Key to Species.
|1. Plants monoicous, leaves oblong-lingulate, margin entire (very rare)||monoica|
|Plants dioicous, leaves shaped otherwise, margin usually toothed||2.|
|2. Leaves opposite||3.|
|3. Stems simple or moderately branched, leaves closely imbricate, flat, mostly entire, increasing in size upwards||conjugata|
|Stems proliferously branched, leaves somewhat remote, dentate, dorsal margin revolute||prolif [ unclear: ] r|
|4. Leaves with dorsal margin toothed to base||5.|
|Leaves with dorsal margin entire or almost so||6.|
|5. Leaves triangular-oblong, stems nude||annotina|
|Leaves deltoid- or triangular-ovate, stems with tooth-like processes||circumdentata|
|6. Middle length of stem leaves exceeding middle width||7.|
|Middle length of stem leaves not, or if so, only slightly exceeding middle width||14.|
|7. Plants small to large, leaves not yellow-green, smooth||8.|
|Plants never large, leaves yellow-green, often papillose||13.|
|8. Plants robust, branching compound; dendroid, or pinnate, sometimes irregular in P. arbuscula||9.|
|Plants smaller, branching neither dendroid nor pinnate||10.|
|9. Branching pinnate to bi-pinnate, leaves with broad apices, ventral margins coarsely toothed||stephensoniana|
|Branching dendroid, ventral margin and apex spinulose-toothed||rutl [ unclear: ] andii|
|Branching iriegular, may be fasciculate or dendroid, leaf api [ unclear: ] ces and ventral bases spinose||a [ unclear: ] buscula|
|10. Branches few or none, leaves wider at the base than across the middle (from the ventral aspect)||11.|
|Branches few or none, leaves wider at the base than across the middle (from the ventral aspect)||12.|
|11. Leaf apices bidentate (sometimes entire), margin [ unclear: ] -entire, stems radiculose||radiculosa|
|Leaf apices truncate or rounded-truneate, toothed, ventral margin ciliate- or spinous-toothed||sinclairii|
|Leaf apices with few teeth, ventral margins almost entire||reischekiana|
|12. Plants olive to dark green, ventral margin dentate to spinous-dentate||fasciculata|
|Plants red-brown, more rigid, teeth more spinose and usually fewer, cells usually smaller||lyallii|
|13. Branches long, leaves regularly set. perianth not ribbed, mouth not contracted||fruticclla|
|Branches shorter, leaves more erect and less regularly set on the stem; perianth ribbed, mouth contracted||plourota|
|14. Stems simple or sparingly branched||13.|
|15. Leaves not vertically appressed to the stem||16.|
|Leaves vertically appressed to the stem||18.|
|16. Leaves of soft texture, ventral part not strongly de [ unclear: ] curved, cells quadrate without trigones||banksiana|
|Leaves more rigid, ventral part strongly decurved, deltoid-ovate, cells with trigones||17.|
|17. Plants medium to [ unclear: ] lobust, leaf margin and perianth mouth strongly toothed||deltoidea|
|Plants smaller, leaf-margin entire or faintly toothed, perianth often sterile and short, mouth entire||gregaria|
|18. Leaves reddish-brown, closely and regularly imbricate, marginal zone not differentiated, margins other than denticulate, stem apices not incurved||19.|
|Leaves lighter brown, not so closely imbricated, marginal zone differentiated, margin denticulate, stem apices incurved||20.|
|19. Leaves flat, sub-orbicular, entire||ansata|
|Leaves strongly dorsally recurved, deltoid-ovate, ventral margin undulate, entire or remotely toothed||circinalis|
|20. Stems very long, branches short, regularly spaced, homomallous, trigones much in evidence||multidentata|
|Stems medium, simple or moderately branched, trigones absent or small||fuscella|
|21. Branching irregular and excessive, branches att [ unclear: ] uted, may be hamate, marginal teeth spinous, sub-remote||ramosissima|
|Branching dendroid, marginal teeth otherwise||22.|
|22. Branches hamate or with incurved apices, leave [ unclear: ] obliquely orbicular-ovate, appressed, margins denticulate, trigones large||[ unclear: ]|
|Branches not hamate nor with incurved apices, leaves orbicular-quadrate, not appressed, margins dentatc [ unclear: ] ciliate||gigantea|
Plagiochila monoica St.
P. monoica Steph. Spec. Hep., vol. 1–6.
Plants monoicous, small, densely tufted on bark, mixed with Radula sp. Stem very short, scarcely more than 1 cm. (Stephani gives 1.5 cm.) ventral rhizoids present on the lower part, much branched, almost every branch bearing either a perianth or androecia (on specimen examined). Leaves imbricate, alternate, oblong-lingulate, entire, obliquely spreading, of a glistening appearance; apex rounded-truncate; dorsal margin decurrent. Cells ca. 30 μ, basal larger, rounded-hexagonal, trigones small. Perianth very long for the size of the plant, similar in shape to that of P. gigantea, mouth truncate, quite entire. Invol. leaves similar in shape to the cauline, but much larger, quite entire, the lower pair smaller. Androecia in five or six pairs, terminal or intercalary in one series only (on specimen seen).
This is a unique and rare species. Carl (1931) points out that P. monoica, together with P. autoica are the only two in over 1300 species that are not dioicous, and he considers that they should be placed in another genus. As P. monoica, at any rate, appears to meet all the other necessary requirements of Plagiochila, I have made of it a subgenus.
The plant examined was No. 119, Herb. D. Petrie, no locality stated. Stephani mentions Kirk and Petrie as collectors, but gives no locality.
Plagiochila conjugata (Hook.) Dum.
Jungermannia conjugata Hook., Musc. Exot., 22, t. 91. 1818. Plag. conjugata Dum., Rec. d'obs., 1835; Lindenb., Spec. Hep., 123, t. 26, 1839; G. L. ct N., Syn. Hep., 52; Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 130, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 504, 1867; St. Spec. Hep., ii, 469; Carl, Ann Bry., Supp. vol. ii, 41, 1931. Plag. connexa Tayl. Lond. Journ. of Bot., 266, 1846; G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 648, (Supp.), 1846; Mitt., Fl., Nov. Zel., ii, 130, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 504, 1867; Steph., Spec. Hep., ii, 469; Carl, Ann. Bry., Supp. vol. ii, 41, 1931. Plag. subconnata Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi, 49, 1888.
Plants in matted tufts on tree trunks or roots or on the ground. Stems to 5 cm., flexuose, branched; branches may be attenuate, or even flagelliferous, often curved at the apices. Leaves opposite, imbricate, vertical, appressed to the stem; margins flat: orbicular to
obliquely orbieular-reniform, increasing in size upwards, entire, dentate or denticulate on the same stem; bases of each pair connate or free. Cells ca. 30 μ, mostly oval, trigones large. Perianth terminal, sub-compressed, obconic, truncate, mouth dentate-ciliate or fimbriate. Invol. leaves larger than the cauline, marginal teeth longer, irregular, straight or curved. An innovation often arises from below the perianth. ♂ plants appear to be more slender than the ♀. Bracts in pairs from 5–12 at, or near the apex of the stem. Colenso gives 9–14 in his description of P. subconnata.
Easily recognised by the orbicular, opposite, mostly entire leaves, on flexnose stems.
I have no hesitation in reducing Taylor's P. connexa to this species. There is nothing in the Handbook description of P. connexa—“Stems sparingly branched, olive brown or yellow, 1 inch high, apices incurved; leaves orbicular, lower entire, upper subdenticulate”—or in Stephani's drawing, a copy, which is in any way different from small plants of P. conjugata. Moreover, the Handbook states that there are no specimens of P. connexa in the Hooker Herbarium.
The flat leaf-margins and the opposite leaves will serve to distinguish P. conjugata from species of Jamesoniella, which it resembles, in appearance.*
A montane and sub-alpine species, widely distributed throughout New Zealand.
The type was collected at Dusky Sound by Dr. Archibald Menzies, in 1791.
Plagiochila prolifer Mitt.
Plag. prolifer Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 131, 1833; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 504, 1867; Steph., Spec. Hep., ii; Carl, Ann. Bry., Supp. Vol., ii, 41, 1931.
Plants in matted tufts or cushions, on tree trunks or roots or logs. Stems to about 4 cm., branched fasciculately from below a perianth, each of which branches may again bear a perianth with one or more innovations from below, which may be flagelliferous with remote pairs of minute leaves. Leaves somewhat remote, sub-erect, opposite, in pairs, obliquely sub-orbicular, toothed, often increasing in size upwards, especially when nearing the perianth, dorsal margins recurved, toothed towards the apex. Cells rather indistinct, with thick walls, ca. 20–30 μ. Perianth obovate. When dry, the mouth is decurved, first to one side and then to the other, thereby making the perianth appear sub-acute. Invol. leaves larger than the cauline, and more coarsely tocthed, sub-orbicular. ♂ branches fascicled; one stem had 8, 4 of which were again branched. Bracts in 6–8 pairs, at intervals along the branches.
This species can be recognised by the non-imbricate, opposite, dentate leaves, with recurved dorsal margins. P. conjugata has imbricate leaves with flat dorsal margins, and is a taller plant. Adelanthus falcatus has a falcate stem, bearing alternate leaves with dorsal margins either flat or curved slightly inwards.
Specimens examined are from: Pahautea Bush, E. of Taupo, under beech, K. W. Allison; Paeroa Range, South of Rotorua, ca.
[Footnote] * A gathering recently received, collected on Rangitoto, a volcanic island in Auckland Harbour, by L. B. Moore, has undulate leaf-margins, No. 24643 P. R. B. Herb. This is unusual.
3000 feet, K. W. Allison; Maungapohatu, in beech forest, L. B. Moore; western shore of Lake Waikare-iti, 3000 feet, E. A. Hodgson; National Park, A. L. Hodgson; Tableland Track, Mt. Arthur, Nelson, G. O. K. Sainsbury; Maruia Springs, Nelson, J. H. McMahon.
The type was collected at Bay of Islands by Sir Joseph Hooker.
Plagiochila annotina (Menz.) Lindb.
Jungermannia annotina Menz. apud Hook., in Musc. Exot., t. 90, 1818. Play. annotina Lindenb., Spec. Hep., 34, t. vi, 1839; G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 41 & 643 (Supp.) 1844–1846; Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii. 131, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 507, 1867. St., Spec. Hep., ii, 402; Carl, Ann. Bry., Supp. Vol., ii, 143, 1931. Jung. adiantoides Hook., Musc, Exot., t. 90, 1818. P. kirkii Mitt; St., Spec. Hep., ii, 453; Pears., Univ. Cal. Pub. Bot., x, 314, Pl. 39, 1923.
Plants tufted, mainly on roots and trunks of trees, yellow-green to varying shades of brown (when dry). Stems to about 9 cm., erect or flexuous, sometimes nodding at the apex, simple or sparingly branched, branches sub-erect. Leaves 3–4 cm., densely imbricated, obliquely spreading or sometimes decurved, toothed all round, triangular-oblong; ventral margin straight or slightly arched, from a semi-circular base, which is connivent with that of the opposite leaf, forming a crest; toothed, basal teeth large, approximate, straight, oblique or hamate; apex usually obtuse, sometimes rather narrow, 2–3 toothed; dorsal margin recurved, outline oblique or slightly inwardly curved, decurrent, dentate or denticulate, teeth more remote than on the ventral margin. Cells ca. 30 μ, larger at the base, irregular in shape, with an outside ring of darker colour, walls may be sinuous. Trigones small to medium, or even large. Perianth terminal, often with an innovation from below, oblong, with or without a dorsal wing, which may be toothed; mouth fimbriate-ciliate, processes of irregular shape. Invol. leaves in several pairs, increasing in size upwards, similar in shape to the cauline, inmost pair appressed to, and in part, concealing the perianth, margins toothed to fimbriate-ciliate. ♂ stems flexuous, terete, bracts very numerous, closely imbricate, more or less entire, no fascicular ♂ branches seen.
Stephani describes the trigones as sub-nodulose, and the basal as large and nodulose.
The leaves of this species are somewhat similar to those of P. arbuscula in shape, but they are more closely imbricated, and the ventral margin more closely toothed, while teeth on the dorsal margin are lacking in P. arbuscula. P. circumdentata St. is also toothed dorsally, but the leaf is deltoid-ovate.
Mitten's P. kirkii, from Great Barrier Island (I do not know in what publication it first appeared), has strongly pigmented leaves, which are very strongly toothed in the basal ventral portion, and have fairly narrow apices. But these features are variable throughout the species, the upper leaves on a stem often being more strongly toothed than the lower ones, etc., and it does not seem worth while keeping up P. kirkii, though Stephani allows it and Pearson makes much of it. It is essentially the same as Hooker's and Lindenberg's plates of P. annotina in the Musci Exotici and Species Hepaticarum respectively. Such a plant is from Mamaku Bush (presumably), coll. A. L. Poole, comm. K. W. Allison.
A small, mildly toothed form is from Waipawa River, Ruahines coll. A. L. Hodgson. (Not the same plant as mentioned under P. circumdentata.)
Plants examined are from: Hokianga, leg. et det. S. Berggren, 1874, comm. Fr. Verdoorn; rotten tree trunk, Kaingaroa State Forest, K. W. Allison; tree trunks in forest, 10–12 miles east of Taupo, ca. 2000 feet, K. W. Allison; Waikaremoana, H. Hill (Herb. Colenso); “Wairaumoana, Waikaremoana, in forest, coll. Mrs. G. O. K. Sainsbury, det. Th. Herzog; in bush, Omahanui, near Wairoa, ca. 2500 feet, R. Lane; Mt. Arawaru, V. D. Zotov, No. 6717, P. R. B. Herb.; D'Urville Island, J. H. McMahon; Marlborough, J. H. McMahon; Hokitika, H. M. Hodgson; Doubtful Sound, G. Si [ unclear: ] npson; Stewart Island, L. Cockayne; also Rangitoto, L. B. Moore, No. 40782, P. R. B. Herb.
The type was collected at Dusky Sound by Dr. Archibald Menzies in 1791.
Plagiochila circumdentata St.
St. Spec. Hep., ii, 456; Carl, Ann. Bry., Supp. Vol. ii, 143, 1931.
Plants loosely tufted on earth or rock, dingy to dark brown (when dry). Stems 4–7 cm., simple or moderately branched, straight, flexuous, or nodding at the apex, with short, spinulose paraphylls scattered on the dorsal surface, similar to the basal teeth on the dorsal margin of the leaf. Leaves deltoid-ovate, obliquely spreading, closely imbricate, ventral basal portion often conniving with that of the nearly opposite leaf and forming a crest; ventral margin arched, toothed, more notably in the basal part, where long, straight or crooked teeth are mixed with shorter ones; apex rounded, 3–4 toothed, dorsal margin strongly revolute, armed with teeth throughout, but with several, usually longer ones, set close together in a tuft as it were at the base, decurrent. Cells ca. 30 μ, longer at the base, walls sinuous, trigones medium to large. Perianth oblong to oblong-elliptic, mouth denticulate-dentate. Invol. leaves similar to the cauline but somewhat larger and more strongly toothed. ♂ stems fasciculate, bracts entire, upper portion more or less squarrose.
As Carl points out, Stephani, in his description, omits all mention: of the paraphylls on the stem. I have not seen these in any other species of Plagiochila.
This species is certainly related to P. annotina, but the leaves are shorter and broader, and their habit on the stem resembles that of P. deltoidea.
A plant from Waipawa R., Ruahines, coll. A. L. Hodgson, has unusually small trigones.
Other localities are: Dry bank under manuka, East of Waiotapu Valley, Rotorua Co., ca. 1700 feet; K. W. Allison; Mt. Maungapohatu, Urewera, 3000–4000 feet, B. Teague; Pumice soil in bush, Waikaremoana, 2000 feet, E. A. Hodgson; Ohau-iti R., Tararuas, No. 4814 P. R. B. Herb., V. D. Zotov; moist rocks, Waitoki Stream banks, Marl-borough, J. H. McMahon; head waters of east branch of Hawdon R., North Canterbury, H. M. Hodgson; near Cass, North Canterbury, E. Ensor; Arthur's Pass, Det. Th. Herzog, V. D. Zotov; Doubtful
Sound, G. Simpson; Franklyn Mts., Lake Te Anau, W. A. Thomson; also Ruamahanga Valley, Tararuas, V. D. Zotov, 9255, P.R.B.H.
The type was collected by Beckett, locality not stated.
Plagiochila arbuscula (Brid.) L. et L.
Jung. arbuscula Brid., Herb. L. et L., in Lehm. Pug. Plant. Nov., iv. Plagarbuscula L. et L., in Lindenb., Spec. Hep., Fasc. i–v, 23, t. iv, 1839; G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 27, 1844; Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 132, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 505, 1867; St., Spec. Hep., ii, 463; Carl, Ann. Bry., Supp. Vol., ii 144, 1931. Plag. obscura Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix, 281, 1886. Plag. trispicata Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx, 246, 1887. Plag. longissima Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi, 49, 1888. Plag. polystacha Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi, 51, 1888. Plag. calcarata Herz., Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z. vol. 68, 41, 1938.
Plants robust, erect or pendent on bark, dark or blackish green. Stems to about 15 cm., stout and rigid or thin and limp, according to the habit, branching dendroid or irregular, usually compound, flagelliferous branches sometimes present. Leaves ca. 2 mm., imbricate, except on the lower portion of the main stem, triangular-oblong, somewhat convex, dorsal margin oblique, straight or with a slight inward curve, decurrent at the base, usually strongly revolute when dry, specially towards the apex, slightly reflexed when moist, with 1 or 2 teeth near the apex; ventral margin at right angles to the stemr basal portion rounded, usually overlapping the stem, sometimes even touching that of the leaf opposite, more or less strongly spinous-toothed, spines straight or hamate; middle portion entire or sparsely toothed, 2 or 3 spinous teeth towards the apex; apices variable, 2–3 spinose with the middle spine the longest, or lacerate, or obliquely truncate with the spines more or less even. Cells ca. 25–28 μ, with an opaque, granular ring of varying width, surrounding the lumen, or sometimes occupying the whole of the cavity. Trigones medium to-large, narrowly confluent. Invol. leaves erect, larger than the cauline, but of similar shape, with large triangular basal spines, straight or hamate, often spur-like. Perianth terminal, or lateral on the branches, oblong, narrowed at both base and apex, about 2½ times longer than broad; mouth dentate-ciliate, acute or obtuse. ♂ bracts arranged at intervals on long, slender, flexuous branches, in groups of 6 or more pairs, shortly 2–3 spinous; in the more rigid form, the branches are shorter.
P. longissima Col. (No. al341 is the type number) is a more or less lax, pendent form growing in masses on tree trunks and branches, the individual stems of which may be 6 inches or more in length.
P. calcarata Herz. also belongs here. In his description, Dr. Herzog makes the spur-like ventral spines the main distinguishing feature of the species; but these spines are, in a more or less marked degree, quite characteristic of P. arbuscula, as is shown in the coloured plate in Lindenberg's Species Hepaticarum.
A plant in which the flagelliferous branches with small leaves are very much in evidence, is from Mt. Archeria, ca. 2300 feet, Little Barrier Island, coll. R. E. N. Matthews, comm. Miss L. Cranwell. P. calcarata Herz, (the type) also has these in a noticeable degree. Both of these approach nearer to the “longissima” than to the dendroid form of P. arbuscula. I have this form from the Wairoa district
(fairly plentiful), Bay of Islands region, coll. V. W. Lindauer, and Wilton's Bush, coll. R. Mason.
Plants of a more or less rigid and dendroid habit are from Okahau, North Auckland, H. B. Matthews; edge of Urewera Country on tree trunks, coll. K. W. Allison; forest, near Fox Glacier, Mrs. Knight; and specimens in Herb. Colenso.
Notes taken by Miss Moore when visiting Kew, show that specimens of this plant are very numerous in the Hooker Herbarium. The large areas of bush in New Zealand at that time would account for this.
New Zealand plants were first collected by Cunningham. Lindenberg and the Synopsis also give Java, but this is not mentioned by Stephani.*
Plagiochila stephensoniana Mitt.
P. stephensoniana Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 133, 1833; Handh. N.Z. Fl., ii, 505. 1967; St., Spec. Hep., ii, 459; Call, Ann. Bry., Supp. Vol. ii. 144, 1931; P. polycarpa Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix. 280, 1886. P. subsimilis Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xiv. 340, 1881.
Plants robust, erect, dark-green. Stems from 8–30 cm., usually about 10–15 cm., blackish, rigid, lower part bare or with rounded, remote cauline leaves, remainder sub- to bi-pinnately branched. Leaves triangular-quadrate, contiguous to imbricate; dorsal margin revolute or reflexed, decurrent; ventral spinous-toothed; apex rounded-truncate, 3–4 spinous-toothed; cells rounded-quadrate, ca. 20–30 μ, with an outer ring surrounding the lumen, trigones small. Invol. leaves similar in shape but larger, and more coarsely and irregularly toothed, specially at the ventral base. Perianth terminal on short (usually) secondary branches, two-lipped, obovate, acute or cuspidate, the apical point being caused by the margin of the mouth being recurved first on one side and then on the other. The apex itself may be subentire or with a few short teeth. Capsule shortly exserted. ♂ bracts in ca. 6–10 pairs on the upper branches which may or may not be fascicled; entire, cuspidate or bidentate.
Without perianths, this species is very easily confused with P. arbuscula, specially if the dorsal margins are strongly revolute. Even Stephani, who rarely comments on the affinities of a plant, mentions this; but the more familiar one becomes with the plants, the more readily are their differences detected. The leaves of P. stephensoniana are shorter and broader in typical specimens, specially on the main stem, and the spines are less pronounced. Also, the perianth is broader, with an apiculus.
The habitat of this fine plant so well depicted in the beautiful full-page coloured plate in the Flora Novae Zelandiae, is eloquently described by Colenso under P. polycarpa in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 19, p. 280: “In wet, dark woods, in deep gullies between hills, growing luxuriantly and thickly in very large, continuous patches of several feet, on rotten logs, roots, and bases of trunks of large trees, completely covering them.”
I have 20 specimens in all, localities ranging from Waimarino to Stewart Island.
[Footnote] * Pearson's drawing of P. arbuscula in his Notes on a Collection of N.Z. Hepaticae, appears to be that of P. stephensoniana.
Plagiochila gigantea (Hook.) Dum.
Jung. gigantea Hook., Muse. Exot., t. 93, 1818. Plag. gigantca Dum., Rec. d'Obs., 15; Lindenb., Spec. Hep., Fasc. i–v, 117, t. 24, 1839; G. L. et N. Syn. Hep., 51, 1844; Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 133, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 505, 1867; St., Spec. Hep., ii, 458; Carl, Ann. Bry., Supp. Vol., ii, 145, 1931. Plag. suborbiculata Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix, 282, 1886.
Plants pale dull green, medium to robust, variable in size and colour, usually dendroid in cushions or carpeting rain-forest floor, on creek-banks or wet rock. Stems to 20 cm., but usually much shorter, dark brown or black, fasciculately branched, sub-woody, rigid in robust plants. Stem leaves remote, sub-orbicular, larger than the branch leaves, entire or toothed; branch leaves inbricate, obliquely patulous, rotund-quadrate from a narrow base, ca. 2–3 mm., ciliatetoothed or spinous-toothed, except on the recurved dorsal margin, teeth often glistening, long and short, often alternating, cells rounded-hexagonal, walls thick, ca. 20–30 μ; trigones 0. Perianths terminal on the branches, elongate-oblong, with a narrow neck, and slightly wider towards the top, mouth rounded, lips spinous-dentate, ca. 10 mm., excluding the teeth. Capsule narrow-oval, seta short or medium. Invol. leaves somewhat larger than the foliage ones, erect, strongly toothed. ♂ branches fascicled, bracts in ca. 10 pairs, the upper part of each bract widening out and toothed.
The type of this species was from Dusky Sound, coll. Menzies, and judging from Hooker's drawing in the Musci Exotici, it must have been a magnificent plant. Mr. W. Martin, in The Flora of New Zealand, states that in Stewart Island, P. gigantea builds up cushions more than 3 feet high and as much across.
This beautiful plant can be recognised by the fringed, silky-looking, roundish leaves, combined with the usually dendroid habit, and the long exserted perianth, though occasionally this may be shorter, as one I measured was only 6 mm., and Carl's drawing is rather short and broad for a typical perianth.
Stations for this species are numerous in both islands.
P. traversii St., Spec. Hep. ii, 460, also appears to be this species. This is a plant from the Chatham Islands.
Plagiochila rutlandii St.
St. in Spec. Hep., ii, 454; Carl, in Ann. Bry. Supp. Vol. ii, 145, 1931.
Plants olive to dark green, light brown when dry, usually distinctly dendroid. Stems to 12 cm., dark brown, or black in the lower part, may be flexuous, branches sometimes attenuated. Leaves slightly imbricate, obliquely spreading, ovate oblong, the apex about a quarter the width of the base, 21½–4 mm. long; dorsal margin recurved, or with few teeth toward the apex; ventral margin arched at base, the upper part occasionally somewhat straightened, closely spinulose-toothed, the teeth being fairly even. Lower stem leaves remote and more orbicular. Cells ca. 20–30 μ, walls thick, basal much longer. Perianth obovate-oblong mouth rounded, spinous-dentate. Invol. leaves somewhat larger than the foliage and more strongly toothed. ♂ branches not usually fascicled, bracts in pairs to about 10, intercalary or apical.
I have seen only one perianth, which is somewhat broader and shorter than that of P. gigantea, but the main difference between these
plants is in the shape of the leaves, which in P. rutlandii are longer, and narrower towards the apex.
With its long, attenuated branches, this makes a very handsome plant. Localities of plants examined are: Manganui, North Auckland, H. B. Matthews, No. 203 H. B. M. Herb., Auckland Museum; wet rock in stream, Wilton's Bush, Wellington, R. Mason; Marl-borough, two gatherings, J. H. McMahon; in bush, West Coast of South Island, H. M. Hodgson; Greymouth, J. Meiklejohn. 1925, comm. W. E. Nicholson. Also in Herb. Colenso, No. a1751.
Stephani gives Rutland and Stephenson as collectors, but mentions no localities.*
Plagiochila ramosissima (Hook.) Lindenb.
Jungermannia ramosissima Hook., Musc. Exot., t. 92, 1818. Plag. ramosissima Lindenb., Spec. Hep., Fase. i-v, t. 16, 1839; G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 58, 1844; Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 135, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 505, 1867; St., Spec. Hep., ii, 407.
Plants loosely interwoven on trees and perhaps also on the ground. Stems slender, bare in the lower portion, or with sub-remote leaves, then branched fasciculately, or irregularly pinnately, or even dendroidly, and again branched fasciculately, the ultimate branches very long and attenuated, straight or flexuous, or more rarely, shortish, and falcate or hamate. Leaves definitely small on the branches, not closely imbricate, erecto-patent, ovate-rotund, dorsal margin slightly decurrent, recurved, remotely serrulate above; apex and ventral margin irregularly spinous-toothed. Cells, apical, ca. 10–15 μ, with thickened walls and no trigones; medium, rather obscure, walls fairly evenly thickened, trigones present but small, basal, long and narrow. Invol. leaves similar to the cauline, increasing upwards in size. Perianth medium, about twice as long as broad, urceolate, mouth rounded-truncate, dentate-ciliate. ♂ bracts in pairs of about 6, in one or several series, on long attenuated branches.
Can be recognised by its long and slender branches with small leaves, and as stated in the Musci Exotici, “There is a peculiar elegance of character arising from the regularity in the size and direction of the leaves.…” There are intermediate forms however. One gathering from Mt. Egmont, coll. Dr. E. B. Jardine, comm. G. O. K. Sainsbury, has branches hamate and falcate, after the manner of P. retrospectans; but the small branch leaves with jagged margins leave no doubt as to where it really belongs.
Not common. Specimens are from: Te Moehau Mt., Coromandel Pen., two gatherings (first, epiphytic on stunted trees in dark, damp channel in rocks; second, scrub, ca. 2300 feet), both coll. L. B. Moore; Epiphytic on Pittosporum divaricatum in Nothofagus menziesii forest ca. 4000 feet, Maungapohatu, Urewera, L. B. Moore; Marlborough, two gatherings, J. H. McMahon; Doubtful Sound, G. Simpson; Stewart Island, ex. Tylimanthus saccatus, (a fragment), also 8310 and 8211 (in part), L. Cockayne; Te Matawai, Tararuas, V. D. Zotov, No. 6153, P. R. B. Herb. In short summit forest, Mt. Pirongia, L. B. Moore, No. 36860 P. R. B. Herb.
[Footnote] * A plant from Kapiti Island, recently received, Coll. A. H. Wilkinson, No. 40780 P. R. B. Herb., has decidedly pinnate branching, but agrees in other respects with P. rutlandii.
P. sinclairii Mitt.
P. sinclairn Mitt., in Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 132, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 507, 1867; St. Spec. Hep., ii, 454; Carl, Ann. Bry. Supp. Vol. ii, 145, 1931. P. litoralis St., Spec. Hep., vi.
Plants medium, rarely robust, loosely tufted, usually light brown when dry. Stems erect or flexuous, usually sparingly branched, to about 14 cm. in length, but ordinarily about 4–7. Leaves loosely imbricate, “obliquely ovate-oblong,” ca. 2.5–4 mm., ventral margin strongly spinous-dentate, spines curved or straight, of varying lengths, even on the same leaf, longer ones acuminate from a broader base; apex spinous, obtuse, or truncate with the angular spines sometimes the longest; ca. 0.5 mm. across; dorsal margin somewhat recurved, with 3–6 spines towards the apex. Cells ca. 30–40 μ, clear, or with a granular ring surrounding the lumen, which may be quite small; basal, rectangular, 2–3 times longer than broad. Trigones small. Perianth terminal with one innovation from below (in the one perianth seen), oblong-ovate, mouth fimbriate-ciliate, processes from a broad base. Invol. leaves larger than the cauline and more strongly spinose. ♂ bracts finely toothed, intercalary in a fascicle of about 2–4 branches.
In the type there are no basal trigones, but in the Mihiwaka plant these are quite noticeable.
Dr. Carl remarks that this species approaches P. deltoidea, whereas Mitten in the Flora Novae Zelandiae has the following note: “Very different from the other New Zealand species. The more numerous and much more slender ciliiform teeth, as well as the form of the leaves and perianth, abundantly distinguish it from the larger forms of P. deltoidea to which it has some external resemblance.” In the main, Mitten is right, especially as regards the shape of the leaves, but the marginal teeth vary, as is so often the case in this genus.
Stephani's drawing of a leaf of his P. litoralis is almost an exact reproduction of a leaf taken from Mitten's P. sinclairii (type).
Specimens I have seen are from: Keri-Keri Lower Falls, Bay of Islands, V. W. Lindauer; Toa-Toa, B. of Plenty, I. Haskell; Ohau-iti R., 7093, P. R. B. Herb., V. D. Zotov; dry bank, Brunswick Rd., Wanganui, K. W. Allison (plants very short); moist logs in forest, Mihiwaka, Dunedin, G. Simpson and J. S. Thomson; also three in Herb. Colenso. Nos. a1756, a868, and 4880 respectively.
The type was from Auckland, coll. Sinclair, and appears to have been a very fine plant.
Since writing the above, I have received from Tasmania some small pieces of a specimen from Herb. Rodway; No. 54. Locality, Snake Plains, Mt. Wellington, leg. L. Rodway, 1899, determined by Stephani as P. strombifolia Tayl. These fragments are identical with our New Zealand P. sinclairii (as far as they go). The Synopsis description of P. strombifolia also agrees with P. sinclairii, except in the phrase, “ramulis elongatis, supremis fasciculatis.” In spite of this, I cannot help but think that the two species are one and the same. Moreover, a Stewart Island plant, coll. L. Cockayne, is actually labelled P. strombifolia, being thus identified by Stephani.
Plagiochila reischekiana St.
P. reischekiana St., Spec. Hep., ii, 315.
Plants lax, medium, pale to dark green. Stems 3–6 cm., thin, flexible, dark, simple or a little branched, straight or somewhat flexuous. Leaves ca. 2–3 mm., imbricate or contiguous, obliquely spreading, oblong-ovate, lower ones much reduced; dorsal margin recurved or revolute, decurrent, entire, may be remotely denticulate towards the apex; apex rounded-truncate, with 4–6 teeth, one of which may be larger than the others; ventral margin from a full rounded base with 1 or 2 teeth, which may be reduced to a mere sinuosity of the margin, or entirely absent, upper portion with a few small teeth or entire. Cells ca. 30 μ, with a chlorophyllose ring round the lumen; trigones small.
This species looks imposing enough on paper, as described and drawn by Stephani, but I do not find it very satisfactory to identify. A plant from tree trunk, Ohuka, Wairoa, which has the necessary entire or sub-entire ventral margin, is in every other way identical with P. sinclairii. One from bush gully, on earth, Turakina, Wanganui, K. W. Allison, has the apices in keeping with the description, but some of the ventral margins are not entire, but spinous and more like those of P. arbuscula. Yet another plant in Herbarium Petrie, locality not stated, has typical ventral margins, but the apices are rather narrow; while the leaves themselves show a decided disinclination to unroll when moistened.
The locality of the type is not stated. From the description it appears to be a specimen with well-developed plants, both ♂ and ♀.
Plagiochila radiculosa Mitt.
P. radiculosa Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 133, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 506, 1867; St., Spec. Hep., ii, 456. P. recta Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx, 244, 1887.
Plants tufted, or in dense cushions or mats. Stems 2.5–7 cm., flexuous, branched, separate or interlaced, densely clothed with rhizoids. Leaves imbricate, obliquely spreading or nearly vertical, “obliquely oblong-cordate,” to about 2 mm., abruptly or gradually narrowed towards the apex; tips sometimes recurved; may be dorsally secund; dorsal margin usually recurved, sometimes flat, longly decurrent, entire; apex bidentate, teeth sometimes obsolete; ventral margin from a strongly arched base, entire. Cells indistinct with thick walls, ca. 30 μ, trigones small. Perianth ca. 4 mm., obovate-oblong, mouth rounded, somewhat lobed, very slightly denticulate. Invol. leaves broader than the cauline, margin dentate. ♂ stems subterete, branched, bracts in pairs of 2–4, intermittent along the stems.
A distinct species, recognisable by the bidentate leaves and the radiculose stems.
On trunks of trees and logs from the following localities: Lakes Waikaremoana and Waikare-iti, 2000 and 3000 feet respectively, E. A. Hodgson; Mt. Manuoha, Urewera, ca. 3000 feet, G. O. K. Sainsbury; “McKinnon's Bush,” near Wairoa, E. A. Hodgson; Shady bank on earth, near Atiamuri; Puaiti Bush, near Rotorua; Ruahakune Bush, near Taupo, all coll. K. W. Allison; Tableland Track, Mt. Arthur, Nelson, G. O. K. Sainsbury; Bealy Track, Arthur's Pass, H. M. Hodgson; Stewart Mts., west of L. Te Anau, W. Thomson.
The type locality is Tarawera, on Weinmannia bark, coll. Colenso.
Plagiochila fasciculata Lindenb.
P. fasciculata Lindenb., Spec. Hep., Fase. i-v. 7. t. 1 & 31, 1839; G. L. et N., Syn. Hep. 27, 1844; Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 132, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 506, 1867; St. Spec. Hep., ii, 457; Rod., Tas. Bry., ii, 26. 1916: Carl, Ann. Bry., Supp. Vol., ii, 146, 1931. P. aculeata Tayl., Syn. Hep., 627, 1846. P. subfasciculata Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx, 247, 887. P. berggreniana Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi, 52, 1888. P. heterophylla Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx, 245, 1887. P. subflabellata Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxi, 25, 1888. P. subquadrata Herz., Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 68, 43. 1938.
Plants medium to sub-robust, usually olive green, in compact or loose tufts or cushions, on the ground, or draping the trunks or branches of trees in bush, often sterile, very variable, common. Stem sub-simple to freely branched, may be forked or dichotomous at the base, often sub-fasciculate, to about 7 cm.; branches may be attenuated with small leaves. Leaves remote to contiguous, varying in size and shape often on the same stem, obliquely oblong-ovate, or narrowly obovate, convex or much inrolled due to the recurving of the margins; older leaves may be flat and dark in colour; dorsal margin entire or rarely toothed near the apex, nearly straight, a little or much recurved, from a narrow or sub-truncate base, dentate or strongly spinous-toothed or even lacerate, teeth sub-remote, spines and laciniae often from a broad base; apex broad, may be evenly 3–4 toothed, or often with an apical spine. Cells more or less opaque, with a granular ring surrounding the lumen, ca. 20 μ; trigones small. Invol. leaves large, strongly and irregularly spinous-toothed. Perianths commonly in the forks of innovations, or terminal on the branches, from a narrow neck, less than ½-exserted, mouth dentate-laciniate, laciniae from a broad base. ♂ branches more or less fasciculate, bracts entire or toothed.
This aggregate species, of which there are two plates in Lindenberg's Species Hepaticarum, one of the ♀ and the other of the ♂ plant, is very variable in the size, shape, and armature of the leaves. The following are some of the forms:—
A dark-coloured plant from Doubtful Sound, coll. G. Simpson, has a distinct appearance in that the leaves lie flat, and are arranged regularly along the stem, after the manner of P. fruticella; but the individual leaf is that of P. fasciculata.
A plant from watercourse, West of Kime Hut, Mt. Hector, Tararuas, 4200 feet, No. 7663 P. R. B. Herb., coll. V. D. Zotov, seems midway between P. fasciculata and P. sinclairii, while another from Otupae. Taihape, has gone backwards and forwards from P. deltoidea to P. fasciculata, where I have finally left it on account of the cells!
P. subquadrata Herz. looks fairly distinct in the packet, owing to the leaves being more or less flat and dingy, but on examination one finds numerous stems that are quite typically P. fasciculata, even to the lighter colouring.
P. subfasciculata Col. No. a1343, is correctly reduced by Stephani.
P. berggreniana Col., P. heterophylla Col., and P. subflabellata Col., I have not seen, but Stephani in the Linnean Journal vol. 29, 275, reduces the first to P. subfasciculata Col., and the remaining two to P. fasciculata.
P. colensoi Tayl., in London Journal of Botany, 1846, 269, is placed here by Mitten and Hooker in the Handbook, though followed by a question mark. The Synopsis says that the leaves are very similar to those of P. aculeata (Tasmania), i.e., P. fasciculata, but that in that plant they are more patent, more strongly denticulate and the cells are larger. Stephani recognises it, but in view of the great variability of P. fasciculata it does not seem sufficiently distinct to be a separate species.
Generally speaking, this species is nearest to P. arbuscula, from which it may usually be distinguished by the more slender habit, never dendroid, and the narrower bases, and proportionately wider apices of the leaves. See also under P. lyallii.
Common in bush in both islands, also from the Auckland Islands and Tasmania.
The type was from Australia, collected by Frazer.
Plagiochila lyallii Mitt.
P. lyallii Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 132, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii. 507. 1867; Rod., Tas. Bry., ii, 26, 1916; St., Spec. Hep., ii, 312. P. pallescens Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi, 47, 1888.
Plants in loosely tangled tufts, light to dark or reddish brown, apices sometimes tinted purple, small to fairly tall. Stems erect or flexuous, sub-rigid, ca. 3–8 cm., dichotomously or sub-fastigiately branched, branches slender and attenuated or flexuous. Leaves variable, appressed or obliquely spreading, convex, sub-remote, contiguous or imbricate, rounded-ovate, or semicordate, or oblong-obovate; dorsal margin entire or with a few teeth near the apex, much recurved, nearly straight; apex and ventral margin coarsely spinous toothed. Cells and trigones variable, sometimes approaching those of the P. annotina group, often obscure with pigmentation, ca. 16–20 μ. Invol. leaves larger, very spinose, appressed to the perianth. Perianth oblong to narrow-oblong, mouth rounded-truncate, strongly toothed. ♂ stems fasciculate or flabellate, of varying lengths; androecia intercalary in one or several series, 4–12 pairs, bracts spinous toothed; intermediate leaves sometimes very small.
This species is closely allied to P. fasciculata, and intermediate forms are very hard to place. Variations, too, are parallel with those of P. fasciculata. P. lyallii is nearly always brown in the dry state, pale or dark or reddish, and on the whole the leaves are smaller and more rigid and with a ± glistening surface, while the spinous margins are more pronounced and the cells are somewhat smaller and more pigmented.
Var. lonchoscypha (Herz.) Hodgson
In the footnote to his description of P. lonchoscypha in Trans. Roy. Soc., 68, p. 42, 1938, Dr. Herzog states that the species is easily recognised by the forked stem, longly exserted perianth with spinous-toothed mouth, and also by its small, spinous leaves. Of these three features, the long, narrow perianth is the only one that could have any significance as a genuine specific character, and I tried to keep the species separate on that account, specially as I have a gathering from Keri-Keri Lower Falls, Bay of Islands, coll. V. W. Lindauer, that has even longer perianths. But on this same plant I found at least 2 perianths that are concave and much wider, which at least
shows that the perianth can be variable. Even so, the long, narrow decurved perianths are numerous and distinct, and must receive consideration. I thus leave it as Var. lonchoscypha (Herz.) Hodgson.
It would seem that Mitten also had trouble with his perianths. In the original description in the Flora Novae Zelandiae it is described as “late obconico,” but a note in the Handbook says: “The description and figure of the perianth in the Flora Novae Zelandiae represents it as too short and broad”; and in the Flora Tasmaniae. Mitten writes: “The figure of the perianth in the plate quoted above represents it as much too short. In another New Zealand specimen just received, the mature perianth coincides in shape with that of P. incurvicolla.” Unfortunately there is no perianth on the type fragment received from New York.
P. incurvicolla (Tayl.) in Lond. Journ. of Bot., 564, 1844, also of the Synopsis, Flora Novae Zelandiae, and the Handbook, is said to differ from P. lyallii only in the toothed dorsal margin. The suspected non-existence of such a plant has been confirmed by Stephani's drawing of the original, a copy of which has been sent from New York by Miss Rosalie Weikert. In this the dorsal margin is unarmed, except for the usual 1–2 teeth near the extremity of the leaf. Also, Stephani describes it as “nude,” and considers it to be a young form of P. fasciculata. It would seem that Taylor, who worked at great speed, as Hooker says, made an error here in his description, perhaps mistaking a deflexed ventral margin of the leaf above for a dorsal one. But if the plant is a genuine P. lyallii, then presumably Mitten's name will have to give way.
P. quinquespina St., Spec. Hep., ii, 312. Though Stephani uses the word “distinctissima” in connection with this plant from Stewart Island, collected by Kirk, I cannot see anything in either the drawing or description that would make it specifically distinct from P. lyallii. Moreover the colour is given as “rufescens,” which is very typical of the latter plant.
Localities of genuine specimens are: Moehau, below Rocky Peak, on Quintinia (lochoscypha type), L. B. Moore; Mt. Ruapehu, A. L. Hodgson; Waikaremoana, two gatherings, E. A. Hodgson: Omahanui, inland from Wairoa, R. Lane; near Aniwaniwa Falls. L. Waikaremoana, Mrs. H. Jeffreys; Ruamahanga Valley. 9243, P. R. B. Herb., V. D. Zotov; Ruahines, Herb. Colenso, coll. H. Hill: beech forest, Mangapohatu, Urawera, L. B. Moore; rotten log in bush on Native reserve, Undercliff Bay, Otago Pen., G. Simpson & J. S. Thomson; Stewart Island, T. Kirk, ex 4925 P. R. B. Herb.; also Wickliffe Bay, G. Simpson, No. 40768 P. R. B. Herb.
Sinclair and Lyall collected Mitten's plants.
Plagiochila fruticella H. f. & T.
Jungermannia fruticella Tayl. Lond. Journ. of Bot., 565, 1844. Plag. fruticella G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 639, 1846; St., Spec. Hep., ii: Carl, Ann. Bry., Supp. Vol., ii, 142, 1931 Plag. dicksoni Tayl., Lond. of Bot., 267. 1846: G. L. et N., Syn. Re [ unclear: ] p 637, 1846; Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 134, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 506, [ unclear: ] 67 Plag. feuzlii R [ unclear: ] chll., Exped. Novara, 1870.
Plants small to medium, yellow-green, in small, ose [ unclear: ] ts on bark, earth, or rock. Stems to 5 cm., branching dendroid, or fasc [ unclear: ] branches usually long and more or less erect. Leaves ovate-oblong
or obovate-oblong from a narrow base, contiguous; dorsal margin entire, slightly recurved, decurrent; ventral entire or sparingly toothed; apex tridentate, with the middle tooth from a broad triangular base, or bidentate with an oblique and shallow sinus, and a smaller tooth well round on the ventral margin. Cells from ca. 20–25 μ, obscure, sometimes with papillae, basal longer and narrower. Perianth obovate-oblong, elongate, mouth not contracted, deeply twolipped, lips coarsely and irregularly toothed. Invol. leaves large and coarsely toothed. In some plants invol. leaves are present without perianths. ♂ bracts in 4–10 pairs, terminal or in series.
P. fruticella Tayl. and P. dicksoni Tayl. being the same plant, P. fruticella now replaces the Handbook name of P. dicksoni.
P. fruticella is an elegant little plant, the leaves lying flatter than those of P. pleurota, and very regular along the whole length of the stem; also the perianth is not ribbed nor contracted at the mouth as in P. pleurota.
Localities: North Auckland (two gatherings), H. B. Matthews; Keri-Keri, Bay of Islands, V. W. Lindauer; Ohau-iti R., V. D. Zotov, No. 7280 P. R. B. Herb.; Wellington, Berggren 1879, comm. F. R. Verdoorn; damp rock, Wilton's Bush, R. Mason; Marlborough (four gatherings), J. H. McMahon.
The type of P. dicksoni is said to have come from Dusky Sound.
Plagiochila pleurota H. f. & T.
Jungermannia pleurata Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot., 372, 1844; Jung. (Plag.) plcurota H. f. & T., Fl. Ant., 149, 1847. Plag. pleurata G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 633, 1846; St., Spec. Hep., ii; Rod., T [ unclear: ] as., Bry., ii, 1916. Plag. pleurota Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 135. 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 505, 1867. Jung. cognata Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot., 372, 1844. Plag. cognata G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 625, 1846.
Plants small to medium, loosely tangled, yellow green, usually on bark. Stems from 2–3 cm., simple or branched. Leaves erectopatent obovate-oblong from a narrow base, 0.75–1.5 mm., with 2 or 3, usually 3, apical teeth, the middle one the boldest; ventral margin sparingly toothed, crenate-toothed, or entire; dorsal entire, slightly recurved, decurrent; cuticle papillose. Cells obscure, ca. 25 μ. Perianth elongate-obovate, nearly 2 mm., strongly 3–4 keeled on both sides. Invol. leaves similar to the cauline, but broader. ♂ stems branched more or less fasciculately, bracts in pairs of 3–6, in several series.
This species and P. fruticella form a very natural group, characterised by yellow-green leaves with opaque areolation, more or less papillose, usually with three apical teeth. It is the perianth which at once separates P. pleurota from P. fruticella, both on account of its shape, and the keels or ridges on its sides. Also the leaves of P. pleurota are more erect and not so regular in appearance.
Taylor's original name was given as pleurata, evidently a misprint, and the Flora antarctica, Flora Novae Zelandiae, and the Handbook used the corrected form of pleurota. Other authors have followed the Synopsis Hepaticarum in spelling it pleurata.
Plants examined are from: Pahautea Bush Reserve, near Rangitaiki, in bush east of Rotorua (Run 95), shady bank on earth, near Atiamuri, K. W. Allison; Mt. Manuoha, Urewera, G. O. K. Sainsbury; Whakapapa, National Park, G. O. K. Sainsbury; Mt. Ruapehu, A. L.
Hodgson; in bush, Waikaremoana, E. A. Hodgson; Birch Range, Kaweka Mts., 3000 feet, E. S. West; Nelson (two gatherings), G. Simpson and J. S. Thomson; in bush, Mt. Cargill, near Dunedin, G. Simpson and J. S. Thomson; Great Barrier Is., T. Kirk, 6144 P. R. B. Herb., sub nomine P. lyallii; Karamea, Nelson, Miss F. Foot.
The type was brought from the Auckland Islands by Sir J. D. Hooker.
Plagiochila deltoidea. Lindenb.
P. deltoidea Lindenb., Spec. Hep., Fasc. i-v, 132, t. 27, 1839; G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 55, 1844; Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 131, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 507, 1867; St. Spec. Hep. ii, 461; Pears., Univ. Cal. Pub. Bot., x, 315, pl. 90; Carl, Ann. Bry., Supp. Vol., ii, 145, 1931. P. stuartiana G. Linnaea, 548, 1856. P. kingiana G., Sc. Nat., 323, 1857. P. caespitosa Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx, 244, 1887. P. axillaris. Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx, 246, 1887. P. spenceriana Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi, 50, 1888. P. howeana St., Spec. Hep., ii, 461; Carl, Ann. Bry., Supp. Vol., ii, 145, 1831.
Plants in sprawly clumps or cushions, robust, variable, olive green, light to dark brown when dry, but younger stems may retain a pale green tint; on logs, trees or earth, one of Colenso's specimens being from a rush swamp. Stems 4–10 cm., usually round about 7, thin. branches few or several, long or short, may be hamate or subfalcate. Leaves usually imbricate, homomallous, concave, large, ca. 3–4 mm., obliquely deltoid, ventrally decurved, sometimes appressed or obliquely spreading, broader than tall, broadly expanded at the ventral base, which is sometimes connivent with that of the opposite leaf; insertion narrow, sub-semicircular, oblique; ventral margin from a full basal curve, usually armed wih strong, well-spaced teeth of varying length, straight or curved, from broad bases; apex not always clearly defined, but similarly armed to the ventral margin; dorsal margin strongly revolute, straight or lightly curved, mostly entire; lower leaves smaller, rounder, remote, less toothed or even entire. Cells variable, 20–30 μ, gradually larger towards the base, at middle base long and narrow, ligneous; trigones medium to large. Perianth oblong-ovate, may have a toothed dorsal wing, mouth rounded-truncate, fimbriate-ciliate. Invol. leaves larger than, but similar to, the foliage, ventral part fimbriate-toothed. ♂ stems may be more slender, bracts in pairs of about 7–15, in series, intercalary, or terminal, entire, slightly spreading.
P. axillaris Col., a1342, reduced by Stephani, is quite a typical P. deltoidea.
P. spenceriana Col., a1427, also reduced by Stephani, is a slender form, ♂, with remote leaves. Stephani is probably right in placing it here.
P. laeta Mitt, shortly described in the Appendix to the Handbook, is reduced to P. deltoidea in the Handbook proper. (See note under P. banksiana.)
There is no room here for lengthy explanations, but after an exhaustive study of all plants, descriptions and drawings available, Mr. Allison and I have both concluded that P. howeana St., a supposed allied, vicarious species from New Zealand, cannot be anything else but the common robust form of P. deltoidea, a species not allowed for New Zealand by Stephani, but only for Tasmania. In this we are
at least supported by W. H. Pearson in his account of Professor Setchell's collection of New Zealand hepatics, in which he points out that in the original description of P. deltoidea in Lindenberg's Species Hepaticarum, Dusky Bay is given as the first station and Van Dieman's Land as the second. Pearson reduced P. howeana to a synonym of P. deltoidea, and gave the Tasmanian plants the name of P. neohoweana. The Tasmanian plants which I have seen are similar to the New Zealand ones, and like them, vary considerably in the length of the marginal teeth, and in the size of the cells and trigones. Earlier on, Stephani did not consider the New Zealand plants distinct, for in the Linnean Journal in which he treats with Colenso's species, he uses the name of P. deltoidea and not P. howeana.
Carl lists P. deltoidea from both New Zealand and Tasmania, and P. howeana from New Zealand.
P. decurvifolia St., Spec. Hep., ii, 457; Carl, Ann. Bry. Supp. Vol., ii, 139; Rod. Tas. Bry., ii, 28.
It seems to me that this also is P. deltoidea, the description and drawing showing nothing that is incompatible with that species. The decurved leaves and nodulose trigones are made the basis of P. decurvifolia, but the former are characteristic of P. deltoidea, and as for the latter, the trigones of P. deltoidea do sometimes approach those of P. circinalis. In Stephani's own description of P. howeana (i.e., P. deltoidea), he has, “trigonis majusculis, nodulosis.”
In Carl's work, P. decurvifolia is bracketed with P. microdictyum (i.e., P. circinalis), and another from Australia, to constitute his Sektion Deflexifoliae, which is characterised by the unusual cells and trigones.
A specimen from Williamsford, Tasmania, ex Herb. Rodway, labelled P. decurvifolia, actually is P. circinalis.
One of the commonest New Zealand species.*
Plagiochila gregaria (Tayl.) G. L. et N.
Jungermannia gregaria Tayl., in Lond. Journ. of Bot., 564, 1844. Plag. gregaria. G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 654; St., Spec. Hep., ii. 465. Plag. deltoidea in Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii. 507, 1867. Plag. helmsii St., Spec. Hep., ii. 460.
Plants small to medium, laxly tufted. Stems ca. 4–6 cm., simple or sub-simple, subflexuous or erect. Leaves broadly or obliquely ovate, contiguous to slightly imbricate, dorsal margin revolute, ventral entire or sub-entire. Cells ea. 30 μ, variable in size and shape, mostly with a chlorophyllose ring surrounding the lumen. Trigones small to medium, larger towards the base of the leaf. Invol. leaves entire or toothed. Perianth mostly short, obovate-companulate, sterile (in plants examined), mouth entire. ♂ branches in fascicles of about 2–7; perigonial bracts in pairs of about 12.
This species of Taylor's was reduced to P. deltoidea by Mitten, which is really quite understandable, as there are intermediate forms between the two species. (The Synopsis states that in habit and leaf-shape it is near to P. deltoidea, but differs in the entire leaves.) Typically, however, P. gregaria is a smaller plant with the leaves not so closely nor so regularly set as those in P. deltoidea, and having
[Footnote] * Pearson's drawing of P. neohowcana appears to be that of P. strombifolia.
a rather distinct perianth, often sterile, with an entire mouth. (Stephani describes it as “sterilia.”) The ♂ stems also differ, being branched fasciculately at the apex, or, as Stephani has it in his description of P. helmsii, which in my opinion is the same species, “sub apice pinnatim accumulata.”
Definite specimens of P. gregaria are from: Stewart Island, L. Cockayne; Doubtful Sound, G. Simpson; base of shady rock, near Atiamuri, K. W. Allison; Rangitoto, No. 40781 P. R. B. Herb.; Poor Knights Island, No. 40779 P. R. B. Herb., both coll. L. B. Moore.
Variety ovalifolia Hodgson var. nov.
Planta parva, 2–3 cm., caulis ramosus. Folia paulum ovalia, valde concava, vel convoluta, sub-erecta, plerumque integerrima vel paucidentata. Cellulae ca. 30–35 μ, trigonis majusculis. Involucralia late ovato-trigona. Perianthia sterilia, ore integerrimo.
This rather distinct form is well-branched, and smaller in size than the species proper, with narrower, more or less oval-shaped leaves, which are more appressed to the stem. The involucral leaves, however, appear to be normal in shape. The type of areolation is the same, though on the whole, the cells appear to be somewhat larger. Perianths from both gatherings contained only sterile archegonia.
Specimens are from: Ketetahi Track, National Park, in bush, G. O. K. Sainsbury, January, 1932 (type); base of tutu shrub, plateau east of Waiotapu Valley, Rotorua Co., ca. 1800 feet, March, 1936. There is also a fragmentary specimen in Herb. Colenso, a554.
A duplicate of the type is in the Plant Research Bureau Herbarium, No. 36859.
Plagiochila banksiana G.
P. banksiana G., Ann. Sc. Nat., viii, 329, 1857; St. Spec. Hep., ii, 465; Carl, Ann. Bry., Supp. Vol. ii, 139, 1931; P. laeta Mitt., Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, Appen., 742. P. limpida Herz., Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 68, 42, 1938.
Plants terrestrial, pale or yellow-green, in dense or loose tufts. Stems from 2–15 cm., usually about 2–5, erect, simple or sparsely branched, green. Leaves imbricate, sub-orbicular or orbicular-cordate, soft in texture; ventral margin sub-semicircular, overlapping the stem, ciliate-spinulose; apex broadly obtuse, spinulose-toothed, dorsal margin reflexed when dry, slightly arched, upper portion spinulose-toothed to about one-third of the length, shortly decurrent. Cells ca. 30 μ, rounded-hexagonal, lower basal, longer than broad, trigones 0. Perianth obovate-oblong, mouth denticulate. Invol. leaves scarcely different from the cauline. Androcia in pairs of about 5–7 on ♂ stems, bracts spinulose-ciliate as in the ordinary leaves.
I agree with Carl that the marginal teeth of P. banksiana are not so numerous nor so uniform as Stephani's drawing depicts.
The size of the plants varies greatly. Many are only 2 cm. in length, while Stephani gives 10. Mitten says “elongate,” and exceptionally fine plants in Colenso's collection, No. 4682, Davallia Bank, Rd. to Awarua, are to 15 cm. tall, and the seta of the capsule 5 cm.
Stephani describes the species as “corticolous,” but all my plants except one doubtful one, are terrestrial.
In describing his P. limpida, Dr. Herzog evidently overlooked P. banksiana, as the two are indubitably the same.
Stephani has a note to the effect that he has not seen Mitten's P. laeta, but that the author has assured him that it is identical with P. banksiana.
The more or less simple stem, plus the fairly large, pale, subrotund leaves of soft texture, and the hexagonal leaf-cells without trigones, will distinguish this species from all other New Zealand plants, though there are intermediate forms between this and P. deltoidea.
Localities of plants examined are: In grass at edge of bush, Makaretu Falls, Wairoa (P. limpida Herz. type); shore of Lake Waikare-iti, Urewera, both coll. E. A. Hodgson; damp shade Ongaroto Road, near Atiamuri; on boulder, edge of Tahuna-Atara Stream, south of Rotorua, both coll. K. W. Allison; Otupae, Taihape, E. A. Hodgson; Waipawa R., Whakararas, and East Tamakis, Dannevirke, A. L. Hodgson; Red Hills, Marlborough, J. H. McMahon; near Cass University Hut, North Canterbury, and B. of Many Coves, Marl-borough, H. M. Hodgson; Doubtful Sound, G. Simpson; also in Herb. Petrie, det Stephani.
Stephani gives Raoul, Beckett and Petrie as collectors.
Plagiochila circinalis (Lehm.) Lindenb.
Jung. circinalis Lehm., in Lehm. Pug. 64. Plag. circinalis Lindenb., Spec. Hep., Fasc. i-v, 124, 1839; G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 53 and 652 (Supp.), 1844–1866; Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot., 371, 1844; Hook., Crypt. Ant., 36; Tayl., Fl. Ant., i, 348, 1847; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 504, 1867. St., Spec. Hep., ii, 124; Rod., Tas. Bry., ii, 27, 1916; Carl, Ann. Bry., Supp. Vol., ii, 141, 1931. Plag. hemicardia Tayl., Fl. Ant., t. 63, 1847; G. L. et N. Syn. Hep., 627, (Supp.) 1846. Plag. microdictyum Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 131, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 506; St. Spec. Hep., ii, 466; Rod., Tas. Bry., ii, 26; Carl, Ann. Bry., Supp. Vol. ii, 140, 1931.
Plants small to robust, in more or less compact tufts, usually red-brown, variable in size. Stems 3–7 cm., simple or sparsely branched, flexuose or hamate; smaller stems with distant, minute, rounded leaves. Leaves crowded, erect (dry), or slightly spreading, deltoid-ovate, ca. 2.5 mm., somewhat glossy; dorsal margin gibbous, recurved, ventral, undulate or undulate-crenate, entire or remotely toothed. Cells ca. 20 μ, very characteristic, much of the lumen being taken up with large trigones, which may be as large as the lumen itself; walls may be sinuous. Invol. leaves larger than the cauline, irregularly toothed. Perianth large, mouth rounded, fimbriate in large plants, fimbriate-toothed on small, with or without innovations. ♂ plants uncommon, attenuated or partially circinate, fasciculately branched; androecia in series of about 6 pairs of bracts.
This is the Var. sub-simplex of Lindenberg's Species Hepaticarum, now recognised to be the normal form of P. circinalis, and not a variety, the circinate apices of Lindenberg's type specimen, as pointed out by Taylor, and quoted in the Synopsis, being the perigonia; but even these are not truly circinate on the New Zealand plant examined, or maybe they gradually unroll as in a fern frond. Carl, doubtless misled by the name, and following Stephani, who grouped it similarly, though under the heading “Folia sursum recurva,” appears to have had a wrong conception of the species, and places it in his Sektion Taylori—i.e., the fuscella group, from which
it is really quite distinct. The strongly revolute dorsal margins recede upwards, so that the stem-tips are well back from the stem axis, thus making the leaves deltoid in shape; and as the leaves, usually with a characteristic sheen, are as a rule closely imbricate, these recurved dorsal margins are close together and are arranged along the whole length of them at precisely the same angle and with an amazing regularity. The undulate ventral margins, entire or toothed, are unlike those of P. fuscella or P. retrospectans, while the areolation is another type, and lacks the differentiated marginal zone. Carl, of course, realised all this when he unwittingly treats with P. circinalis under the name of P. microdictyum Mitt., in a specimen from my herbarium. P. microdictyum, judging from the fragment of the type, is a dark, waterworn, eroded specimen of P. circinalis. Stephani speaks of it as rare!
P. deltoidea resembles P. circinalis in leaf-shape, and sometimes approaches it in leaf-structure, but it is a larger plant, with leaves of a different habit and more strong-toothed.
P. hemicardia Tayl., is stated to be a synonym of P. circinalis, and a plant from Tasmania thus named by Stephani, is identical with our P. circinalis.
Fairly common in forest, on ground, or trunks of trees. Localities are numerous, extending from Tongariro National Park, coll. K. W. Allison, to South Westland, coll. B. Teague, and Mt. Cargill, near Dunedin, coll. G. Simpson and J. S. Thomson. ♂ plants are from Bealey Track, Arthur's Pass, coll. H. M. Hodgson.
Lehmann's type was an Australian plant.
Plagiochila ansata, (Tayl.), H. f. & T.
Jungermannia ansata Tayl., Lon. Journ. of Bot., 1844, p. 457. P. ansata H. f. & T., Fl. Ant., 425; Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 131; G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 649; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 506; St., Spec. Hep., ii, 484; Evans, in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, vol. 25, 427, 1898; Buch, in Ann. Bry., vii, 4, 1934.
Stems sub-erect, tufted, nearly simple, 1–1 ½ inches high. Leaves red-brown, closely imbricate, sub-erect, appressed, flat, obliquely orbicular, quite entire. Invol. leaves truncate, the dorsal margin toothed at the base. Perianth obconic, compressed, mouth denticulate.
South Island, Port William, Lyall (Falkland Island).
This description is from the Handbook. It is possible that the plant from the South Island is not a correct identification, but may be Jamesoniella colorata (Lehm.), as Stephani records P. ansata only from the Falkland Islands and the Strait of Magellan; but it is thus named in the Hooker Herbarium at Kew, and Hooker was familiar with the Falkland Island plant, which apparently was the type, for the label, as copied by Miss Moore, bears this inscription: “Is this the plant? J. H.” (written in pencil). “Quite right. T. T.”
The Flora Antarctica records P. ansata only from the Falkland Islands, but the Flora Novae Zelandiae mentions a plant from the Auckland Islands.
Miss Moore's notes also show that two specimens in Herbarium Hooker from Campbell Island, are labelled P. ansata, with the alternative name of Jung. colorata.
The Flora Novae Zelandiae has the following note:—“The areolation of this species has a peculiar appearance, from the cells being interrupted with thick, dark interstices; in this respect it differs from all its near allies and approaches nearer to P. circinalis.” Dr. Hans Buch also remarks that the cells approach in resemblance those of Helmut Carl's Sektion Deflexifoliae, in which is included P. microdictyum Mitt. (which is P. circinalis).
Carl makes no mention of P. ansata in his work, whereas Buch suggests that it be made the type of a new Sektion—Ansatae.
Plagiochila fuscella (Tayl.) G. L. et N.
Jung, fuscella Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot., 373, 1844; Hook., Crypt. Ant., 37; H. f. & T., Fl. Ant., 149, 1847. Plag. fuscella G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 648, 1846. Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 505, 1867; St. Spec. Hep., ii, 464; Rod., Tas. Bry., ii, 26, 1916. Plag. beckettina St., Spec. Hep., ii. 466; Carl. Ann. Bry., Supp. Vol., ii. 141, 1931.
Plants variable in size, habit and colour, which is usually lighter at the apices, terrestrial, loosely tufted, sometimes covering considerable areas. Stems 1–5 cm., flexuose, apices incurved, sparingly or moderately branched, attenuated branches not unknown. Leaves slightly imbricate or contiguous, obliquely ovate-rotund to sub-rotund, 1½–3 mm., generally increasing in size upwards, erecto-patent to spreading, basal insertion narrow; dorsal margin slightly arched, recurved, sub-decurrent, upper portion with apex, sub-entire or evenly denticulate, ventral margin from a much rounded base, denticulate-serrulate; cells varying in size to about 20 μ, marginal thickening of cell walls gradually decreasing towards the middle portion of the leaf; trigones absent or small; basal long and narrow. Perianth obovate-oblong, mouth dentate-ciliate; reflexed and sometimes quite concealed by the involucral leaves, which are larger than the cauline; subtended by one or more innovations, rather rare and easily overlooked. ♂ bracts in pairs of about 6–8, in one or more intercalary series; stems may be attenuated with very small upper leaves.
The rounded sub-appressed leaves and incurved stem apices make this plant easy of recognition, in spite of its diversity in size, form and colour (though liable to be confused with P. retrospectans). Plants from wet places seem to be dark in colour, hence the name, the type locality being, “boggy places in the Auckland Islands.” One gathering from a creek-bed, on Mt. Ruapehu, coll. G. O. K. Sainsbury, is very dark. Another curious state, from Omahanui, in from Wairoa, ca. 2000 feet, coll. R. Lane, has the leaves, except the apical ones very noticeably spreading. A plant from Tableland Track, Mt. Arthur, Nelson, coll. G. O. K. Sainsbury, quite typical in all other respects, is only 1 cm. tall when straightened out.
In defining his Subsektion 1 of Sektion Taylori, to which this species belongs, Carl states that there is no specially differentiated marginal zone. This is hardly correct, as the cell-walls certainly are thickened, though not to the same extent as in P. retrospectans.
I do not think that there is any doubt but that Stephani's P. beckettiana is conspecific with P. fuscella, as the earlier descriptions and drawings are in such full agreement with the ordinary mainland plant which Stephani has described under that name. Specially convicing
was a perianth on a plant from Aniwaniwa Falls, L. Waikaremoana, which was bent right over and concealed in the involucral leaves, just as stated in the Handbook. Moreover, two Tasmanian plants determined by Stephani as P. fuscella are identical with New Zealand plants. Again, Stephani suggests P. fuscella as the revised name for Colenso's P. alpina, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi, 52.
Specimens not already mentioned are from: Pumice soil under trees L. Waikare-iti, 3000 feet, E. A. Hodgson; vicinity of Mt. Maungapohatu, Urewera, B. Teague; damp bank in gorge, Otupae, Taihape, ca. 2000 feet, E. A. Hodgson; watercourse West of Kime Hut, Mt. Hector, ca. 4200 feet, V. D. Zotov; No. 7640 P. R. B. Herb.; Mt. Egmont, G. O. K. Sainsbury; Mt. Herbert, Banks Peninsula, H. M. Hodgson; moist ground, Leith Valley, Dunedin, G. Simpson and J. S. Thomson.
Plagiochila retrospectans (Nees) Lindenb.
Jung. retrospectans Nees in Linn., vi, 619, 1831. Plag, retrospectans Lindenb., Spec. Hep., Fase, i-v, 123, t. xxvi, 1839; G. L. et N., Syn Hep., 52 & 650, 1844–1846; Mitt. Fl. Tas., 1860; St., Spec. Hep., ii, 468; Rod., Tas. Bry., ii, 27, 1916; Carl, Ann. Bry., Supp. Vol., i, 142, 1931. Jung. opistothona Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot., 1844, 577; G L. et N., Syn. Hep., 652, 1844–1846. Plag. apiculata St. ined.
Var. novae zelandiae var. nov. Hodgson
Caulis subdendroideus. Folia subverticalia, erecta vel erectopatula, orbiculato-ovata, margine ventrali irregulariter serrato vel serrulato, apice non mucrone praedita. Cellulae marginales maximae incrassatae, medianae minus validae, trigonis magnis.
Plants medium to robust, variable. Stems straight or flexuous, branching rarely simple, usually sub-dendroid; branches hamate, falcate, or attenuate, apices much or little incurved. Leaves imbricate, the lower ones more distant, erect, appressed or a little spreading, may be undulate, orbicular-ovate; dorsal margin curved or sub-strict, little or much recurved, decurrent, lower portion entire, upper serrulate; apex and upper ventral margin serrate or serrulate or finely denticulate, broadly curved. Cells very irregular in size and shape, 10–20 μ; trigones large, rotund, wall more or less sinuous; several series of marginal cells with strongly thickened walls and no trigones; rectangular basal cells with or without trigones. Invol. leaves similar to but larger than the cauline. Perianth more than half-exserted, long and narrowly obovate, mouth fimbriate. ♂ bracts in 6–8 pairs, terminal, or in intercalary series, when the branching may be long and attenuated.
Some time ago Mr. W. E. Nicholson sent Mr. Allison a plant from Bealey River, coll. Berggren, No. 3685e, 1874, which both he and Dr. Herzog took to be the Tasmanian Plag. retrospectans Nees. Further similar plants have to come to hand, and recently I have been enabled to compare them with pieces of named specimens from the collections of Rodway and Weymouth. The leaves of the latter are mostly a little-larger, with a somewhat glossy surface, and usually have an outsize apical tooth which I have not yet seen in any New Zealand plant. But the leaf-shape and cell-structure appear to be the same in both, and from descriptions, the habit of growth alsoseems to be similar. I think the New Zealand plant could be considered
a variety of the Tasmanian one, and have described it as such, with Berggren's plant as the type.
As in most of the other Plagiochila species, the marginal armature varies, and may be as finely denticulate as P. fuscella, but the coarser serrations are more characteristic. The dendroid branching and more rigid stems will help to distinguishh it from P. fuscella, also the trigones, “thickenings of the walls where 3 cells meet,”* which here appear as interstitial spaces, often as large and as clear as the lumen itself.
The following are the South Island localities from which my plants have been sent: Mt. Stokes, Marlborough; Marlborough (another gathering); Maruia Springs, Nelson, J. H. McMahon; vicinity of Haast Pass, M. P. Matthews, comm. K. W. Allison; forest above Routeburn Huts, No. 17038 (in part) P. R. B. Herb., V. D. Zotov; Freeman R., L. Manapouri, G. Simpson; No. 36666 (in part) P. R. B. Herb.; also in Herb. Petrie, locality unstated.
The original type of P. retrospectans (sterile) was collected in Nova Hollandia by Sieber. Fertile specimens were first collected in Van Dieman's Land, near Hobart, by Hombron.
Plagiochila multidentata St.
St., Spec. Hep., vi, 185; Carl, Ann. Bry., Supp. Vol., ii, 141.
Plants robust, in large loose cushions, sterile. Stems to 12 cm., flexible, branched at fairly regular intervals, branches short, ca. 1–2 cm., curved, generally homomallous, may be attenuated. Leaves larger on the main stem, 1½–3 mm., remote, contigous, or imbricate, erect or spreading, ovate- to sub-orbicular; dorsal margin recurved, lower half entire, rest of leaf margin finely and evenly denticulate; basal insertion narrow. Cells ca. 15–20 μ, basal much longer. Trigones large and plentiful in the mid and upper portions of the leaf.
The above is a description of a plant collected by Mr. Allison, from a huge cushion approximately 3–4 feet across, on a dry slope under manuka (Leptospermum scoparium), East of Taupo. Our identification is not entirely satisfactory as, according to Stephani, the leaf-cells are without trigones. But it would be curious, to say the least, if two similar plants of such distinctive habit should differ in this respect. If this were the case, which is not likely, one would be tempted to conclude that they were parallel varietal forms of P. retrospectans and P. fuscella respectively. I think it is more natural to suppose that there is an error in Stephani's description, specially as the trigones, like those of P. retrospectans, are sometimes scarcely to be distinguished from the cells.
There is a strong natural relationship between P. fuscella, P. retrospectans, and P. multidentata; but in addition to its distinctive branching, P. multidentata has a “leafy” look about it, and the leaves mostly lack the neat and regular appearance of those of P. fuscella and P. retrospectans. But it must be admitted that the group is a difficult one, and a puzzling plant from Lewis Pass, North Canterbury, ca. 280 feet, coll. R. Sainsbury, is hard to place.
Stephani's type was also a sterile plant, collected by Colenso.
[Footnote] * From the glossary of “The Liverworts of the North-West,” by Lois Clark and T. C. Frye, Publications Puget Sound Biological Station, Vol. 6, pp. 1–194, 1928.
Fig. 1—P. annotina. Fig. 2—P. arbuscula. Fig. 3—P. c [ unclear: ] cumdentata. Fig. 4—P. stephensoniana. Fig. 5—P. gigantea. Fig. 6—P. conjgata, upper leaf. Fig. 7—P. prolifer; Fig. 8—P. [ unclear: ] utlandii. Fig. 9—P. reischekiana, from Stephani, Icones Hepaticarum. Fig. 10—P. sinclai [ unclear: ] ii. Fig. 11—P. radiculosa. Fig. 12—P. lyallii. Fig. 13—P. fruticella. Fig. 14—P. banksiana. Fig. 15—P. fasciculata. Fig. 16—P. deltoidea. Fig. 17—P. plenrota, perianth with in involueral leaves. Fig. 18—P. fuscella. Fig. 19—P. etrospectans var. norae-zelandiae. Fig. 20—P. ramossima. Fig. 21—P. gregaria. Fig. 22—P. gregaria var. ovalifolia. Fig. 23—P. circinalis.