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Volume 70, 1940-41
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Genotype: P. bidenticulata Carpenter.

Scaled species, scales long, narrow and ciliated (fig. 478), dens with at least one row of simple spines for the whole or part of its length. At the junction with the mucro are two scale-like plates ventrally and dorsally one or two long spine-like ciliated appendages. Mucro two toothed. Ocelli, eight to each side.

Seven species of this genus occur in New Zealand, of which six are endemic and one ranges to Australia.

Key to the Species of Paronana.
1. Head, thorax, Abd. I and anterior portion of Abd. II deep violet; remainder of body yellow. P. karoriensis Salmon
Pigment more generally distributed or absent. 2
2. Entirely yellow except for dorsal stripe along Th. II to Abd. I and small lateral spot on Abd. III. P. sufflava sp. nov.
Species with longitudinal stripes, cross bands, or spots. 3
3. Yellow with irregular pigment patches all over body. 5
Species with continuous longitudinal stripes and cross bands. 4
4. Yellow with a continuous narrow dark brown dorsal stripe for entire length of body. Mucro with unequal teeth. P. dorsanota sp. nov.
Yellow with a continuous lateral longitudinal reddish-brown stripe on each side along thorax, Abds. I, II and III. Abd. IV posteriorly with irregular reddish-brown band. Mucro with equal teeth. P. pigmenta sp. nov.
Yellowish or ochreous with continuous lateral longitudinal blue stripe along thorax and Abds. I, II, III, and IV. Broad posterior transverse blue bands around Abds. III, IV, and V. A central dorsal patch on Abd. IV. Mucro with unequal teeth. P. tasmasecta sp. nov.
5. Empodial appendage simple, lanceolate; claw with three inner teeth. P. maculosa Salmon
Empodial appendage with four teeth on outer edge; claw with three inner teeth. P. bidenticulata Carpenter
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Paronana karoriensis (Salmon, 1937). Plate 68, figs. 461–465.

1937. Salina karoriensis Salmon.

Colour: Head, thorax, first abdominal segment and portion of second a deep violet colour, remainder of body a deep straw-yellow to yellow ochre. Occasional specimens have a trace of violet on the sides of Abd. IV. Legs ochreous, violet at joints, tibio-tarsi with violet bands. Furcula pale ochreous; antennae pale orange with violet joints and apex.

Clothing: Thickly clothed with long setae and, along dorsal surface, large groups of exceptionally long, flexed setae, particularly on head, thorax and first two abdominal segments. Many of these flexed setae measure up to ½ mm. in length. On Abd. IV dorsally are numerous very long straight setae and on Abd. V, six very long wavy ciliated hairs. Around tip of abdomen are many shorter ciliated setae. Legs and antennae thickly clothed with short, fine setae and occasional very fine long setae.

Body: Length of body 1.5–3.1 mm. Head not quite as long as thorax. Antennae slightly longer than body, four-segmented, the relative lengths of the segments is not constant, but generally about 32: 35: 25: 44 in large-sized specimens. Ocelli, eight to each side, six large and two, the posterior inner two, small. No post-antennal organ but the configuration of the pigment sometimes gives the appearance of one. Ventral tube long and bilobed, invested with a few short hairs. Abd. IV 6–7 times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claws with two large external lateral basal teeth, one to each side, a pair of prominent inner teeth, one on each side of the groove at about the middle of its length, a single large tooth at about three-quarters from base, and a smaller inner tooth between this and apex of claw. Empodial appendage three-quarters as long as claw, lanceolate. A single clavate tenent hair to each foot, about equal in length to claw.

Furcula: Reaching forward to prothorax, thickly clothed with moderately-long setae and scales. Manubrium to mucrodens as 32: 44. Each dens has a single row of simple spines extending from base to apex and increasing in length towards apex. Mucro short, with two blunt, unequal apical teeth and densely surrounded with short setae, some of which are finely ciliated. A large ventral scale-like plate at mucrodens joint, and dorsally two long ciliated spine-like setae of unequal length, the longer about three times as long as the mucro, the shorter about twice as long as the mucro.

Localities: In grass lawns and in soil at Karori, Wellington; Akatarawa, in bush soil; Awahuri, near Palmerston North, amongst the debris beneath kowhai trees; Lake Brunner, under bark of kahikatea trees.

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Type: Slide 3/199, Dominion Museum Collection.

Paronana pigmenta sp. nov. Plate 69, figs. 470–471.

Colour: Yellow, with a broad deep reddish-brown coloured stripe extending along sides of thorax and abdominal segments I, II and III. Posterior half of Abd. IV occupied by an irregular reddish-brown band, Abd. V dorsally a very dark reddish-brown. Head deep

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reddish-brown except on ventral surface where it is yellow. Furcula and legs yellow, legs with narrow deep reddish-brown or violet bands. Antennae orange-coloured. Sometimes a trace of violet along ventral edge of Abd. IV.

Clothing: Similar to the preceding species, but much less dense.

Body: Length up to 3.3 mm. First antennal segment longer than head, and the four segments related as 35: 57: 35: 64. Head almost as long as thorax and Abd. IV is 7–10 times longer than Abd. III. Ocelli as in P. karoriensis.

Legs: Similar to P. karoriensis.

Furcula: Similar to P. karoriensis except that the two mucronal teeth are equal.

Localities: Arthur's Pass, in beech forest, 2,000 ft., east side of ranges; Lake Ianthe, among leaf debris in the forest; Tuatapere, Southland, in old log in the bush; Lake Roto-iti, South Island, in leaf debris in the forest.

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Type: Slide 3/869, Dominion Museum Collection.

Paronana dorsanota sp. nov. Plate 69, figs. 467–469.

Colour: Yellow, with continuous narrow dorsal dark brown or reddish-brown stripe running the entire length of the body. Abd. V and VI dark brown. A similar continuous dark brown stripe runs along the ventral surface expanding considerably on Abd. IV, after which it is broken. This ventral pigmentation may be considerably reduced in some specimens. Legs dark brown basally, otherwise bright orange-brown with slatey-blue tibio-tarsi. Furcula ochreous. Ant. I and II very bright orange-brown passing into violet on Ant. III and deep blue-violet on Ant. IV.

Clothing: A dense clothing of short ciliated setae. Dorsally, on head, thorax, and Abds. I and II are groups of extremely long flexed setae. On Abd. III, in the centre of Abd. IV, and posteriorly on Abds. IV and V are groups of very long, plain setae, some of which may be ciliated very finely towards their tips. Around extremity of abdomen are many ciliated setae. On legs, antennae, and furcula the short setae are ciliated, the longer ones plain.

Body: Length up to 3 mm. Antennae about one-third as long again as body, the four segments related as 15: 21: 14: 35. Ant. I related to head as 30: 27. Ocelli, eight to each side, the posterior inner two very small, remainder all large and equal. Abd. IV fourteen times as long as Abd. III. Ventral tube long and haired.

Legs: Claw typical, with a pair of inner teeth at centre and a single large distal tooth just beyond three-quarters. Two long outer basal teeth. Empodial appendage lanceolate and reaching to just beyond distal tooth. A single clavate tenent hair as long as claw to each foot. The clavate end is not so broad as in the preceding species of the genus.

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Furcula: Reaching to beyond ventral tube. Manubrium to mucrodens as 35: 46. Dens with a single row of short stout spines for about two-thirds of its length, and heavily clothed with setae and scales. Mucro with blunt apical and sharper pre-apical tooth well back from the apex. Scale-like plate at apex of dens absent; but there is a long dorsal scale-like spine about twice as long as the mucro.

Localities: Mount Cargill, Dunedin, in leaf debris and under stones by a stream; Chaslands Bush, Otago, in leaf debris.

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Type: Slide 3/875, Dominion Museum Collection.

Paronana tasmasecta sp. nov. Plate 69, figs. 474–476.

Colour: In life, ochreous-grey with black markings. Mounted, pale yellow with deep blue pigment as follows:—Across front of head joining ocelli and antennal bases; across middle of head as a broad “V” between posterior boundaries of ocelli; around anterior margin of thorax and continuing as a longitudinal band along ventral edges of pleura to posterior border of Abd. IV. Broad transverse bands around posterior margins of Abds. III, IV and V. A central dorsal patch on Abd. IV and two lateral stripes running from the posterior dorsal around the sides to the mid-ventral of Abd. IV. Legs pale orange with deep blue bands. Furcula pale orange. Antennae orange with deep blue joints and Ant. IV entirely deep blue. There are small posterior dorsal patches of blue on the meso and metathorax and Abds. I and II. Ocelli on dark blue-black fields.

Clothing: A dense clothing of short ciliated setae, with dorsally on head, thorax and Abd. I many flexed setae. From the centre of Abd. IV backwards are groups of very long plain setae. The long setae around the tip of the abdomen are finely ciliated. The shorter setae of the antennae, legs, and furcula are ciliated, the longer ones are plain.

Body: Length up to 3.3 mm. Antennae about one-third as long again as body, the four segments in the proportion of 40: 53: 34: 64. Ant. I to head as 40: 34. Ocelli, eight to each side, the four outer ones large, the anterior inner two smaller, the posterior inner two very small. Ventral tube long and bearing numerous long curved setae. Abd. IV nine times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with long outer basal teeth and three large inner teeth, being a pair at two-thirds and a single tooth midway between this and apex. Empodial appendage narrow and lanceolate, reaching to distal tooth. A single broadly clavate tenent hair equal to claw in length to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching forward to prothorax. Manubrium to mucro-dens as 45: 56. Dens with a single row of stout spines for about half its length. Mucro with two blunt unequal teeth. Dens apically with a large ventral scale-like serrated plate and dorsally with a long scale like spine about two and a-half times the length of the mucro and projecting beyond it.

Locality: Tasman Glacier, under stones on the terminal and lateral moraine near where vegetation has commenced to grow.

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Type: Slide 3/881 and Figured Paratype: Slide 3/882, Dominion Museum Collection.

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Paronana sufflava sp. nov. Plate 69, figs. 472–473.

Colour: Entirely pale yellow except for a narrow dorsal stripe of dark brown from posterior part of mesothorax to Abd. II, and a single small spot on each side of Abd. III.

Clothing: Dense clothing of short ciliated setae, with long plain setae on legs and antennae.

Body: Length up to 2.4 mm. Ocelli, eight to each side, the posterior inner two small but relatively not so small as in P. tasmasecta. The remaining six ocelli large but of varying size and irregular shape. Abd. IV ten times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with two long outer basal teeth and three inner teeth. A pair at centre and a large single tooth at three-quarters. Empodial appendage lanceolate, tapering gradually to a fine point and almost as long as claw. A strongly clavate tenent hair longer than claw to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to mesothorax. Manubrium to mucrodens as 25: 35. Dens with a single row of stout simple spines running about half its length. Mucro with two blunt teeth, the pre-apical tooth nearer the apex than in tasmasecta. A very large ventral scale-like plate at apex of dens; but no sign on any of my specimens of the long scale-like spine present in other species of this genus. It is possible, however, that this may have been rubbed off.

Locality: Bench Island, Dunedin. Collected by Prof. Marples, of Dunedin.

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Type: Slide 3/886, Dominion Museum Collection.

Paronana maculosa (Salmon). Plate 68, fig. 466.

1937. Salina karoriensis var. maculosa Salmon.

Similar to P. karoriensis except in colour pattern and foot claws. Originally described as a variety of S. karoriensis; but I am now of the opinion that it is a definite species.

Colour: Ground colour of straw-yellow with irregular patches of violet or reddish-brown on head and along sides and dorsal surface of all segments, forming a more or less broken line along ventral edges of pleura and along dorsal surface. Legs banded and spotted with violet. Antennae brownish-orange with violet at joints and at apex. Furcula pale ochreous.

Body: Length seldom as long as P. karoriensis, 1.4–2.6 mm. Otherwise similar to karoriensis.

Claw: Similar to karoriensis, but relatively much smaller.

Furcula: As in karoriensis.

Localities: In open country, Karori, and in bush at Butterfly Creek, Wellington; Akatarawa, in bush soil; in debris under kowhai trees at Awahuri, near Palmerston North; in bush soil, Aratiatia Rapids; in bush soil, Mount Ngamoko, Lake Waikaremoana, at about 3,600 ft.

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Type: Slide 3/202, Dominion Museum Collection.

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Paronana bidenticulata (Carpenter, 1925). Plate 69, figs. 477–479.

1936. Pseudoparonella bidenticulata Carpenter (Womersley).

1925. Paronella bidenticulata Carpenter.

Colour: Yellowish with irregular purplish markings along dorsal surface and on sides of abdomen, particularly Abd. IV. Antennae bluish. Hairs and scales brown.

Clothing: Clothed with numerous ciliated pointed scales and ciliated setae. Abdomen posteriorly with longer ciliated setae and fine sensory setae. Dens, Ant. I and Ant. II scaled.

Body: Length up to 3 mm. Antennae longer than body, the four segments related as 25: 35: 25: 58. Ant. IV annulated. Abd. IV five times longer than Abd. III. Ocelli, eight to each side, the anterior two smaller than the remainder.

Legs: Claw long and slender with three strong inner teeth, one pair at one-third and the other at two-thirds, and a pair of small outer teeth at about one-quarter down outer edge. A strong clavate tenent hair, slightly shorter than claw, to each foot. Empodial appendage lanceolate, about half as long as claw and with four small teeth on its outer edge about one-third down.

Furcula: Long and reaching to metathorax. Mucrodens to manubrium as 3: 2. A single row of simple spines running the length of the dens. Two scale-like lobes at apex of dens. Mucro with two unequal teeth.

Localities: Waiheke Island, Auckland, from a collection made by Mr. E. D. Pritchard; and Rakaia Gorge, Canterbury.

Paratype in the Canterbury Museum.