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Volume 70, 1940-41
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Distribution And Affinities Of The New Zealand Collembola.

Although the present paper does not record what might finally be termed the total Collembolan Fauna of New Zealand, it does raise the level of the knowledge of that fauna to a stage where some observations upon the possible derivation and distribution of the New Zealand Collembola can with advantage be made.

In a country so long isolated geologically, and in its virgin state with the greater part of the land covered by luxurious forests, enjoying an abundant rainfall and temperate climate, upon investigation one would expect to find a large and highly specialized Collembolan Fauna. Such has proved to be the case, but taking into consideration the relatively small size of New Zealand the results of this investigation have exceeded all expections.

Of the 185 species and 26 subspecies contained in the 62 genera now known from New Zealand, only 44 species and 6 subspecies are known to occur outside New Zealand, that is, roughly 23 per cent. of the Collembolan Fauna may be regarded as exotic in origin. In the remaining 77 per cent. which constitutes the indigenous fauna, no less than 12 of the genera are known only from New Zealand, and four are found in only New Zealand and Australia. Regarding the 44 exotic species, the question arises as to whether or not these are introductions to this country, brought here since European settlement began, or whether they were here prior to this data and although found in other parts of the world really are indigenous to New Zealand.

There has been in the past, I think, a tendency when investigating the origin of faunas of southern lands to regard species found therein which previously have been recorded from the Northern Hemisphere, particularly from Europe, as introductions to that land brought by human agency. In many cases this may be correct; but I am inclined to the view that in regard to the Collembola this may not always be so; and in the case of the New Zealand Collembola strong evidence exists to support my view. That the Collembola are very archaic group of insects there can be no doubt. The fossil Collembolan Rhyniella praecursor Hirst and Maulik, from the Middle Devonian of Scotland does not differ markedly from existing forms. It seems quite reasonable, therefore, to suppose that many of the more primitive groups of the Collembola attained an almost cosmopolitan distribution in very early geological time and that the present remarkable distribution of some species in what are now widely-separated land masses occurred before the factor of human agency entered into the picture.

That Collembola can be transported from one country to another by human agency there is no doubt. Such introductions generally multiply and spread at an abnormal rate, a fact that usually is taken as sound evidence that the particular insect has been so introduced. In New Zealand the Lucerne Flea Sminthurus viridis Linné has been so introduced into the Manawatu and Hawke's Bay districts, and to several areas of the South Island. Such rapid increase of a

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Collembolan species usually is observed to occur in cultivated districts and may arise from the secondary introduction of an indigenous species. The true test of whether a Collembolan species is indigenous or not comes when a detailed study is made of its distribution throughout the country; and it is upon these latter grounds that I base my views regarding several cosmopolitan species occurring in New Zealand.

New Zealand has been settled by Europeans for only a short space of time, and I find it difficult, if not impossible, to believe that such small insects with such a limited means of migration as the Collembola could in that short space of time spread so completely throughout the virgin forest and mountain districts of this country as have many of these so-called exotic species. Rather do I incline to the view that many of these species are part of our indigenous Collembolan fauna, having reached here from the north long before the last northern land connection of New Zealand was severed. In this category I would place the following cosmopolitan species occurring in New Zealand:—Achorutes armatus, Achorutes pseudopur-purascens, Achorutes viaticus, Neanura muscorum, Onychiurus armatus, Onychiurus fimetarius. The Australian species Lepidosira coerulea for the same reasons I would place amongst our indigenous species. It is difficult also to explain the occurrence of Mesaphorura krausbaueri in such a place as the Hollyford Valley, or of Entomobrya multifaciata, Entomobrya lamingtonensis, and Entomobrya nivalis deep in tracts of virgin bush country throughout New Zealand other than on the assumption that they are indigenous forms. Of the remaining exotic species a number of them have been so far recorded from only one locality, and it is probalble, though by no means certain, that the majority are introductions brought about by human agency. The species Lepidophorella australis and Lepidophorella brachycephala, though often referred to as Australian, were originally described from New Zealand material and are definitely indigenous species. If my views as expressed above are correct, then the non-indigenous portion of the New Zealand Collembolan fauna is reduced to about 18 per cent. of the whole.

Summarising, it may be stated that the Collembolan Fauna of New Zealand is relatively very extensive; that it contains a high proportion of indigenous forms, and that, due to the long geological isolation of this country, a large proportion of the genera are peculiar and not found elsewhere.

Of the distribution of the fauna within New Zealand itself there is little of note to be recorded. The majority of the genera are found in both the North and South Islands, though many of the species are restricted to certain localities. A few genera are restricted to one or other of the Islands, the genus Parchaetoceras in this respect being rather remarkable. Parachaetocras pritchardi Womersley is particularly common in the North Island, but is not found at all in the South Island. Almost any area of native forest will be found to abound with Collembola, with the exception, perhaps, of the kauri forests where Collembola do not appear to be so common as elsewhere. They occur in leaf mould and other forest debris; but the numbers

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occurring under the bark of trees is rather remarkable. In the wet rain forests of the West Coast of the South Island Collembola are more abundant than anywhere else in New Zealand.

All families and sub-families except the Poduridae, Actaletinae, Oncopodurinae and Cyphoderinae are represented in New Zealand. The absence of the Cyphoderinae is peculiar; but it is still possible that species of Cyphoderus may yet be found in New Zealand. The extraordinary and extensive occurrence of the genus Entomobrya is remarkable, New Zealand having the largest number of species belonging to this genus of any country in the world. The genus Lepidosira, originally described from Australia, finds its fullest development in this country; and the extensive development of the allied genera Urewera and Lepidocyrtus account for a further seventeen of the described species.

In discussions on the relationships of the New Zealand flora and fauna considerable emphasis generally is laid upon the relationship between this country and South America; but in the case of the Collembola this relationship is very weak compared with the relationship that exists between New Zealand and Australia. Among these New Zealand genera which are not peculiar to New Zealand, the strongest affinities are with Australia and countries north of Australia; and it is from this direction that I believe the majority of our Collembola have come.

In considering the relationships of the New Zealand fauna it is advisable to include those outlying islands which from part of the New Zealand region as a whole. I refer particularly to the subantarctic islands of New Zealand; for it is through these islands that we find a very interesting relationship existing among the Collembola, of which three sub-antarctic genera are represented in New Zealand. New Zealand proper possesses three species of Tricanthella, and one further species is found on Campbell Island. One of these species, T. alba Carpenter, is endemic to Campbell Island, and another, T. rosea Wahlgren, is found in Tierra del Fuego as well as in New Zealand proper. There is one species belonging to the genus Triacanthella in Patagonia and one in Australia. The genus Dinaphorura has one species in the Antarctic, one in South Australia, and two in New Zealand. Cryptopygus, a genus originally described from Antarctica, is now known to occur in the sub-antarctic region of South America, Australia, and New Zealand. Six species of Cryptopygus occur in the sub-antarctic, three in Australia (one being in Tasmania), and six in New Zealand. Of the Australian and New Zealand species, C. loftyensis Womersley, is common to both countries.

It is obvious, therefore, that a degree of relationship exists between the Collembolan fauna of Patagonia, Australia, and New Zealand through the sub-antarctic regions, and with the superabundance of species in New Zealand belonging to all three of these sub-antarctic genera it does not seem unreasonable to suppose that the direct route to the sub-antarctic was via the New Zealand region.

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If we turn now to the Neotropical region we find that the relationship so often emphasised between the faunas and floras of New Zealand and South America is, by comparison, remarkably weak in the case of the Collembola, that is in so far as the Collembola of South America are at present known. The genera Ceratrimeria, Lepidophorella, Lepidocyrtus, Katianna and Tomocerura have endemic species in both regions. The former genus with four species in the neotropical region together with Tomocerura and Lepidophorella form the strongest link between this region and New Zealand.

With the Australian and Indo-Malayan regions the New Zealand region shows the most remarkable and extensive affinities. The genus Ceratrimeria ranges throughout these regions with a total of ten species of which five are endemic to New Zealand, three are Australian, one is found in Java, one in the Philippines, and one in India.

The genus Pseudachorutes has endemic species in New Zealand and Australia, while Neanura is similarly represented in this country, Australia, and Java with several of the Australian and New Zealand species common to both countries.

The genus Lepidosira first described from Australia by Schött in 1917 and represented there by four species has one species in Borneo and eleven species in New Zealand.

The genera Acanthomurus and Proisotomurus, each known from only one species in Australia, are each represented in New Zealand by three species.

The relationship between Australia and New Zealand through the three genera Triacanthella, Dinaphorura, and Cryptopygus already has been mentioned. Other genera through which New Zealand shows affinities with the Australian and Indo-Malayan regions are:—

Isotomurus with I. chiltoni common to Australia and New Zealand.

Isotoma with endemic species in New Zealand, Australia, Sumatra and India.

Lepidophorella with two species common to Australia and New Zealand and three further species and a subspecies endemic to New Zealand.

Tomocerus with endemic species in New Zealand, Australia, and Sumatra.

Entomobrya. Although a cosmopolitan genus, there are 19 species in New Zealand of which 15 are endemic and endemic species are known from Australia, New Guinea, Java, and India.

Sinella with Sinella termitum in Australia and New Zealand.

Mesira with one endemic species in New Zealand and species in Australia, Java, and Sumatra, one of which is found in all three latter countries.

Lepidocyrtus with seven species and one variety in New Zealand one of which, L. nigrofasciatus, is found in Australia, and further endemic species in Australia, New Guinea, Java, and Malay.

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Pseudosinella with at least three endemic species in New Zealand, one species, P. fasciata, which is common to both Australia and New Zealand.

Paronana represented in New Zealand by seven species, of which one species, P. bidenticulata occurs also in Australia.

Megalothorax with two species in Australia, one of which, M. swani, ranges to New Zealand.

Katianna and Corynephoria with endemic species in New Zealand, Australia, and Java.

Parakatianna, an essentially Australian and New Zealand genus with one endemic species in New Zealand, one found only on Macquarie Island and nine species in Australia.

With the African region, New Zealand does not show very marked affinities; but the genera Ceratrimeria, Polyacanthella, and Brachystomella have endemic species in both these regions.

Relationship between New Zealand and the Nearctic region also exists, there being endemic species belonging to several cosmopolitan genera in both regions, in addition to one or two remarkable occurrences such as that of Isotoma maritima, which has been found in northern New Zealand; the close relationship of the New Zealand species Entomobrya saxatila with Entomobrya marginata and Entomobrya griseo-olivata of North America and the occurrence in New Zealand and Australia of two remarkable varieties of the North American species E. clitellaria, these being E. clitellaria newmani Womersley and E. clitellaria australasiae var. nov.

Summarising further we find that the Collembolan fauna of the New Zealand region contains a very ancient cosmopolitan element represented by the genera Achorutes, Neanura and Onychiurus. There is an exceptionally strong affinity, firstly, with the Australian and, secondly, with the Indo-Malayan regions; there is a well-marked sub-antarctic element, and a few, but nevertheless, important and striking affinities with the American and African regions have been shown.

In postulating as to how and by what routes the basic element of our Collembolan fauna reached New Zealand from a study of the foregoing affinities, three points must be borne in mind; firstly, the generally accepted southward migration of living forms from the northern land masses to the southern; secondly, the possible land bridges along which such migrations could have taken place, and thirdly, the possibility of reversals of the direction of migration at certain periods.

With the preponderance of affinity of the New Zealand fauna with that of Australia and Indo-Malaya, it seems highly probable that the bulk of our Collembolan fauna reached this region by land bridges, from time to time connecting New Zealand to Northern Australia and the islands north of it, and extending towards Malaya.

That there may have been a reversal of migration from New Zealand over these bridges to Australia from time to time cannot

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Figs. 1–3—Triacanthella setacea n.sp. Page 289. Fig. 1—Whole insect X 150. Fig. 2—Anal spines from side. Fig. 3—Dorsal seta.
Figs. 4–7—Triacanthella rubra n.sp. Page 288. Fig. 4—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 5—Ocelli and postantennal organ in relation to base of antennae. Fig. 6— Foot. Fig. 7—Anal spines from side.
Figs 8–12—Xenylla nova-zealandia n.sp. Page 287. Fig. 8—Foot. Fig. 9—Mucro and tip of dens. Fig. 10—Antenna. Fig. 11—Ocelli. Fig. 12—Anal spines from above.
Fig. 13—Triacanthella alba Carp. Page 288. Ocelli and postantennal organ.

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Figs. 14–18—Xenylla mantima Tullb. Page 287. Fig. 14—Sensory organ and apex of Ant. IV. Fig. 15—Anal spines from above. Fig. 16—Ocelli. Fig. 17—Foot. Fig. 18—Tip of manubrium and mucrodens.
Figs. 19–20—Achorutes longispinus Tullb. Page 291. Fig. 19—Anal spines from above.
Fig. 20—Hind foot drawn to same scale as anal spines.
Figs. 21–24—Achorutes manubrialis Tullb. Page 294. Fig. 21—Abd. VI and anal spine from side. Fig. 22—Anterior ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 23—Mucro. Fig. 24—Foot.
Figs. 25–28—Achorutes campbelli (Wom.). Page 292. Fig. 25—Anal spine from side.
Fig. 26—Dens and mucro. Fig. 27—Sensory organ on Ant. III. Fig. 28—Sensory organ and apex of Ant. IV.

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Figs. 29–34—Achorutes morbillatus n.sp. Page 292. Fig. 29—Ocelli and postantennal organ.
Fig. 30—Whole insect X 36. Fig. 31—Mucro. Fig. 32—Anal spine from side. Fig. 33—Sensory organ and apex of Ant. IV. Fig. 34—Foot.
Figs. 35–38—Achorutes armatus Nic. Page 290. Fig. 35—Sensory sac on Ant. III.
Fig. 36—Anal spine from side. Fig. 37—Mucro. Fig. 38—Foot.
Figs. 39–41—Achorutes rossi n.sp. Page 293. Fig. 39—Mucro. Fig. 40—Foot. Fig. 41—Anal spine from side.
Figs. 42–43—Achorutes viaticus Tullb. Page 292. Fig. 42—Mucro. Fig. 43—Foot.
Figs. 44–45—Achorutes pseudopurpurascens (Wom.). Page 291. Fig. 44—Anal spine from side. Fig. 45—Sensory organ and apex of Ant. IV.

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Figs. 46–49—Achorutes omnigrus n.sp. Page 294. Fig. 46—Foot. Fig. 47—Anal spines from above. Fig. 48—Apex of Ant. IV. Fig. 49—Mucro.
Figs. 50–52—Schotella subcorta n.sp. Page 295. Fig. 50—Sensory organ and apex of Ant. IV. Fig. 51—Mucro. Fig. 52—Foot.
Figs. 53–57—Polyacanthella proprieta n.sp. Page 296. Fig. 53—Enlarged view of edge of segment showing anal spine. Fig. 54—Tip of abdomen showing positions of anal spines (spines enlarged out of proportion). Fig. 55—Ocelli. Fig. 50—Foot. Fig. 57—Dorsal aspect X 50.
Figs. 58–60—Polyacanthella parva Wom. Page 296. Fig. 58—Foot. Fig. 59—Sensory organ on Ant. III. Fig. 60—Anal spines from above.

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Figs. 61–65—Odontella minutadentata n.sp. Page 297. Fig. 61—Dorsal aspect X 66. Fig. 62—Foot. Fig. 63—Anal spines from above. Fig. 64—Ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 65—Mucro.
Figs. 66–68—Odontella minutissima n.sp. Page 297. Fig. 66—Dorsal aspect X 132. Fig. 67—Anal spines from above. Fig. 68—Apex of Ant. IV.
Figs. 69–72—Micranurida decussa n.sp. Page 298. Fig. 69—Ocelli and postantennal organ.
Fig. 70—Foot. Fig. 71—Mucro. Fig. 72—Dorsal aspect X 27.

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Figs 73–75—Ceratrimeria lata (Carp.). Page 301. Fig. 73—Dorsal aspect X 15. Fig. 74—Ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 75—Foot.
Figs 76–77—Ceratrimeria spinosa (Lubb.). Page 299. Fig. 76—Foot. Fig. 77—Dorsal aspect X 8.
Figs. 78–80—Ceratrimeria marplesi n.sp. Page 301. Fig. 78—Mucro. Fig. 79—Dorsal aspect X 18. Fig. 80—Ocelli and postantennal organ.
Fig. 81—Ceratrimeria paucispinosa n.sp. Page 300. Dorsal aspect X 18.

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Figs. 82–83—Ceratrimeria pancispinosa n.sp. Page 300. Fig. 82—Apex of Ant. IV. Fig. 83—Foot.
Fig. 84—Ceratrimeria marplesi n.sp. Page 301. Foot.
Figs. 85–87—Ceratrimeria novae-zealandiae (Wom). Page 302. Fig. 85—Foot. Fig. 86—Ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 87—Dens and mucro.
Figs. 88–90—Brachystomella osextara n.sp. Page 303. Fig. 88—Dorsal aspect X 30.
Fig. 89—Foot. Fig. 90—Mucro, ventral aspect.
Figs. 91–93—Brachystomella parvula Schaeff. Page 302. Fig. 91—Anterior ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 92—Mucro. Fig. 93—Foot.
Figs. 94–96—Pseudachorutes pacificus Wom. Page 304. Fig. 94—Ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 95—Foot. Fig. 96—Tip of dens and mucro.

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Figs. 97–99—Pseudachorutes algidensis Carp. Page 304. Fig. 97—Foot. Fig. 98—Mucro.
Fig. 99—Ocelli and postantennal organ.
Figs. 100–103—Pseudachorutes brunneus Carp. Page 304. Fig. 100—Foot. Fig. 101—Whole insect X 24. Fig. 102—Mucro. Fig. 103—Ocelli and postantennal organ.
Figs. 104–105—Neanura muscorum Templ. Page 306. Fig. 104—Dorsal aspect X 40. Fig. 105—Ocelli.
Figs 106–108—Neanura newmani (Wom.). Page 306. Fig. 106—Ocelli. Fig. 107—Foot.
Fig. 108—Dorsal seta.
Figs. 109–111—Neanura hirtella subsp. schötti (Wom.). Page 307. Fig. 109—Dorsal seta.
Fig. 110—Ocelli. Fig. 111—Tip of Ant. IV.
Figs. 112–113—Neanura hirtella subsp. cirrata (Schött). Page 307. Fig. 112—Dorsal seta.
Fig. 113—Dorsal seta.
Figs. 114–116—Neanura hirtella subsp. novae-zealandiae n.subsp. Page 307. Fig. 114—Dorsal seta. Fig. 115—Tip of Ant. IV. Fig. 116—Foot.

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Figs. 117–120—Neanura radiata n.sp. Page 308. Fig. 117—Dorsal aspect X 33. Fig. 118—Foot. Fig. 119—Ocelli. Fig. 120—Dorsal seta.
Fig. 121—Neanura rosacea (Schött). Page 306. Ocelli.
Figs. 122–126—Onychiurus armatus Tullb. Page 309. Fig. 122—Sensory organ on Ant. III. Fig. 123—Postantennal organ. Fig. 124—Foot. Fig. 125—Dorsal aspect showing pseudocelli (legs obscured) X 33. Fig. 126—Anal spine.
Figs. 127–130—Onychiurus fimetarius Linné. Page 310. Fig. 127—Postantennal organ.
Fig. 128—Foot. Fig. 129—Sensory organ on Ant. III. Fig. 130—Dorsal aspect showing pseudocelli (legs obscured) X 30.

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Fig. 131—Dinaphorura novae-zealandiae Wom. Page 310. Anal spines from above.
Figs. 132–136—Dinaphorura laterospina n.sp. Page 311. Fig. 132—Side view showing pseudocelli X 63. Fig. 133—Foot. Fig. 134—Abd. VI and anal spines, side view. Fig. 135—Ant. IV showing sense organs. Fig. 136—Sense organ from centre of Ant. IV.
Figs. 137–138—Mesaphorura krausbaueri Born. Page 311. Fig. 137—Sense organ from Ant. III. Fig. 138—Anal spine from side.
Figs. 139–142—Cryptopygus okukcnsis n.sp. Page 313. Fig. 139—Ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 140—Mucro and tip of dens. Fig. 141—Whole insect X 36. Fig. 142—Foot.
Fig. 143—Cryptopygus minimus n.sp. Page 312. Dens and mucro.
Figs. 144–145—Cryptopygus niger Carp. Page 313. Fig. 144—Foot. Fig. 145—Mucro.
Figs. 146–148—Cryptopygus haweacnsis n.sp. Page 314. Fig. 146—Anterior ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 147—Mucro. Fig. 148—Foot.
Fig. 149—Cryptopygus loftyensis Wom. Page 314. Mucro.
Figs. 150–151—Cryptopygus atratrs n.sp. Page 315. Fig. 150—Foot. Fig. 151—Mucro.

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Figs. 152–153—Folsomia fimetarioides Ael. Page 316. Fig. 152—Mucro. Fig. 153—Postantennal organ.
Figs. 154–158—Folsomia quadrioculata Tulb. Page 316. Fig. 154—Whole insect X 20.
Fig. 155—Ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 156—Mucro. Fig. 157—Foot. Fig. 158—Teeth on dens near manubrium.
Figs. 159–160—Folsomia diplophthalma Axel. Page 316. Fig. 159—Ocellus and postantennal organ. Fig. 160—Mucro.
Figs. 161–164—Acanthomurus setosus n.sp. Page 319. Fig. 161—Anterior ocelli and post-antennal organ. Fig. 162—Whole insect X 25. Fig. 163—Foot. Fig. 164—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 165–168—Tibiolatra latronigra n.sp. Page 320. Fig. 165—Whole insect X 30. Fig. 166—Mucro. Fig. 167—Foot. Fig. 168—Ocelli and postantennal organ.

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Figs. 169–174—Acanthomurus alpinus n.sp. Page 317. Fig. 169—Whole insect X 24.
Figs. 170—Foot. Fig. 171—Ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 172—Mucro. Fig. 173— Serrated spines from basal half of dens. Fig. 174—Serrated setae from dens.
Figs. 175–176—Acanthomurus womersleyi n.sp. Page 318. Fig. 175—Mucro and tip of dens.
Fig. 176—Whole insect X 30.
Figs. 177–178—Proisotomurus lineatus n.sp. Page 322. Fig. 177—Mucro and tip of dens.
Fig. 178—Foot.
Figs. 179–182—Proisotomurus novae-zealandiae n.sp. Page 321. Fig. 179—Whole insect X 36. Fig. 180—Mucro. Fig. 181—Anterior ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 182—Foot.
Figs. 183–184—Proisotomurus papillatus Wom. Page 323. Fig. 183—Anterior ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 184—Whole insect X 24.
Figs. 185–186—Archisotoma brucei Linnan. Page 323. Fig. 185—Foot. Fig. 186—Mucro.
Figs. 187–188—Isotomurus chiltoui (Carp.). Page 324. Fig. 187—Foot. Fig. 188—Anterior ocelli and postantennal organ.

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Figs. 189–190—Isotomodes productus Axel. Page 315. Fig. 189—Whole insect X 50.
Fig. 190—Mucro.
Figs. 191–194—Tomocerura rubenota n.sp. Page 325. Fig. 191—Anterior ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 192—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 193—Whole insect (body twisted to show red spots—lett unshaded—on abdomen) X 24. Fig. 194—Foot.
Fig. 195—Tomocerura maruiensis n.sp. Page 326. Foot.
Figs. 196–199—Procerura fasciata n.sp. Page 329. Fig. 196—Foot. Fig. 197—Mucro.
Fig. 198—Whole insect X 45. Fig. 199—Ocelli and postantennal organ.
Figs. 200–201—Procerura violacea n.sp. Page 327. Fig. 200—Foot. Fig. 201—Mucro.
Fig. 202—Procerura montana n.sp. Page 328. Foot.

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Figs. 203–205—Procerura purpurea n.sp. Page 328. Fig. 203—Foot. Fig. 204—Mucro and tip of dens. Fig. 205—Ocelli and postantennal organ.
Figs. 206–208—Procerura serrata n.sp. Page 329. Fig. 206—Dorsal seta from Abd. V.
Fig. 207—Foot. Fig. 208—Ocelli and postantennal organ.
Figs. 209–211—Papillomurus fuscus n.sp. Page 330. Fig. 209—Setae on body. Fig. 210—Mucro. Fig. 211—Foot.
Figs. 212–216—Spinocerura capillata n.sp. Page 332. Fig. 212—Whole insect X 18.
Fig. 213—Mucro. Fig. 214—Foot. Fig. 215—Dorsal seta. Fig. 216—Group of spines from base of dens.
Figs. 217–219—Proisotoma aqualata n.sp. Page 333. Fig. 217—Foot. Fig. 218—Ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 219—Mucro and tip of dens.

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Fig. 220—Proistoma aqualata n.sp. Page 333. Whole insect X 45.
Figs. 221–223—Isotomina lamellata n.sp. Page 334. Fig. 221—Whole insect X 25.
Fig. 222—Mucro. Fig. 223—Foot.
Fig. 224—Isotomina nova-zealandia n.sp. Page 334. Dens and mucro.
Fig. 225—Isotoma maritima Tullb. Page 335. Mucro.
Figs. 226–228—Isotoma pallidafasciata n.sp. Page 336. Fig. 226—Foot. Fig. 227–Mucro.
Fig. 228—Anterior ocelli and postantennal organ.
Figs. 229–230—Papillomurus parvus (Salm.). Page 331. Fig. 229—Foot. Fig. 230—Mucro.
Figs. 231–234—Isotoma exiguadentata n.sp. Page 336. Fig. 231—Anterior ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 232—Whole insect X 45. Fig. 233—Foot. Fig. 234—Mucro.
Figs. 235–237—Parisotoma pritchardi (Wom.). Page 337. Fig. 235—Ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 236—Foot. Fig. 237—Mucro.
Figs. 238–240—Parisotoma linnaniemia (Wom.). Page 338. Fig. 238—Foot. Fig. 239—Postantennal organ. Fig. 240—Mucro.

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Fig. 241—Parisotoma notabilis Schaeff. Page 338. Ocelli and postantennal organ.
Figs. 242–244—Isotomiella minor Schaeff. Page 338. Fig. 242—Mucro. Fig. 243—Dorsal setae. Fig. 244—Apex of Ant. IV showing sense rods and sensory hairs.
Figs. 245–250—Lepidophorella communis Salm. Page 340. Fig. 245—Seta from apex of mesotergum. Fig. 246—Whole insect X 15. Fig. 247—Mucro and tip of dens. Fig. 248—Ocelli. Fig. 249—Foot. Fig. 250—Scale from body.
Fig. 251—Lepidophorella brachycephala Moniez. Page 339. Foot.
Fig. 252—Lepidophorella australis Carp. Page 339. Foot.
Figs. 253–254—Lepidophrella unadentata n.sp. Page 341. Fig. 253—Mucro. Fig. 254—Foot.
Figs. 255–257—Lepidophorella rubicunda n.sp. Page 342. Fig. 255—Mucro. Fig. 256—Ocelli. Fig. 257—Scale from body.
Figs. 258–259—Pseudolepidophorella longiterga Salm. Page 343. Fig. 258—Mucro.
Fig. 259—Whole insect X 15.

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Figs. 260–268—Antennacyrtus insolitus n.sp. Page 344. Fig. 260—Ocelli. Fig. 261—Whole insect X 20. Fig. 262—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 263—Foot. Fig. 264—Scale from base of dens. Fig. 265—Ciliated bristle from manubrium. Fig. 266—Scales from body. Fig. 267—Apex of Ant. IV. Fig. 268—Antenna.
Figs. 269–272—Neocerus spinosus n.sp. Page 345. Fig. 269—Whole insect X 18. Fig. 270—Scale from body. Fig. 271—Foot. Fig. 272—Mucro and apex of dens.

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Fig. 273—Neocerus spinosus n.sp. Page 345. Dens and mucro with spines.
Figs. 274–275—Neocerus insolitatus n.sp. Page 346. Fig. 274—Ocelli. Fig. 275—Foot.
Figs. 276–280—Tomocerus setoserratus n.sp. Page 347. Fig. 276—Dental spines.
Fig. 277—Mucro. Fig. 278—Serrated seta from dens. Fig. 279—Foot. Fig. 280—Ocelli.
Figs. 281–282—Tomocerus minor Lubb. Page 347. Fig. 281—Foot. Fig. 282—Mucro.
Figs. 283–284—Sinella termitum Schött. Page 348. Fig. 283—Foot. Fig. 284—Mucro.
Figs. 285–286—Sinella coeca Schött. Page 349. Fig. 285—Foot. Fig. 286—Mucro.
Figs. 287–289—Sinella pulverafusca n.sp. Page 349. Fig. 287—Foot. Fig. 288—Mucro.
Fig. 289—Dorsal flexed seta.

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Fig. 290—Sinella pulverafusca n.sp. Page 349. Whole insect X 40.
Figs. 291–293—Drepanura aurifera n.sp. Page 349. Fig. 291—Mucro and tip of dens.
Fig. 292—Ocelli. Fig. 293—Foot.
Figs. 294–297—Entomobrya totapunctata n.sp. Page 352. Fig. 294—Portion of body showing segmental margin and “pock” markings. Fig. 295—Mucro. Fig. 296—Foot.
Fig. 297—Ocelli.
Figs. 298–300—Entomobrya divafusca n.sp. Page 353. Fig 298—Mucro. Fig. 299—Whole insect X 36. Fig. 300—Foot.
Fig. 301—Entomobrya nonfasciata n.sp. Page 354. Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 302–303—Entomobrya lamingtonensis Schött. Page 353. Fig. 302—Abds. III and IV.
Fig. 303—Mucro.

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Figs. 304–306—Entomobrya auricorpa n.sp. Page 355. Fig. 304—Whole insect X 25.
Fig. 305—Foot. Fig. 306—Ocelli.
Fig. 307—Entomobrya chtellaria subspec. australasiae nov. Page 356. Whole insect X 27.
Figs. 308–309—Entomobrya ephippiaterga n.sp. Page 356. Fig. 308—Whole insect X 40.
Fig. 309—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 310–312—Entomobrya salta n.sp. Page 357. Fig. 310—Mucro. Fig. 311—Dorsal aspect X 21. Fig. 312—Foot.
Figs. 313–314—Entomobrya livida n.sp. Page 357. Fig. 313—Foot. Fig. 314—Whole insect X 21.
Figs. 315—317—Entomobrya exoricarva n.sp. Page 358. Fig. 315—Foot. Fig. 316—Ocelli.
Fig. 317—Whole insect X 30.

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Fig. 318—Entomobrya varia Schött. Page 355. Dorsal aspect of head and trunk.
Fig. 319—Entomobrya egmontia n.sp. Page 357. Whole insect X30.
Figs. 320–322—Entomobrya saxatila n.sp. Page 359. Fig. 320—Head and mesothorax, dorsal. Fig. 321—Foot. Fig. 322—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 323–323—Entomobrya multifasciata Tullb. Page 359. Fig. 323—Foot. Fig. 324—Head and trunk, dorsal, showing pigmentation. Fig. 325—Mucro.
Fig. 326—Entomobrya nivalis subspec. immaculata Schaeff. Page 361. Dorsal view of head showing pigment spot.
Figs. 327–328—Entomobiya nivalis Linné. Page 361. Fig. 327—Whole insect X 27.
Fig. 328—Abds. III and IV to show “V” mark and mid-dorsal break in pigment bands.
Figs. 329–331—Entomobrya aniwaniwaensis n.sp. Page 360. Fig. 329—Whole insect X 45.
Fig. 330—Foot. Fig. 331—Mucro.

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Fig. 332—Entomobrya duofascia subspec. maxima nov. Page 363. Whole insect X 33.
Fig. 333—Entomobrya duofascia n.sp. Page 363. Trunk to show pigmentation.
Fig. 334—Entomobrya duofascia subspec. variabila nov. Page 363. Trunk to show pigmentation.
Figs. 335–336—Entomobrya nigranota n.sp. Page 364. Fig. 335—Whole insect X 40, head flexed over to show dorsal marks. Fig. 336—Ocelli.
Figs. 337–338—Entomobrya hurunuiensis n.sp. Page 365. Fig. 337—Whole insect X 30.
Fig. 338—Mucro and apex of dens.
Fig. 339—Entomobrya opotikiensis n.sp. Page 362. Whole insect X 30.
Figs. 340–342—Entomobrya obscuroculata n.sp. Page 361. Fig. 340—Foot. Fig. 341—Ocelli. Fig. 342—Mucro and apex of dens.
Fig. 343—Pseudentomobrya miniparva n.sp. Page 369. Foot.

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Figs. 344–345—Entomobrya penicillata n.sp. Page 365. Fig. 344—Foot. Fig. 345—Whole insect X 30.
Figs. 346–348—Pseudentomobrya glaciata n.sp. Page 367. Fig. 346—Whole insect X 36.
Fig. 347—Mucro. Fig. 348—Foot.
Figs. 349–350—Pseudentomobrya processa n.sp. Page 367. Fig. 349—Mucro. Fig. 350—Abds. V and VI.
Figs. 351–352—Pseudentomobrya interfilixa n.sp. Page 368. Fig. 351—Foot. Fig. 352—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 353–354—Pseudentomobrya proceraseta n.sp. Page 369. Fig. 353—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 354—Foot.
Figs. 355–357—Mesira caeruleacrura n.sp. Page 370. Fig. 355—Whole insect X 30.
Fig. 356—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 357—Foot.
Figs. 358–360—Lepidocyrtus lindensis n.sp. Page 371. Fig. 358—Portion of cuticle showing “dried mud” appearance. Fig. 359—Mucro. Fig. 360—Foot.

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Figs. 361–363—Lepidocyrtus submontanus n.sp. Page 372. Fig. 361—Whole insect X 40.
Fig. 362—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 363—Foot.
Figs. 364–366—Lepidocyrtus moori n.sp. Page 373. Fig. 364—Mucro. Fig. 365—Foot.
Fig. 366—Whole insect X 30.
Figs. 367–368—Lepidocyrtus nigrofasciatus Wom. Page 373. Fig. 367—Foot. Fig. 368—Mucro.
Fig. 369—Lepidocyrtus cyaneus subspec. cinereus Folsom. Page 374. Foot.
Figs. 370–372—Lepidocyrtus unafascia n.sp. Page 374. Fig. 370—Foot. Fig. 371—Mucro. Fig. 372—Whole insect X 48.
Figs. 373–375—Lepidocyrtus kauriensis n.sp. Page 375. Fig. 373—Whole insect X 20.
Fig. 374—Foot. Fig. 375—Mucro.
Figs. 376–377—Lepidocyrtus rataensis n.sp. Page 375. Fig. 376—Foot. Fig. 377—Mucro.

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Fig. 378—Lepidocyrtus rataensis n.sp. Page 375. Whole insect X 20.
Figs. 379–380—Urewera ianthina n.sp. Page 378. Fig. 379—Mucro. Fig. 380—Foot.
Fig. 381—Urewera parca n.sp. Page 379. Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 382–386—Urewera splendida n.sp. Page 380. Fig. 382—Whole insect X 20 to show areas of pigment when denuded of scales. Fig. 383—Scale from body. Fig. 384—Scales on body. Fig. 385—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 386—Foot.
Figs. 387–389—Urewera quadradentata n.sp. Page 382. Fig. 387—Whole insect X 25.
Fig. 388—Foot. Fig. 389—Abd. VI (side view).
Figs. 390–393—Urewera fuchsiata Salm. Page 379. Fig. 390—Whole insect X 16.
Fig. 391—Ocelli. Fig. 392—Foot. Fig. 393—Mucro and apex of dens.

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Figs. 394–396—Urewera inconstans Salm. Page 381. Fig. 394—Whole insect X 25 to show pigmentation. Fig. 395—Foot. Fig. 396—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 397–399—Urewera magna Salm. Page 384. Fig. 397—Whole insect X 16. Fig. 398—Abds. III and IV showing dorsal “V” mark. Fig. 399—Mucro and apex of dens.
Fig. 400—Urewera flava Salm. Page 383. Trunk showing pigmentation X 20.
Fig. 401—Urewera flava subspec. doisalis nov. Page 383. Trunk showing pigmentation X 20.
Figs. 402–403—Urewera purpurea Salm. Page 386. Fig. 402—Mucro and apex of dens.
Fig. 403—Foot.
Figs. 404–405—Urewera okarita (Salm.). Page 384. Fig. 404—Foot. Fig. 405—Mucro and apex of dens.
Fig. 406—Lepidosira sagmarius Schött. Page 390. Foot.
Fig. 407—Lepidosira indistincta Salm. Page 388. Foot.
Figs. 408–409—Lepidosira coeruleus Schött. Page 389. Fig. 409—Mucro and apex of dens.
Fig. 409—Foot.
Figs. 410–411—Lepidosira bidentata Salm. Page 391. Fig. 410—Foot. Fig. 411—Mucro.

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Figs. 412–413—Lepidosira sexmacula Salm. Page 393. Fig. 412—Whole insect X 24.
Fig. 413—Foot.
Figs. 414–416—Lepidosira minima Salm. Page 392. Fig. 414—Foot. Fig. 415—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 416—Whole insect X 66.
Figs. 417—418—Lepidosira minuta Salm. Page 390. Fig. 417—Mucro and apex of dens.
Fig. 418—Foot.
Figs. 419–420—Urewera fuscata (Wom.). Page 387. Fig. 419—Foot. Fig. 420—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 421–422—Lepidosira omniofusca n.sp. Page 391. Fig. 421—Foot. Fig. 422—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 423–425—Lepidosira glebosa n.sp. Page 394. Fig. 423—Foot. Fig. 424—Antenna showing sensory swelling on III. Fig. 425—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 426—429—Lepidosira rotorua Salm. Page 393. Fig. 426—Foot. Fig. 427—Typical scale. Fig. 428—Ocelli. Fig. 429—Mucro.

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Fig. 430—Lepidosua sagmarius Schott, Page 390. Dorsal to show pigmentation.
Figs. 431–434—Pseudosinella assymetrica (Salm.). Page 395. Fig. 431—Whole insect X 20 to show pigmentation. Fig. 432—Foot. Fig. 433—Ocelli. Fig. 434—Mucro and apex of dens.
Fig. 435—Pseudosinella alba Pack. Page 396. Foot.
Fig. 436—Pseudosinella fasciata Wom. Page 396. Foot.
Figs. 437—439—Pseudosinella insoloculata n.sp. Page 396. Fig. 437—Anterior dorsal portion of head showing ocelli. Fig. 438—Mucro. Fig. 439—Foot.
Figs. 440–441—Pseudosinella nonoculata n.sp. Page 397. Fig. 440—Mucro. Fig. 441—Foot.
Figs. 442–446—Orchezelandia rubra Salm. Page 397. Fig. 442—Whole insect X 25.
Fig. 443—Antenna. Fig. 444—Mucro. Fig. 445—Foot. Fig. 446—Ocelli.
Figs. 447–448—Paronellides novae-zealandiae n.sp. Page 398. Fig. 447—Foot. Fig. 448—Mucro.

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Fig. 449—Paronellides novae-zealandiae n.sp. Page 398. Whole insect X 40.
Figs. 450–452—Pseudoparonellides badia n.sp. Page 399. Fig. 450—Whole insect X 40.
Fig. 451—Foot. Fig. 452—Mucro.
Figs. 453—455—Glacialoca caerulea n.sp. Page 405. Fig. 453—Mucro. Fig. 454—Foot.
Fig. 455—Dental spines.
Figs. 456–460—Parachaetoceras pritchardi (Wom.). Page 406. Fig. 456—Whole insect X 20. Fig. 457—Scale-like setae. Fig. 458—Foot. Fig. 459—Mucro. Fig. 460—Spines from dens.

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Figs. 461–465—Paronana karoriensis (Salm.). Page 401. Fig. 461—Whole insect X 36.
Fig. 462—Ocelli. Fig. 463—Mucro and tip of dens. Fig. 464—Portion of dens showing spines, scales and setae. Fig. 465—Foot.
Fig. 466—Paronana maculosa (Salm.). Page 404. Whole insect X 36.

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Figs. 467–469—Paronana dorsanota n.sp. Page 402. Fig. 467—Whole insect X 24.
Fig. 468—Foot. Fig. 469—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 470–471—Paronana pigmenta n.sp. Page 401. Fig. 470—Trunk showing pigmentation.
Fig. 471—Mucro.
Figs. 472–473—Paronana sufflava n.sp. Page 404. Fig. 472—Foot. Fig. 473—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 474—476—Paronana tasmasecta n.sp. Page 403. Fig. 474—Whole insect X 27.
Fig. 475—Foot. Fig. 476—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 477–479—Paronan bidenticulata (Carp.). Page 405. Fig. 477—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 478—Scales from dens. Fig. 479—Foot.

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Figs. 480–483—Megalothorax swani (Wom.). Page 408. Fig. 480—Whole insect X 135.
Fig. 481—Foot. Fig. 482—Mucro. Fig. 483—Terminal segment of antenna.
Figs. 484—487—Arrhopalites coccineus n.sp. Page 408. Fig. 484—Whole insect X 36.
Fig. 485—Foot. Fig. 486—Ocelli. Fig. 487—Mucro.
Figs. 488–490—Sminthurinus mgrafusca n.sp. Page 409. Fig. 488—Apex of Ant. IV.
Fig. 489—Hind foot. Fig. 490—Mucro.
Figs. 491–494—Sminthurinus aureus (Lubb.). Page 410. Fig. 491—Mucro. Fig. 492—Foot. Fig. 493—Ocelli. Fig. 494—Wart-like organ on Ant. III.
Fig. 495—Sminthurinus terrestris Wom. Page 410. Foot.
Figs. 496–499—Sminthurinus duplicatus n.sp. Page 411. Fig. 496—Wart-like organ on Ant. III. Fig. 497—Foot. Fig. 498—Mucro. Fig. 499—Front of head.

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Figs. 500–502—Katianna purpuravirida n.sp. Page 413. Fig. 500—Mucro. Fig. 501—Foot. Fig. 502—Whole insect X 42.
Figs. 503–506—Katianna antennapartita n.sp. Page 412. Fig. 503—Mucro. Fig. 504—Antenna. Fig. 505—Foot.Fig. 506—Spine-like setae on top of head.
Figs. 507–509—Katianna austialis Wom. Page 412. Fig. 507—Foot. Fig. 508—Ant. III with peg-like organ. Fig. 509—Mucro.
Figs. 510—514—Parakatianna heaagona Page 414. Fig. 510—Whole insect X 36.
Fig. 511—Ocelli. Fig. 512—Hexagon pattern of cuticle. Fig. 513—Mucro.Fig. 514—Foot.
Figs. 515–516—Bourletiella arvalis subspec. dorsobscura nov. Page 415. Fig. 515—Clasping spines on Abd. VI. Fig. 516—Whole insect X 27.

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Figs. 517–518—Bourletiella arvalis Fitch. Page 415. Fig. 517—Mucro. Fig. 518—Foot.
Fig. 519—Bourleticlla hortensis Fitch. Page 415. Clasping spines on Abd. VI.
Fig. 520—Deuterosminthurus bicinctus subspec. repandus Agren. Page 416. Whole insect X 25.
Figs. 521–523—Corynephoria gibbera n.sp. Page 416. Fig. 521—Whole insect X 55.
Fig. 522—Foot. Fig. 523—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 524–526—Sphyrotheca magnasetacea n.sp. Page 417. Fig. 524—Antenna. Fig. 525—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 526—Foot.
Figs. 527–528—Sminthurus viridis Linné. Page 418. Fig. 527—Foot. Fig. 528—Mucro.
Figs. 529–530—Sminthurus denisi Wom. Page 418. Fig. 529—Foot. Fig. 530—Mucro.
Figs. 531–533—Dicyrtomina nova-zealandica n.sp. Page 419. Fig. 531—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 532—Foot. Fig. 533—Antenna.
Fig. 534—Dicyrtomina minuta Fabr. Page 419. Mucro.

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be ruled out; though I think it rather unlikely. Such an occurrence is indicated by the genera Acanthomurus and Proisotomurus; but the fact that many species of these genera may have been present orginally in Australia and have become extinct there while surviving in New Zealand must be borne in mind, and I think it is highly important.

There is also the possibility that species have been transported from the Australian continent to New Zealand on drifting logs and rafts. The main drift and direction of trade winds is from Australia towards New Zealand and this method of transportation of soil insects cannot be lightly dismissed. It must also be taken into account in considering affinities which may arise between New Zealand and South America as the Collembolan fauna of the latter country becomes more extensively known.

The transportation of these small soil insects over short distances of sea between chains of islands may have occurred during the geologic past upon the feet of birds. Such means of dispersal may also be active within the boundaries of a given land mass.

In his discussion on the Zoogeographical relationships of the Genus Ceratrimeria (Linnean Society's Journal, Vol. XL, No. 272), Womersley suggests that this distribution is evidence of the former existence of the Gondwana Continent. I never have been convinced of the possibility or feasibility of raising large continental masses from the abysmal depths of the sea to explain the zoogeographical relationships of animals and plants; and I think that zoogeographers should endeavour to use land bridges in places where these reasonably could have been supposed to exist, as, for instance, through chains of islands arising from submerged continental shelves or along the lines of such submerged continental shelves.

From the evidence here presented I suggest a Northern origin for Collembola somewhere in Europe or Asia from which, later, commenced large migrations in three principal streams—one southward to Africa, one eastward across Beharing Straits to North America, and the third southward through the Malay Archipelago to Australia and New Zealand. From the New Zealand region certain genera spread further south into Antarctica and from there reached the sub-antarctic regions of America, Africa, and Australia. These migrating streams would account for the general distribution of such archaic genera as Achorutes, Onychiurus and Ceratrimeria, and of such cosmopolitan genera as Isotoma, Lepidocyrtus, and Entomobrya. During the course of migration new genera have arisen; and so we obtain the definite relationships which exist between New Zealand and Australia through such genera as Lepidosira, Acanthomurus, etc.

In deriving the New Zealand Collembola from Northern sources my views closely parallel those put forward by Oliver in 1925 for the derivation and relationships of many of the New Zealand plants.

After the New Zealand region finally became isolated or, possibly, before this, the majority of the endemic genera peculiar to New Zealand and the sub-antarctic arose.

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To summarise finally, I have postulated a northern primary evolution for Collembola, with a later tri-directional migration to Africa, North America, and Australasia. This affords an explanation of the general basic relationships which exist between the Collembola of these Southern lands. Further, through a southern extension of New Zealand several peculiar genera which had developed in the New Zealand region spread to the antarctic regions; and remnants of this latter migration persist to-day in isolated areas of the sub-antarctic.

The following table gives a list of genera of Collembola occurring in New Zealand. Those marked * are confined to New Zealand, while those marked * are found only in New Zealand and Australia. Pseudentomobrya, though at present described only from New Zealand, should prove to have a wide distribution outside this country:—

Collembolan Genera Of New Zealand.
Xenylla Tullb. Lepidophorella Schaeffer
Triacanthella Schaeff. * Pseudolepidophorella n.g.
Achorutes Templ. * Antennacyrtus n.g.
Schotella Schaeff. * Neocerus n.g.
Polyacanthella Schaeff. Tomocerus Nicolet
Odontella Schaeff. Sinella Brook
Micranurida Börner Drepanura Schött
Ceratrimeria Börner Entomobrya Rondani
Brachystomella Schaeff. Pseudentomobrya n.g.
Pseudachorutes Tullb. Mesira Börner
Neanura MacGill. Lepidocyrtus Bourlet
Onychiurus Gervais * Urewera Salm.
Dinaphorura Bagnall Lepidosira Schött
Mesaphorura Börner Pseudosinella Schaeffer
Cryptopygus Willem * Orchezelandia Salm.
Isotomodes Axelson Paronellides Schött
Folsomia Willem. * Pseudoparonellides n.g.
Acanthomurus Wom. Paronana Wom.
* Tibiolatra n.g. * Glacialoca n.g.
Proisotomurus Wom. * Parachaetoceras n.g.
Archisotoma Linnan Megalothorax Willem.
Isotomurus Börner Arrhopalites Börner
Tomocerura Wahlgren Sminthurinus Börner
* Procerura n.g. Katianna Börner
* Papillomurus n.g. Parakatianna Wom.
* Spinocerura n.g. Bourletiella Banks
Proisotoma Börner Deuterosminthurus Börner
Isotomina Börner Corynephoria Absolon.
Isotma Bourlet Sphyrotheca Börner
Parisotoma Bagnall Sminthurus Latreille
Isotomiella Bagnall Dicyrtomina Börner

Selected Bibliography.

Agrell, T., 1936. Une espèce nouvelle de genre Pseudosinella, Opuscula Entom., 1, no. 1, p. 27.

Agren, H., 1904. Lapplandische Collembolen, Ark. f. Zool., 2, no. 1.

Alexander, W. R., 1913. Aptera of Australia, Austr. Ass. Adv. Sci., Melbourne, 14, p. 267.

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Bagnall, R. S., 1934. Notes on British Collembola, Entomologists' Monthly Magazine, vol. LXX, pp. 275–277.

—— 1935. The British Tullberginae, pt. 1, Ent. Month. Mag., LXXI, pp-164–173.

—— 1935. On the Classification of the Onychiuridae with particular reference to the Genus Tullbergia Lubb. and its Allies, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, (10), 15, pp. 236–242.

—— 1936. The British Tullberginae, pt. II, Ent. Mon. Mag., LXXII, pp. 34–40.

—— 1939. Notes on British Collembola, Ent. Mon. Mag., LXXV, pp. 21–28; pp. 91–102; pp. 188–200.

—— 1940. Notes on British Collembola, Ent. Mon. Mag., vol. LXXXVI, pp. 97–102; pp. 163–174.

BÖRner, C., 1906. Das System der Collembolen, nebst Beschreibungen neuer Collembolen des Hamberger Naturhistorischen Museums, Mitt. Nat. Hist. Mus. Hamburg, pp. 147–188.

—— 1913. Zur. Collembolenfauna Javas, Tijdschr, v. Ent., 56, p. 44.

—— 1913. Neue Cyphoderinen, Zool. Anz., 41, p. 274.

—— 1913. Die Familien der Collembolen, Zool. Anz., 41, p. 315.

Brown, J. M., 1926. On some Collembola from Mesopotamia, Journ. Linn. Soc. London (Zool.), 36, pp. 201–219.

—— 1926. Some African Apterygota, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9), 18, pp. 34–43.

Carpenter, G. H., 1900. Collembola from Franz-Josef Land: Scientific Proceedings of Royal Dublin Soc., vol. IX (N.S.), pt. III, no. 16 and 17, pp. 271–277.

—— 1904. Collembola in Fauna Hawaiiensis III, London, pp. 299–303.

—— 1906. Collembola from the South Orkney Islands, Proc. Roy. Soc., Edinburgh, 26, pt. VI, pp. 473–483.

—— 1909. On Some Subantarctic Collembola, The Subantarctio Islands of New Zealand, vol. I, pp. 377–383.

—— 1913. “Apterygota” Clare Island Survey, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 31, p. 32.

—— 1916. The Apterygota of the Seychelles, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 33, ser. 3, no. 1.

—— 1917. “Collembola,” Records of the Indian Museum, vol. VIII, pp. 561–570.

—— 1921. Insects, pt. I, Collembola, British Antarctic (“Terra Nova”) Expedn., 1910, Zoology, 3, no. 9, pp. 259–266.

—— 1925. Some Collembola from Southern New Zealand, Proc. Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc., 69, 11.

—— 1928. Apterygota, Insects of Samoa (British Museum).

—— 1935. Collembola of the Society Islands, Bull. B. P. Bishop Mus., Honolulu, 113, pp. 135–141.

—— 1935. Marquesan Collembola, Bull. B. P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, 114, pp. 365–378.

—— and Phillips, J. K. C., 1922. The Collembola of Spitzbergen and Bear Island, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 36, ser. B, no. 2, pp. 11–21.

Collinge, W. E., and Shoebotham, J. W., 1909. Description of a new genus of Collembola of the Family Neelidae Folsom, Journ. Econ. Biol., 4, p. 45.

—— 1910. The Apterygota of Hertfordshire, Journ. Econ. Biol., 5, pt. 3, pp. 98–125.

Davenport, C. B., 1903. The Collembola of Cold Spring Beach, with special reference to the movements of the Poduridae, Cold Spring Harbour Monographs, no. 11, Brooklyn.

Davidson, J., 1933. The Distribution of Smynthurus viridis L. in South Australia, based on Rainfall, Evaporation, and Temperature, Aust. Journ. Exp. Biol. and Med. Sci., 11.

—— 1931. The Influence of Temperature on the Incubation Period of Eggs of Smynthurus viridis L., Aust. Journ. Exp. Biol. and Med. Sci., 8.

—— 1932. On the Viability of the Eggs of Smynthurus viridis in Relation to their Environment, Austr. Journ. Exp. Biol. and Med. Sci., 9.

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Davidson, 1932. Factors affecting Oviposition of Symnthurus virdis, Aust. Journ. Exp. Biol. and Med. Sci., 9.

—— 1933. Environmental Factors affecting Development of the Eggs of Smynthurus viridis, Aust. Journ. Exp. Biol. and Med. Sci., 10.

—— 1933. On the Control of the “Lucerne Flea” in Lucerne in South Australia, Journ. Agric. S. Aust., 36, pp. 994–1006.

—— 1934. The “Lucerne Fles,” Smynthurus virdis L., in Australia, C.S.I.R. Bull. 79.

Davies, W. M., 1932. Swarming of Collembola in England, Nature, 130, p. 94.

—— 1934. Additions to the British List of Collembola with Records of some Rare Species, Entomologists' Monthly Magazine, vol. LXX, pp. 90–94.

—— 1935. The Percy Sladen and Godman Trusts Expedition to the Islands in the Gulf of Guinea, 1932–33. IV—Collembola, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 15, pp. 146–150.

Denis, J. R., 1923. Notes sur les Apterygotes. Ann. Soc. Entom. France, XCII.

—— 1931. Collembola de Costa Rica avec une contribution au species de l'ordre, Boll. Lab. Zool. Portici, 25, pp. 69–170.

—— 1933. Contributo alla cocoscenza del Microgenton di Costa Rica III, Collemboles de Costa Rica avec une contribution au species de l'ordre Boll. Lab. Zool. Portici, 27, pp. 222–322.

—— 1936. Yale North India Expedition Report on Collembola, Mem. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sci., 10, pp. 261–282.

Dumbleton, L. J., 1938. The Lucerne Flea (Smynthurus viridis) in New Zealand, N.Z. Journ. Sci. and Tech., XX (4A), pp. 197A–211A.

Folsom, J. W., 1898. Japanese Collembola, pt. I, Bull. Essex. Inst., 29, p. 51.

—— 1899. The Anatomy and Physiology of the Mouth-parts of the Collembolan Orchesella cincta L., Bull. Museum Comp. Zool., Harvard, 35, no. 2.

—— 1899. Japanese Collembola, pt. II, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci., 34, p. 261.

—— 1900. The Development of the Mouth-parts of Anurida maritima Guer., Bull. Museum Comp. Zool., Harvard, 36, no. 5.

—— 1901. The Distribution of Holarctic Collembola, Psyche, 9, pp. 159–162.

—— 1901. Review of the Collembolan genus Neelus, and description of N. minutus n.sp., Psyche, 9, 210.

—— 1902. The Identity of the Snow-flea (Achorutes nivicola Fitch), Psyche, 9, no. 311.

—— 1902. Papers from the Harriman Alaska Expedition, XXVII, Apterygota, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., 4, pp. 87–116.

—— 1908. The Golden Snow-flea, Aphorura cockleyi n.sp., Canad. Ent., 40, pp. 199–201.

—— 1913. North American Springtails of the Sub-family Tomocerinae, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 46, pp. 451–471.

—— 1916. North American Collembolan Insects of the Sub-families Achorutinae, Neanurinae and Podurinae, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 50, pp. 477–525.

—— 1917. North American Insects of the Sub-family Onychiurinae, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 53, pp. 637–659.

—— 1919. Collembola from the Crocker Land Expedition, 1913–17, Bull. American Mus. Nat. Hist., 41, p. 271–303.

—— 1919. Collembola of the Canadian Arctic Expedition, 1913–18, Rep. Canad. Arct. Expedition, 1913–18, 3, Pt. A, Collembola, pp. 1–29.

—— 1923. Termitophilous Apterygota from British Guina, Zoologica, 3, no. 19.

—— 1924. Apterygota of the Williams Galapagos Expedition, Zoologica, 5, no. 5.

—— 1924. New Species of Collembola from New York State, Amer. Museum Novitates, no. 108.

—— 1924. East Indian Collembola, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard, 65, no. 14, pp. 505–517.

—— 1927. Insects of the Sub-class Apterygota from Central America and the West Indies, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 72, no. 2702, ad. 6, pp. 1–16.

—— 1932. Hawaiian Collembola, Proc. Haw. Ent. Soc., 8, no. 1, pp. 51–88.

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Folsom, 1937. Nearetic Collembola or Springtails of the Family Isotomidae, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 168.

—— and Mills, H. B., 1938. Contribution to the Knowledge of the genus Sminthurides Börner, Bull. Museum Comp. Zool., Harvard, 82, no. 4, p. 231.

Guthrie, J. E., 1903. The Collembola of Minnesota, Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey of Minnesota, Zool. ser. IV.

Handschin, E., 1921. Die Onychiurien der Schweiz, Ver. Nat. Ges. in Basel, 32, pp. 1–37.

—— 1925. Beiträge zur Collembolenfauna der Sundainseln, Treubia, 6, pp. 225–270.

—— 1926. Oest-indische Collembolen III. Beiträge sur Collembolenfauna von Java und Sumatra, Treubia, 8, pp. 446–461.

—— 1926. Collembola from the Phillppines and New Caedonia, Phillip, Journ. Sci., 30, pp. 235–239.

—— 1927. Collembolan aus Costa Rica, Ent. Mitteil, 16, no. 2, pp. 110–118.

—— 1928. Collembola from Mexico, Journ. Linn. Soc., London (Zool.), 36, pp. 533–552.

—— 1928. Collembolen aus Java, nebst einem Beiträge zu einer Monographie der Gattung Cremastocephalus Schött, Treubia, 10, pp. 245–270.

—— 1929. Collembola from Abyssinia, Trans. Ent. Soc., London, 77, pt. 1, pp. 15–28.

—— 1930. Phillippine Collembola III, Phillip, Journ. Sci., 42, pp. 411–428.

—— 1938. Check List of the Collembola of Oceania, Ent. Month. Mag., LXXIV, pp. 139–147.

Imms, A. D., 1906. Anurida, Liverpool Mar. Biol. Mem., 13.

—— 1912. On some Collembola from India, Burma, and Ceylon, with a Catalogue of the Oriental Species of the Order, Proc. Zool. Soc., London, 1912, pt. 1, pp. 80–125.

Jackson, C. H. N.,1926. On two Species of Collembola, Lepidocyrtus paradoxus Uzel and L. anglicanus n.sp., Entom. Month. Mag., vol. LXII, p. 104–6.

—— 1927. On some new Collembola from Trinidad, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9), 19, pp. 485–497.

Lubbock, Sir J., 1873. Monograph of the Collembola and Thysanura, Ray. Soc., London.

—— 1879. On a new genus and species of Collembola from Kerguelen Island, Tullbergia, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc., London, vol. 168, p. 249.

—— 1899. On some Spitzbergen Collembola, Journ. Linn. Soc., London, 26, pp. 616–619.

—— 1899. On some Australasian Collembola, Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool., 27, p. 334.

Mills, H. B., 1934. A Monograph of the Collembola of Iowa, Collegiate Press, Ames, Iowa, Mono. no. 3, Div. Ind. Sci. Iowa State Coll.

Moniez, R., 1894. Lipura incerta Mz. and Drepanura brachycephala Mz., Rev. Biol. Nord. France, VI.

Oliver, W. R. B., 1925. Biogeographical Relations of the New Zealand Region, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot., 47, p. 99.

Pritchard, E. D., 1932. Entomobrya cunicunicola from Niger Bay, Auckland, Rec. Auck, Inst. Mus., 1, pp. 135–137.

Rainbow, W. J., 1907. Two new Species of Australian Collembola, Rec. Aust. Mus., Sydney, 6, pp. 313–314.

Salmon, J. T., 1937. Descriptions and Notes on Some New Zealand Collembola, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 67, pp. 352–358.

—— 1938. A New Genus of Collimbola in New Zealand and the Genus Lepidosira, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 68, pp. 349–361.

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Schaeffer, C., 1891. Die Collembolen von Sud-Georgien nach der Ausbeute der deutschen Station. von 1882/83, Jahrb. der Hamburg. Wissen. Anst. 9.

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Schaeffer, 1896. Die Collembola der Umgebung von Hamburg und benachbarter Gebiete, Mitt. Naturhist. Mus. Hamburg, XIII, pp. 147–216.

—— 1900. Die Arktischen und subarktischen Collembola, Fauna Arctica, 1, no. 2, pp. 237–258.

Schött, H., 1896. North American Apterygogenea, Proc. Californ. Acad. Sci., ser. 2, 6, pp. 169–196.

—— 1917. Results of Dr. Mjoberg's Swedish Scientific Expeditions to Australia, 1910–13, No. 15, Collembola, Ark. Zool., 11, no. 8.

—— 1925. Collembola from Mount Murud and Mount Dulit in Northern Sarawak, Sarawak Mus. Journ., 3, pp. 107–127.

Shoebotham, J. W., 1911. Some records of Collembola new to England, with a description of a new species of Oncopodura, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), 8, p. 32.

—— 1914. Notes on Collembola, Part 2. Some Irish Collembola and Notes on the Genus Orchesella, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 8, vol. 13, pp. 59–68.

Smith, W. W., 1895. Thysnura associating with Monomoria in New Zealand, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 28, p. 475.

Templeton, R., 1835. Descriptions of the Irish Species of Thysanura, The Entomol. Soc. of London Trans., vol. I.

Tillyard, R. J., 1920. The Insects of Macquarie Island, Science Rep. Australas. Antarctic Expedn., 1911–14, ser. C, 5, pt. 8, pp. 1–35.

—— 1925. Primitive Wingless Insects, Part II: The Orders Protura and Collembola, N.Z. Journ. Sci. and Techn., 7, no. 5, pp. 298–303.

Turk, F. A., 1932. Swarming of Collembola in England, Nature, 129, pp. 830–31.

Wahlgren, E., 1906. Antarktische and subantarktische Collembolen gesammelt von der schwedischen Sudpolarexpedition, Wiss. Ergeb. Schwed. Sud-polarex., 1901–3, 5, pt. 9, pp. 1–22.

Willem, V., 1902. Collemboles, recueillis par l'Expedition antarctique belge, Résultas du voyage du S.Y. Belgica, pp. 1–19.

Womersley, H., 1928. Apterygota from the New Hebrides, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (10), 2, pp. 56–61.

—— 1928. Some Records of Apterygota from Lundy Island, Devonshire, with the Description of a New Species of Entomobrya (Collembola), Ann. Mag. Nat Hist. (10), 2, pp. 62–65.

—— 1929. Some Records of Collembola from Southern Rhodesia, Ent. Month. Mag., vol. LXV, p. 152.

—— 1929. Additions to the Collembola of New Zealand, Ent. Month. Mag., LXV, p. 272.

—— 1930. Notes on some new and rare British Collembola, Ent. Month. Mag., LXVI, p. 33.

—— 1930. A Further Collection of Collembola from New Zealand, Ent. Month. Mag., LXVI, p. 57.

—— 1930. Apterygota collected in British Guiana by the Oxford University Expedition, 1929, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (10), 6, pp. 305–317.

—— 1930. The Collembola of Ireland, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 39, B.11, pp. 160–202.

—— 1932. Tasmanian Collembola of the Family Sminthuridae, Proc. and papers Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 1931.

—— 1932. Some Collembola of the Family Sminthuridae from South Africa, Ann. Sth. Afr. Mus., 30, pp. 137–156.

—— 1932. Collembola-Symphypleona of Australia, C.S. and I.R. Pamphlet 34.

—— 1933. Collembola-Arthropleona of Australia. I: Poduroidea, Trans. Roy. Soc. Sth Aust., 57, pp. 48–71.

—— 1933. Additions to the Sminthurid Fauna of Australia: Stylops (11), 2, pp. 241–247.

—— 1933. Collembola-Arthropleona from South Africa and Southern Rhodesia, Ann. Sth. Afr. Mus. (3), 30, pp. 441–475.

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Womersley, 1934. Collembola-Arthropleona of Australia. II: Entomobryoidea, Trans. Roy. Soc. Sth. Austr., 58, pp. 86–132.

—— 1935. New Records and Species of Australian and New Zealand Collembola, Trans. Roy. Soc. Sth. Austr., 59, pp. 207–218.

—— 1936. On the Collembola Fauna of New Zealand, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 66, pp. 316–328.

—— 1936. Further Records and Descriptions of Australian Collembola, Rec. Sth. Austr. Mus. (4), 5, pp. 475–485.

—— 1937. New Species and Records of Australian Collembola, Trans. Roy. Soc. Sth. Austr., 61, pp. 154–157.

—— 1937. Collembola, B.A.N.Z.A.R. Exped. Reports, Ser. B (1), 4, pp. 1–7.

—— 1937. Apterygota from New Guinea and the New Hebrides, Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London, Ser. B., Taxonomy (11), 6, pp. 204–210.

—— 1937. Distribution of Collembola of the Genus Ceratrimeria Börner, Journ. Linn. Soc. London (Zool.), 40, pp. 373–382.

—— 1939. Primitive Insects of South Australia.

—— 1940. A New Species of Ceratrimeria (Collembola) from Tasmania, Trans. Roy. Soc. Sth. Austr., vol. 64, pt. 1, p. 137.