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Volume 72, 1942-43
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Reports of Member Bodies.

Auckland Institute.
President: Mr W. A. Fairclough.
Director: Lieut.-Col. Gilbert Archey.
Acting Director: Mr A. W. B. Powell

The seventy-third Annual Report of the Auckland Institute and Museum marks the completion of a critical year in a period of great stress for the British Commonwealth of Nations. Under the circumstances, some curtailment and modification of normal Museum activities have been inevitable, nevertheless the Museum continues to carry out its most useful function in the community, particularly in providing educational facilities for the young, and in the handling of technical inquiries.

Staff: The Director, Dr. Gilbert Archey, has been called up by the military authorities, and he now serves as Lieut.-Colonel in the 4th Battalion Auckland Regiment (National Military Reserve).

Mr A. W. B. Powell, Assistant Director, in addition to his regular duties, has been appointed Acting-Director during the term of Dr. Archey's military service.

Mr V. F. Fisher, Ethnologist, is also serving in the 4th Battalion, and Mrs O. M. Turbott has been appointed Acting-Ethnologist during his absence.

Mr R. A. Scobie, Education Officer, is abroad in the New Zealand Expeditionary Force, and Miss Z. O. Lloyd has been appointed in charge of the Education Services during Mr Scobie's absence.

We have recently lost a member of the honorary staff in the death of Mr J. D. Richardson, who rendered valuable service as honorary photographer since 1939. Mr Richardson has bequeathed to us a very extensive collection of photographs, lantern slides and data relating to early Auckland, as well as a fine collection of slides featuring native flora and New Zealand nature subjects generally. These collections will be of definite value both as a research unit and as a source of material for the educational service.

Membership: At the beginning of the year the list comprised 168 life members and 405 annual members. During the year we lost 27 members by death, resignation and deletion, and 26 new members have been elected. The present roll is 572, of whom 165 are life members.

Obituary: During the year we have lost by death many valued members—Hon. Sir James Parr, Ven. Archdeacon MacMurray, Lieut.-Col. J. M. Allen, M.P., Dr Kenneth Mackenzie, Dr Newton Drier, Messrs J. Alexander, J. Catchpole, G. H. Fleming, W. La Roche, J. A. Pond, R. Pudney, J. D. Richardson and G. Ryalls. R.N.Z.A.F. I must refer in particular to the passing of the Hon. Sir James Parr, President in 1913–14, and the Ven. Archdeacon MacMurray, both of whom rendered distinguished services to New Zealand; and to Mr J. A. Pond, who had been a member since the 9th June, 1873. Mr Pond completed 68 years of continuous membership, and both as President and as a member of the Council for 37 years gave valuable and wholehearted service to the Institute and to research.

Congratulations: Congratulations are extended to Dr H. H. Allan on the award of the Hutton Medal, to Dr H. J. Finlay on his being awarded the Hector Medal, to Dr R. A. Falla on his election to Fellowship of the Royal Society of New Zealand, and to Mr E. Earle Vaile on his being awarded the Loder Cup.

A Doctorate of Science has just been conferred on our Director, Lieut.-Colonel Gilbert Archey, and I take this opportunity of inviting you to join with me in extending to him our hearty congratulations.

Council: Six well attended meetings were held during the year.

Finance: Receipts were approximately the same as last year; the slight reduction in members' subscriptions is due to the fact that many of our members are serving overseas. The apparently substantial balance of £1,440 in the General Account must be viewed in relation to the necessity of providing for two “lean” months from the end of the financial year to the receipt of the Museum maintenance contributions.

Museum: The nearer approach of hostilities to our shores has called for greater precautions regarding the safety of our national treasures. A large


cross-section of the collections has been removed to safer quarters in the country and outer suburbs, but the larger exhibits of the Maori Court presented a problem. The large war canoe, 82 feet in length, cannot now be removed from the building, for it was placed in position before the structure was completed around it. However, a considerable measure of protection has been afforded this priceless relic by the erection over it of a framework cover of massive timbers and a layer of sand. The two large pataka, Maori food storehouses, have been dismantled and stowed in a safer part of the building, and the thatch and other inflammable materials removed from the large meeting house “Hotunui.”

In spite of the inevitable disorganisation caused by the packing and removal of specimens, the exhibits other than in the Maori Court have not been notice-ably depleted, and the Museum services continue to operate satisfactorily, and attendances during the year totalled 161,859.

An exhibit of outstanding interest was received through the generosity of Mr H. R. Jenkins. This is the historic anchor intimately associated with the ill-fated H.M.S. Bounty, for this relic is believed to have been abandoned by Fletcher Christian and his fellow mutineers in 1789, when they used it as a kedge to free the vessel from a coral shoal in the Papaea Arm of Matavia Bay, Tahiti. After generations of Tahitians had made unsuccessful attempts to raise the anchor, it was at last recovered about 1890.

Smith's Bush: During the year strong support was given in respect to the securing of Smith's Bush, near Takapuna, as a nature park. This bush is one of the few remaining examples of the original vegetation of the Auckland area that has survived ancient fires and European settlement. It is characterised by an interesting range of species, great size of the older components, and splendid regeneration of timber trees on its margins. It was gratifying that our local bodies entrusted us to frame the appeal both to the Government and the public. The success in acquiring this valuable area of bush as a reserve is in no small measure due to the efforts of his Worship the Mayor, Mr J. A. C. Allum, his Council and the contributing local bodies. Our thanks are also due to Miss Cranwell for her efforts in this direction, to the Scenery Preservation Committee and the Auckland Botanical Society, also to members of the Council and friends who contributed £100 towards the purchase cost.

In closing my report I would join you in praying for the success of our armed forces and for the speedy return of peace.

The Wellington Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand (Inc.).
President: Dr M. A. F. Barnett.
Secretary: Mr J. T. Salmon.

The following is the seventy-fourth Annual Report, being the report of the Council for the year ended 30th September, 1941:—

Council: The Council has held ten meetings during the past session.

Membership: The total membership of the Society has increased by ten during the year and now stands at 222. Ten resignations were received and 20 new members were elected.

Meetings: The meetings of the Society and of the Sections have been well attended during the year. The presidential address, which was to have been delivered by Mr F. R. Callaghan, was cancelled owing to the sudden illness of Mr Callaghan. In May, Dr Muriel E. Bell spoke on “Recent Developments in the Knowledge of Nutrition.” In June, Dr C. O. Mercer spoke on “The Modern Treatment of Surgical Shock and War Injuries by Transfusion of Blood,” and this was followed in July by a symposium and discussion on “The Relationship of Science to Society,” in which a number of members took part. On August 27, Dr David Miller, of the Cawthron Institute, gave an address on “Termites” and in September Mr F. T. M. Kissell spoke on “Hydro-electric Development in New Zealand.”

Sections: All Sections have continued their activities, and many interesting addresses have been given at their meetings. Two of the Sections now serve supper at the conclusion of each meeting.

Papers for Publication: The following papers were read by title at the General Meetings of the Society and submitted to the editor of the Transactions

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for publication:—On May 28. “The Occurrence of Cryptospara's cranulatus from Cook Strait,” by Mr W. J. Phillipps; “Second Catalogue of Aurora Australia Displays, 1939,” by Mr M. Geddes; and “Natural Root Grafts in New Zealand Trees,” by Mr A. D. Beddie. On June 25, “The Exoskeleton and Sclerites of Hemideina megacephala compared with those of its first instar, Deinacrida rugosa and a member of the Dolichopodinae, together with further Notes on the Anatomy and Nervous System of Hemideina megacephala,” by Mr Ewen Cardale; and “New and Rare Fishes of New Zealand,” by Mr W. J. Phillipps. On August 27, “Observations of Jupiter for the Period 1928–1936,” by F. M. Bateson, F.R.A.S., communicated by Mr M. Geddes. On September 24, “Supplement to the Collembolan Fauna of New Zealand, the Genus Ceratrimeria Borner in New Zealand and a new Genus Novacerus to replace Neocerus (Pre-occupied),” by Mr J. T. Salmon.

Library: All periodicals subscribed to-continue to come forward, although their arrival is somewhat irregular. The following books have been added to the Library during the year:—“The Social Life of Animals.” by W. C. Allee; “What Engineers Do,” by W. D. Binger; “The Air and Its Mysteries,” by C. M. Batley; “Romance of Fire,” by A. M. Low; “Everyday Science,” by A. W. Haslett; “Crystals,” by J. Killiar and “The Stuff We're Made Of,” by Karmack and Eggleton.

Observatory: The Observatory is in a satisfactory state of repair, and the five-inch telescope is continuously in use by members of the Astronomical Section.

Lecture Room: During the year the dais was improved by the closing-in of the front of the table. A master switch was installed by the epidiascope to control the room lights, a very much needed improvement.

Cutting of Timber, Maymorn Estate: Following agitation in the press and requests to support movements to have this milling stopped, the Council set up a Special Committee to investigate the question. The report of this Committee was published in the press, and the Council decided to take no further action in the matter.

Acknowledgments: The Council desires to express the thanks of the Society to the honorary auditor, Mr R. E. R. Dymock, who has kindly continued to audit the books of the Society; to the press for publicity and other courtesies; and to the various speakers who have helped to make the Society's meetings successful during the year passed.

Nelson Philosophical Society.
President: Mr. F. G. Gibbs.
Hon. Secretary and Treasurer: Mr O. B. Pemberton.

The Committee submits the following report of the work of the Nelson Philosophical Society for the year ending 30th September, 1941:—

The statement of Receipts and Expenditure shows a credit balance of £1 4s 11d.

The membership of the Society consists of 28 members, and 15 associate members, making a total of 43.

Meetings of the Society have been held as follows:—


24th October: Display of Exhibits and short addresses—(1) Dr K. M. Curtis, Tobacco Plants; (2) Dr H. O. Askew, Microchemical Reagents; (3), Miss E. B. Kidson, Colour Tests: (4) Sir Thomas Easterfield, Silica Calculi; (5) Mr T. A. Johnson, Plans of Some Public Buildings; (6) Mr W. C. Davies, Recent Accessions to Cawthron Institute Museum.


27th May: Public meeting in Marsden Hall, Mr H. A. Fullarton, of Public Works Department, Wellington, “Air Raid Precautions.”

17th June: Mr V. J. Hawke, Bacteriologist, Nelson Public Hospital, “The Clinical Examination of Blood.”

22nd July: Mr E. F. Lord, of Kirkpatrick and Co., Ltd., “Food Preservation.”

19th August: Dr D. Miller, “Termites.”

16th September: Mr T. A. Johnston, Presidential Address; “Some Aspects of Highway Beautification.”

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Canterbury Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
President: Mr G. Stokell.
Hon. Secretary: Mr R. S. Duff.

The following is the Annual Report for the year ending 31st October, 1941:—

Obituary: The Society has lost by death Messrs R. M. Laing, M.A., B.Sc., T. Stone and F. F. Scott (who died recently, soon after being elected).

Mr Laing joined the Society in 1882, and continued a member until the time of his death. He was President in 1894, 1910 and 1927, and held the position of secretary from 1889 until 1892. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand in 1922.

During his long association with the Canterbury Branch he contributed many papers on New Zealand Botany, specialising in Marine Algae, in which field he had an international reputation. He was co-author with Miss E. Blackwell of “Plants of New Zealand,” first published in 1906, editor and part author of “Natural History of Canterbury,” 1927, and part author of “The Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand,” 1909, the two latter works being produced by the Canterbury Philosophical Institute.

His passing severs a link with the Society's most active period and with many notable scientists who predeceased him.

Membership: The position continues to be unsatisfactory; indeed, with nine ordinary members lost by resignation and three by death, as against seven elected, the net total is 126, five less than that of 1940. One associate member has resigned, as against five elected, making a total of eleven.

Council: Changes in personnel include the resignations of Messrs E. W. Hullett (in March) and E. F. Stead (in September). Mr F. J. T. Grigg was elected in place of Mr Hullett. As in 1940, the eleven normal and one special meetings of the Council have been largely taken up with the slow progress of agreement on a satisfactory merger of the Society's Library with that of Canterbury University College.

The Year's Programme: Addresses were as follows:—March (Presidential Address), Mr G. Stokell, “Wild Life Control” (pamphlet published and edited by New Zealand Forest and Bird Protection Society); “Astronomy,” Dr D. B. Macleod; “Moas,” Dr R. A. Falla (Records of Canterbury Museum, September, 1941); “Petrol and Substitute Fuels,” Mr J. Packer; “War Gases,” Mr L. W. Ruddle; “The Preservation of Wild Life in Pre-War Poland,” Count K. Wodsicki.

Papers: The following papers were presented for publication in the Transactions:—

June 4: “A Description of the Body Appendages of Balanus decorus and a Note on the Sub-genus Megabalanus,” J. T. Linzey; “The Balanomorph Barnacles of the Kermadec Islands,” J. T. Linzey.

July 3: “A Detail of the Pukaki Moraine,” R. Speight.

September 3: “The Chromosome Complements of Some New Zealand Plants,” I, J. B. Hair; “A New Beetle of the Genus Nicodema,” E. Fairburn.

October 1: “The Influence of Ultra-short Waves on Plant Germination and yield,” A. G. Roth.

November 6: “A Note on the Genus Neurochorena and the Addition of a New Species Thereto,” A. G. McFarlane.

The following papers were presented, but not for publication in the Transactions:—

April 2: “Changing New Zealand Landscape,” M. K. B. Cumberland (published in U.S. Geographical Review, October, 1941).

September 3: “Some Mutations in Wheat, Their Mode of Origin and Their Significance for the Stability of This Genus,” O. H. Frankel.

October 1: “Winter Distribution of Three Species of Sub-antaretic Penguins,” R. A. Falla.

Library Merger: The decision of Canterbury University College on September 30 to accept the agreement to merge the libraries of the Royal Society and of the College, was followed by a Special General Meeting of the Society on November 5, when a motion that the merger take place, in terms of a slightly modified agreement, was passed unanimously. The main outlines,

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of the present agreement are that the Society's library is to be housed with the Canterbury College Library. The Society's ownership is not affected, and either party can reverse the agreement by giving one year's notice. The combined collection is to be available to members and associate members of the Society under the usual conditions for borrowing. For members of the Society living outside Christchurch a postal loan service is available, provided that the borrower pays the expenses of postage.

Members have been circularised with details of the agreement, essentially the same as those approved by the Society at its recent meeting in November, and it is to be hoped that the privileges of access to the combined library collections will help to keep old members from resigning and encourage new members to join.

Report of the Treasurer: In the General Account the balance has risen from £5 to £8, but this result has been achieved only by rigid economy. The receipts from subscriptions of ordinary members have fallen by £3, but the sale of copies of the Report on the Sub-antarctic Islands produced £4 2s, a welcome contribution to our funds when we are working on so narrow a margin. Interest from investments has remained stationary at £16.

The Farr Memorial Binding Fund still stands at £6 1s, but arrangements have been made to close this account by binding certain volumes presented to the Society by Dr Farr.

No binding of our own volumes was done in 1940, but this year £20 has been appropriated for this purpose from the accumulated interest in the Savings Bank Account.

The Investment Accounts stand at £466, of which £266 is in the Savings Bank and £200 in Government Stock. The balance in the Savings Bank will be invested otherwise when a suitable opportunity offers.

A new item in the statement of Liabilities and Assets is the books in the Library and the spare volumes of the Sub-Antarctic Islands. These are entered at the sum for which they are valued for insurance purposes. No depreciation has been allowed for, as this is probably offset by the annual accretions of periodicals. With this item included, the assets of the Society appear as £2038.

Report of the Hon. Librarian: Except for the merger negotiations, recorded elsewhere, the year has been uneventful. Some binding has been done, and a survey made of binding arrears. Up to the end of 1940, there were about 750 volumes awaiting binding at an estimated cost of £375. Annual additions are 45 volumes, of which funds allow only 20 to be bound. In addition, there are missing numbers of periodicals to be acquired. Individual donors have included Dr C. C. Farr, Mr C. H. E. Graham, Mr P. G. Bamford, and Dr O. H. Frankel.

Report of the Field Club: The Club's activities have been greatly curtailed owing to the absence of many members on active service. The shortage of petrol caused the chief project to be the making of a survey of the plants of Sugarloaf Bush, and in two interim visits 81 species were noted and recorded in a type-written list. A visit of inspection was also made to the plant life in the vicinity of the Heathcote Estuary.

At the Annual Meeting regret was expressed at the death of the Club's patron, Lady Kinsey. A suggestion that the Club go into recess during the war was not acted upon, after some serious discussion of the problem.

The following officers were elected:—Patron, Sir R. Heaton Rhodes; President, Mr W. B. Brockie; Secretary, Mr M. Hunter; Committee—Messrs A. G. McFarlane, W. E. Moore, F. Reed, W. Wood.

The balance sheet shows a credit of £9 6s 3d.

Ricoarton Bush: The Board of Trustees of Riccarton Bush reports that the maintenance of the bush during the past financial year has been carried out with due regard to available income. The salary of the Board's ranger has been increased, as an additional grant was made by the Christchurch City Council for this purpose. The Board tenders its thanks to those individuals, public bodies and organisations which have contributed to its funds.

The removal of European oaks and their replacement by native trees and shrubs has been continued, and a small revenue has been obtained by the sale of oak firewood. By arrangement with the Christchurch Teachers' Training College, working parties of the College students have been carrying out much


needed and useful work in the removal from some areas of certain troublesome weeds, such as the bittersweet, which in the seedling stage has to be pulled out by hand. The Board's thanks are due to Mr L. W. McCaskill for organising these student parties. Noxious weeds are gradually being eliminated; gorse and elder are now practically exterminated, and blackberry is reduced to a few dwindling patches now under control.

The number of visits to the bush is highly satisfactory, and the number of conducted parties of students from schools and colleges seems to be increasing. During the year a visit of inspection was carried out by the President, officers and members of the Canterbury Branch of the Royal Society, accompanied by the Chairman and members of the Board of Trustees of the Bush.

The Board wishes to tender its appreciation of the efficient work done by its ranger, Mr Leonard Armstrong, who has carried out general maintenance and effected several improvements.

Congratulations: The Society extends its congratulations to Dr R. A. Falla, a Vice-president, on his election to Fellowship of the Royal Society of New Zealand.

Otago Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual Report for Session 1941.
President: Dr R. Gardner.
Hon. Secretary: Dr H. D. Skinner.

Membership: The number of full members for 1941 is 173, as compared with 178 for 1940. There were four new members. Three associate and two full members resigned, and there was one death.

Deaths: The deaths are recorded with regret of Mr Frank Mitchell and Mr L. S. Hobbs.

War Services: The following members are on active service overseas:—Dr A. M. Begg, Dr Walden Fitzgerald, Mr Owen Fletcher, Mr. R. Kirk, Dr J. R. J. Moore, Mr J. M. Paape.

Attendance: The average attendance at junior lectures was 72, compared with 80 in the previous session. The average attendance of the main branch for its first seven meetings was 44, as compared with 52 and 55 in the two preceding years. This year's average of 44 was helped by an attendance of 84 at the third meeting, which was a joint one with the Field Club. The decline in attendance is due to the war.

Representatives on Museum Management Committee: Messrs George Simpson and J. Scott Thomson were again elected.

Conversazione: Owing to war lighting regulations, it was impossible to hold this, the most popular of all our functions.

Portraits of Past Presidents: Portraits are still lacking of W. Arthur, Dr de Zouche, Dr Belcher, and F. W. Payne. In the coming year it is proposed to mount those we have.

Auditorium Fund: This now stands at £1460. An auditorium is the Museum's most pressing need, and it is certainly one of the most pressing needs of this Society.

Native Bird Protection: Towards the end of the session action was taken by resolutions sent to the Minister of Internal Affairs and to other member bodies urging the more stringent application of regulations at Stewart Island and the taking of steps to exterminate cats on Herekopere Island. In this matter the Society is working in co-operation with the Southland Branch of the Royal Society. The subject of native bird protection is one of the “livest” which comes before the Society, as is evidenced by attendance at méetings when it is discussed.

Agriculture: The most vigorous debate in the session arose out of the symposium on “Future Possibilities of Farming in New Zealand,” and it is hoped to arrange a similar symposium for next session. The Agricultural Section is undoubtedly the most vigorous section of the Society.

Reports of Branches: The annual reports of the branches are on file and may be consulted at the Museum.

Ordinary Meetings: These are set out on the syllabus supplied to members and to the secretaries of other member bodies.


Thanks of the Society are due to the speakers during the session, to those who provided supper, and to the University of Otago for permission to use lecture rooms.

Original Papers:

Dr W. N. Benson, F.R.S.: “The Basic Igneous Rocks of Eastern Otago and Their Tectonic Environment.”

Dr F. J. Turner: “Structural Petrology of Quartz Veins in East Otago-Schists.”

Dr F. J. Turner: “Current Views on the Origin of Schistosity.”

Sir William Benham, F.R.S.: “Fossil Cetacea of New Zealand. V. Mauicetus, new name for Lophocephalus.”

W. George Howes: “New Lepidoptera.”

George Simpson and J. Scott Thomson: “Notes on Some New Zealand Plants, and Descriptions of New Species No. 2.”

Southland Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
President: Dr C. C. Anderson.
Acting Secretary: Mr A. D. Nisbet.

Membership: The Branch membership stands at 46, of which one is a life member and five are with the armed forces. This is considered satisfactory, but members are urged to do their utmost to secure an increase in our membership. To those in the armed forces—D. C. Berry, F.R.A.S., C. Barwell, A. McDonald, A. Ward, J. H. Sorensen—we extend our best wishes, and express the hope that they will all return safe and well in the very near future.

Lectures: During the year, eight lectures were given, and the thanks of the Branch goes to those who gave of their time in preparing and delivering these lectures. The folowing is a list of the speakers and their subjects:—

  • May 1: Presidential address, “Geology and Evolution,” Dr G. H. Uttley.

  • May 22, “Maori Settlement in New Zealand,” Dr H. D. Skinner.

  • June 26, “Spiders and Spider Webs,” Professor Marples.

  • July 24: “Whales and Whaling,” Mr J. H. Sorensen.

  • August 22: “Penguins,” Mr L. E. Richdale.

  • September 25: “Divining for Water and Metal,” Dr F. J. Turner.

  • October 23, “Petrol and Natural Gas,” Miss C. McHaffie.

  • November 27: “Botany,” Mr G. Simpson.

Attendances: Interest has been maintained throughout the whole session, and attendances at both Council and general meetings has been good.

Financial: The year began with a credit balance in the Working Account of £1 18s 1d, and closed with a credit balance of £4 8s 1d. This amount, along with £11 2s 4d in the Life Members' Account, plus £2 7s 5d in hand, gives the branch a total of £17 17s 10d as assets. Liabilities are nil.

Conclusion: Times are very difficult, and as our work in the community is such a valuable one, all members are asked to do all in their power to maintain the attendances and interests of our meetings, and to extend our activities as much as possible.

It is with pleasure we record the completion of the new Museum building and announce the official opening on the 9th May. The new building is beautiful in appearance, and should prove a great asset to this province. Members may well feel satisfaction in the fact that they have so materially helped in this project.

The Branch President, Dr C. C. Anderson, wishes to thank all members for their support in the past, and to express the hope that the forthcoming season will prove as interesting and profitable a one as that just closed.