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Volume 72, 1942-43
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New Records of Collembola from New Zealand, with Descriptions of New Genera and Species.
Part I. Collembola. Arthropleona.

[Read before the Wellington Branch, September 23, 1942; received by the Editor, September 28, 1942; issued separately, March, 1943.]

Twelve new species and two new genera are added to the New Zealand Collembolan fauna by this paper, which also contains notes on the distribution of a number of known species. In many cases these notes are of particular interest, as they extend the distribution of species previously known only from the South Island to the North Island as well.

Family Achorutidae.

Sub-family Achorutinae.
Genus Triacanthella Schaeffer.

Two further species of this genus have now been discovered in New Zealand, bringing the total number of species of Triacanthella known from the New Zealand region up to six. These may be separated according to the following key:—

1. Ocelli eight on each side, of which none are rudimentary. 2
Ocelli eight on each side, of which two are reduced. 4
2. Claw without any teeth, clothing of strongly serrated setae. T. setacea Salmon.
Claw with inner and outer teeth. 3
3. Clothing of simple setae; postantennal organ with four lobes, dens with apical scale-like lobe. T. rubra Salmon.
Some of the setae serrated, postantennal organ with five lobes, dens without apical scale-like lobe. T. purpurea sp. nov.
4. Empodial appendage absent, postantennal organ with four lobes. T. rosea Wahlgren.
Empodial appendage present but rudimentary. 5
5. Claw without any inner teeth, a single distinctly clavate tenent hair to each foot, mucro with apical lobe and dens with apical scale-like lobe. T. alba Carpenter.
Claw with two inner teeth, no clavate tenent hairs, dens without apical scale-like lobe. T. terrasilvaticas sp. nov.

Triacanthella setacea Salmon, 1941.

This species has now been found in leaf mould at Buller's Bush, Levin, by the author, thus extending its distribution to include the North Island as well as the South Island.

Triacanthella purpurea sp. nov. Pl. 40, figs. 1–5.

Colour: In life dark-reddish-violet to purple or dark-bluish violet, fading to light- or dark-red in spirit.

Clothing: Numerous long and short setae; the long setae particularly around the posterior portion of the abdomen about 3–4 times as long as the short setae. Many of the long setae are coarsely and irregularly serrated.

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Body: Length up to 1.5 mm. Antennae shorter than the head. Ant. IV with three (sometimes four) exsertile knobs at the tip. On the dorso-lateral anterior extremity of Ant. III there is a sensory organ, consisting of two short curved sense rods, each arising from a shallow pit. Eight large equal ocelli to each side on clear fields, but each dark-pigmented in itself. Postantennal organ twice as long as an ocellus., with central boss, four peripheral lobes and one elevated lobe. Two long curved dorsal anal spines, each on a basal papilla about as long as itself. Below these there is a single smaller, slightly curved terminal spine mounted on a broad papilla. The terminal spine and papilla equal to half the anal spine and papilla in length. Cuticle coarsely granulate. Rami of tenaculum each with three teeth.

Legs: Claw with two inner teeth, one at about one-third and the other at a half down; and two outer lateral teeth, one to each side, at about halfway down from base. Empodial appendage rudimentary, but more developed than in T. rubra. A single faintly clavate tenent hair to each foot. This hair appears to be rather hooked than clavate. It is shorter than the claw.

Furcula: Manubrium short and stout, shorter than mucrodens. Mucro with blunt, curved apical tooth and sharper, taller pre-apical tooth connected to base by a broad lamella. Dens without apical scale-like lobe.

Localities: Titahi Bay, under driftwood and debris on the coast; Makara, under stones along the coast; Island Bay, Wellington, amongst rocks; (Author's Coll.); Red Rocks, Cook Strait, beaten from foliage (coll. by R. Forster).

Type: Slide 3/1188. Dominion Museum Collection.

Remarks: This species when found occurs in “nests” or clumps of individuals all tangled together. It is readily recognised in life by its distinctive dark colour.

Triacanthella terrasilvatica sp. nov. Plate 40, figs. 6–11.

Colour: In life pale-reddish-violet or pale-bluish-violet, fading to pale-pink or very pale-bluish-white in spirit.

Clothing: Numerous short and many relatively long serrated setae; those of Abds. V and VI may be as long as the depth of the segment. The degree of serration of the setae varies from slight on some individuals to very strong on others.

Body: Length up to 1.5 mm. Antennae slightly shorter than the head, the four segments related as 4:4:4:7. Ant. IV with two exsertile knobs at apex; Ant. III with sensory organ as in purpurea. Eight ocelli to each side, of which six are large and equal, and the remaining two, the posterior inner two, very slightly reduced in size. Postantennal organ with central boss and four peripheral lobes, the whole slightly larger than anterior ocellus. Rami of tenaculum each with three teeth. Cuticle coarsely granulate. A pair of large curved dorsal anal spines, equal to the hind claw in length, and a single shorter terminal anal spine below these. All mounted on papillae, the dorsal papillae four-fifths the length of their respective spines, the papilla of the terminal spine equalling the spine in length. All these anal spines are curved and relatively longer than the spines of T. rubra.

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Legs: Claw with two inner teeth, one at one-quarter and the other halfway down from base. Two strong outer teeth, one to each side, at about one-fifth back from apex of claw. No tenent hairs.

Furcula: Mucrodens only slightly longer than manubrium. Dens with one exceptionally long basal seta and several smaller ones. Mucro as in the preceding species, but with apical tooth not quite so strongly curved and pre-apical tooth broader.

Locality: Johnson's Hill, Karori, in damp bush soil just below the layer of leaf mould in the bush. Occurs as single individuals and not very easy to detect. (Author's Coll.) Masterton on surface of puddles in concrete path, in vast numbers. (Coll. by Miss I. Tankersley.)

Type: Slide 3/1239, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Achorutes Templeton.

Achorutes armatus Nicolet, 1841.

This species may now be considered as generally distributed throughout the country and very common. An interesting locality was on the surface of a swimming pool in Auckland, collected by W. Cottier.

Achorutes longispinus Tullberg, 1876.

This species was collected recently from foliage at Red Rocks, Cook Strait, by R. Forster.

Achorutes pseudopurpurascens Womersley, 1928.

Like armatus, this species can now be regarded as common and generally distributed throughout the country.

Achorutes morbillatus Salmon, 1941.

Now reported from the North Island being taken under the bark of beech trees at Akatarawa by R. Forster.

Achorutes rossi Salmon, 1941.

Recently this species was brought to me as doing damage in a garden at Karori, Wellington, where it appeared in such enormous numbers that it could be swept up by the bucketful from the concrete paths, around and under which it apparently was breeding. It was controlled by application of nicotine sulphate.

Achorutes viaticus Tullberg, 1872.

Bagnall in 1941 studied the viaticus group of Achorutes in England, and set up two new species, separating the true viaticus of Tullberg from the others as being the only one of the group with the rami of the tenaculum bearing four teeth. Recently my attention was focussed on this by the discovery of a species of the viaticus group forming a black scum over brackish pools among the rocks at Rocky Bay, Titahi Bay, Wellington. This proved to be a new species, with the rami of the tenaculum bearing only three teeth. Re-examination of the other New Zealand material previously reported by me as being Achorutes viaticus Tullb., reveals that this is not the true viaticus as shown by Bagnall, but belongs also to the new species, which I am calling A. titahiensis. In 1909 Carpenter

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reported A. viaticus from Macquarie Island, but whether this was the true viaticus or not cannot be fixed from his published statement, and the specimens upon which he based his identification are not available.

Achorutes titahiensis sp. nov. Plate 40, figs. 12–21.

[Achorutes viaticus Tullb. (in part), Salmon 1937, 1941, not of Tullb.]

Colour: Black all over.

Clothing: Evenly clothed with short setae, which are bent over at one-third along their length and sometimes apically serrated. These are interspersed with longer, straight, stout setae, which are finely serrated on their apical half. The long setae on Abd. IV 0.3 the length of the segment.

Body: Length up to 1.75 mm. Antennae shorter than the head. Ant. IV apically with sensory knob in pit, accessory cone with sense rod and three slightly curved sensory setae. Ant. III with sensory organ situated near joint with fourth segment, and consisting of two sense clubs, each arising from a small pit and separated from each other by a low cuticular fold; the whole flanked on either side by a longer, straighter sense rod. The sense rod on one side is very much more removed from the sense clubs than is the other. Ocelli eight to each side, all equal. Postantennal organ larger than an ocellus, with central boss and 4–5 peripheral lobes. Abd. VI with a pair of small, slightly curved anal spines, each on a basal papilla about one-third to one-half the length of the spine; the spines without the papillae one-fourth to one-fifth the length of the hind claw. Papillae of anal spines may be touching basally or separated up to one and a-half times the width of their bases. Rami of tenaculum each with three teeth.

Legs: Claw with one prominent inner tooth at about half way down, and a pair of small outer teeth, one to each side at about one-quarter back from apex. Empodial appendage needle-like, from half to two-thirds length of claw, with narrow outer lamella and broad inner lamella reaching approximately halfway down. Tenent hairs weakly clavate, in line across the foot, with two to the front feet and three to each of the others, the central one tending to be longer and stouter than the other two.

Furcula: Mucrodens and manubrium of approximately equal length. Dens with one very long basal seta and 5–6 shorter setae. Mucro strongly curved, with apical blunt tooth and broad inner basal lamella, which may be plain but generally carries a sharp and deep incurve at ⅔ from base. Usually there is a smaller, very blunt tooth-like projection in the centre of the apical curve of the lamella. Basal portion of the lamella frequently wavy.

Localities: Titahi Bay, forming a black scum on the surface of brackish pools among the rocks, Rocky Bay; Island Bay, Wellington, amongst the roots of tidal grasses; Silverstream, South Karori, under stones in the stream bed (Author's Coll.); Papanui. Christchurch, on the surface of an unused well (Coll. E. W. Moore).

Type: Slide 3/1216 and Figured Paratypes Slides 3/1205 and 3/1214, Dominion Museum Collection.

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Genus Pseudontella Salmon.

Pseudontella forsteri Salmon, 1942. Recently I have obtained this peculiar species from amongst leaf mould, Johnson's Hill. Karori.

Sub-family Neanurinae.
Tribe Neanurini.
Genus Neanura MacGillivray.

Neanura muscorum Templeton, 1835.

Neanura rosacea (Schott, 1917).

These two species now can be reported as common and generally distributed throughout the country. They may be found in leaf mould, in old logs, and frequently under the bark of trees.

Neanura newmani (Womersley, 1933).

This species must now be recorded from the North Island at Ohakune, where it was found in old logs. (Coll. T. R. Harris.)

Family Onychiuridae.

Sub-family Tullberginae Bagnall.

Bagnall, in 1935, while studying the British Tullberginae, gave one of the characters of this sub-family as “the fact that in no position is there more than 1 + 1 pseudocelli.” If this character is regarded as valid for the sub-family it becomes necessary to separate off Tullbergia trisetosa Schaeffer and Tullbergia australica Wom., both of which have 2 + 2 pseudocelli on some segments, together with a new species to be described from New Zealand, into a further new sub-family. As all these species agree in body form, sensory organ of Ant. III and form of postantennal organ with the rest of the species of the Tullberginae, I do not think such a separation is desirable. It is necessary, however, to erect a new genus for the reception of the New Zealand species though leaving it in the Sub-family Tullberginae.

Genus Clavaphorura nov.

This new genus is separated from the other genera of the Tullberginae by the presence on the foot of two groups of clavate tenent hairs, the one group arising from the tibiotarsus on the outer edge near the base of the claw, the other group arising from the tibiotarsus on the inner edge a little further from the base of the claw than the other group. Pseudocelli, 2 + 2 on some segments. Ocelli absent. Antennal base not marked. Pseudocellus of distinctive nine-starred pattern on circular dome. Empodial appendage absent. Genotype the following species.

Clavaphorura septemseta sp. nov. Plate 41, figs. 22–27.

Colour: White all over.

Clothing: Sparsely but evenly clothed with relatively long plain ±setae.

Body: Length up to 1.16 mm. Antennae about as long as the head. Sensory organ on Ant. III consisting of two bent sense clubs in centre with larger sense club on each side, which is flanked again on each side by a larger, bent sense rod. The whole more or less behind a wavy cuticular fold. Ant. IV apically with exsertile

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sensory knob in pit, two large curved sense rods and a short raised finger-like process. Postantennal organ in groove across side of head behind antenna, equal in length to half the width of the basal segment of the antenna, and consisting of 35–36 somewhat rectangular-shaped tubercles arranged in two parallel rows, usually of 16 and 19 or 17 and 19 tubercles respectively. Pseudocelli on raised circular domes with very fine granules, much finer than surrounding body granules, and each with a central nine-pronged star. At base of antennae there are 1 + 1 pseudocelli, back of head 1 + 1, Th. I 1 + 1, Th. II and III 2 + 2, Abd. I–Abd. III each with 1 + 1, Abd. IV 2 + 2, Abd. V 1 + 1. Abd. VI no pseudocelli. Cuticle coarsely granulate. On Abd. VI a pair of anal spines on papillae, each papilla being about three-quarters the length of the spines. The papillae are touching basally.

Legs: Claw without any teeth. Empodial appendage absent. The base of the claw is surrounded by seven long clavate tenent hairs, longer than the claw. These are arranged in two groups, of which the outer group contains three hairs and the inner group four hairs. The inner group is distinctly further from the claw base than the outer group, but the hairs of each group, respectively, are in line across the tibiotarsus. There is a small seta on each side of the claw base.

Locality: Karori Hills, under bark of old logs on exposed hill-sides, altitude 500–800 ft. (Author's Coll.).

Type: Slide 3/1220; and Figured Paratype Slide 3/1221, Dominion Museum Collection.

Family Isotomidae.

Sub-family Isotominae.
Genus Cryptopygus Willem.

The addition of the following two new species of this primitive genus brings the total number of New Zealand species to eight, which may be conveniently separated by the following key:—

1. Mucro tapering with apical tooth only or with no teeth. 2
Mucro with apical and pre-apical teeth. 6
2. Ocelli eight to each side, all large and equal 3
Ocelli eight to each side, unequal. 5
3. Claw with inner teeth. 4
Claw without any teeth, very small blue species. Dens with constriction and with three long ventral setae. C. granulatus sp. nov.
4. Small dark-blue species. Dens with two very long ventral setae almost as long as itself. Postantennal organ not more than twice as long as an ocellus. C. minimus Salmon.
Large dark-blue species. Dens with three prominent ventral setae. Postantennal organ three times as long as an ocellus. C. terrigenus sp. nov.
5. Very dark-blue species. Ocelli seven large and one small to each side. Dens with two long ventral setae and one dorsal apical seta. Postantennal organ twice as long as large ocellus. Mucro with single upturned terminal tooth. C. okukensis Salmon.
Black species, ocelli six large and two small to each side. Mucro tapering without teeth but with narrow inner lamella. C. niger, Carpenter.
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6. Ocelli eight to each side, all large and equal. 7
Ocelli eight to each side, unequal 8
7. Brilliant-blue species with violet tinge on head. Postantennal organ equal to three ocelli in length. Dens with three prominent ventral setae; mucro without inner lamella. C. haweaensis Salmon.
Entirely blue species. Postantennal organ equal to two ocelli in length. Dens with many long ventral setae; mucro with narrow inner lamella. C. loftyensis
8. Jet-black species. Ocelli six large, two small, to each side. Dens with two long ventral setae. Postantennal organ equal in length to two ocelli. C. atratus Salmon.

Cryptopygus terrigenus sp. nov. Plate 41, figs. 28–29.

Colour: Very dark Prussian blue, generally mottled, and often with narrow, colourless intersegmental bands.

Clothing: Sparsely clothed with very short plain setae.

Body: Length up to 1.5 mm. Antennae a little longer than the head, the four segments related as 20:35:25:48, Ant. IV, with exsertile sensory knob at apex. Ocelli eight to each side all equal. Postantennal organ large elliptical and double outlined, three times as long as an ocellus. Abd. IV a little longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with a single inner tooth at centre, no outer teeth. Empodial appendage half as long as claw with broad outer lamella, narrow semi-outer lamella and short semicircular inner lamella. Two clavate tenent hairs to each foot. On each of the front feet one tenent hair is very much shorter than the other. Otherwise the tenent hairs are as long as the claw.

Furcula: Manubrium to mucrodens as 16:19. Dens with three long prominent ventral setae and one dorso-lateral apical seta. Mucro long and tapering, with a fine recurved apical tooth, and sometimes a slight pre-apical tooth-like swelling.

Localities: Johnson's Hill, Karori, in leaf mould; Karori Hills in bush-clad gullies amongst leaf mould (Author's Colln).

Type: Slide 3/1228 and Figured Paratype Slide 3/1229 Dominion Museum Collection.

Cryptopygus granulatus sp. nov. Plate 42, figs. 59–61.

Colour: In life pale to medium turquoise blue; mounted ground colour of very pale blue or white overlaid with coarse blotchy aggregates of deep-blue pigment granules more concentrated dorsally and dorso-laterally than ventrally. Legs white with only a few blue granules. Antennae more deeply pigmented, the granules concentrated around the joints. Furcula colourless. Ocelli on ill-defined black pigment patches.

Clothing: Thickly clothed with short plain setae, larger and more numerous around posterior of abdomen.

Body: Length up to .66 mm. Antennae about one-third again as long as head, the four segments related as 12:15:15:25. Ant. IV with apical sensory knob and two long straight apical sensory bristles and several sub-apical ones. Ocelli, eight to each side, all large and equal. Postantennal organ large, oval, double-outlined, almost as broad

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as long and 1 ⅓ times as long as the diameter of an ocellus. Abds. III and IV approximately equal in length. Ventral tube short and dome-like.

Legs: Claw without any teeth. Empodial appendage reaching to about halfway down claw, with the outer lamella narrow reaching to apex, the inner broad reaching two-thirds down from base, and without tooth at angle. Two slender slightly clavate tenent hairs almost as long as claw to each foot, the clavate portion more hook-shaped than clavate.

Furcula: Short. Manubrium to dens to mucro as 11:10:4. Dens with a constriction two-thirds along from base and with three strong ventral setae. Mucro tapering to a fine slightly upturned point.

Locality: D'Urwille Island—obtained with a Berlese funnel from leaf mould collected on the Island at an altitude of 1500 ft. in beech forest by Dr. W. R. B. Oliver; Buller's Bush, Levin, in leaf mould. (Author's Coll.).

Type: Slide 3/1300 and Figured Paratype 3/1301. Dominion Museum Collection.

Cryptopygus niger Carpenter, 1925.

Previously known only from Ben More, Canterbury, this species can now be reported from Dean's Bush, Christchurch, under the bark of both rimu and kahikatea trees, where it occurs in large numbers. (Author's Coll.)

Genus Folsomia Willem.

I can now record a native species of this genus from New Zealand. It is distinguished readily from the other three cosmopolitan species of the genus which occur in New Zealand by the absence of ocelli and the presence of a dentate claw.

Folsomia parasitica sp. nov. Plate 41, figs. 30–33.

Colour: White.

Clothing: Evenly clothed with short plain setae and occasional longer ones, the latter more especially around the posterior region.

Body: Length up to 2 mm. Antennae only slightly longer than the head, the four segments related as 5:7:6:11. Ant. IV apically with two short sensory rods. Sensory organ on Ant. III with two completely exposed sense rods. Ocelli absent. Postantennal organ large, elongate, elliptical, constricted at the middle, and about equal in length to half the width of the basal antennal segment. Ventral tube short.

Legs: Claw with single prominent inner tooth at just below centre. No outer teeth. Empodial appendage three-quarters as long as claw, with strong mid-rib, broad inner lamella and narrow outer lamella, both not quite reaching to tip of mid-rib. No tenent hairs.

Furcula: Manubrium to mucrodens as 10:14. Dens annulated and corrugated. Mucro bidentate, the pre-apical tooth about one-third back and much larger than the apical tooth. Dorsally at apex of dens a stout, moderately-long seta.

Locality: Akatarawa, on larvae of the beetle Chlorochiton suturalis (Coll. by R. Forster).

Type: Slide 3/1217 and Figured Paratype Slide 3/1222 Dominion Museum Collection.

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Genus Acanthomurus Womersley.

Acanthomurus alpinus Salmon, 1941.

This species, previously known only from the South Island mountain regions, can now be recorded from the North Island at Mt. Hector, Tararua Range, under moss and stones and under the bark of old logs 2000–3000 ft. altitude (Coll. R. Forster); Day's Bay, Wellington, amongst leaf mould in bush 500 ft. altitude (Author's Coll.).

Acanthomurus alpinus subspec. obscuratus nov. Plate 41, fig. 34.

This subspecies differs from the principal species only in colour. The whole of the ventral surface is coloured a deep-bluish violet, and this colouring extends up the sides to meet broad bands of similar colour which pass around each segment in positions corresponding with the dark markings of the principal form. Antennae and legs deep-violet, darker at the extremities.

Locality: Days Bay, Wellington, amongst leaf mould in bush 500 ft. altitude (Author's Coll.).

Type: Slide 3/1235 Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Archisotoma Linnaniemi.

Archisotoma brucei Carpenter, 1906.

I can now record this species from Lyall Bay, Wellington, where I took it from amongst kelp thrown up on the beach.

Genus Procerura Salmon.

Procerura montana Salmon, 1941.

The distribution of this species extends to the North Island, as it has now been taken from Mt. Hector, Tararua Range, at 2000 ft. altitude, where it was collected from under the bark of old logs by R. Forster.

Genus Papillomurus Salmon.

Papillomurus fuscus Salmon, 1941.

Now taken by R. Forster on Mt. Hector, Tararua Ranges, from under the bark of fuchsia trees 1100 ft. altitude, and from under bark of an old log at 3000 ft. altitude.

Genus Isotoma Bourlet.

Isotoma maritima Tullberg, 1871.

I have now taken this species at Island Bay, Wellington, where it was beaten from Salicornia plants.

Genus Parisotoma Bagnall.

Two new species of this genus recently have been found in New Zealand—one a mountain-dwelling form, the other a coastal form. These, with the species previously reported, make five in all known from this country. The following key will assist in their separation:—

1. Ocelli present. 2
Ocelli absent. 5
2. Ocelli six to each side. 3
Ocelli four to each side, claw without any teeth; mucro tridentate. P. notabilis Schaeffer.
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3. Claw without any teeth, Postantennal organ four times as long as ocellus. P. sindentata sp. nov.
Claw with outer teeth but no inner teeth. Postantennal organ smaller. 4
4. Mucro with three teeth. P. pritchardi
Mucro with five teeth. P. quinquedentata
sp. nov.
5. Postantennal organ present, large and elliptical, claw without any teeth, mucro tridentate. P. linnaniemia

Parisotoma sindentata sp. nov. Plate 41, figs. 35–39.

Colour: In life bluish-black with creamy-white intersegmental bands. Mounted the ground colour is creamy-white overlaid with coarse granular pigment, giving the appearance of a bluish-black insect with broad cream intersegmental bands. Ant. I, II and III deep blue-black with the joints marked by narrow bands of cream. Ant. IV pale-blue. Legs and furcula pale-cream with patches of granular pigment.

Clothing: Well clothed with short plain setae and occasional longer stiff setae. No ciliated setae occur.

Body: Length up to 1.5 mm. Antennae about twice as long as the head, the four segments related as 5:8:10:14. Ant. IV apically with small pit containing sense rod and with large exsertile sensory knob; just below the apex a smaller exsertile sensory knob. Ocelli six to each side, the anterior two slightly larger than the remainder. The ocelli are very difficult to determine, as they are set amongst an irregularly defined field of confused, coarse black pigment granules. Postantennal organ very large, oval, double outlined and about four times as long as the anterior ocellus. Ventral tube short and fat. Abd. III almost equal to Abd. IV.

Legs: Claw without any teeth. Empodial appendage about one-half as long as claw, with broad semi-circular inner lamella reaching to two-thirds its length and narrower outer lamella reaching to tip. No tenent hairs.

Furcula: Mucrodens almost three times as long as manubrium. Mucro elongate and tridentate, there being a large apical tooth, a slightly smaller central conical tooth, and a large lateral basal tooth.

Locality: Lyall Bay, Wellington, from kelp lying on beaches among the rocks. Readily obtained by submerging the kelp in rock-pools, when the Collembola come out and jump about on the surface of the water.

Type: Slide 3/1127, Dominion Museum Collection.

Parisotoma quinquedendata sp. nov. Plate 41, figs. 40–43.

Colour: In life a pale greyish-blue. Mounted, ochreous ground colour with coarse granular bluish-grey pigment all over. First two antennal segments deep blue, last two pale bluish-grey. Ocellar fields black.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with plain setae and numerous long, strongly ciliated setae, which occur at random anywhere on the body or appendages.

Body: Length up to 1.9 mm., twice as long as the head. The four segments related 6:7:11:11. Ant. IV flattened towards the tip and bearing a sensory pit or groove protected by a fringe of curved sense rods. Apically, Ant. IV is rounded and bears one or

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two exsertile sensory knobs. Six equal ocelli to each side. Post-antennal organ pear-shaped, double outlined and equal in size to, or slightly larger than, an ocellus. Abd. III slightly longer than Abd. IV as 16: 14. Ventral tube short and slender.

Legs: Claw with a pair of large outer teeth a little above half-way down outer edge. No inner teeth. Empodial appendage half as long as claw, with broad inner and outer lamellae; the inner lamella truncate on distal half and with a small blunt tooth at the angle. Tenent hairs absent.

Furcula: Mucrodens about two-and-a-quarter times as long as the manubrium. Mucro long with five teeth—an apical and a pre-apical of equal height, a smaller basal tooth at one-third from base, flanked on each side by a strong lateral tooth. One lateral tooth is slightly forward of the other.

Locality: Mount Hector, Tararua Range, 2300 ft. under moss. (Coll. by R. Forster.)

Type: Slide 3/1126, Dominion Museum Collection.

Family Tomoceridae.

Sub-family Lepidophorellinae.

Genus Lepidophorella Schaeffer.

Lepidophorella australis Carpenter, 1925.

Lepidophorella communis Salmon, 1937.

The distribution of these two species can now be given as common and general throughout the country. They are found particularly in leaf mould, but sometimes under the bark of trees.

Lepidophorella nigra sp. nov. Plate 42, figs. 48–51.

Colour: Greyish-black with narrow white intersegmental bands. The mesotergum intense black. Legs greyish-black. Antennae black with white banded joints. Ant. IV intense black. Furcula black with ochreous streaks on the manubrium. Typically, three inclined ochreous streaks on each side of the mesotergum.

Clothing: Densely clothed with many layers of scales. These scales are of the typical Lepidophorellan, form and lie over the body in layers set at different angles. When the body surface is closely examined their ribs give a distinct cross-hatched appearance. Setae very much reduced, sometimes entirely absent except for a few on the legs, furcula and antennae.

Body: Length up to 4.5 mm. Ant. I:II:III:IV as 2:5:5:7. Ant. IV with exsertile apical knob and cone bearing sensory hair. Ocelli, eight to each side. Anterior pair the larger; others medium-sized with central outer ocellus usually smaller. Abd. III one and a-half times longer than Abd. IV.

Legs: Claw with two outer lateral teeth as in L. communis, but with two large or two large and one very small, or three large, inner teeth. The dentition of the claws may vary over the individual. Tenent hairs absent. Empodial appendage, lanceolate, two-thirds length of claw, with two large outer basal teeth, one above the other.

Furcula: Mucro falciform, gently curved with basal scale-like lamella extending from near tip to apex of dens. Corrugated portion of dens passes into finely serrated lamella, which extends over mucro and joins it near point of contact of basal scale-like lamella.

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Localities: Turangakuma Range, Hawkes Bay, 3300 ft. in leaf debris; Titahi Bay, in leaf mould (Coll. R. Forster); Karori Hills, in leaf mould, under stones and in old logs (Author's Coll.)

Type: Slide 3/1243, Dominion Museum Collection.

Remarks: I am inclined to the view that this striking species may be a hybrid form produced by the interbreeding of L. australis and L. communis, as it combines the characters of both of these species.

Genus Novacerus Salmon.

Novacerus spinosus Salmon, 1941.

Now recorded from the North Island, having been taken on Mount Hector, under moss, 2300 ft. altitude, by R. Forster.

Family Entomobryidae.

Sub-family Entomobryinae.

Genus Sinella Brook.

Sinella pulverafusca Salmon, 1941.

This South Island species is now recorded from localities in the North Island as follows:—Mount Hector, Tararua Range, under stones near Field Hut (Coll. R. Forster), and on the Karori Hills, in nests of the ant Ponera castanea (Author's Coll.).

Genus Deuterosinella nov.

Pigmented species of similar facies to Sinella but without the ocelli reduced, there being eight to each side. Scales absent. Tibiotarsus on inner surface, with at least one row of stiff, stout, plain setae. Other setae ciliated. Claw with large inner wing-like basal tooth. Tenent hairs present but weak. Genotype the following species.

Deuterosinella fusca sp. nov. Plate 42, figs. 44–47.

Colour: A ground colour of bluish-white overlaid with coarsely-granular bright orange-brown pigment. There are occasional depigmented spots and streaks, especially on Abd. IV. Abd. VI free of pigment. Legs bluish-white with dark brown or dark blue granulate pigment bands. Antennae dark blue, granular, but lighter towards the apex. Manubrium dark brown; dens without pigment. Ocelli on irregular black fields.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with short ciliated setae and numerous longer flexed setae, the latter especially along the dorsal surface and at apex of mesotergum. Setae of legs and furcula ciliated except for a double row of longer, stout, plain setae on inner margin of tibiotarsus.

Body: Length up to 2 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the four segments related as 5:7:6:10. Ant. IV with apical sensory bristle. Ocelli eight to each side; the anterior outer ocellus very large, the sub-posterior inner and sub-posterior outer ocelli each smaller than the remaining four, which are medium-sized and equal. Mesotergum completely overlies prothorax. Abd. IV five times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with large inner, pointed, basal, wing-like tooth at one-third down with a smaller sharply-pointed normal tooth alongside it. A further prominent inner tooth at two-thirds. A pair of outer

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lateral teeth, one to each side, at one-quarter down, and between them a single sharp-pointed central tooth. Empodial appendage lanceolate, two-thirds as long as the claw, with outer basal tooth. A single weak clavate tenent hair, about half as long as the claw, to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching forward to the ventral tube. Manubrium to mucrodens as 15:22. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, the two teeth equal. Uncorrugated portion of dens three times as long as mucro. Mucro surrounded but not over-reached by ciliated setae.

Locality: Taken from wood samples in the timber bin, Forestry Department, Wellington, the samples having come from Days Bay (Coll. D. Hunt).

Type: Slide 3/1200 and Figured Paratype Slide 3/1201, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Entomobrya Rondani.

Entomobrya totapunctata Salmon, 1941.

Now reported from Titahi Bay, beaten from tauhinu scrub on the coast. (Coll. by R. Forster.). Karori, under bark of fuchsia trees. Dean's Bush, Christchurch, under bark of Kahikatea trees. (Author's Coll.).

Entomobrya lamingtonensis Schott, 1917.

A further locality, Karori, under the bark of fuchsia trees. (Author's Coll.)

Entomobrya egmontia Salmon, 1941.

An extraordinary locality for this species was amongst coal in a coal box of a Wellington residence. (Coll. D. K. Ross.)

Entomobrya multifasciata Tullberg, 1871.

Entomobrya nivalis Linne, 1758. Sensu stricto, and sub-spec. immaculata Schaeffer 1896.

These species can now be recorded as common and generally distributed throughout the country. Usually found in leaf mould, but also occurring under the bark of trees.

Entomobrya exfoliata sp. nov. Plate 42, figs. 52–55.

Colour: In life black with white bands on the legs and sometimes with irregular spots on the body. Mounted: variable, with ground colour of yellowish ochreous overlaid by intense deep violet-black pigment. Typically the whole trunk is deep violet-black, with depigmented spots and streaks of ochreous showing through irregularly, but always with three or four diagonally sloping streaks on the sides of Th. I and Th. II and four or five similar streaks on the sides of Th. III. Depigmented patches occur around the anterior margin of Abd. IV; otherwise the whole of the trunk may be dark pigmented or the pigment may be broken up by small depigmented spots and streaks. The head laterally with deep violet pigment, dorsally ochreous, but between the ocellar fields a large hexagonal area of brownish violet pigment pointed anteriorly and posteriorly. Ant. I deep violet-black; II, III and IV dark ochreous with generally deep violet bands at the joints. Legs ochreous yellow with deep violet bands around all segments. Furcula with the manubrium and base of dens deep violet-black, or ochreous with deep violet pigment along

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the dorsal and ventral surfaces. Remainder of mucrodens yellow. Ocellar fields black. The limit of the reduction of the dark pigment on the trunk is reached when it is reduced to a few scattered spots and a narrow but very definite mid-dorsal line along the thorax and first three abdominal segments. This form, however, is very rare.

Clothing: Head., thorax and Abds. I-III dorsally, and Th. I and II laterally, with many long, flexed setae. The body heavily clothed with short, ciliated setae and posteriorly numerous long, ciliated setae. Antennae, legs and furcula heavily clothed with ciliated setae, some of which are very long.

Body: Length up to 2.4 mm. Antennae two and a-half times as long as the head, the four segments related as 10:21:15:19. Eight ocelli to each side, with the anterior pair very large, four medium and two very small. The posterior smaller ocellus almost touching the posterior larger ocellus. Abd. IV seven to eight times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with outer tooth about one-quarter down, a pair of outer lateral basal teeth reaching about one-third down outer edge, and five inner teeth. A large pair at just before centre, a long, closely-adpressed pair at three-quarters, and a smaller single tooth at seven-eighths. Empodial appendage lanceolate, and reaching to second pair of teeth. A single tenent hair, strongly clavate and as long as the claw, to each foot.

Furcula: Manubrium and mucrodens of equal length. Dens corrugated and annulated, the uncorrugated portion twice the length of the mucro. Mucro elongate, narrow, bidentate, with basal spine, the apical tooth slightly smaller than the pre-apical. Ciliated setae, when present, barely over-reaching the mucro. A double membrane reaches from the apex of the dens to the base of the basal spine on the mucro.

Locality: Titahi Bay, beaten from tauhinu scrub (Coll. R. Forster and Author). Red Rocks, Cook Strait, beaten from coastal scrub (Coll. R. Forster). Karori Hills, beaten from tauhinu scrub (Author's Coll.).

Type: Slide 3/1095 and Figured Paratype Slide 3/1094, Dominion Museum Collection.

Remarks: This species is readily recognised by its jet-black colouring. It is the only black New Zealand Entomobryid. The key given on P. 350 of my paper on the Collembolan Fauna of New Zealand should be amended under 2 by the insertion of the words given below in black print, the remainder of the key remaining exactly as it is at present:—

2. Colour entirely blue, violet or black. 3
Colour otherwise. 4
3. Jet-black with 3–4 diagonally-sloping streaks of yellow on the sides of each of the thoracic segments. E. exfoliata sp. nov.

Genus Pseudentomobrya Salmon, 1941.

Pseudentomobrya intercolorata sp. nov. Plate 42, figs. 56–58.

Colour: In life grey; mounted, variable from light yellow or greenish yellow to dark brown or almost black, with patches and streaks of yellow showing through irregularly. Head always yellow

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with black ocellar fields joined by a black line across the front of the head and between the antennal bases. Legs and furcula always light yellow, the former sometimes tinged with brown. Ant. I yellowish or pale violet, II violet, III and IV very dark violet. Sometimes with a narrow line of dark violet along ventral edges of thoracic pleura Abds. I-III and on the sides of the head.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with ciliated setae and with many long, flexed setae dorsally on head and body. Setae of legs, furcula and antennae all ciliated, but those of Ant. IV shorter than the others.

Body: Length up to 1.3 mm. Antennae twice as long as the head, the four segments related as 4:10:9:14. Ocelli eight to each side; the anterior pair very large, posterior inner pair small, remainder medium. Abd. IV three to three-and-a-half times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with four inner teeth, being a large pair just beyond centre, a large single tooth at three-quarters, and a very small tooth near apex. A single outer tooth at one-third down outer edge from base. A single strongly clavate tenent hair as long as the claw to each foot. Empodial appendage narrow and from one-third to one-half as long as claw, truncate on inner margin.

Furcula: Reaching forward to ventral tube. Manubrium to mucrodens as 15:20. Dens annulated and corrugated, the unannulated portion three times as long as mucro. Mucro relatively very small, bidentate, the teeth equal, and with a basal spine. The uncorrugated portion of dens strongly but very finely serrated and annulated.

Localities: Hastings, in lawn and under the floor of old shed (Coll. R. Forster). The species was present in large numbers. Makara Coast, under stones on beach; very common (Author's Coll.).

Type: Slide 3/1108 and Figured Paratype Slide 3/1041, Dominion Museum Collection.

Remarks: This species is closest related to P. interfilixa. The key for the separation of the species of Pseudentomobrya on p. 366 of the Collembolan Fauna of New Zealand can be amended to include this species by adding the words in black print as follows at 4:—

4. Claw with four inner teeth and one outer tooth. Abd. IV 3–3 ½ times as long as Abd. III. P. intercolorata sp. nov.
Claw with two small outer lateral teeth one-fifth down, no inner teeth. Abd. IV 6–8 times longer than Abd. III. P. interfilixa.Salmon.

Genus Urewera Salmon.

Urewera magna (Salmon, 1937).

This species can now be regarded as common and generally distributed throughout the country. Usually it is found under the bark of trees, old logs, and amongst fallen forest debris.

Urewera magna subspecies violacea Salmon, 1938.

This subspecies can now be reported from leaf mould, Burrows Avenue Reserve. Karori, where it is quite common (Author's Coll.).

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Urewera flava Salmon, 1938.

Further localities are Johnson's Hill, Karori, from bush debris (Author's Coll.) and Waitakere Ranges, Auckland, from whence it has been reported by Womersley. (Trans. Roy. Soc. Sth. Aust. 66 1 [ unclear: ] p. 29.)

Urewera quadradentata Salmon, 1941.

Collected on Mount Hector, Tararua Ranges, by R. Forster, under bark of fuchsia trees 1100 ft. altitude, and under moss 2000 ft. altitude.

Genus Lepidosira Schott, 1925.

Lepidosira indistincta Salmon, 1938.

A further locality is Titahi Bay, where it was beaten from tauhinu scrub by R. Forster.

Sub-family Paronellinae.

Genus Paronana Womersley.

Paronana pigmenta Salmon, 1941.

This South Island species has now been obtained from the North Island, on the Karori Hills, where it was beaten out of dead scrub by R. Forster, and also found under stones (Author's Coll.).

Paronana maculosa Salmon, 1937.

A further locality, Te Mata Park, Havelock Hills, amongst leaf mould (Coll. by R. Forster).

Genus Parachaetoceras Salmon.

Parachaetoceras pritchardi (Womersley, 1936).

Recently collected at Otaki Forks by R. Forster from low shrubs by beating.

Selected Bibliography.

Bagnall, R. S., 1935. The British Tullberginae Pt. I. Ent. Month. Mag., LXXI, p. 164–173.

—– 1936. The British Tullberginae, Pt. II. Ent. Month. Mag., LXXII, p. 34–40.

—– 1941. Notes on British Collembola. Ent. Month. Mag., LXXVII, p. 217–226.

Carpenter, G. H., 1909. On Some Subantarctic Collembola. The Subantaratic Islands of New Zealand, vol. I, p. 377–383.

Folsom, J. W. 1916. North American Collembolan Insects of the Sub-families Achorutinae, Neanurinae, and Podurinae. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 50. p 477–525.

—– 1917. North American Insects of the Sub-family Onychiurinae. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 53, p. 637–659.

Salmon, J. T., 1941. The Collembolan Fauna of New Zealand, including a Discussion of its Distribution and Affinities. Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 70 (4) p. 282–431.

—– 1942. New Genera and Species of New Zealand Collembola. Rec. Dom. Mus., I, No. 1, p. 55–60.

Womersley, H., 1937. Collembola. B.A.N.Z.A.R. Exped. Reports, Ser. B. (1), 4 p. 1–7.

—– 1939. Primitive Insects of South Australia.

—– 1942. New Genera Species and Records of Collembola from Australia. New Zealand, and New Guinea. Trans. Roy. Soc. South Austr., 56 (1), p. 23–31.

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Figs. 1–5.—Triacanthella purpurea sp. nov. Fig. 1.—Anal spines. Fig. 2.—Ocell and postantennal organ. Fig. 3.—Apex of Ant. IV. Fig. 4.—Foot. Fig. 5.—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 6–11.—Triacanthella terrasilatica sp. nov. Fig. 6.—Foot. Fig. 7.—Ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 8.—Mucro and apex of dens (side view). Fig. 9.—Mucro and apex of dens (ventral view). Fig. 10.—Sensory organ Ant. III. Fig. 11.—Serrated seta from body. ±To face page 388]
Figs. 12–21.—Achorutes titahiensis sp. nov. Fig. 12.—Apex of Ant. IV. Fig. 13.—Sensory organ on Ant. III. Fig. 14.—Tenaculum. Fig. 15.—Foot (side view). Fig. 16.—Foot (back view). Fig. 17.—Normal mucro. Fig. 18.—Mucro—variation. Fig. 19.—Ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 20.—Anal spines from above. Fig. 21.—Anal spines from side.

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Figs. 22–27.—Clavaphorura septemseta sp. nov. Fig. 22.—Whole insect × 45—to show pseudocelli. Fig. 23.—Foot. Fig. 24.—Sensory organ of Ant. III. Fig. 25.—Apex of Ant. IV. Fig. 26.—Postantennal organ. Fig. 27.—Pseudocellus.
Figs. 28–29.—Cryptopygus terrigenus sp. nov. Fig. 28.—Anterior ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 29.—Dens and mucro.
Figs. 30–33.—Folsomia parasitica sp. nov. Fig. 30.—Sensory organ of Ant. III. Fig. 31.—Mucro. Fig. 32.—Postantennal organ. Fig. 33.—Foot.
Fig. 34.—Acanthomurus alpinus subspec. obscuatus nov. Whole insect × 20.
Figs. 35–39.—Parisotoma sindentata sp. nov. Fig. 35.—Foot. Fig. 36.—Apex of Ant. IV. Fig. 37.—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 38.—Whole insect × 30. Fig. 39.—Ocelli and postantennal organ.
Figs. 40–43.—Parisotoma quinquedentata sp. nov. Fig. 40.—Foot. Fig. 41.—Apex of Ant. IV. Fig. 42.—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 43.—Ocelli and postantennal organ.

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Figs. 44–47.—Deuterosinella fusca sp. nov. Fig. 44.—Tibiotarsus to show simple setae. Fig. 45.—Foot. Fig. 46.—Ocelli. Fig. 47.—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 48–51.—Lepidophorella nigra sp. nov. Fig. 48.—Whole insect × 16. Fig. 49.—Apex of Ant. IV. Fig. 50.—Foot. Fig. 51.—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 52–55.—Entomobrya exfoliata sp. nov. Fig. 52.—Foot. Fig. 53.—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 54.—Whole insect × 20. Fig. 55.—Ocelli. ±To follow plate 41]
Figs. 56–58.—Pseudentomobrya intercoloata sp. nov. Fig. 56.—Whole insect × 36. Fig. 57.—Foot. Fig. 58.—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 59–61.—Cryptopygus granulatus sp. nov. Fig. 59.—Anterior ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 60.—Dens and mucro. Fig. 61.—Foot.