubrium to mucrodens as 28: 32. Mucro bidentate, with a single basal spine. Apical tooth smaller and blunt. Mucro surrounded by long ciliated setae.

Locality: Blue Lake, Rotorua, from amongst dead leaves in bush.

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Type: Slide 3/128, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepidosira sexmacula Salmon, 1938. Plate 65, figs. 412–413.

Colour: Pale yellow with a trace of blue pigment along ventral edge of mesothorax. Three prominent patches of blue pigment on each side of abdomen, one on Abd. III, one in centre of Abd. IV, and one on Abd. V. A small patch of blue pigment also on posterior ventral region of Abd. IV. Legs and antennae pale brown

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or blue, darker at joints and shading to violet in third and terminal segments. Furcula pale ochreous. Ocellar fields black, joined by dark blue line across front of head.

Clothing: Sparsely scaled, scales pale brown, striated, and oval in shape. A tuft of short setae at apex of thorax. A few short, ciliated setae around tip of abdomen. Body otherwise mainly bare. Scales of legs and furcula lancet-shaped.

Body: Length 2·25 mm. Head slightly longer than mesothorax. Ocelli, eight to each side, six large and two small. Antennae four-segmented, the segments related as 6: 10: 10: 15. Retractile organ at apex of Ant. IV. Mesothorax completely covers prothorax and is related to metathorax as 15: 9. Abd. IV five times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with two outer basal teeth, one to each side, and two prominent inner teeth, one at about one-quarter and the other at three-quarters. Empodial appendage about two-thirds length of claw and slightly truncate on inner margin. A single clavate tenent hair somewhat shorter than the claw to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching forward to anterior pair of legs. Manubrium to mucrodens as 20: 23. Dens annulated and corrugated. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, the apical tooth small. Mucro surrounded by short ciliated setae.

Localities: Okarita Lake, Rotorua, in bush debris on forest floor; Paiahia, North Auckland, amongst leaf debris under tree-ferns; Mount Cargill, Dunedin, in leaf debris; Lake Waikare-iti, Urewera, in leaf mould on edge of lake.

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Type: Slide 3/119, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepidosira glebosa sp. nov. Plate 65, figs. 423–425.

Colour: Ochreous, with pale brown scales. Antennae I ochreous, with deep violet band at apex, II and III deep violet, ochreous basally, IV bluish-grey, legs and furcula pale ochreous, tibio-tarsi with a pale violet band. Ocelli on black fields.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with strongly striated scales and posteriorly with short ciliated setae. Antennae, legs and furcula heavily clothed with ciliated setae.

Body: Length 1·5 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the four segments related as 8: 12: 10: 16. Ant. III near apex with a peculiar large dome-like lump or swelling which, possibly, is some special form of sense organ. Mesotergum completely covers prothorax and slightly overhangs head. Segmentation not very clear. Abd. IV approximately 5 ½ times as long as Abd. III. Ocelli, eight to each side, the posterior inner two small, remainder large. Ventral tube long and fat.

Legs: Claw with two small outer lateral teeth near base and a pair of small inner teeth at one-quarter. A long, clavate tenent hair as long as claw, to each foot. Empodial appendage almost as long as claw, truncated on inner margin with a prominent central rib.

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Furcula: Manubrium and mucrodens approximately equal. Dens strongly annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated part half as long again as the mucro. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, the apical tooth much smaller than the pre-apical and somewhat removed from it. Mucro surrounded and over-reached by strongly ciliated setae.

Locality: Bullock Creek, South Westland, under wet moss on a steep bank.

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Type: Slide 3/829, Dominion Museum Collection.