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Volume 72, 1942-43
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Notes on Some New Zealand Plants and Descriptions of New Species (No. 2).

[Read before the Otago Branch, November 11, 1941; received by the Editor, November 17, 1941; issued separately, June, 1942.]


Ranunculus lobulatus (T. Kirk) Ckn.

Achenes numerous, crowded in a broadly conical dark green head to 1 cm. diam. or slightly more, half obovate in outline, compressed, 3 mm. long including the style, keeled at the back, extended into a straight or oblique subulate beak as long as the achene. Our specimens in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington, are from plants in cultivation collected on Mount Fyffe, Marlborough, at 720 m. altitude.

Ranunculus novae-zealandiae Petrie.

Petrie described a “glabrous fleshy glaucous plant” with the leaf blades “ternately divided” and “ripe achenes not seen.”

On the Rock and Pillar Range—the type habitat—and on the Garvie Mountains, the leaves are invariably dark green with the veins sunken on both surfaces; petioles and scapes purplish, spotted with pale yellow-green, leaf blades 3–5 foliate, or 7 foliate on larger plants; lower segments sessile, the following pair in larger leaves petiolate, the upper ones sessile and the terminal one again more or less distant. Achenes in a rounded head ± 6 mm. diam., turgid, half-obovate in outline, rather more than 1 mm. diam., obscurely keeled at the back, with a short, stout, straight or upturned, subulate beak.

—– var. repens nov.

Herba repens, rhizomatis crassis, albis, mollibus, instructa; alioqui ut in typo.

Almost exactly as the type but spreading widely by stout, soft, white underground stems, which occasionally arch above the ground.

Habitat: Debris at Blue Lake, Garv [ unclear: ] e Mts., 1230 m. altitude.

Type specimens in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington.

The 3 foliate leaves of small or reduced plants of the species are curiously unlike those of more vigorous growths, and individual plants, differing only in the development of their leaves, might well be mistaken for distinct varieties.

Poppelwell (1915, p. 128) recognised 2 forms on the Garvie Mountains, one with 5 petaled flowers and one 8–10 petaled. The 5 petaled flowers appear to be those of var. repens, and 8–10 petaled flowers those of the usual form of the species on this range.

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Ranunculus sericophyllus Hook. f.

Cheeseman (1925, p. 444) inadvertently, since it appeared correctly in an earlier work (1914, 1, p. 6), described the achenes as “forming a rounded head 1½ in. in diam.” The rounded heads are ± 1 cm. diam., the achenes 2 mm. long, ovoid, glabrous, turgid, keeled at the back, with a stout, straight, subulate beak as long as the achene and in line with the keel. In the Floras of Kirk and Cheeseman it is stated that Petrie's specimens from the mountains at the head of the Matukituki River, near Mount Aspiring, are glabrate or almost glabrous, but his specimens are epharmones with long attenuated leaves with scattered hairs, and their young leaves have the villous character. Cheeseman's plate (loc. cit.) illustrates very well the partly folded character of the leaves and their narrow, subacute, and more or less erect segments, but it fails to show the villous character, and the hairs are drawn short and stiff, hirsute.

—– var. simpsonii comb. nov. = R. simpsonii Ckn. et Allan in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57 (1927), p. 58.

The glabrous upper surfaces of the leaves, and their fewer and broader segments are the only characters separating the variety from the type. Mr W. B. Brockie has sent specimens from Lake Man, in the mountains above Amuri Pass, near Hanmer, and specimens in the Dominion Museum Herbarium, Wellington, collected at the Freeman River by J. Crosby Smith, belong here.

× Ranunculus baughani = R. baughani Petrie.

It was suggested to Dr. Cockayne by the authors that this might be R. sericophyllus × simpsonii, and it was included by Cockayne and Allan (1934, p. 22) under that heading, but we had not found the species together, nor do we know yet where they both occur. The specimen in Petrie's Herbarium, collected above McKinnon Pass by Miss Baughan, has but a single leaf and a 2 flowered scape and with it is a typical leaf of R. sericophyllus which was no doubt used in comparison. R. buchanani and R. sericophyllus var. simpsonii hybridise freely where they meet, both occur on the mountains near McKinnon Pass, and × R. baughani could be matched in any hybrid swarm.

Ranunculus recens T. Kirk.

The upper leaf surfaces of this small plant are peculiarly pale green, tuberculose, with a single hair at each tubercule, the veins sunken and obvious, the margins more or less ciliate, under surfaces lighter, with the veins evident. Flowers on short stout scapes, single or in clusters of 2–4, sunken amongst the bases of the depressed radical leaves. Heads globose ± 6 mm. diam., achenes green, tipped or marked with purple, drying to red-brown after leaving the receptacle.

Ranunculus rivularis Banks and Sol. ex Forst.

This plant creeps widely underground and epharmones towards a larger growth as it recedes from a wet to a shaded or even open habitat. Plants with minute and almost sessile leaves and flowers, collected from swamps at Woodend, Invercargill, altered in one season of cultivation, in ordinary soil, into long-petioled, large-leaved plants that spread aggressively. One or more of Bentham's varieties may be habitat forms.

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Ranunculus acaulis Banks and Sol. ex D.C.

Kirk (1899, p. 18) has a footnote stating that the “creeping scions are almost filiform and often subterranean.” All the plants we have seen creep widely below the surface, the stems are always subterranean, white, soft and stoutly fleshy, with soft roots from the nodes. It spreads widely in sand and also in ordinary soils in cultivation.


Pittosporum fasciculatum Hook. f.

Allan (1928, p. 186), Index, is justified in restricting this species to the Volcanic Plateau, North Island. The specimen referred to by Cheeseman (1925, p. 488) as being that of Colenso's P. viride (it is labelled P. viridum) “which Hooker selected as the type of P. fasciculattum,” has fasciculate flowers, smaller than those of P. colensoi in the form we are acquainted with at the Southern Lakes, the Fiord Botanical District and Stewart Island, and the bracts, apparently early deciduous, are absent. Matthew's specimen from the Awatere Valley, Marlborough, included here by Cheeseman, has large single flowers and persistent bracts, and it should be referred to the aggregate of P. colensoi.


Sophora longicarinata sp. nov.

Arbuscula S. microphyllae valde affinis, sed foliis longioribus, foliolis minoribus maltis, breviter petiolatis, praecipue floribus longecarinatis differt.

A small tree to about 5 m. high; older branches reddish-brown, rough by old leaf scars, furrowed and irregularly covered by old pubescence, young branches and petioles yellow-green, minutely pubescent. Leaves 10–18 cm. long; 1 cm. broad; leaflets opposite or subopposite or alternate, 20–40 pairs, shortly petiolate, small, ± 4 mm. long, 2–2·5 mm. broad; on young plants smaller, obovate cuneate or almost orbicular, dark green and glabrate above, lighter green, most minutely pubescent and keeled below. Flowers lemon colour, ± 5 cm. long, 3–5 on a short stipulate rhachis, stipules small, bluntly rounded; rhachis 2 cm. long, pubescent; pedicels 3 cm. long, deflexed, frequently looped, pale yellow-green, pubescent, calyx 1·5 cm. long, yellow-green, pubescent, with broad, shallow, red-tipped teeth, standard 3·5 cm. long, 2·5 cm. broad; wings 4 mm. longer, 1 cm. broad; keel 1 cm. longer than the standard, linear oblong; stamens unequal, as long as the keel; style equalling the stamens and keel. Pods 5–12 cm. long, irregularly interrupted, 4 winged. Seeds 3–5, oblong, 8 mm. × 5 mm., slightly compressed, pale brown, yellow at the hilum and its margin.

Type specimens in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington, collected by Mr. A. W. Wastney at Takaka, Nelson.

A fine specimen of this handsome species flowers in October in Mr. E. Stead's garden at Ilam, Christchurch, but the flowering period is later at Takaka. The longer leaves, their many small, dark green, shortly petioled leaflets and long keeled flowers separate it from the many forms of the more widely distributed S. microphylla. Mr. Wastney informs us that it occurs between Riwaka and Takaka,

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Nelson, and Mr. Owen Fletcher says he has seen it on limestone at Mount Arthur, but we have not seen specimens from that locality. Young plants have smaller leaflets, but no divaricating juvenile form.

Cheeseman (1925, p. 530) has suggested that the plant be named in honour of the late Mr. Treadwell, but it is desirable that attention be drawn to the long keeled character in the flower.

We had prepared a description for a beautiful plant from Haulashore Island, Nelson, as var. daviesii of this species, and one for the equally fine plant of Piha, Auckland, as var. fulvida, but meanwhile, as the plant from Nelson is dubiously indigenous in its habitat, and the Piha one mingles with and is difficult exactly to segregate as a true breeding entity from the local form of S. microphylla, we hesitate to make distinctions. The genus is much in need of study to separate the many forms. We have to thank Mr. William C. Davies, Cawthron Institute, Nelson, for splendid specimens and photographs of the Haulashore Island plant; and Miss B. E. G. Molesworth for specimens of the Piha plant.


Hoheria ovata sp. nov.

H. sexstylosae affinis sed caules pallidiores, folia breviora, subcoriacea, ovata vel late ovata vel nonnumquam lanceolata, subtus pallida nonnumquam aliquantum purpurea, venis conspicuis.

A much-branched spreading tree to 6 m. or more high, glabrous except the tender tips, which are more or less scaly pubescent; bark at the young tips and on short branchlets light or reddish-brown, on older wood greyish, or greyish-green by fissuring, branches slender, spreading. Leaves subcoriaceous, varying much in their shape and size; on short branchlets or on adventitious shoots small, 2–5 cm. long, 2–3 cm. broad, ovate or broadly ovate, or the smaller ones almost orbicular, acute or obtuse; on the main growth larger, 6–8 cm. long, or 3–4 cm. broad, ovate acuminate, or sometimes lanceolate, acute or subacute, irregularly and coarsely serrate, green above, greyish-green or purplish beneath with the veins and reticulation conspicuous. Flowers single, or 2–3 in the axils of the leaves, fully 2 cm. diam.; peduncles slender, 3 cm. long, jointed at the lower third, purplish, glandular pubescent; calyx lighter in colour, glandular pubescent, teeth acute; petals white, obliquely ovate, notched on one side below the rounded tip; stamens white, style purplish. Carpels 5–8, silky pubescent, with a membraneous wing at the back.

Habitat: Forest openings and edges in the Nelson Province.

Type specimens from the Kaituna River, near Collingwood, in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington.

The polymorphy is not confined to plants in the seedling stage, or to small plants, as these may develop large leaves quite early. The small leaves are usually those of small branchlets, and as the branches develop into longer and larger growth the leaves attain their full size. In their shape and in their paler conspicuously veined and often purplish under-surfaces the leaves resemble very closely those of the much larger H. populnea.

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Kirk (1899, p. 72) may have included it in his supposedly widely distributed H. populnea var. dentata, but type specimens are not preserved in his herbarium. It differs from H. sexstylosa in its paler bark, its shorter, broadly ovate, subcoriaceous, coarsely-toothed leaves, and thin, paler, often purplish, conspicuously-veined under-surfaces. It is a common species in the Nelson Province, and Dr. H. H. Allan informs us that he has seen it in Westland as far south as Cobden, and that may not be the limit of its distribution on the western side. It may be the H. sexstylosa recorded from Canterbury, but we have not seen specimens from there.


Melicytus lanceolatus Hook. f. var. latior nov.

Folia 2–2·5 cm. lata. manifeste subflava, lanceolato-oblonga; petala pallidiora apicibus exceptis.

Similar to the type, but with the leaves wider, 2–2·5 cm., less conspicuously yellow-green, oblong lanceolate. Flowers lighter in colour; petals dark purple at the tips only, elsewhere orange coloured.

Habitat: Forest near Dunedin and southward to Bluff Hill, common but localised, near sea-level to 600 m. altitude.

Type from Flagstaff Hill, near Dunedin, in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington.


Metrosideros diffusa (Forst.) W. R. Oliv.

Kirk's (1899, p. 162) comments on the leaf shape of the Banksian specimens describe quite well the usual form at Doubtful and Milford Sounds, and no doubt the specimens were collected at Dusky Sound. In forests at the Fiords, plants with white or with pale pink flowers are equally common without other distinctions. Near Dunedin the leaves are smaller and the flowers smaller and white. The juvenile, whether terrestrial or climbing, pushes out wiry roots from closely-placed nodes; adult flowering branches are shrubby divaricating laterals from the ascending stems.

Metrosideros robusta A. Cunn.

Zotov (1939, p. 275) disputes the theory of Kirk (1889, p. 263) that the coalescence of the descending stems and lateral binders of this epiphyte imprisons and destroys forest trees. He states that he has not found evidence of strangulation, and he maintains that the “light demanding” host is destroyed by the intensity of shade thrown by the faster-growing epiphyte. Other observers have suggested to us that root competition may be the destructive agent or a soil reaction set up by the closely matted fibrous roots. Kirk (loc. cit.) states that puriri (Vitex lucens), to increase its girth, bursts apart the stems of the epiphyte and, if this be accepted, shade can have but little effect on that species. A shade maximum is reached when the epiphyte slightly overreaches the crown of its host, yet the host lives through this crucial period and survives while the epiphyte develops large spreading branches with a high open crown affording a sufficiency of light, more than most trees offer to much of their foliage. No force, indeed, other than compression could cause the distortion that appeared in rimu trunks, cut while still growing,

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enclosed and over-topped, from forest near the Kaituna River in North Nelson. These, examined by the authors with Mr. A. W. Wastney, of the State Forest Service, Nelson, had grown deep, fulllength, irregular flanges into the spaces afforded by the rounded stems of the epiphyte, and the distorted timber was sound. Growing trees must add to their girth, and girth in this instance had developed in the form of flanging. Nor must it be forgotten that the host is vertically compressed by the upward thrust of its own growth against the throttling increase of the epiphyte at its point of origin, or that the sway of huge superimposed branches in wind must have a disrupting effect.

The theory presented by Kirk is still insufficiently explored, and evidence is lacking as to the incidence of the force or forces causing mortality, but the theory cannot be carelessly dismissed. We are not convinced that shade is the cause of mortality.


Epilobium matthewsii Petrie.

This rupestral species was first described by Petrie (1913, p. 266) as E. arcuatum, but the epithet was preoccupied, and later (1921, p. 369) he submitted E. matthewsii. He admitted having but scanty material, but his leaf measurements, “2–2½ cm. long, 1–1 ¼ broad,” are quite correct, and the plant could not be recognised from Cheeseman's (1925, p. 617) description, “1 ¾ in.–2 in. long, ⅓ in. broad.” At McKinnon Pass and the Cleddau Valley, and in upper basins of the Homer River, the leaves never exceed 3 cm. in length, and generally they are shorter. The stems are frequently 25 cm. in length, decumbent and ascending, often branching at the base; the flowers are almost sessile; calyx segments 5 mm. long; petals white, not “pink,” 8 mm. long, obovate; stigma clavate; peduncle on ripened capsule elongating to 1·5 cm.; capsule 4 cm. long, drooping. It hybridises freely with E. glabellum, common on stony debris.


Myosotis pygmaea Col. var. glauca nov.

Herba omnino glauca, pilis longis robustis acutis arte appressis, strigosis praedita, floribus 6 mm. longis, 4 mm. diam., calycis lobis lineare-lanceolatis.

Everywhere dull glaucous green and dotted with long, stout, pointed, closely appressed, strigose hairs from wartose thickenings; flowers 6 mm. long when folded, 4 mm. diam. with the limb spread; calyx lobes linear lanceolate, acute or apiculate, wartose and strigose; lobes squatly ovoid-spathulate, subacute.

Habitat: Grassland at Mount Ida.

Type specimens from the base of Mount Ida at 500 m. altitude, in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington.


Hebe menziesii (Benth.) Ckn. et Allan.

A much branched, erect, glabrous shrub to 2 m. or more high; older branches stout, erect, yellow-green, rough by old leaf scars and swellings, leafy toward the tips; young wood at the tips yellowish or yellow-green, conspicuously bifariously pubescent; pubescence

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widest above the leaves, narrowing upward; internodes with opposite and alternate shield-like inflations below the leaves, the inflations rounded and bossed at the base. Leaves openly spaced, wide spreading, 2–2·5 cm. long, 6 mm. broad, obovate-oblong, subacute, rounded at the base, shortly petiolate, coriaceous, green or yellow-green and concave above, lighter green below, convex, keeled; margins entire; petiole narrow, 2 mm. broad over a suddenly widened and thickened boss-like base. Racemes simple 2–6 (4) towards the ends of the branches, 3–4 cm. long, finely bifariously pubescent; bracts lanceolate, subacute, membranous or ciliolate at the margins, rounded or keeled at the back, about equalling the calyx. Flowers 1 cm. long, 1 cm. wide with the lobes spread, white; calyx 5 mm. long, 4 partite, light green, segments as the bracts, corolla tube exceeding the calyx about 2 mm., slender, 2 mm. diam., widest at the throat; limb 4-lobed, wide spreading; lobes lanceolate, rounded at the tip; stamens 2, exserted to half the length of the lobes; style longer than the lobes; ovary 2 mm. long, ovoid, slightly compressed. Capsule slightly exceeding the calyx, 6 mm. long, 3 mm. broad, obovoid, subacute, compressed, narrowed to the base.

H. menziesii was described from specimens of a plant discovered by Menzies at Dusky Sound, but it has since ben confused with Nelson and Marlborough plants not nearly related. To the species we refer our specimens from subalpine areas on the western side of McKinnon Pass and the summit of the Longwood Range, and Mr. W. A. Thomson has plants in his garden at Dunedin collected from the hills above Lake Alabaster and the Pyke River, in the watershed of the Hollyford River. Our description is drawn from specimens—now in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington—collected in fruit at McKinnon Pass and in flower from plants in cultivation.

Hebe buxifolia (Benth.) Ckn. et Allan var. pauciramosa Ckn. et Allan × propinqua (Cheesem.) Ckn. et Allan.

A low, closely-branched, yellow-green, rounded shrub to about 5 m. high. Branches ± 4 cm. lng, 4 mm. diam. with the leaves on. Leaves 3 mm. long, 2 mm. broad, loosely imbricating, decussate, coriaceous, obovate, subacute, convex above, keeled beneath, sessile by a wide base, smooth and glabrous. Flowers in 2–4 short dense spikes at the ends of the branches and a terminal one, forming a rounded head; bracts 3 mm. × 2 mm. diam., similar to the leaves; calyx 4 mm. long, 2 mm. diam.; segments obovate, obtuse or subacute, unequal. Corolla 1 cm. long, white; tube equalling the calyx, 1 mm. diam.; limb 1 cm. diam. across the spreading lobes; lobes 4 mm. long, ovate to almost orbicular. Stamens 2, exceeding the tube. Capsule 3 mm. long, ovate, compressed.

This is a smaller and more compact plant than Petrie's Veronica cassinioides, which Cockayne and Allan (1934, p. 40) regard as H. buxifolia × lycopodiodes, and it was found it some quantity where the parent species intermingle on a flat ridge at 900 m. altitude on the Garvie Mountains.

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Hebe willcoxii (Petrie) Ckn. et Allan.

This species, which Cheeseman (1925, p. 810) considered “apparently rare in the wild state,” is a simple species characteristic of subalpine shrub associations and grass land at McKinnon Pass, at the Upper Cleddau Valley, and the mountains above the Homer and Eglinton Valleys. In lesser amount it occurs in the upper basins of the Routeburn River where the type specimens were collected, but it is again common in the upper basins of the Matukituki River at Hector's Col, Mount French, and other mountains near Mount Aspiring. Apparently its range in the Fiord Botanical District is wide. Wall (1927, p. 253) records it from Lewis Pass, where we did not find it, but where a glaucous plant, probably H. glaucophylla Ckn. is common on Mount Technical with H. traversii and a bewildering hybrid mixture. H. willcoxii is here separated from the earlier described H. cockayniana, which species we restrict to the North-Western Botanical District.

Hebe brockiei sp. nov.

Frutex parvus, H. willcoxii affinis; rami annotini fusci, hornotini virides, bifariam pubescentes. Folia conqesta, 1–3 cm. longa, 8 mm. lata, late obovata, subacuta, coriacea, nitentes, supra profunde concava, subtus obscure carinata. Racemi oppositi ex axillis foliorum superiorum orti; bracteae ovato-lanceolatae, acutae, 1 mm. longae, pedicelli breves, calyx 4-partitus, 2 mm. longus, tubum corollae excedens, segmentis acutis, corolla 5 mm. longa, tubus brevis, lobis late ovate-lanceolatis. Capsula late ovata, acuta, 4 mm. longa.

A small, much-branched, spreading, glabrous shrub 20–30 cm. high; older branches dark brown, rough by old leaf scars, leafy towards the tips; tips green, ringed with dark brown at the nodes, bifariously pubescent above the leaves. Leaves closely placed, spreading, 1–1·5 cm. long, 8 mm. broad, broadly obovate, obtuse, abruptly sub-apiculate, narrowed to a sessile base, coriaceous, light shining green and deeply concave above, lighter green, rounded and obscurely keeled beneath; margins yellowish, entire. Flowers in 2 opposite racemes near the tips of the branches; rhachis 2–4 cm. long, slender, purplish, pubescent, with few or many flowers crowded on the upper portion; pedicels short; bracts ovate lanceolate, acute, half the length of the calyx, membranous at the margins; calyx 4 partite, green, 2 mm. long, exceeding the corolla tube; segments ovate lanceolate, acute, with membraneous margins; corolla white, 5 mm. long, tube short; lobes broadly ovate lanceolate, obtuse, stamens½ the length of the lobes; style longer than the lobes. Capsule broadly ovate acute, 4 mm. long, compressed. Allied to H. willcoxii, but a much smaller plant.

Habitat: Grassland on hills between Amuri Pass and Lake Man, at the head of the Doubtful River, Canterbury, at 1200–1500 m. altitude.

Type in Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington.

This small shrub is plentiful at the type habitat, where it was discovered by Mr. W. B. Brockie, the enthusiastic collector in charge of the Native Plant Section at the Botanic Gardens, Christchurch.

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Hebe ramosissima sp. nov.

Suffrutex, H. petriei affinis, sed multo parvior, confertim ramosus, ramulis adscendentibus, foliis tectis; folia basi ferc connata, recurvata, 5 mm. longa, 2 mm. lata, late obovata, obtusa, supra concava, subtus obscure carinata, carnosa; spicae ramulis 2–4, terminales, 12 floribus; bracteae 4 mm. longae, obtusae; flores 8 mm. longi; 6 mm. diam.; calyx profunde 4-partitus; corollae tubus 5 mm. longus; lobis ovatis, 3 mm. longis. Capsula ovata, 5 mm. longa.

A prostrate, closely-branched, glabrous, softly woody plant forming closely-matted patches 20–30 cm. diam. Stems 10–20 cm. long, ± 2 mm. diam., heavily marked by old leaf scars, somewhat tortuous, rooting sparingly. Branches ascending, closely uniformly leafy, 7–8 mm. diam. with the leaves on. Leaves closely quadrifariously imbricating, opposite pairs almost connate at the base, wide spreading and recurved, 5 mm. long, 2 mm. broad, broadly obovate, obtuse, narrowed to a sessile base, concave and dark green above, lighter green and obscurely keeled below, fleshy; upper margins dark red, obscurely and coarsely toothed; lower margins finely ciliolate. Flowering heads terminal, about 12 flowered, loose, about 2 cm. long, 1–5 cm. diam., formed of reduced 2–4 flowered spikes. Flowers white, very shortly pediceled, ± 8 mm. long with the lobes spread, 6 mm. diam. across the lobes; bracts 4 mm. long, linear, obtuse, concave above, rounded below, red tipped; calyx 4 partite to the base, 4 mm. long; segments as the bracts; corolla tube longer, 5 mm. long, 2 mm. diam.; lobes 4, ovate, rounded or subacute, 3 mm. long, 1·5–2·5 mm. broad; stamens 2; slightly exceeding the tube; style shorter than or equalling the stamens. Ovary linear, 2 mm. long. Capsule ovate, obtuse, 5 mm. long, 2·5 mm. wide, laterally compressed, didymous.

Habitat: Moist debris on Mount Tapuaenuku, Inner Clarence Basin, Marlborough, 2150 m. altitude.

This small alpine species has some affinities with H. haastii and H. epacridea, but it appears to be still more closely related to H. petriei, which is, however, a very much larger spreading species.

Type specimens in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington.

Veronica dasyphylla T. Kirk.

As stated by Cockayne and Allan (1927, p. 42) in their discussion on Hebe dasyphylla, “This is a distinct but compound species,” and in various forms it has a considerable range. Plants of fellfield on the Garvie Mountains and of moist hollows on the Rock and Pillar Range are very similar to those represented by specimens in the Dominion Museum Herbarium collected by Buchanan from Black Peak and Mount Alta and by Speden from the Old Man Range, and minor differences, due to habitat conditions, are to be expected in specimens from widely different localities. The flowers are numerous, solitary and sessile in the axils of the upper leaves, not terminal as in all the descriptions, and they almost conceal the branches when in full bloom. The corolla is large 1–1·5 cm. diam. when spread, sometimes larger, diurnal. The varieties hereunder described are distinct forms, easily separated from those comparable in leaf size and shape with those of the type. Cheeseman erred in including it

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in the Hebe section in Veronica, and Cockayne and Allan (loc. cit.), then unaware of its peculiar dehiscence and following his placing, included it in the genus Hebe. In Pygmaea also the flowers are axillary and solitary near to the ultimate tips of the branchlets, not terminal.

—–var. minor nov.

Typo multo minor, ramulis gracilibus, sparse foliatis; folia 3 mm. longa, 2 mm. lata, ovata; corolla 1 cm. diam., tubus 3 mm. longus, lobis ovato-spathulatis.

Much smaller in all its parts as compared with the type. Branches laxly leafy, 4 mm. diam. with the leaves on, purplish, everywhere dotted with stiff, white, retrose hairs. Leaves small, 3 mm. long, 2 mm. broad, obovate, rounded at the tips, finely pubescent on both surfaces. Corolla 1 cm. diam. when spread; tube 3 mm. long; lobes of the limb ovate spathulate, rounded at the tips.

Habitat: Turfy hollows amongst low grasses and other vegetation on the summit of Mount St. Mary, Kurow, Waitaki Valley.

Type specimens in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington.

The slender, open, and laxly leafy habit, the small, rounded leaves, and smaller flowers of this plant separate it from all other forms near to the type.

—–var. subacuta. nov.

Typo minor, ramulis dense foliatis; folia 3 mm. longa, 1 mm. lata, lineari-lanceolata; flores utin var. minore.

Smaller than the type. Branches closely leafy, 4 mm. diam. with the leaves on, purplish, covered with stiff, spreading, or retrose hairs. Leaves smaller, 3 mm. long, 1 mm. broad, linear lanceolate, subacute, slightly spreading, minutely pubescent on both surfaces. Flowers as in var. minor.

Habitat: Peaty ridges at Rough Peaks, Lake Wakatipu.

Type specimens in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington.

Easily separated by its smaller size and by its small linear lanceolate leaves.

We are acquainted with this variety in other parts of the Lake Wakatipu District, and Wall's specimens in the Dominion Museum Herbarium, from Cecil Peak, belong here.

Veronica uniflora T. Kirk.

The small specimens in Buchanan's Herbarium at the Otago University Museum compare quite well with his description and drawing (1882, p. 347) of it as Logania armstrongii, and the calyx and ovary are pilose as figured. The type habitat, “Hector's Col, Mount Aspiring, 5000 ft. alt.” (Matukituki Saddle of the maps), and the slopes in its near vicinity have been visited by Petrie and others, and by the authors on different occasions, but the plant collected in 1881 has not been rediscovered. Much is still unknown of the vegetation on the steep faces rising to Mount Bevan and Mount Barff from the snow-filled ravine leading up to Hector's Col. and records of the occurrence of the plant at other stations must in the meantime be regarded as doubtful. Buchanan's specimens may

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be those of an epharmonic form, but they do not match, even nearly, any specimens or plants of V. dasyphylla we have seen. Young leaves have a few stiff pointed hairs standing up from their tips, the flowers are comparatively large, solitary, and sessile, and they appear to be axillary as in V. dasyphylla and other small species.

Veronica muelleri Buch.

A slender, prostrate, closely branched, softly woody plant, spreading and rooting to form dense patches 20 cm. or more in diam. Branches short, 2–4 cm. long, leafy tetragonous, 1·5 cm. diam. with the leaves on, ascending; stems slender, purplish, glabrous or with a few thick hairs. Leaves spreading, ·5–1 cm. long, 2–3 mm. broad, oblong or ovate or obovate spathulate, rounded or obtuse at the tip, narrowed to the petiole, almost or quite flat, entire or with 1–3 teeth on each side, glabrous, shining green on both surfaces; leaf tips and teeth with short stout apicals; petioles about½ the length of the blade, almost connate at the base. Flowers axillary, solitary or branched in pairs; pedicels short, about 1 mm., elongating to about 5 mm. in fruit, glabrous, purplish; bracts at the base of the pedicels, shorter and narrower than the leaves, entire; calyx 4–5 mm. long, divided to the base into 4 equal and open segments, or with 4 equal segments and a short narrow linear segment; equal segments obovate-spathulate, glabrous; corolla pink, 6–7 mm. long, exceeding the calyx 2 mm. or more, ephemeral, 4 lobed, slightly spreading, 4 mm. diam., patent to 8 mm. diam. when deciduous; lobes 2 mm. broad, broadly lanceolate obtuse, the anterior lobe orbicularspathulate and emarginate, 4 mm. broad and frequently split into 2 narrow segments; tube shorter than the calyx segments, 3 mm. long, 2 mm. diam., whitish; stamens 2, exceeding the tube,½ the length of the lobes; anthers large, pink, 2 lobed; style slender, equalling the stamens. Ovary 1 mm. diam., conical, slightly compressed, seated on a ringed disk. Capsule obcordate included in the calyx, 4 mm. long and broad, laterally much compressed, grooved at the septum, splitting simultaneously both loculicidally and septumically into 4 segments in dehiscence.

Habitat: Consolidated moraine, fans and debris slopes in upper basins of the western branch of the Matukituki River at Hector's Col. Altitude 700–1400 m. Specimens have been deposited in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington. This species is described as a straggling plant with a terminal inflorescence, and the plate shows an elongated corolla tube, 4 lobed wide-spreading limb and a carpel with a didymous dehiscence, but the straggling habit is not apparent, and the stems and branches intermingle closely. The flowers, apparently terminal, are axillary, the corolla tube is distinctly shorter than the calyx, and the lobes spread widely only when deciduous. Buchanan no doubt figured a corolla raised from the receptacle, and assumed the method of dehiscence.

Veronica plano-petiolata sp. nov.

V. muelleri affinis, sed differt ramulis rubicundis pilosis, foliis atris vel rubicundis, petiolis planis, floribus albis, calyce breve piloso.

A slender, prostrate, closely branched softly woody plant, spreading and rooting to form dense patches 20 cm. or more in diam.;

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branches short 2–4 cm. long, leafy tetragonous, about 1 cm. diam. with the leaves on; stems ascending, slender, purple, pubescent. Leaves spreading, ± 6 mm. long, 2 mm. broad, ovate-spathulate, subacute, narrowed to the petiole, almost or quite flat, entire or with a stout tooth on each side, somewhat fleshy, glabrous and shining, dark green changing to purple, petiole equalling or shorter than the blade, flat, 1 mm. broad, widening at the almost connate base, reddish.

Flowers axillary, solitary or 2 together; pedicels short, 1 mm. long, slightly elongating in fruit, sparingly pilose, purplish; bracts unequal, the larger one 4 mm. long, oblong-spathulate, entire, green, ciliolate on the margins, the smaller one 1 mm. long, linear, obtuse; calyx 4 mm. long, 4 partite to the base, openly divided; segments linear spathulate, obtuse, outer surfaces pilose; margins ciliolate; tube 2 mm. diam., equalling the calyx; limb white, 4 partite, 8 mm. long, 5–6 mm. diam. across the spreading lobes; lobes almost orbicular, the anterior one emarginate, sometimes split at the centre. Stamens 2, very slender, equally the tube; style slender, equalling the stamens. Ovary minute, globose, seated on a ringed disk. Capsule not seen.

Habitat: Debris slopes and fans on Mount McPherson, head of the Homer Valley, at 1400–1700 m. altitude.

Type specimens, collected by Mr. Owen Fletcher, in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington.

This plant differs from V. muelleri by its reddish, sparsely pilose stems, its dark green or reddish leaves, widish flattened petioles, white flowers, and short, pilose calyx. The large lobe frequently splits at the centre in a manner similar to that of V. muelleri.

Veronica laxa sp. nov.

Suffrutex parvissimus, graclis parce ramosus, prostratus; ramuli 3–4 cm. longi, tenues, nonnihil purpurei, sparse pubescentes, pilis subpatentibus; folia 6–10 mm. longa, 4–6 mm. lata, late ovata vel fere orbiculata, nonnumquam obovata, 1–3 dentata vel integra; flores in axillis ramulorum, solitarii vel 2 conjunctim; bracteae 6 mm. longae, 3 mm. latae, obtusae, calyx 6 mm. longus, profunde 4-partitus, pubescens, segmentis obtusis; corolla alba, 8 mm. longa, 8 mm. diam., tubus calyce brevior, 4 mm. longus, lobis orbiculatis. Capsula obcordata, 4 mm. longa.

A slender, prostrate, laxly-branched, semi-woody plant, spreading and rooting to form loose patches 20 cm. or more diam. Branches short 3–4 cm. long, slender, purplish, thinly pubescent, with short, spreading, upturned hairs. Leaves varying greatly in size and shape 6–10 mm. long, 4–6 mm. broad, broadly ovate to almost orbicular or sometimes obovate, irregularly 1–3 toothed or lobed, or occasionally obovate spathulate and entire, rounded at the tip or subacute, rounded or narrowed to the petiole, fleshy, most minutely pubescent; petiole about half the length of the blade, narrow, flat, thickened and almost connate at the base. Flowers in the axils of the branches, solitary, or 2 together; bracts 6 mm. long, 3 mm. broad, obovate spathulate, obtuse; petiole 2 mm. long, purplish, pubescent; calyx 6 mm. long, 4 partite to the base, pubescent as the leaves; segments obovate spathulate, obtuse, entire or with one shallow notch at each side; corolla white, 8 mm. long, 8 mm. diam. with the limb spread, tube

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Fig. 1–Senerio bennettii.

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Fig. 2–Senerio cockaynei.

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shorter than the calyx, 4 mm. long, 2 mm. diam.; lobes 4, orbicular, 2 mm. broad; stamens 2, equalling the calyx; style equalling the stamens. Capsule obcordate, 4 mm. long, 4 mm. broad, laterally compressed, included in the calyx, dividing into 4 valves.

Habitat: Fine debris amongst rocks of moraine on the floor of the Homer Valley basin, near the tunnel, with Myosotis lyallii, at 800 m. altitude.

This plant was discovered by Mr. Owen Fletcher in 1939, and Mr. Coombs' specimens, now in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington, have fruits and a few late flowers.


Pratia perpusilla Hook. f.

Flowers are shortly stalked, 1 cm. long, 8 mm. diam. across the spreading lobes; calyx 5 mm. long, everywhere covered with short white bristly hairs; segments 2 mm. long, narrow, subulate, persistent. Berry ± 3 mm. diam., globose, green, indehiscent. Seeds numerous, minute, broadly oblong, brown. Hooker included this plant in Pratia with the reservation “Fruit not seen.” Our specimens in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington, were collected at the end of March, 1941, from hollows in fixed dunes at Wickliffe Bay, Otago Peninsula.


Olearia capillaris (T. Kirk) Ckn. et Allan X lacunosa Hook. f. = O. sauvis Cheesem.

O. capillaris is a small-leaved tree with papery-barked tortuous branches and on Mount Arthur it is found near streams with O. lacunosa. The species hybridise freely and they produce a curiously diverse progeny. This origin for Cheeseman's species, rather than O. arborescens × lacunosa as listed by Cockayne and Allan (1934, p. 50), was suggested to us by Mr. F. G. Gibbs prior to our visit to the mountain.

Olearia avicenniaefolia (Raoul) Hook. f. × Celmisia du rietzii (Ckn. et Allan) Martin.

A branching, leafy, woody shrub to ·5 m. high, with the branches, scapes and petioles purplish and finely pubescent, branches 4–5 mm. diam., covered with the older withered leaves. Leaves alternate, 7–10 cm. long, 1·5–2 cm. broad, oblong, petiolate, gradually narrowed to the petiole, narrowly rounded at the tip, thin and flaccid, light shining green above, finely pubescent and somewhat viscid; pale with a bluish-white, closely-appressed tomentum beneath, the purplish midrib prominent, and the veining evident; margins sinuate between small, green, distantly-spaced hydothodes; petioles 2 mm. diam., grooved above, rounded beneath, ± 1·5 cm. long, with a short sheathing base 5 mm. broad. Scapes 2–3 to each branch from the axils of the lower leaves, 6 or more flowered, 20 cm. long, less than 2 mm. diam., peduncles alternate from obovate spathulate cauline leaves, variously lengthened to form a laxly corymbose inflorescence, naked or with one or more small linear pubescent bracts. Heads 2·5 cm. diam., involucre oblong, rounded at the base, 6 mm. long, 4 mm. diam.; involucral scales in 3 unequal series, ovate lanceolate, acute, pubescent, membraneous or finely ciliate at the margins; ray florets

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in 2 series, white, 1·8 cm. long, 3 mm. broad, linear obovate, rounded at the tip; disc florets with 5 triangular pointed reflexed lobes. Achenes 2 mm. long, linear, terete, or slightly compressed, scabrid. Pappus hairs strict, scabrid, shorter than the florets.

This puzzling hybrid was discovered by Mr. James Speden, of Gore, on hillsides above the Hostel at Arthur Pass Township, and he has kept it in cultivation. Specimens in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington, are from Mr. Speden's plant, and cuttings from it are in cultivation.

It is not possible to be certain of the parentage, and attempts at seed germination have as yet been unsuccessful, but the parents we have nominated are extremely common where the plant was discovered, and its growth and general appearance are such as might be expected from their cross.

Celmisia ramulosa Hook. f. var. tuberculata nov.

Folia semi-patentia, angustiora, rigidiora, crassioraque quam in typo, marginibus revolutis, fere ad costis; pagina superiora tuberculata; bracteae involucris rubicundae apice versim; ligulae lineare-oblongae, obtusae, apicibus incurvis.

Adult leaves semi-patent, narrower and more closely imbricating, rigid, and coriaceous than those of the species; margins strongly revolute; under surface tomentose; upper surface and margins tuberculate and dotted with stout hairs. Flowers with longer and slender peduncles; peduncles ± 5 cm. long, purple, covered with stiff hairs; bracts swollen at the base, involucral bracts red tipped; ray flowers linear oblong, 1·5 cm. or longer, 2 mm. broad, obtuse, thickened and incurved at the tip.

The variety is common on many of the mountains on the eastern side of South Island, where it replaces the more showy form of the western districts, and no doubt it is the form with patent leaves mentioned by Cheeseman (1925, p. 936) as sent to him by Cockayne.

Type specimen from Rough Peaks, Lake Wakatipu, in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington.

Celmisia haastii Hook. f. var. tomentosa nov.

Omnino ut in typo, extra tenuem chartaceum tomentum superiore pagina.

Similar to the type in shape and habit, but the upper surface white with a thin papery tomentum.

Habitat: Moist slopes near runnels on the Rock and Pillar Range, Otago, 1200–1500 m. altitude.

Type specimen in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington. The plant spreads close on the ground to form patches of considerable size, exactly in the manner of the species, and its white upper surface is conspicuous at some distance.

Celmisia polyvena sp. nov.

Suffrutex parvus, caulibus firmis; folia subpatentes, 6–7 cm. longa, 3–4 mm. lata, linearia apice obtusa, subcoriacea, supra subtusque dense tomentosa, costis venisque prominentibus; vaginae

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3–4 cm. longae, 8–10 mm. latae, tenues, tomentosae; scapi 10–15 cm. longi, graciles; bracteae numerosae, lineari-lanceolatae, argenteo-tomentosae. Capitula non visi.

A small laxly-tufted plant forming patches to ·5 m. diam. Stems stout, 1–2 cm. diam. with the leaves on. Leaves spreading, 6–9 cm. long, 3–4 mm. broad, linear, narrowed to an obtuse tip, wrinkled above, thickened at the base, subcoriaceous, densely cottony tomentose on both surfaces; with the midrib branching in veins to the margins, prominent; sheaths 3–4 cm. long, 8–10 mm. broad, thin, woolly tomentose. Scapes 10–15 cm. long, slender, with many linear, lanceolate, silvery tomentose bracts. Heads not seen.

Habitat: Peat slopes with Oreobolus and other bog vegetation.

Type specimen from Table Hill, Stewart Island, in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington.

In recording this plant as C. linearis, Cockayne (1909, p. 63) mentioned the conspicuously veined under-surface of the leaves and the “closely leaved flower bud,” and he recorded another closely allied but smaller plant on Mount Rakiahua.

C. polyvena is probably an endemic of Stewart Island, and its characteristic veining separates it from any other species we are acquainted with. We have not seen the smaller plant recorded by Cockayne.

Celmisia clavata sp. nov.

C. sessiliflorae aliquantalum affinis, sed ramulis clavatis, foliis erectis, rigidis, arte imbricatis, differt. Suffrutex ad 10 cm. altus; ramuli foliis annotinis vestiti, clavati, arte foliati; folia linearia, 6 mm. longa, vix 1 mm. lata, striata, basim varsus purpurea; capitula 1·5 cm. diam., terminalia, foliis circumdata; bracteae ± 25, subaequales, lineari-lanceolatae; achenia pubescentia.

A semi-woody, branching plant to 10 cm. high, forming loose patches 10–30 cm. diam.; branches clothed with the remains of old leaves, rebranching closely at the tips; branchlets 3 cm. long, 1 cm. diam. with the leaves on, clavate, rounded at the tips, most densely leafy. Leaves linear, 6 mm. long, less than 1 mm. broad, erect, rigid, and closely imbricating, irregularly thickened and ridged on both sides, suddenly and bluntly pointed, silvery by a fine silky tomentum; base membranous, purplish, rather longer and broader than the blade, more or less woolly tomentose. Heads 1·5 cm. diam., terminal, solitary, sunken amongst the uppermost leaves, involucral bracts ± 25, about equal, linear lanceolate, membranous, silky at the tips. Ray florets few. Achenes silky.

Habitat: Peat bogs on the mountains of Stewart Island.

Type specimen from Table Hill, Stewart Island, in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington.

C. clavata, probably a Stewart Island endemic, has been variously recorded as C. sessiliflora or C. argentea, but its semi-woody character, its densely leafy clavate branches, and its erect, rigid, closely-imbricating leaves, are very distinct and not to be confused with those of any other species.

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Raoulia petriensis Kirk.

Kirk's description (1877, p. 549) and that of Cheeseman (1925, p. 974) could be taken as describing different plants; Kirk's a “hard, densely tufted species,” and Cheeseman's “Forming laxly branched patches.” In the original habitat—Mount St. Bathans—and on Mount Ida the branches are very hard, but laxly branched, and Kirk would be deceived by a close branching of new shoots from the tips of the specimens collected by Petrie. The branches are 4 mm. diam., the leaves 6 mm. × 3 mm., rather widely spaced, closely appressed to the stem, deeply concave and woolly above, rounded beneath and the tips spreading, thick and coriaceous.

The branches of our specimens from the Kurow Mountains are smaller, ±3 mm. diam., and they remain slender in cultivation.

Helichrysum selago var. tumida Cheesem.

Cheeseman's description is brief: “Branches stout, almost matching those of H. coralloides,” but the branches of H. coralloides are ± 7 mm. diam., those of H. selago ± 2 mm. and of var. tumida ± 4 mm. The leaf series and the inflorescence of C. selago and of var. tumida are much alike, the flower heads of both are 5 mm. long, that of the species 3 mm. diam. at the involucre, exceeding the diameter of the branches, and of var. tumida 4 mm., equally the branches. H. coralloides and H. selago var. tumida are in no manner alike.

Senecio bellidioides Hook. f. var. orbiculatus nov.

Herba glabra; folia omnino radicalia, 6 cm. longa vel longiora, ± 3 cm. lata; petioli crassi, virides, vaginis purpureis, laminis orbiculatis, subcoriaceis, supra nitentibus, rugosis, subtus pallidioribus venis prominentibus.

A bright green, glabrous semi-coriaceous plant; rootstock stout, rhizomatous, closely rooted, covered by the remains of earlier leaves, branching to form dense clumps. Leaves radical, 6 cm. or more long, more or less 3 cm. broad; petiole stout, 3 mm. broad, as long as or much longer than the blade, green, grooved above, rounded beneath, widened to a purplish sheathing base ± 8 mm. broad; blade orbicular, quite glabrous, subcoriaceous, shining green above, rugose by sunken veining, obscurely sinuate at the margins between many inconspicuous pale brown hydathodes; lighter green below and the midrib and principal veins prominent. Scapes one or two, 1 flowered, 10–15 cm. long, fully 1 mm. diam., reddish, thinly pubescent, with 6–10 linear lanceolate acute bracts. Heads ± 3 cm. diam., involucre oblong, rounded at the base, 7 mm. diam.; bracts in 2 series, linear oblong, membranous at the margins, subacute; ray florets 2 cm. long, 4 mm. broad, obovate-oblong, 2–3 toothed at the tip, bright yellow. Achenes linear, terete, rounded at the base, truncate at the tip, striate, glabrous; pappus hairs scabrid.

Habitat: Grassland and subalpine scrub on the Garvie Mountains at 1200–1500 m. altitude, common.

Type specimen in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington, collected from the type habitat.

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—– Hook. f. var. setosus nov.

Herba rhizomata, omnino dense setose-pilosa; folia radicalia 6–10 cm. longa, 3–5 cm. lata, laminis late ovatis vel obovatis, marginibus incrassatis.

A light green, softly-leaved plant, everywhere densely clothed with setose glandular hairs, rootstock stout, 1 cm. diam., rhizomous, closely rooted, rough by old leaf scars. Leaves radical, 6–10 cm. long, 3–5 cm. broad; petiolate stout, ± 3 mm. wide, as long as the blade, purple or purplish, deeply grooved above, rounded beneath, widened to 1 cm. at the base, prominent under the blade; blade broadly ovate or obovate, rough above by sunken reticulations, closely obscurely lobed; margins thickened, pale brown; hydathodes many, dark brown, evident; under surface reticulation prominent. Scapes several from the axils of the lower leaves, 1 flowered, 10–15 cm. long, stout, 2 mm. diam., reddish, with 4–5 linear obovate spathulate bracts. Heads ± 3 cm. diam.; involucre broadly obconical, 1 cm. diam.; bracts in 2 series, numerous, linear oblong, rounded at the tips; ray florets 1·5 cm. long, 2 mm. broad, round tipped, bright yellow, red-brown below. Achenes terete, rounded at the base, truncate at the tip, striate, glabrous; pappus hairs scabrid.

Habitat: Subalpine scrub and grassland on Mount Fyffe, Kaikoura Mountains.

Type in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington.

Senecio cochlearis sp. nov.

Herba usque ad 40 cm. alta; radices incrassatae; folia omnino radicalia, 15–30 cm. longa, laminis 3–20 cm. longis, 2–4 cm. vel ultra latis, anguste-ovatis vel ovatis, basi rotundatis vel subtruncatis vel fere cordatis, marginibus incrassatis, ciliatis, supra strigose-pilosis pubescentibusque; scapi 20–30 cm. longi, scabridi, ramosi; bracteae lineares vel lineari-ovatae, 1–5 cm. longae; capitula ± 3 cm. diam., bracteus linearibus, pubescentibus; ligulae lineares, obtusae, 2·5–3 cm. longae; achenia linearia, 2 m. longa, glabra.

A herbaceous plant; rootstock short, stout, clothed with the fibrous remains of old leaves, closely and deeply rooted. Leaves radical, 15–30 cm. long; blade as long or much longer than the petiole, varying in shape and size, 3–20 cm. long, 2–4 cm. or more broad, ovate, or more usually linear ovate, obtuse or subacute, rounded, or almost truncate, sometimes cordate at the base and usually unequal, thin, pale green on both sides or sometimes purplish beneath, the under-surface veins purplish and evident, and the midrib prominent toward the base; margins thickened or recurved, ciliate, sinuate, sometimes with a few coarse teeth, the hydothodes dark and prominent or rather long; upper surface dotted with stoutly pointed, jointed, and strigose bristles interspersed with finer ones, slender; petiole purplish, more or less coarsely pubescent and dotted with purplish bristles. Scapes 20–30 cm. long, green or purplish, scabrid, branched, 4–6 flowered; bracts linear or linear ovate, 1–5 cm. long, 1–3 mm. broad. Heads ± 3 cm. diam.; involucral scales linear oblong, coarsely pubescent; ray florets linear, obtuse, 2·5–3 cm. long, 2 mm. broad; disc florets tubular; pappus hairs scabrid. Achenes linear 2 mm. long, ribbed, glabrous.

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Type specimens in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington, collected from banks at road cuttings westward of the Ohikinui River, Lower Buller River Valley, Nelson.

Senecio scorzoneroides Hook. f.

Cheeseman (1925, p. 1015) refers to the ray florets as “variable in colour, white to yellow or pale-salmon.” The florets are invariably white, sometimes “pale salmon” in withering, and in hybrid forms with S. lyallii they are usually more or less lemon coloured.

Senecio cockaynei sp. nov.

S. rotundifolio similis sed caulibus fragilibus, purpureis, inflorescentiis virgatis differt. Frutex ramosus, ramis aetate glabris, sub-angalatis; folia pētiolis pubescentibus; 1–2 cm. longis, laminis 4–6 cm. longis, 3–4 cm. latis, oblongis vel obovatis, obtusis, basim versus angustatis supra glabris, subtus appresse-tomentosis; panicula rigida, ramulis dense tomentosis; bracteae inferiores foliatae; ± 3 cm. longae, superiores parvae ad minutae; capitula cylindrica, 1 cm. longa, 4 mm. diam., bracteis lineari-lanceolatis; achenia linearia, striata, pilosa.

A small, softly-woody shrub to about 1 m. high, branching from the base. Branches erect or spreading, brittle, bronze-green or purplish, glabrous or unevenly matted with the remains of early pubescence, ribbed in decurrent lines from the bases of the alternate leaves; young tips finely pubescent. Leaves with pubescent grooved petioles 1–2 cm. long, base swollen, reddish, blade 4–6 cm. long, 3–4 cm. broad, oblong or obovate, rounded or obtuse at the tip, or the young leaves sub-acute, narrowed to and usually unequal at the petiole; upper surface green and glabrous; under surface with the midrib prominent, clothed with a thin, closely appressed, silvery or greyish tomentum barely concealing the veins and the reticulation; margins obscurely toothed and repand; youngest leaves fulvous. Panicles rigid, terminating the older branches, densely woolly tomentose near the tips and on the inflorescence, unevenly so towards the base; lower bracts leafy ± 3 cm. long, 1 cm. broad, upper ones reducing to almost minute towards the tips. Pedicels rather slender, 1 mm. diam., ·5–2 cm. long or sometimes longer, bracteolate. Heads cylindrical or slightly narrowed towards the top, 1 cm. long, 4 mm. diam.; receptacle discoid, pitted; involucral bracts 8, linear-lanceolate, acute or subacute, naked, shining and concave within, tips reddish, margins membraneous; female florets 0; disc florets about 20; limb companulate, deeply 5 lobed. Achenes capitate, rounded at the base, linear, 3 mm. long, grooved, pilose. Pappus hairs scabrid.

Habitat: Coastal stations at Westhaven, West Wanganui Inlet, Nelson. Specimens of this species deposited in the Herbarium of the Plant Research Bureau, Wellington, are from plants in cultivation, collected at the type habitat.

Cockayne (1918, p. 183) in part described this plant from specimens without flowers collected by Mr. B. C. Aston at Westhaven. Its brittle purplish stems and its stiffly erect branching inflorescence are very distinct.

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Senecio bennettii sp. nov.

S. elaeagnifolio aliquantum similis, sed foliis apice versus angustatis, nitentibus, subtus parce tomentosis, paniculis laxe ramosis. Frutex (vel arbuscula) ad 3 m. altus, ramulis hornotinis appresse tomentosis; petiolils 5 cm. longi; laminae 5–10 cm. longae, 3–5 cm. latae, elliptico-oblongae, subcoriaceae, supraglabra, subtus tomentosae, venis distinctis; panicula 25 cm. longa; bracteae inferiores ± 5 cm. longae, superiores fere fili formes; capitula 1–5 cm. longa, discoidea, bracteis lineari-lanceolatis; achenia linearia, striata, pilosa.

An erect or spreading, closely-branched shrub or small tree to 3 m. high. Branches ribbed in decurrent lines from the bases of the alternate leaves and, with the petioles, under-surface of the leaves and the inflorescence, densely clothed with a thin closely appressed whitish tomentum. Leaves on grooved petioles 2·5–5 cm. long from a dark green swollen base; blade 5–10 cm. long, 3–5 cm. broad, elliptic-oblong, abruptly narrowed to the tip, obtuse, narrowed to and usually unequal at the petiole, obscurely repand, concave, sub-coriaceous, glabrous and shining dark green above with the veins evident, midrib and slender veins prominent below and the reticulation visible through an appressed and shining grey or silvery tomentum; petioles about half the length of the blade, swollen and green at the base. Panicles terminal, rather slender, ± 5 mm. diam. at the base, 25 cm. long, laxly pyramidally branched at leafy bracts. Bracts at the lower branches of the panicle narrowly leafy, ± 5 cm. long, 5 mm. broad, with a petiole as long as the blade or longer; upper bracts reducing in size and the upper ones almost filiform, 1 cm. long. Pedicels 1–1·5 cm. long, bracteolate. Heads truncately conical ± 1·5 cm. long, 6 mm. diam. at the base, narrowed to about 4 mm. at the top, discoid; receptacle pitted; involucral bracts 10–12, linear-lanceolate, semi-acute, naked, shining and concave within, patent after the achenes are shed; female florets 3–5, tubular, with the mouth notched; disc florets 25–30 with a campanulate deeply 5 lobed limb. Achenes linear, capitate, ribbed, 3 mm. long, rounded at the base, pilose; pappus hairs scabrid, spreading, about 4 mm. long.

Type specimens—from upper forest margins, Mount Cargill, near Dunedin—600 m. altitude, in the Herbarium, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington.

The larger shrubby Senecios of South Island and Stewart Island, hitherto recorded in the literature as S. eleagnifolius, are not yet sufficiently known, and S. bennettii must meanwhile be regarded as a composite of two or more closely-related forms. The plant described and figured is found at upper forest margins on the eastern side of the divide, and a closely-related form with obovate and frequently much larger leaves fringes also the coastal rocks of the western fiords and the near tidal banks of the Rakiahua River, Stewart Island.

We have not seen S. eleagnifolius in South Island, and S. bennettii differs from that species in its narrower, dark green, shining leaves, their thinly tomentose under surfaces, and in its laxly branched terminal panicles. It is named in honour of Mr. H. Bennett, of Broadacres, North-East Valley, Dunedin, who first drew our attention to its distinct characters.

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S. rotundifolius (Forst. f.) Hook. f. var. ambiguus Cheesem.

Cheeseman's (1925, p. 1026) reference to Cockayne's (1918, p. 183) opinion regarding the affinities of this plant is irrelevant, as that author's notes concerned the much smaller and very different S. cockaynei of this paper.

The description unquestionably indicates the Cape Foulwind plant which we have seen in its habitat, and Dr. W. McKay, who has it in cultivation at Greymouth, knows of its occurrence southward along the coast to Barrytown. Cheeseman's (loc. cit.) description is brief, but sufficient for identification. At Cape Foulwind it is 2–3 m. high, with thick, sub-coriaceous leaves 15–20 cm. long, 6–8 cm. broad, obovate or more usually broadly obovate, usually repand, narrowed to a stout petiole half the length of the blade.


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