Tertiary Mollusca from Dannevirke Subdivision.
[Read before Wellington Branch, July 8, 1943; received by the Editor, July 8, 1943; issued separately, December, 1943.]
IN the course of the geological survey of Dannevirke Subdivision, rich molluscan faunas have been collected from the Miocene and particularly from the Pliocene beds. In this paper some of the outstanding novelties are described. Detailed faunal lists will be published in a Geological Survey Bulletin now in preparation by Dr. A. R. Lillie, and only the most significant stratigraphical problems are touched on incidently in this paper, which is chiefly systematic.
Acknowledgment is made to Dr. J. Henderson, Director, Geological Survey, for permission to publish, and to Dr. J. Marwick, Palaeontologist, for his every-ready guidance and advice during preparation of this paper. Many of the species here described as new had previously been set aside as such by Dr. Marwick.
Chlamys delicatula (Hutton).
Though not unknown from the Waitotaran, this species is an abundant and characteristic element in the Lower Nukumaruan beds of the middle portions of New Zealand (Southern Hawke's Bay to Marlborough) and has not been seen from higher beds in the Pliocene. It has been used (Lillie and Fleming, 1941) as an index species for the Lower Nukumaruan in Dannevirke Subdivision. A recent derivative, C. campbellica Odhner, lives in colder waters, as far north as Otago Heads.* Several additional lineages in Lower Nukumaruan beds suggest that sea temperatures during the period of their deposition were lower than now, and that a rise of temperature, driving them southwards, initiated the Upper Nukumaruan.
Phialopecten triphooki (Hutton).
Though chiefly confined to the Waitotaran, this species occurs sparingly in the lowest of Nukumaruan beds, along with such typically Nukumaruan species as Anomia undata, Tawera subsulcata, Alcithoe subgracilis. (Lillie and Fleming, 1941.)
Venericardia lilliei n.sp. (Plate 28; Figs. 1, 2.)
Shell of moderate size, elongate-quadrate, crass. Ornamented with 24 spinous radial ribs, vertical sided, separated by deep interspaces equal in width to ribs. The two most posterior ribs weak and nodulous, the third (and rarely the fourth) strong and spinous, the next ones again weak but rapidly becoming stronger and more spinous
[Footnote] * Specimens dredged in Cook Strait are apparently delicatula derived from submarine Pliocene beds by current scour.
towards the middle of shell. Umbones at anterior fourth. Hinge plate and teeth relatively much more massive than in purpurata of same size.
Dimensions (Holotype, right valve); Length, 28·25; height, 24·25; thickness (1 valve), 11 mm.
Locality: 2314, Takapau (N.W.) S.D. (Waitotaran.) Holotype and many paratypes.
Many of the larger specimens, including the holotype, have their rectangular shape accentuated by a senile growth inwards of the periphery of the shell, but the characteristic shape is present in all but one of the 30 specimens examined (including young shells). The exception is higher than the rest but shares their characteristic sculpture. The shape recalls rienga (Powell), but this has a very much weaker hinge and wider ribs with narrower interspaces. V. purpurata and purpurata difficilis have a weaker hinge plate, more ovoid shape, and lack the marked inequality of the posterior ribs.
Named after Dr. A. B. Lillie, N.Z. Geological Survey.
Barytellina tertia n.sp. (Plate 28; Figs. 3, 4.)
Shell large for genus, ovate, more elongated and less circular than most B. anomalodonta Finlay, but not so long as genotype; less inflated than either of these species. Sculpture decorticated but apparently similar to anomalodonta. The posterior radial ridge which runs from the umbo to the posterior end is less pronounced than in either of the named species, and is a simple fold, without the delimiting groove and narrow ridge that bound it in crassidens. The posterodorsal margin of the shell is straight, not convex as in the other species, and is not turned in towards the hinge as in anomalodonta. Hinge and teeth stronger than in genotype but weaker than equal sized anomalodonta. Right valve with ungrooved posterior cardinal, and lamellar anterior cardinal which is not so obliquely oriented as in the other species. Dentition otherwise similar but closer to anomalodonta.
Dimensions: (Holotype, right valve); length, 27·25; height, 20·5; thickness, 5·5 mm. (Paratype, left valve); length, 33; height, 25 mm.
Locality: 2324, Takapau (N.E.) S.D. Petane Series.
Kuia macdowelli Marwick.
Shells which cannot be separated from topotypes of this species occur at a number of localities in southern Hawke's Bay at a considerably higher horizon in the Tertiary than the type locality and other quoted localities. The Dannevirke specimens come from rocks mapped as Tutamoe, Mapiri and even Opoiti Series—i.e., up to the lower Pliocene. Specimens reach a length of 56 mm., height 46 mm., thickness (2 valves) 33 mm.
Dosinia (Raina) macroptera n.sp. (Plate 28; Figs. 8, 9.)
Shell of moderate size, thin for sub-genus, not highly inflated but flattened, especially around margins. Subcircular, produced intoconspicuous wings both anteriorly and posteriorly. Dorsal margin
behind beaks moderately arched; in front of beaks deeply concave above the wing, so that the raised lunule is visible from a side view. Lunule well defined, long, impressed marginally and pouting medially. Escutcheon moderately deep, more so on left valve. Sculpture of low, irregular, and flat topped, concentric lamellae, continuous from lunule to escutcheon, overlapping the interspaces from above and bounded distally by fine grooves. Interspaces wide and flat, sculptured by fine concentric growth lines.
Dimensions (Holotype): Length, 54; height, 46; thickness, (2 valves) 25 mm.
Locality: 2746, Te Uri Road, Mangaotoro (N.E.) S.D. (Tongaporutuan?)
The subgeneric allocation is tentative as hinge details are not available. The “lucinoid” wings, flattened shell, and sculpture distinguish this from all other species in the subgenus. The sculpture of raised lamellae allies it to Dosinia cottoni Marwick. A para-type of the latter species has now been excavated to expose the hinge which shows that the species is a Raina and not a Kereia as described.
Tugali kumeroa n.sp. (Plate 28; Figs. 6, 6a.)
Shell of moderate size, smaller than Castlecliffian pliocenica Fin., larger than bascauda; moderately high and compressed, sides converging towards the front. Apex somewhat hooked, more anteriorly placed than in pliocenica of same size. Dorsal carina not conspicuously raised, but unique in that the original single sinus rib breaks into four riblets of about equal size, which run to the margin without developing secondary threads. This appears due to the almost immediate bifurcation of the central of three ribs, suggesting that the species belongs to the pliocenica-superba-elegans lineage, rather than to the bascauda line. Other radials fewer in number than in pliocenica especially behind, where they are coarser and the concentric threads stronger and more continuous over the radials, less beaded at the intersections. Internal marginal crenulations fewer and weaker than in pliocenica.
Dimensions: Length, 16; width, 10; height, 11 mm.
Locality: 2687 (high in Lower Nukumaruan) Tahoraite (S.W.) S.D., near Kumeroa.
The quadruple division of the carina distinguishes this from all other New Zealand species and suggests a way in which the three-ribbed and two-ribbed groups might be connected phylogenetically.
Coelotrochus browni n.sp. (Plate 28; Fig. 5.)
Very similar to C. tiaratus (Q & G.). Whorl shape and spire angle the same, differing in finer sculpture. Below the suture, which as in tiaratus, is slightly impressed and lies immediately beneath the periphery, there is a moderately strong, nodulous, spiral thread; under this are 10 fine, beaded, and spaced threads of equal strength down to the periphery; basally the same sculpture continues with 11 more fine beaded threads. In tiaratus the same number of spirals
may be counted on spire whorls, above the periphery, but they are usually fewer (6–8) and always stronger; when 10 threads occur it is due to interposition of finer threads between the strong ones.
Dimensions: Height, 11; diameter, 16 mm.
Localities: 2380 (type) Takapau (S.E.) S.D., 390 feet above base of Petane Series. 1198 argillaceous sandstone, 10 feet thick, below boulder band and immediately above coal; coast between Ototoka (= Butler's) Creek and Okehu Creek.
Maurea correlata n.sp. (Plate 28; Fig. 7.)
This species is described from fragmentary material on account of its significance stratigraphically. Shell small for the genus, of similar shape and appearance to the mid-Tertiary species, suteri and fragilis. Spire tall, slightly concave in outline. Earliest whorls missing. Sculpture of four spiral threads with no interstitials. The uppermost (subsutural) and the lowest (peripheral) spirals are moniliform and strong, the two medial threads are weaker and equidistant between the others. The subsutural thread is separated from the suture by a smooth area about half the width of the smooth interspaces between the other three threads and is divided into regular beads, 2 per millimetre on the body whorl. The peripheral thread is similarly beaded, and shows a tendency to divide into two threads on later whorls. The medial threads are distinct, slightly rounded, and on the body whorl tend to be indistinctly beaded. Base enclosed in hard matrix.
Dimensions: Height (actual), 15; diameter, 10·5 mm.
Locality: 2731, Mangaotoro (N.W.) S.D. (type), below Paeroa Trig. (Opoitian.) 153, Callaghan's Creek, Waimea S.D., “Westland. (Opoitian.)
This form appears to be the last representative of Miocene lineages rather than a precursor of Pliocene-Recent forms. It comes from a shell limestone that overlies mudstones with Urenuian microfauna and is the base of the Pliocence sequence. Associated mollusca are Callusaria aff. obesa (Marwick), Zelandiella pliocenica Powell, Olivella neozelanica (Hutton), Antisolarium cf. egenum (Gould), and cf. stoliczkai (Zitt.), Tanea aff. socia (Finlay), Polinices cf. waipipiensis (Marwick), and two new species of Baryspira. The other occurrence, a greensand, an the Westland Blue Bottom, has a similar stratigraphic relationship, above Taranakian and below Pliocene beds. Here the associated species include Sectipecten wollastoni (Hutton), Cucullaea n.sp. aff. australis (Hutton), Polinices cf. waipipiensis, cf. propeovatus (Marwick), Austrofusus tuberculatus Marwick, Olivella neozelanica (Hutton).
Proterato pliocenica n.sp. (Plate 29; Fig. 10.)
Shell moderate sized for the family. Pyriform, marginelloid, smooth externally. Spire well developed, concave sided, sutures indistinct. Lip thickened within but not externally, projecting posteriorly and running up on to the spire as a weak callus. Aperture narrow, parallel sided, opening at a wide, shallow anterior canal.
Outer lip armed with 13 denticles confined to the aperture. Fossula broadly convex and shallow; terminal ridges, two, moderately strong, separated by a groove of equal width; parietal wall, badly decorticated, but showing traces of small denticles of which three remain, the most posterior half-way up the aperture.
Dimensions: Height, 9.5, width 6 mm. (unique holotype).
Locality: 2314, Takapau S.D. Waitotaran (calcareous sandy mudstone facies).
In spite of the badly decorticated state of the specimen the interest of the occurrence of a species of the Eratoidae in the Waitotaran justifies its description, for the family has not previously been recorded later than Awamoan in N.Z. The generic location is made with some hesitation from figures and descriptions. Its nearest ally in New Zealand appears to be an undescribed species from Awamoa Creek. The number of denticles on the outer lip is uncertain, as the distal ones are damaged.
Cabestana manawatuna n.sp. (Plate 29; Fig. 17.)
Apparently akin to the C. waterhousi group (including debilior, Finlay), and closest to debilior, but more slender, with axial sculpture even more obsolete. Protoconch lost. Sculpture on earliest whorls of six beaded spiral threads, of which two, the second and fourth above suture, are strongest. About 11 low, ill-defined axial cords per whorl cross the spirals and form at the intersections sharp, ridge-like nodules, elongated spirally. On later whorls bifurcation of spirals occurs until there are 11 on the penultimate; the two chief spirals become doubled and retain their importance. On the body whorl there are about 25 spirals, some doubled and some with fine interstitials. Radials almost absent from the body whorl and represented only by a nodular development of the two chief spirals. Varices absent from first four whorls, three on later whorls, high and narrow, with spiral sculpture continuous over them without interruption. Beak long and slightly twisted. Outer lip missing; inner lip with two obliquely placed anterior denticles on parietal callus and six plaits on column.
Dimensions (unique holotype): Height, 50; diameter (without varix), 19 mm.
Locality: 2492, Tahoraite (S.W.) S.D. Lower Nukumaruan.
If this species is truly of the same group as waterhousi segregata Powell and debilior Finlay it puts back the arrival of this group of Cymatiids in New Zealand seas at least to the Nukumaruan, but waterhousi segregata Powell is obviously a more recent derivative of the Australian stock.
Genus Xenophalium Iredale, 1927.
Type (by original designation) X. hedleyi Iredale. Recent, New South Wales.
Subgenus Mauicassis nov.
Type, Phalium fibratum Marshall and Murdoch, 1920, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 52, p. 131, Pl. 8, figs. 16 and 17. Lower Pliocene, New Zealand.
Euspinacassis Finlay (which has been synonymized with Echinophoria Sacco by Rutsch, 1931, p. 252) embraces a series of Middle Tertiary forms of Cassid with prominent nodules and fine spiral sculpture, an irregularly plaited callus plate, and small false umbilicus. This group persisted until the Taranakian (Late Miocene); but long before its last appearance in New Zealand there appeared another lineage characterised by reduced nodulation and broad, flattened spiral ribs separated by grooves and a scarcely plaited callus-plate. Species of the latter group are known from the Tutamoe Series (Marwick, 1931, p. 104), from the Taranakian (specimens from G.S., Locality 1125, Tongaporutu Beds, Mimi S.D.), Opoitian (kaawaense, Powell and Bartrum, and other undescribed forms), and Waitotaran (fibratum M. and M., sulcatum, Hutton, and the two described below). For this group Mauicassis nov. is proposed. To some extent the group bridges the gap between Euspinacassis and the recent Xenophalium (s.str.) assemblage, but Mauicassis did not develop into Xenophalium in New Zealand. Although several forms of Mauicassis existed in Waitotaran (Lower Pliocene) times, the Cassididae appear to have been exterminated before the New Zealand Middle Pliocene, for there is no record to date of the family from the richly fossiliferous Nukumaruan stage. When Cassids reappear in the Castlecliffian (Late Pliocene) they are all of patently recent derivation from extralimital sources and the indigenous Mauicassis stock left no direct descendants.
From Xenophalium, sensu stricto (with which is synonymised Xenogalea, Iredale) the new group differs in the persistence of strong spiral sculpture, in the form of flattened cords separated by narrow interspaces, over the whole whorl. In Xenophalium, spiral sculpture is of weak grooves on a smooth surface and is generally restricted to the base and to the area just below the suture.
In a family like the Cassids, where the recent distribution of forms suggests a great vagility and a readily transported larva, it is possible that ancestral groups, no less than recent ones, may have been wide-ranging. For this reason the claims of Rutsch (1931) and of Durham (1942) that Euspinacassis falls into the synonymy of Echinophoria Sacco (type Phalium intermedium Brocchi, Italy, “Oligocene”) will be worthy of consideration when autoptical examination of the relevant species is possible. For the present, it is considered preferable to keep the New Zealand lineages separate. Convenience to the stratigrapher is a justification for the separation of well-founded lineage groups. In the present instance the occurrence of Euspinacassis dates a bed as pre-Opoitian, of Mauicassis as pre-Waitotaran, and of Xenophalium (s.str.) as post-Nukumaruan.
Xenophalium (Mauicassis) lilliei n.sp. (Plate 29; Fig. 18.)
Of the same line as fibratum (M. & M.), differing in its finer, less nodulous, spiral sculpture and in its higher spire. Whorls encircled with a single row of strong rounded nodules (15–16 per whorl) and with a concave shoulder below the suture. On the shoulder, above the nodules, are five low, flat spiral threads, slightly undulating and crossed by growth lines which develop secondary threads in their shallow interspaces on later whorls; 3–4 wider
and lower spiral threads traverse the nodules. Below the nodulous keel there are 1–2 broad, flat-topped spirals on earliest spire whorls, but as the suture descends steeply, five are exposed on the penultimate. On the body whorl below the keel there are 22 such spirals, frequently divided secondarily by 1–2 fine grooves in their flat summits; the interspaces, which are about half as wide as the threads, also develop secondary threads, especially on the base and below the periphery. Aperture elongate, not expanded. Outer lip thick, recurved and smooth within. Columellar callus plate thick and smooth. False umbilicus small. Four plaits on columella.
Dimensions: Height, 61; diameter, 45 mm.
Locality: 2675, Tahoraite (S.W.) S.D. Waitotaran.
Differs from X. marwicki n.sp. in the strong row of nodules and from fibratum in its higher spire and finer spiral sculpture which in the latter species is crossed by axials, giving a beaded effect. A closely allied new form from the Waitotaran of Wairoa differs in having three rows of nodules on the body whorl, a feature reminiscent of the earlier Tertiary representatives of the genus.
Xenophalium (Mauicassis) marwicki n.sp. (Plate 29; Fig. 19.)
A large Cassid lacking the nodulation of other species of Mauicassis but maintaining well marked sculpture of spiral threads. Unique type distorted. Sculpture: Slight indications of weak tubercles at the suture in early spire whorls, but last three whorls show only spiral sculpture of smooth, flat threads of irregular width with deep, groove-like interspaces. On the penultimate there are 23 threads, varying in width, and with interspaces also varying in width and depth. On the body whorl spirals tend to be alternately wide and narrow on the base and the grooves separating them are there deepest. Elsewhere secondary threads divide the surface somewhat irregularly. Outer lip thin, unthickened, but recurved, with about 16 low denticles, strongest anteriorly, becoming obsolete behind. Columellar callus-plate thin, delimiting large false umbilicus.
Dimensions: Height, 68.5; diameter, 50 mm.
Locality: G.S. 2499. Tahoraite (S.W.) S.D., Upper Waitotaran.
Austromitra quennelli n.sp. (Plate 29; Fig. 12.)
Shell of moderate size for genus. Protoconch, two whorled, assymmetrically helicoid, without sculpture. Spire whorls with almost vertical sides, the penultimate more convex and contracted towards the suture. All whorls shouldered flatly below the undulating suture. Body whorl expanded and convex above, contracted sharply below into the somewhat twisted neck. Spiral sculpture weak; a fairly marked cord at shoulder angle on younger whorls (stronger on paratype than on holotype) and many fine irregularly spaced grooves on shoulder and periphery. Axial sculpture strong; 12–15 strong rounded ribs per whorl, obsolete below suture, strongest on shoulder keel and dying out on the base of body whorl. Each runs obliquely back from shoulder to keel then turns to pass in a gentle curve towards the lip on to the base, where it flexes back slightly
before dying out. Fine growth lines visible on ribs and interspaces. Fasciole polished, with fine growth lines. Columella with a large posterior and two smaller anterior plaits, the two posterior ones continuing on to the neck as low rounded ribs, the third beneath fasciole. Columella and neck flexed somewhat to right. Outer lip incomplete.
Dimensions (holotype): Height, 11; diameter, 5 mm.
Locality: 2314, Takapau (N.E.) S.D. 2661, Tahoraite (S.W.) S.D. Sandstone facies of the Waitotaran.
The shoulder and cord recall Vexillitra Marwick, but the shell is an Austromitra, differing from other species in the shoulder and suppression of spiral sculpture. Named in honour of Captain A. M. Quennell, who was engaged in field work in the Dannevirke Subdivision in 1936–38.
“Aeneator” problematicus n.sp. (Plate 30; Fig. 26.)
Shell small for the genus, with ornature sculpture. Protoconch and uppermost spire whorls missing. Four and a-half whorls present including the body whorl. Whorls strongly convex, shouldered above and contracted to suture below. Periphery mid-way between sutures which are strongly undulating. Body whorl steeply contracting below the periphery. Axial sculpture: 10–12 strong, almost vertical, ribs commencing low at the suture, highest at the periphery, dying out on base and wider than the deeply recessed interspaces between them. Three coarse raised threads below the shoulder, the middle one strongest and forming the periphery, are the dominant spirals; fine intestitial threads are interposed between them on the body whorl. Above these dominant threads, low down on the shoulder, are three finer threads, the subsutural area being otherwise largely free from spiral sculpture. Below the dominant spirals on the body whorl there are 12 spirals becoming wider spaced towards the base where they tend to develop fine interstitial threads, but coarser and more closely spaced on the neck, opposite the point where the denticles are developed on the parietal wall External lip and posterior canal damaged. Internal lip with a parietal smear over the base of the body whorl posteriorly, becoming distinct anteriorly on the column, where there are three obliquely placed denticles.
Dimensions (unique holotype): Height (actual), 17 (estimated) 18.5; diameter, 9 mm.
Locality: 2314, Takapau S.D. (sandy facies of Waitotaran).
The generic location is purely provisional as the protoeonch and apertural features are incomplete. The sculpture is coarser than known species of Aeneator, and the species probably belongs to a new group which would include a further new species from the Westland Pliocene.
Aeneator drewi n.sp. (Plate 29; Figs, 13, 15.)
Shell of moderate size, similar in general shape and sculptural pattern to genotype, but strikingly different in whorl shape and suture. Protoconch of two and a-half whorls, domed and smooth,
somewhat asymmetrically placed in relation to main axis of shell. Whorls shouldered, with channelled suture, spire whorls tending to be straight sided. Three spiral threads on first post embryonic whorl, increasing to 13 on penultimate owing to development of interstitials. Weak axial folds, about 28 per whorl, but irregular, present on spire but obsolete on the penultimate and represented by strong growth lines on body whorl. Body whorl convex medially but concave below the shoulder which turns over abruptly in a deeply channelled suture. Sculpture of many close spaced spiral threads slightly beaded by intersection of growth lines, as in marshalli, and irregular in strength. On the base one or two interstitial threads alternate with the primary spirals. Columella and canal as in A. marshalli, except that there are no strong denticles at the anterior end of inner lip, a condition possibly indicating immaturity.
Dimensions: Height, 45; width 19 mm.
Locality: Castlecliff (Castlecliffian). One specimen.
This unexpected novelty was collected by Mr. Harry Drew, of Wanganui, and is named as a tribute to his long continued interest in natural science. Its description is included in this paper for convenience.
Austrosipho aff. latispinifer (Marwick).
A specimen lacking the beak from G.S. 2746 is at about the same stage of development as latispinifer, which comes from Burnt Hill, Canterbury, a locality correlated directly with Awamoan by Marwick (1932). The present specimen differs from latispinifer in its slightly lower suture and finer spiral sculpture, but the enormous spines prevent comparison with any other named species.
Locality: 2746, Te Uri Rd., Mangaotoro N.E.
The associated molluscan and foraminiferal faunas point to shallow water conditions of deposition. The presence of Zelandiella cf. fatua Finlay and Baryspira aff. subhebera Marwick suggests that the bed is younger than Awamoan—probably Tongaporutuan.
Austrosipho masoni n.sp. Plate 30; fig. 27.
Shell large and thick. Whorls angled and steeply shouldered, with 7–8 large blunt nodules per whorl on the angle. Suture undulating, below, but on the bases of, the nodules. Nodules not produced on to the shoulder, but continued towards the base, where, in a meridian the same distance below the periphery as the periphery is below the suture, a second row of blunt nodules is developed, elongated spirally in the form of an interrupted keel. Spiral sculpture weak, consisting of corrugations on base below lower keel, and fine indistinct spiral grooves on shoulder and periphery. Beak, column and aperture missing.
Dimensions: Height (actual), 76; diameter, 59 mm.
Localities: 2377 (type) Takapau (S.W.) S.D. (Tutamoe Series). 2742 Mangaotoro (N.E.) S.D. (Ihungia Series). 2933 Mokau River (Mokau Series).
Named in honour of Dr. B. H. Mason, who was engaged in field work in the Dannevirke Subdivision in 1937–38.
Austrosipho takapauensis n.sp. (Plate 30; Fig. 23.)
Shell smaller than Austrosipho masoni but similar. Spire angle less, owing to lower position of suture, which undulates below the row of nodules giving a more stepped appearance to spire. Nodulous keel thus nearer middle of spire whorls and not embraced by the suture. As in the previous species nodules continue towards base as axials which form a second nodulous keel. Spiral sculpture more distinct, especially on spire and shoulder where there are low, rounded riblets separated by shallow grooves.
Dimensions: Height (actual), 46.5; diameter, 29 mm.
Localities: 2754 (type) Takapau (S.E.) S.D. 2748 Mangaotoro (N.E.) S.D. Awamoan or Tongaporutuan.
At the last locality the presence of Baryspira tirangiensis (Marwick) and Glycymeris aff. rapanuiensis Marwick suggest correlation with the Tongaporutuan.
Ellicea perobtusa n.sp. (Plate 29; Figs. 11, 16.)
Single specimens from two localities of calcareous sandy mudstone facies in the Waitotaran differ from each other and from conformata so much that each would be made the type of a new species were it not for their occurrence in the same series of beds. Both resemble conformata in size but are stouter, with spire more depressed and of wider angle. Both have spiral sculpture of narrow raised threads, with deep, concave interspaces, 22 on body whorl and seven on penultimate. In one specimen (2499) early whorls are angled as they are conformata but unlike that species, the angulation persists on to the body whorl. Axial ornament, too, in the form of low nodules, 11 per whorl, persists on to the body whorl. In the other specimen (2329) axial sculpture becomes obsolete on the third whorl and whorl angulation dies out later so that the body whorl is convex, and the chief differences from conformata are the depressed spire and stoutness of the body whorl. The protoconchs of the two specimens differ in size, 2499 being the larger, but in members of the Buccinulidae such differences in protoconch should not be given too great importance (Powell, 1928). In view of the known sculptural instability of other Buccinulidae and as there is no indication that the variation is bathymetric or geographic such as would justify trinomial distinction (as in the case of Austrosipho adusta mandarinoides, Powell) the two forms are not here distinguished taxonomically. The phenotypic variation may indicate no systematic differentiation but merely a genotypic instability within a single population. In case there should later be found justification for separation of the two forms above described the extreme axially ornamented specimen is selected as holotype.
Dimensions: Height, 20; diameter, 12 mm.
Localities: 2329 (Takapau N.E.). 2499 (Tahoraite S.W.) (type) Waitotaran.
Figs. 1, 2.—Venericardia littiei n.sp. Holotype × 2.
Figs. 3, 4.—Barytellina tertia n.sp. Holotype × 1.5.
Fig. 5.—Coelotrochus browni n.sp. Holotype × 3.
Figs. 6, 6A,—Tugali kumeroa n.sp. Holotype × 2.5.
Fig. 7.—Maurea correlata n.sp. Holotype × 2.
Figs. 8, 9.—Dosinia (Ratna) macroptera n.sp. Holotype × 1.
Figs. 10.—Proterato pliotenica n.sp. Holotype × 5.
Figs. 11, 16.—Ethcea perobtusa n.sp. Paratype and holotype × 3.5.
Figs. 12.—Austromitra quennelli n.sp. Holotype × 5.
Figs. 13.—Aeneator drewi n.sp. Holotype × 1.1.
Figs. 14.—Aeneator marshalli (Murd.). Protoconch × 3.5.
Figs. 15.—Aeneator drewi n.sp. Protoconch × 3.5.
Figs. 17.—Cabestana manatoatuna n.sp. Holotype × 1.
Figs. 18.—Xenophalium (Mauicussis) lilliei n.sg., n.sp. Holotype × 1.
Figs. 19.—Xenophalium (Mauicassis) marwicki n.sg., n.sp. Holotype × 0.9.
Figs. 20.—Falsicolus teiriensis n.sp. Holotype × 2.7.
Figs. 21.—Typhis tepunga n.sp. Holotype × 2.
Figs. 22.—Macrozafra pliocenica n.sp. Holotype × 7.
Figs. 23.—Austrosipho takapauensis n.sp. Holotype × 0.9.
Figs. 24.—Zephos tutuiciewa n.sp. Holotype × 3.5.
Figs. 25.—Cominula attenuata n.sp. Holotype × 2.5.
Figs. 26.—“Aeneator” problematicus n.sp. Holotype × 3.5.
Figs. 27.—Austrosipho masoni n.sp. Holotype × 0.9.
Figs. 28.—Zemitriella subsuturalis n.sp. Holotype × 5.2.
Figs. 29.—Antisafra ofsoleta n.sp. Holotype 3.4.
Figs. 30.—Zeatrophon murrayae n.sp. Holotype × 3.
Figs. 31.—Antizafra obtusu n.sp. Holotype × 4.5.
Figs. 32.—Zeatrophon elegans n.sp. Holotype × 3.9.
Figs. 33.—Baryspira paeroa n.sp. Holotype × 2.5.
Figs. 34.—Zeadmete kumeroa n.sp. Holotype × 5.
Figs. 35, 36.—Baryspira gulosa n.sp. Holotype × 1.
Zelandiella aff. pliocenica Powell.
Specimens referable to this, the last species of the genus to appear in the Tertiary, come from G.S. 2731, a basal Opoitian limestone near Paeroa, Mangaotoro N.W. They show no significant differences from Waitotaran examples. The species also occurs below the Waitotaran in the Westland Blue Bottom.
Cominula attenuata n.sp. (Plate 30; Fig. 25.)
Hutton's figures (T.N.Z.I., vol. 17, pl. 18, fig. 7 and Macleay Mem. Vol., pl. 7, fig. 35) of hamiltoni and the dimensions given in the description of that species show that he was dealing with the short, squat form of shell so common in the Petane (Upper Nukumaruan) horizons of Hawke's Bay. From Lower Nukumaruan beds in the same district comes this new species distinguished from hamiltoni by its high spire and narrow shell form. C. attenuata is similar to hamiltoni in details of protoconch and ornamentation except that the axial ribs are one or two fewer per whorl, and more closely spaced. The chief and most striking difference is, however, in the tighter coiling of attenuata, which gives it a relatively higher spire and a less expanded body whorl. These features are reflected in dimensions. Specimens from G.S. 2687 contain both types but no extremely squat hamiltoni. The locality is both stratigraphically and faunally intermediate between Upper and Lower Nukumaruan beds. Thus the Upper Nukumaruan Pelicaria convexa has replaced P. acuminata but Chlamys delicatula, which is restricted to Lower Nukumaruan beds, persists This lends support to the idea that Cominula attenuata is the direct ancestor of hamiltoni.
|Holotype||(2492)||Height 16.5 mm.||Diameter 7.5 mm.|
|Paratype||(2491)||" 13 mm.||" 5.5 mm.|
|(2417)||" 16 mm.||" 7 mm.|
|(2687)||" 14.5 mm.||" 6.5 mm.|
|(2687)||" 14 mm.||" 7 mm.|
|(2687)||" 16 mm.||" 8 mm.|
|Other localities||" 16 mm.||" 8 mm.|
|" 14 mm.||" 7.5 mm.|
|" 13.5 mm.||" 8 mm.|
|" 9.5 mm.||" 6 mm.|
|" 15.5 mm.||" 8.5 mm.|
Localities: 2491, 2492, 2417, Tahoraite S.D., 736 (“Petane and Scinde Id.” mixed collection, 1884), 2687, Tahoraite S.D. (mixed population).
The above is a case of a gradational change in a lineage through geological time. It may be contrasted with what appears to be a sudden morphological change in a lineage; at approximately the same horizon in the Nukumaruan, for example, Pelicaria convexa (Marwick) suddenly replaces P. acuminata without any intermediate populations. It is to such sudden changes in the stratigraphical column that the term “mutations of Waagen” was once applied. However, modern
evolutionary doctrine (Huxley, 1942, p. 174) would explain such abrupt changes at one locality as due to the sudden immigration into a district of a form which has had a gradual development in a distant region. Change in climatic or other conditions is likely to favour such sudden appearance in the column, whereas slow gradual alteration in a lineage may occur irrespective of environmental conditions.
Zephos tuturewa n.sp. (Plate 30; Fig. 24.)
Similar to the genotype (cingulata, Hutton) and to onokeana King, differing in its smaller size, and in details of shape, sculpture and parietal callus. Shell depressed and squat, more so than most extreme topotypes of onokeana, whorls convex and not shouldered. Protoconch and earliest spire whorls decorticated. On penultimate whorl 4–5 spiral threads, the upper two wide spaced on the incipient shoulder. Axial ribs more closely spaced than in onokeana; 16–17 per whorl compared with 14–15 in King's species. On body whorl 13 further spirals are developed between suture and fasciole, making 18 in all, sub-equal in strength and not becoming so strong basally as they do in onokeana. Axials dying out just before fasciole. Fasciole strong and well defined. Outer lip missing. Inner lip with thickened parietal callus rising above the suture in the holotype.
Dimensions: Height, 16; diameter, 11.5 mm.
Locality: 2747, Mangaotoro (N.W.) S.D., east of Tuturewa Mountain (Opoitian).
From cingulata, which appears (from the figure) very close to onokeana, the new species differs in its depressed shape, in the prolongation of the axials and the base, and in the heavy parietal callus. Z. purchasi (Suter) (Pal. Bull. 5, Plate 4, fig. 20) has even more axial ribs per whorl (20) and a “faint tubercle below the suture” on the inner lip.
Falsicolus teuriensis n.sp. (Plate 30; Fig. 20.)
A Falsicolus of the allani-morgani group, differing from these species in the length of the spire, which, measured from a given suture, is considerably less than the greatest width of the whorl above the suture. Suture placed high on whorl, shortly below keel, slightly undulating as it passes over the axials. No conspicuous lower keel of axials as on allani. Shoulder somewhat more concave than in morgani, but axial nodules similar in number (6–8 per whorl) and in shape. Spiral sculpture much finer than in morgani; about 20 fine threads on shoulder above periphery and 4–5 below periphery on spire whorls. Aperture and column missing.
Dimensions (unique damaged holotype—actual): Height, 21.5; diameter, 23.3 mm. Spire from suture (estimated), 16 mm.
Locality: 2371. Te Uri Rd., Mangaotoro (N.E.) S.D., Tutamoe Series.
Typhis tepunga n.sp. (Plate 30; Fig. 21.)
A Pliocene representative of the New Zealand Miocene species known as T. hebetatus (Hutt.), differing from that species in its more slender build. Shell smaller than adult hebetatus and less acutely angled at periphery. Varices five per whorl, marked by a break in continuity of shell in front of a broad, rounded, and fairly smooth variceal rib. Each varix dies out above shoulder, and on periphery bears an upward-directed short irregular hollow spine; rarely there is a second much weaker spine half way down to the base. Half way between a pair of varices a prominent wide hollow spine projects upward and slightly backward, its base extending on to the shoulder and thus situated higher on the shell than the variceal spine. Shell otherwise smooth except for growth lines; suture markedly waved. Spire equal in height to aperture and canal. Aperture oval, with well defined, moderately thick, and continuous projecting rim. Umbilicus and tubular perforation small.
Dimensions: Height, 22; width, 13.5 mm.
Localities: 2661 (type), 2499 (Tahoraite S.D.). 2314 (Takapau S.D.) Calcareous sandstone faces of Waitotaran.
This species is named in honour of Mr. Martin Te Punga, who did field work in Dannevirke Subdivision in 1940–41.
Zeatrophon murrayae n.sp. (Plate 31; Fig. 30.)
Of the Z. bonneti (Cossmann) line but smaller and differing in sculpture and apex. Nucleus minute, rounded and symmetrically placed. First two post nuclear whorls smooth and bulbous, third developing a smooth carina just below the middle and another shortly appearing above it. Protoconch as a whole less depressed and domelike than in bonneti. Spire whorls similar to those of bonneti. Two chief spiral cords, one at the shoulder angle, the other half way between angle and suture below, while a third strong cord is almost hidden by the suture. Axials, about 24 per whorl, as compared with 16–20 in bonneti, much weaker than spirals, and usually obsolete on the shoulder, which is smoother than in Cossmann's species. Small nodules developed at intersection of axials and spirals bear short spines in fresh specimens. On body whorl, axials become obsolete on neck. Base below sutural cord bears seven or eight fairly close-spaced threads, not conspicuously fenestrated by the axials. Aperture much as in bonneti, but wider and not usually denticulate. Canal as in bonneti.
Dimensions (holotype): Height, 18; diameter, 10 mm.
Localities: 3093 (type) Hunterville-Turakina Valley Road (Upper Nukumaruan) and several Nukumaruan localities in Dannevirke Subdivision.
Named after Miss K. S. Murray, N.Z. Geological Survey, whose illustrations for this paper speak for themselves.
Zeatrophon elegans n.sp. (Plate 31; Fig. 32.)
A handsome species with no obvious affinities. Shell moderate sized. Protoconch of unique specimen lacks initial whorls but has been polygyrate and symmetrical. Post embryonic whorls, five.
Spire whorls turreted with a wide, slightly concave shoulder and two coarse nodulous spiral cords forming periphery sloping inwards slightly to suture below cord. Axials 12 per whorl, broad, low and rounded, continued over the shoulder which is otherwise smooth in spire whorls although, on body whorl, two to three narrow grooves develop, defining low threads between them. The two peripheral spiral cords of spire whorls are equal in strength and form nodules, elongated horizontally, where intersected by axials. On penultimate whorl a fine intermediary spiral thread, similarly intersected by axials, develops between the chief cords, and there is a further fine thread above suture. The same sculpture is continued on to body whorl where, on base, below last mentioned fine thread, there are six wide, flatly rounded cords, the upper three separated by finer interstitial threads. Fasciole fairly strong, sculptured by growth lines. Aperture ovoid, slightly angled at the upper of the two peripheral cords, constricted anteriorly to form a moderately long slightly twisted anterior siphonal canal. Outer lip raised into eight strong denticles.
Dimensions: Height, 18 5; diameter, 9.5 mm.
Locality: 2687, Kumeroa (Uppermost Lower Nukumaruan).
The shell is reminiscent of the form of the polymorphic Z. ambiguus, in which the spirals have developed with suppression of the axial varices.
Zeadmete kumeroa n.sp. (Plate 31; Fig. 34.)
Shell large for the genus, agreeing with trailli rather than with other Pliocene species in the weakness of the subsutural shoulder. Protoconch normal. Spiral whorls convex, not straight-sided, with four strong spiral threads, two weak threads on shoulder and a weaker one above suture, crossed by weaker axials, producing nodulous intersections and squarish pitlike interspaces. On penulimate and body whorls, axial sculpture becomes obsolete, and secondary threads develop between the spirals, of which there are 23 on the body whorl, crossed by growth lines. Outer lip thin sinused at the weak shoulder and running forward in a broad sweep before retreating to anterior canal. Inner lip apparently without parietal callus and with two weak subequal plaits on columella.
Dimensions: Height, 11.7, diameter 6 mm.
Locality: 2687 (Tahoraite S.W.), Uppermost Lower Nukumaruan.
The other Nukumaruan species, teres Laws, differs in the strong shoulder and entire absence of radials. Z. aupouria Powell is close, and as it is based on a juvenile shell, comparison is difficult. However, in aupouria the shoulder is more defined and the first post-embryonic whorl bears seven spirals, whereas in the present species there are only three or four initial threads.
Bonellitia aff. lacunosa (Hutton).
Specimens from Waitotaran and Lower Nukumaruan horizons differ from topotypes (Petane, Upper Nukumaruan) in the strength of the axials which dominate the spiral threads, and in the large
number of interstitials in the interspaces between the chief spirals. In the strength of their axials they resemble the Opoitian (?) fundata Marwick, but differ from that species, too, in the large number of interstitials.
Zemitrella subsuturalis n.sp. (Plate 31; Fig. 28.)
Shell moderate sized for the genus. Spire outline straight, interrupted somewhat by the slightly incised suture. Protoconch smooth, shining and papilliform, nucleus depressed, embryonic lip thickened where it passes abruptly into post-embryonic shell. Sculpture, an ill-defined subsutural groove, and many (about 13) fine spiral grooves separating threads on the base and neck. Whorls otherwise smooth except for faint growth lines. Outer lip thickened within, having a prominent denticle a third the distance from posterior notch.
Dimensions of unique holotype: Height, 7·5; diameter, 3 mm.
Locality: 2312, Ongaonga Road. Petane Series.
Apparently akin to Z. haroldi Laws, which has fewer anterior threads, and to Z. pseudomarginata among Recent species; neither of these species has a sub-sutural groove.
Antizafra obtusa n.sp. (Plate 31; Fig. 31.)
Shell similar to A. speighti but with the whorls more convex so that they have a much less straight outline. Sculpture strong. Protoconch as in other species of genus, i.e., nucleus sunk in smooth dome-like first post-nuclear whorl, and a second shining whorl with an abrupt change to adult ornament. However, probably owing to an accident to the embryo, the embryonic lip is not simple as in all other species, but has a distinct posterior sinus. Whorls gently convex. Sculpture: 15–16 broadly rounded axial ribs per whorl, dying out on base, crossed by seven well defined spiral ridges on spire whorls. Spirals strongest on periphery, and equally developed on summits of axials and in interspaces between them. Ten similar spirals on base, followed posteriorly by four or more finer, more closely spaced threads on neck. Outer lip and tip of column broken.
Dimensions of holotype (unique), slightly damaged: Height, 8; diameter, 4 mm.
Locality: Ongaonga Rd. (Petane Series).
The abnormal protoconch lip is probably accidental. The convexity of the whorls distinguishes this species from others of the genus.
Antizafra obsoleta n.sp. (Plate 31; Fig. 29.)
Shell of same size and shape as speighti (Marwick) but with ornament considerably reduced, axials almost obsolete, giving a strong resemblance to Zemitrella sulcata (Hutton). Spiral sculpture: One strong sub-sutural groove and five spaced below on spire whorls, tending to become obsolete where crossed by axials. Below these, on body whorl, 12 similarly spaced but deeper grooves, becoming weaker on canal. Axial sculpture: About 20 broadly rounded axial riblets per whorl (about as broad as their interspaces), strongest between subsutural groove and suture, but obsolete on base. Spirals largely restricted to interspaces between axials except for sub-sutural and
basal spiral grooves which traverse axials. Aperture similar to that of speighti; other lip denticulate, a particularly large anterior denticle about one-fifth of distance from anterior notch.
Dimensions (holotype): Height, 11·5; diameter, 5 mm.
Locality: 2312, Ongaonga Road (Petane Series).
Macrozafra pliocenica n.sp. (Plate 30; Fig. 22.)
Shell small, similar to M. subabnormis (Suter) and saxatilis (Murdoch), but differing in its flatter whorls and in sculpture. Axials 16–18 per whorl, obsolete on base and crossed on penultimate whorl by seven narrow spiral grooves which separate wide flat ridges. Sixteen spiral threads on base, separated by somewhat wider grooves than on spire. Column straight. Aperture thickened but without denticulation. Posterior canal short with wide open notch.
Dimensions of unique holotype: Height, 6·5; diameter, 3 mm.
Locality: 2312, Ongaonga Rd. (Petane Series).
Baryspira gulosa n.sp. (Plate 31; Figs. 35, 36.)
Shell large, of same style as mucronata (Sow.) but stouter, with whorls more convex and retracted towards suture which is well defined. Channels and plaits on column better defined; column not so straight as in recent specimens of mucronata; groove round base of body whorl deeper. Otherwise details of sculpture and callus as in mucronata.
Dimensions: Height, 39; diameter, 19 mm. (holotype).
Localities: 2367, Takapau (S.W.) S.D., Opoiti or Mapiri Series (Opoitian or Taranakian); 2731, Mangaotoro (N.W.) S.D., base of Opoiti Series (Opoitian).
Baryspira (Alocospira) paeroa n.sp. (Plate 31; Fig. 33.)
Shell similar to B. subhebera Marwick, but smaller and differing in shape and callus development. Whorl outline more convex, aperture shorter in relation to height of spire, than in subhebera, and calloused spire more pointed, not so obtusely rounded and swollen. Apertural callus of similar form to that of subhebera but less developed. Basal groove of body whorl relatively wider and shallower than in subhebera. In other details similar to subhebera.
Dimensions (holotype): Height, 21; diameter, 9 mm.
Localities: 2731, Paeroa, Mangaotoro (N.W.) S.D. (basal Opoitian concretionary limestone). Similar specimens from Patea (Waitotaran).
Durham, J. W., 1942. Notes on Pacific Coast Galeodeas. Journ. Pal., vol. 16, no. 2.
Huxley, J. S., 1942. Evolution: the Modern Synthesis. George Allen and Unwin, Ltd., London.
Lillie, A R. and Fleming, C. A., 1941. Dannevirke Subdivision. Geol. Surv. Branch, 35th Ann., Rep.
Marwick, J., 1931. N.Z.G.S. Pal. Bull., no. 13.
—, 1932 Tertiary Mollusca from Burnt Hill. Rec. Cant. Mus., vol. 3, pp. 495–509.
Powell, A. W. B., 1929. The Recent and Tertiary Species of the Genus Buccinulum in N.Z. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 60, pp. 57–101.
Rutsch, R., 1931. Zur Nomenk. u syst. Stellung ein. tert. Cassididae a. Neu-Seeland. Eclog. geol. Helvet., bd. 24, no. 2.