The Molluscan Faunule at Pakaurangi Point, Kaipara.—No. 3.
[Read before the Auckland Institute, September 6, 1943; received by the Editor, September 23, 1943; issued separately, March, 1944.]
It was originally intended to complete the revision of the Pakaurangi Point faunule in three parts, but the unexpectedly large number of new forms has made it necessary to present another purely systematic part. Part 4, now in an advanced stage of preparation, will include description of about 30 new species along with general discussion of the faunule.
The writer is grateful to Professor Bartrum for the photography; also to Dr. H. J. Finlay, Dr. J. Marwick, and Mr. A. W. B. Powell for opinions relating to the identity of certain small fossils.
Unless otherwise stated the holotypes are located in the writer's collection.
Austrosarepta obsoleta n.sp. (Fig. 29).
Shell minute, oblique; prodissoconch small, terminal, rim overhanging anterior end, which is concave above and pouting below. Posterior of shell produced downwards and backwards. Sculpture of growth-striae and very fine concentric folds, seen here and there. There are several broad, low, faint radials trending from prodissoconch towards postero-ventral angulation at margin. Denticles not apparent at margin. Ligament-pit triangular, only moderately wide, edges rather worn. Area interrupted by resilium, vertically striated; teeth, if originally present, not preserved.
Height, 0.9 mm.; length, 0.9 mm.
The type (right valve) is the only specimen. This species bears more resemblance to A. pileopsis than to A. harrisonae, both of which are Recent species, and until now the only described Neozelanic forms. New record.
Austrosarepta inusitata n.sp. (Fig. 2).
Shell very small, inflated, obliquely oval, narrowly rounded in front and broadly rounded behind; valve drawn down posteroventrally. Beak about central, prodissoconch indistinct. Hinge light, resilium moderately wide, not narrow; extending posteriorly there are about 12 slightly oblique taxodont teeth; arising at posterior edge of resilium is a small peg-like tooth that bears fine vertical striations. In front of resilium there are 4 to 6 fine, vertical taxodont teeth. Ornamentation consists of very fine, dense concentric folds.
Height, 0.9 mm.; length, 1.0 mm.; inflation (one valve), 0.35 mm.
The shape at once separates this species from other Neozelanic forms. A pair of valves collected. New record.
A small, fragmentary right valve, with the outline of impacta, but differing somewhat in the ribbing. The inter-radial furrows are crossed by coarse concentric threads, and not striae as in impacta. New record.
A distinct new species, three specimens of which were collected, two of them juvenile, and the third with posterior end broken away too much to make it a satisfactory holotype.
Pallium (Mesopeplum) n.sp.
There is one valve with a number of ill-defined, broad, low folds, the axial ribs almost obsolete. Concentric sculpture consists of very fine, close striae. The valve as a whole has a smooth appearance. but the usual scaly ribs are present on the ears. New record.
Lentipecten hochstetteri (Zittel).
1864. Pecten hochstetteri Zittel. Nov. Exp., Geol. Teil, I bd., 2 abt., p. 50, pl. ii, fig. 5a.
A fragment consisting of the upper part of a valve and one ear is clearly a Lentipecten, and seems close to hochstetteri. This is probably the form recorded by Marshall as Pecten huttoni Park.
Spondylus aucklandicus Marshall.
1918. Spondylus aucklandicus Marshall. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 50, p. 271, pl. 21, figs. 2, 2a.
Marshall's material has been examined by the writer, along with a very juvenile topotype. The hinge shows the essential characters of Spondylus, and compares well with that of S. tenuispina Sandb. from the Oligocene of Prussia, and with Woodring's figure of S. bostrychites Guppy (Miocene Mollusks from Bowden, Jamaica. Part 2. Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publication No. 385, p. 76, pl. 9, figs. 5 to 7).
Limatula waiaotea n.sp. (Fig. 18).
Shell small, elongately oval, inflated, equilateral, beak narrow, rising sharply above hinge. There are about 30 sharp radial ribs separated by concave grooves; concentric striae present, but not surmounting radials so as to disturb the evenness of their crests. Radials well developed, but crowded on both anterior and posterior ends of valve, not sub-obsolete here as in maoria Finlay. Resilifer very broadly triangular, much more so than that of maoria. Margins dentate.
Height, 10.0 mm.; length, 6.0 mm; inflation (one valve), 3.5 mm.
Type and several juvenile paratypes collected. L. morioria Marwick, is broader relative to height, has the beaks not so narrow, has different arrangement of radials on median part of valve, and crests of ribs dentate, not smooth. L. trulla Marwick is also a broader species and has ribs dentate. New record.
There is a number of young shells that cannot be distinguished from young Mantellum from Muddy Creek, Victoria (Janjukian). New record.
Chama cf. pittensis Marwick.
A range of good specimens now to hand shows definitely that the Pakaurangi Point Chama cannot be compared closely with C. huttoni Hector as originally thought. Actually, study of Marwick's description and figures provides no certain means of separating these fossils from his Chatham Island C. pittensis.
Cuna kaipara n.sp (Fig. 4).
Shell very small, equilateral; postero-dorsal margin faintly arched, antero-dorsal one lightly concave; ventral margin evenly rounded, its junctions with ends of valve sharply rounded and situated low down. C. mayi Powell has similar junctions, but they are more dorsally situated. Prodissoconch small, sharp, valve narrowing considerably below. Lunular area well marked, concave. Sculpture consists of 14 or 15 well marked, broad radial ribs, separated by grooves that are of less width than the ribs. Ventral margin coarsely crenate internally. Right valve with cardinal arising below beak and extending some distance backward along edge of hinge, and separated from posterior lateral, which rises from lunular border, by a broad, deep groove. Anterior part of hinge not clear of matrix. Left valve with a well-developed cardinal trending posteriorly from below beak, and separated from posterior lateral by a narrow groove.
Height, 1.4 mm.; length, 1.4 mm.; inflation (one valve), 0.5 mm.
A right and two left valves collected. The elongated, oblique cardinal is unusual. The Cuna occurring at Clifden is another radially costate species, but quite distinct. New record.
Venericardia subintermedia Suter.
1917. Venericardia subintermedia Suter. N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull., No. 5, p. 74, p. 10, figs. 1, 2.
The sculpture of subintermedia bears a good deal of resemblance to that of V. acanthodes Suter, both species having the ribs (30 in the former, 21 in the latter) narrow, sharply elevated, and separated by wide, almost flat-floored interstices. The costae in both are strongly tuberculate.
The large Venericardia occurring at Clifden is closely related to subintermedia, but distinctions can be drawn, and these are sufficient to make it necessary to keep the forms distinct from one another.
Pleuromeris otamateaensis n.sp. (Fig. 5).
Shell very small, equilateral, beaks narrow, sharp. Basal margin broadly and evenly rounded; anterior and posterior dorsal margins straight, long, descending at angles that are equal (internal view). Lunule well marked, pouting. Radial ribs (18 in number) broad, low, not distinctly beaded as in other local species of Pleuromeris, but crossed by exceedingly fine, dense concentric threads; width of interstices, which also are crossed by concentric threadlets, about half that of ribs. Hinge very light and narrow. Right valve with fairly prominent triangular median cardinal extending posteriorly; narrow anterior and posterior laterals present. The grooves flanking the cardinal meet below umbo at an angle of 90 degrees. Hinge of left valve not seen. Internal edge of lunule finely crenulated.
Height, 2.2 mm.; length, 2.3 mm.; inflation (one valve), 0.6 mm.
Several specimens collected. New record. This species is not a typical Pleuromeris. There is a closely allied form in the beds at Chatton. These two species differ at sight from such species as prolutea in possessing narrower beaks, much lighter hinge, and smoother sculpture, and deserve at least subgeneric separation. It is possible, however, that a name is available to cover them. Cuna cerussata and C. miniscula, both of Bartrum and Powell, and both occurring at Kaawa Creek, have also smooth radials. Miniscula, in addition, has concentric threadlets present (seen only on good specimens), but the hinge is heavier and more typical of that of Pleuromeris. One feels, however, that miniscula might be better located along with shells like otamateaensis n.sp. Cerussata is different again. The outline and posterior situation of beaks, along with the broad, smooth, low ribs, with practically linear interstices make this species distinctive. The hinge is light and narrow and nearer to that of otamateaensis than to that of prolutea. In form and situation of beak it is reminiscent of Pleuromeris acaris Dall from the Oligocene of Bowden. Jamaica, Judging by Dall's description (Trans. Wag. Free Inst. Sc. Phil., vol. 3, pl. 6, p. 1434, 1903) there is some agreement in sculpture also. Dall, however, states that acaris is hardly a typical Pleuromeris.
Pleuromeris instata n.sp. (Figs. 1, 3).
Shell very small, more like prolutea than any other Neozelanic species. In form and build these two species are practically identical, but the hinge is lighter in the new species and the axials more numerous (18 to 19 as against 15 to 16 in prolutea.); the interstices are less in width than the axials; the sharply raised beads on ribs of prolutea take the form on instata of weak transverse beads closely crowded together. The disposition of teeth and form of hinge are alike in the two species, but the teeth of prolutea are larger and heavier. In fact, prolutea grows to a large size and altogether is a more robust species.
Height, 3.0 mm.; length, 3.0 mm.; inflation (one valve). 1.2 mm.
Localities: Clifden, Southland, band 6A (type), common: also bands 4, 6B; Pakaurangi Point, Kaipara Harbour. New record.
Dimya kaiparaensis n.sp. (Fig. 26).
Shell squarely rounded, slightly oblique. Hinge straight, anterior side broadly rounded, posterior end descending almost straight. Muscle-scars somewhat effaced, but there is a small anterior one high up near hinge, and the posterior one is alongside margin at about its middle. Beak a little posterior of centre of hinge-line, small and sharp in good specimens; chondrophore small, elongated, close under beak. Taxodont teeth visible for a short distance on either side of beak. Peripheral denticles present, radially disposed though not well seen owing to wear. Sculpture of irregular concentric lamellae rising obliquely from surface and directed downwards.
Height, 7.0 mm.; length, 6.5 mm.
Five specimens obtained. New record.
Pteromyrtea auriculata (Bartrum).
1919. Chione auriculata Bartrum. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 51, p. 97, pl. 7, fig. 2.
A pair of valves has recently been collected. The coarse sculpture of rather heavy laminae, developed only around periphery of valve,
is distinctive. There is an undescribed species of Pteromyrtea in the beds at Clifden, but it does not approximate to auriculata particularly.
Pteromyrtea disparilis n.sp. (Fig. 10).
Shell small, auriculate, elongately oval, not much inflated; beak small, sharp. Lunule small, hard to detect, sunken close under beak. Left valve with two cardinal teeth, posterior one the larger, very oblique; anterior cardinal set vertically; anterior lateral not developed, posterior one long and narrow, bordering edge of hinge-plate. External sculpture of coarse growth-striae and very thick lamellae lying flat on valve and forming a succession of steps; dorsal quarter or so with fine, even concentric ridges. Radial sculpture takes the form of spaced, diverging somewhat irregular threads and microscopic striae.
Height, 6.1 mm.; length, 7.0 mm.; inflation (one valve), 2.0 mm.
The external sculpture recalls Marwick's description of P. tirangiensis, but this species has the lunule narrowly lanceolate. Somewhat similar to auriculata (Bartrum) from the same beds, but distinguished by character of lunule. New record.
Zemysia (Zemysina) n.sp.
Two specimens, one of them small, the other with hinge broken anteriorly and the valve filled with matrix. It differs from Z. globus Finlay, to which it is most closely related, in lighter hinge and teeth, the posterior tooth being more nearly parallel to edge of hinge than that of globus. Other differences are not wanting. New record.
Arthritica ambotruncata n.sp. (Figs. 6, 7).
Shell very small, dorsal margins short, beak about central. The hinge is short and light. Outer surface very finely punctate. There are several exceedingly weak radials running from umbo to postero-ventral border, seen in favourable light only, and visible on both internal and external surfaces. This species is nearest A. bifurca in shape, but is much smaller, with beak at about middle of its length, and sculpture very much finer. A. crassiformis Powell is a solidly built shell. A. elongata grows much larger and is more elongate, though the beaks are medially situated. A. dispar is an elongate shell and has anterior end produced, more so than that of bifurca.
Height, 1.7 mm.; length, 2.0 mm.; inflation (one valve), 0.7 mm.
Four specimens collected. New record.
Mysella apudalpha n.sp. (Fig. 8).
Shell very small, oval, approaching M. alpha Powell somewhat in shape and in character of hinge, but outline not so oblique. Anterior end considerably produced, broadly and evenly rounded over anterior margin; antero-dorsal margin straight and horizontal for some distance, then gradually descending; posterior end short and steep, excavated close below beak, thereafter considerably pouting; ventral margin broadly and evenly convex. Beaks small, smooth, situated a little behind posterior fourth. Hinge of right valve not unlike that of alpha, the anterior lateral, however, not so lamellar and becoming thicker and more pronounced towards its anterior end; there is a well-marked lateral tooth rising from posterior end of hinge. Left
valve with margin raised and thickened into rather elongated elevations to engage in grooves on hinge of right valve. External surface with faint, irregularly spaced concentric growth-striae and folds.
Height, 1.2 mm.; length, 1.75 mm.; inflation (one valve), 0.5 mm.
Three specimens collected. The type material consists of odd right and left valves. New record.
Rochefortula brevitas n.sp. (Fig. 9).
Shell very small, little inflated, opposite sides parallel, corners sharply rounded. Beaks small, situated a little behind middle. Hinge fairly broad but not heavy. Right valve with two divergent cardinals bordering resilium just below beak; laterals very weak, separated from valve-edge above by a shallow groove. Left valve with a lamellar ridge on each side of resilifer. Sculpture of distinct, spaced concentric growth-stages; upper fourth or so of valve around beaks unsculptured, below which radial threads suddenly make their appearance at a growth-stage. These are continued to margin, which they finely crenulate externally; internally, however, the margin is entire.
Height, 1.0 mm.; length, 1.35 mm.; inflation (one valve), 0.25 mm.
The small size and shape are distinctive. Thirteen specimens collected. New record.
Pseudarcopagia (?) marshalli Finlay.
Finlay (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 530, 1927) introduced this name for Tellina (Arcopagia) inconspicua Marshall (preoccupied). No good specimens have been available, but the very light valve and hinge do not seem to accord well with the definition of Pseudarcopagia.
Scalpomactra cf. continua Finlay.
There are three specimens that can in no way be distinguished from continua. As, however, they are all small, one cannot unhesitatingly refer them to continua. New record.
Notocallista (Fossacallista) parki (Marwick).
1926. Paradione (Notocallista) parki Marwick. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 593, figs. 66–69.
Four small shells correspond well with specimens of parki from Clifden, the only observable difference being that the sculpture is coarser, the grooves being linear and the ribs low and broad, their relief notably less medially. New record.
Clausinella cf. morgani (Marwick).
There is an immature right valve.
Ascitellina cf. protensa Powell.
A small left valve with the antero-ventral portion broken off. Very close indeed to the Recent A. urinatoria, much more so than to the Chatham Island fossil A. donaciformis. The outline is quite like that of A. protensa, a fossil from the Awamoan beds at Motutara, near Auckland, and good material may prove these to be identical. New record.
Anisocorbula nitens (Marshall).
1918. Corbula nitens Marshall. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 50, p. 272, p. 19, figs. 4, 7.
Ten valves from Clifden (road-cutting about half a mile behind the racecourse) belong to this species. These beds are the equivalent of horizon 7 of the beds along the river.
A juvenile left valve partly broken away anteriorly, but sufficient remaining to establish specific distinctness. The sculpture is not unlike that of P. thomsoni Suter. New record.
Bankia cupedia n.sp. (Fig. 12).
Resembles B. turneri Powell and Bartrum in strong convexity of valve and fullness of beak. The outline of valve is not preserved, but there is sufficient divergence in sculpture from turneri to indicate a separate species. The sulcus is medianly situated. Posterior to this the valve is ornamented with regular spaced linear grooves separated by wide, flat interspaces; towards posterior extremity the grooves come closer together and the interspaces become uneven, rather folded up, and crowded together. From the surface of posterior of valve there is a gradual convex slope down into sulcus, not, as in turneri, a definite step down. The readiest means of separation, however, is to be had in the angle at which the concentric ornamentation of posterior of valve meets the edge of the sulcus, about 35 degrees in turneri as against nearly 90 in the new species (measurements for angles on dorsal side of junction). Though the posterior end of cupedia is not well preserved, the direction of the sculpture indicates that the auricle is much less pronounced than that of turneri. The sculpture anterior to the sulcus is practically identical in both species.
Height, 7.5 mm.; length (estimated), 9.5 mm.; inflation (one valve), 4.0 mm.
A single right valve collected. New record.
Bankia aemula n.sp. (Fig. 11).
This species is very distinct from cupedia n.sp. Posterior to sulcus the ornamentation is confined to fine, dense growth-striae, not the linear grooves with intervening flat areas as in cupedia. Along the posterior edge of sulcus, which is broad and shallow, there is a strikingly prominent, narrow, sharply-elevated carina. Concentric ornamentation on anterior portion of valve resembles that of cupedia, but is not so fine and hair-like, the ridges being fewer in number, with distinctly wider interstices. The anterior edge of sulcus of aemula is flanked by a thin, lightly nodulated thread, on the crest of which arise very fine, oblique, hair-like threads that trend obliquely towards the posterior edge of the concentrically ornamented anterior portion of the valve.
Height, 6.0 mm.; length (estimated), 7.5 mm.; inflation (one valve), 3.5 mm.
A single valve collected. New record.
Haliris (Setaliris) cf. setosa Hedley.
There is a single left valve that cannot, in the absence of specimens of setosa, be differentiated from that species. The description given by Suter in the Manual and his figures in the Atlas show that at least the fossil is very closely allied to setosa. New record.
One shell is to be distinguished from komitica and kaiparica (both from the same bed) in having radials close together and crowded with close-set beads, so that the sculpture does not give the open lattice effect of these two species. It may be close to E. pittensis Marwick, but the posterior slope and one side are broken away, and one cannot be sure of the outline. New record.
Fautor cf. marwicki (Finlay).
There are about 30 specimens, but as they are either immature or fragmentary it is difficult to draw conclusions as to identity. New record.
Munditia proavita Laws.
1936. Munditia proavita Laws. Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 66, p. 102, pl. 15, figs. 49, 51.
One very well preserved shell seems to differ in no way from the Waitotaran proavita. The topotypes with which it has been compared, however, are not in a good state of preservation. New record.
Brookula endodonta Finlay.
1924. Brookula endodonta Finlay. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55, p. 530, pl. 53, figs. 7a, 7b, 7c.
One shell. The type is from Target Gully (Awamoan), but Finlay recorded the species also from Clifden, horizon 6. New record.
Lissotesta alpha Laws.
1932. Lissotesta alpha Laws. Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 68, p. 479, pl. 64, fig. 34.
This species, described in paper No. 1 of this series, has been found to possess spiral sculpture. The spirals are thin, spaced, and almost lamellar, and thus are very easily rubbed off. The species thus comes close to such forms as L. tryphenensis and L. tenuilirata, both of Powell. The outer lip is strengthened by a variciform swelling.
Cirsonella amplector n.sp. (Fig. 24).
Shell small, of 2 ½ whorls, spire low. Sutures clasping. Sculpture lacking. Resembles the Recent C. consobrina Powell somewhat in form, but has spire better differentiated and more stepped, and the umbilicus rather wider. C. aedicula, the only other recorded fossil species, is more elevated and of different shape.
Height, 0.95 mm.; width (greatest), 1.15 mm.
This, is the first Neozelanic species to be recorded from rocks older than the Pliocene. New record.
Zeradina n.sp. aff. costellata (Hutton).
One shell similar to costellata but differing in details of sculpture. The spirals are universal, very fine and dense, and all of same strength. Axial folds, which are low but thin and pinched up (concave flanks) are developed on posterior half of whorls, below which they quickly evanesce. New record.
Zeradina (Naridista) esculenta n.sp (Figs. 27, 28).
Shell small, of 6 convex whorls, the apex sharply pointed and body considerably expanded. Protoconch of one small planorboid volution; brephic phase persists for about 2 ½ volutions, the sculpture at first being a fine cancellation, but the spirals soon assume the proportion of keels (three in number and unevenly spaced), the axials remaining fine and close and antecurrent to posterior suture. On adult whorls spirals and axials become much weaker and more numerous. Aperture large, circular, entire; inner lip separated from body along its entire length by a deep groove, the left side of which is defined by a keel.
Height, 4.7 mm.; width, 3.7 mm.
Jocelynae, the type-species of Naridista, is extremely close in adult shell characters to Escharella citharella Cossman, the genotype of
Escharella, which, however, Cossman defines as having the embryo smooth. Thiele (Handb. der Syst. Weich., vol. 1, 1931) places Escharella Cossman as a synonym of Couthouyia Adams. The present species is a new record for the Pakaurangi Point beds.
Genus Dalliella Cossman, 1895.
Type: D. brusinai Cossman. Miocene.
Dalliella neozelanica n.sp. (Fig. 31).
Shell small, squat, whorls convex, shouldered, sutures distinct, abutting. Body-whorl large, full, strongly convex, its height about two-thirds that of shell. Protoconch of three turns, smooth, its tip broken. Entire adult surface with fine, flattish spirals separated by grooves that are almost linear. Aperture almost circular, not angled behind, and with an open, rounded channel in front. Columella strongly excavated, its anterior end thickened to form a fold and bent around to left to merge into basal lip, which is very broadly rounded. Outer lip thickened a little within, in profile very oblique to axis of shell, being antecurrent to suture and almost straight.
Height, 7 0 mm.; width, 4.9 mm.
Agrees well with the diagnosis of Dalliella given by Cossman (Ess. Pal. Comp. vol. 7, p. 199, 1906) and bears a close resemblance to Cossmann's figure of the genotype (op. cit., pl. 13, figs. 12, 13). New record for the beds.
Scalaronoba chemnitzia n.sp. (Fig. 30).
Shell minute, very like S. secunda Powell, a recent species from 73 fathoms off North Cape, New Zealand. Differs, however, in having whorls more convex, sutures strongly cut in so that whorls are shouldered high up, and a tiny umbilical perforation. The protoconch has 5, as against 4 spirals in secunda. A peripheral cord is present, and this causes axial grooves to appear to be stopped at periphery. Weak prolongations of the axials are present on the base, where they reach to the region of the umbilicus. There is a very faint cord midway between sutures of the body, and the penultimate whorl has a slightly swollen border anteriorly.
Height, 0.75 mm.; width, 0.33 mm.
A new record for the beds.
“Epigrus” pakaurangia n.sp. (Fig. 33).
Five specimens have been collected, apparently congeneric with E. fossilis Finlay, as is shown by the high, loosely coiled whorls and detached aperture. The weak axial corrugations separate this form, however, from fossilis, which is smooth. The apertural rim is heavy. In his description of fossilis. Finlay has referred to the presence of fine, flexuous growth-lines. Such are in evidence on pakaurangia, forming a strong subsutural sinus. Body-whorl of waitotarana and of pakaurangia are identical, but the apices differ strikingly in size, that of the former being large and blunt and very broad over the summit. Cossmann's description of the protoconch of Chevallieria fits that of waitotarana. Further, waitotarana is very like the figure of Chevallieria labrosa Cossman, the genotype, and still more like C. cylindroides Cossman, both from the Paris Eocene.
Height, 1.4 mm.; width, 0.4 mm. Corresponding dimensions of a paratype, 3.0 mm (estimated); 1.85 mm.
A new record for these beds.
Genus Veterator nov.
Type: Brookesena quadricincta Marwick.
Veterator quadricinctus (Marwick).
1931. Brookesena quadricinota Marwick. N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull., no. 13, p. 90, fig. 154.
There is one very nicely preserved specimen from Pakaurangi Point. The embryo is so divergent from that of Brookesena that a new generic name is provided for this fossil. Judging by the smooth, bulbous protoconch of the shell figured by Suter in the Atlas (pl. 16, fig. 6) this also should be referred to Veterator. Suter's description, however, describes the embryo as “small, obtuse, spirally sharply ridged.”
Typical Brookesena occurs in the Janjukian beds at Muddy Creek, Victoria.
The record of quadricinctus from Pakaurangi is a new one.
Zaclys violator n.sp. (Fig. 34).
Like Z. paradoxa Powell, a Recent form from northern New Zealand, this species possesses but two spiral rows of heavy, rounded nodules per whorl, and is a short, stumpy shell. On the base there are three almost smooth spiral keels (two on paradoxa). The outlines are convex. The shell simulates Joculator Hedley; but, notwithstanding the fact that embryonic characters cannot be observed as a result of corrosion, it is placed tentatively in Zaclys owing to its close resemblance to paradoxa.
Height, 2.9 mm.; width, 1.0 mm.
A new record.
Sigapatella otamatea n.sp. (Fig. 25).
Shell small, like S. mapalia Marwick in build and outline, apex excentric. Nucleus tiny, embryo coiled in a plane that is almost horizontal, that of mapalia generally more oblique; last portion of protoconch with weak, slightly irregular, microscopic radials. Growth-curves well developed. Separation from all other Neozelanic species is provided by the character of the radial sculpture of adult surface. This consists of excessively fine wavy threads, seen here and there on earlier part of surface, but always most in evidence around outer edge. The radials are very much finer indeed than those of mapalia, which in their turn are not as coarse as those of S. terraenovae Peile, and they remind one somewhat of the fine sculpture of Cheilea plumea Laws.
Height, 4.0 mm.; diameter (greatest), 6.0 mm.
This is the “Calyptraea maculata Linn.” of Marshall's list. The Sigapetella at Clifden are distinct from otamatea.
Pliciscala komitica n.sp. (Fig. 15).
Shell small, whorls evenly curved, about 9 in number excluding protoconch, sutures distinct. Axial ribs (14 or 15 on last whorl) elevated, narrow, vertical, straight, spaced about twice own width
apart. Fine spiral threads (about 14 on penultimate whorl) are developed universally on adult whorls, including the base; these surmount axials as well. Interspaces between spiral threads crossed by fine, hair-like growth-threads, causing punctate effect. One or two weak varices present, the outer lip bordered by a varix. Aperture circular, entire. Basal disc strongly differentiated, separated off by a pronounced keel at which axials abruptly terminate. Protoconch normal, being smooth, styliform, polygrate: its nucleus is minute. At its close fine hair-like axials appear, which later assume the character of the ordinary adult ribs.
Height, (estimated), 5.9 mm.; width, 2.0 mm.
This is the “Pliciscala n.sp.” of the writer's former list. Asquisition of better material has made it possible to name the species.
Clathroscala (?) tricincta (Marshall).
1918. Epitonium tricinem Martshall. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 50, p. 263, pl. 19, fig. 8, 12.
The writer's earlier observations relating to this species, which were based on Marshall's figure and description and on a small “topotype” (which has turned out to be not tricincta, but a closely related new species), have been shown as a result of examination of the holotype itself and of the acquisition of several authentic topotypes to need reconsideration. Tricincta agrees with Murdochella in embryonic features, but the sculpture of the holotype, which turns out to be but part of a much larger shell, is so different as to make it necessary to withdraw it from Murdochella, where the writer formerly located it. Its resemblance to Clathroscala was remarked on at the time, and, though Cossman makes no reference to embryonic characters, tricincta, along with the species described below, may be referred here in the meantime, though, admittedly, one cannot unhesitatingly place them in any of the groups discussed by Cossmann (Ess. Pal. Comp., vol. 9). There is little reason, however, to doubt their reference to the Clathroscalinae.
Other species close to tricincta occur in the Hutchinsonian beds at Clifden and at Blue Cliffs.
Clathroscala (?) n.sp.
Probably not adult. Distinguished from tricincta by smooth base, heavier and broader protoconch, stronger spiral sculpture giving a more definite lattice effect. New record.
Acrilla kaiparaensis n.sp. (Fig. 16).
Shell small, spire considerably elevated, its height 2 ½ to 3 times that of body-whorl; whorls moderately convex; sutures distinct. Protoconch polygyrate, pointed, conical. Axial ribs (15 on penultimate whorl) narrow, rather pinched up, distant, vertical, straight, weakening somewhat on last whorl. Spirals consist of distinct threads, surmounting axials, about 12 on body between suture and periphery. Spiral threads and their interstices crossed by fine regular growth-ridges. Periphery roundly angulated; base flattish, ornamented by-fine spiral threads. Aperture broken (? roundly oval), discontinuous; columella set vertically, arcuate, heavy, broad above at insertion Varices absent.
Height, 8.3 mm.; width, 2.7 mm.
Elata (Suter) is larger, with much heavier ribs and spirals. An undescribed species in the beds at Clifden is quite distinct from kaiparaensis. This shell combines the characters of Hemiacirsa de Boury and Acrilla H. Adams; it resembles Hemiacirsa in sculpture, form of the body and aperture, but the shape of whorl and suture are more that of Acrilla; further, there is a thin basal disc present. It has not the narrow ribs of Acrilla, and the spirals are weaker. It belongs to a group that is widespread, though not plentiful, in the New Zealand Tertiary, comprising Epitonium (Clathroscala) elatum Suter (Blue Cliffs), referred by Finlay (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 56, p. 231, 1926) to Notacirsa Finlay, as well as new species occurring at such widely different horizons as McCullough's Bridge (Tahuian), Wharekuri (Duntroonian), Clifden (Hutchinsonian). New record.
Graphis neozelanica Laws.
1939. Graphis neozelanica Laws. Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 68, p. 494, pl. 67, fig. 76.
This species agrees with shells placed by Cossmann (Essais, vol. 9, 1912) in Graphis as a subgenus of Aclis. Aclis, however, is a spirally ornamented genus. Neozelanica is obviously generically apart from Graphis blanda (Finlay) and certain similar undescribed species, and it is doubtful whether Graphis has been correctly employed to cover these, for Cossmann's figure of Turbo unicus Montagu, the genotype of Graphis (Essais, vol. 9, pl. 9, fig. 14, 1912), shows a shell very different from blanda, and more like neozelanica. In fact, neozelanica resembles strongly Graphis gallica de Boury and others figured by Cossmann (op. cit., vol. 9, 1912).
In the beds at Pakaurangi there is a shell that resembles unicus more closely than does neozelanica, while Muddy Creek0 (Janjukian) matrix yields a slender shell that is close to gallica, and therefore very near the Pakaurangi neozelanica. In view of this Graphis is here located in the Scalidae and used for species like neozelanica, while blanda and a new species closely resembling it (described below) are for the present referred to Graphis in a very loose sense.
“Graphis” problanda n.sp. (Fig. 14).
Shell minute, needle-like, simulating the Recent blanda Finlay very closely indeed. In both forms the protoconch is identical, but the whorls of the fossil are more convex, the sutures deeper, and the axials flexuose. The spirals are closely similar in both species.
Height, 1.3 mm.; width, 0.35 mm. (a paratype).
See remarks under preceding species.
Genus Spirolaxis Monterosato.
Type (monotype): Pseudomalaxis centrifuga Monterosato.
Spirolaxis cohaerentia n.sp. (Fig. 22).
Combines characters of both Spirolaxis Monterosato and Pseudomalaxis Fischer. It resembles the latter in absence of uncoiling, though this not infrequently characterises only the later whorls of Spirolaxis, and in the present specimen these whorls may have been broken off. It resembles Spirolaxis in that it is biconcave, not flat dorsally and concave ventrally as in Pseudomalaxis. Viewed edgewise into the aperture the New Zealand fossil is almost a replica of
S. exquisita (Dall and Simpson), figured by Woodring (Miocene Molluses from Bowden, Jamaica, Part 2. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publication no. 385, 1928).
Height, 0.75 mm.; width (greatest), 2.5 mm.
A new record.
Balcis collator n.sp. (Fig. 19).
Shell small, elongate-conic, outlines straight; first two or three whorls lightly convex, remainder flat; sutures very indistinct. Height of body-whorl less than one-third that of shell, its periphery sub-angled. Aperture subovate; inner lip narrowly but distinctly callused; outer lip thin, retrocurrent to suture behind, convex in front. Base lightly convex.
Height, 4.0 mm.; width, 1.0 mm.
Localities: Pakaurangi Point (type); Clifden, Southland, band 6A. A new record.
Genus Latirogona nov.
Type: Dolicholatirus ornatus Marshall.
Latirogona ornata (Marshall).
1918. Dolicholatirus ornatus Marsh. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 50, p. 264, pl. 18, figs. 3, 3a.
Comparison of this species with figures of European ones ascribed to Dolicholatirus indicates that though ornatus resembles them in general build, it is much mere strongly axially costate. In this respect it resembles certain species of Latirus (Polygona) figured by Woodring (Miocene Molluses from Bowden, Jamaica, Part 2, pl. 15, figs. 4, 5, 6), but the local species differs from these in the absence of an umbilical furrow and of callus on parietal wall to form a strong parietal ridge.
Of the two topotypes collected one has a well preserved protoconch, which is seen to be polygyrate (3 ½ volutions), conical, broad across base and sharply pointed to a tiny, somewhat obtuse nucleus. Its sutures are only moderately distinct and there is a low spiral cord margining anterior of each volution. There are three columellar plaits.
According to Cossmann (Essais, vol. 4, p. 23, 1901) Dolicholatirus has a paucispiral, subglobose embryo and only two plaits, whereas Latirus (op. cit., p. 40) has the protoconch polygyrate, conoidal and nucleus obtuse; and the pillar with three plaits. Latirus s.str., however, is characterised by a relatively short, wide canal, so that the Pakaurangi species cannot be referred here either.
Genus Kaiparanura nov.
Type: Phos spiralis Marshall.
Kaiparanura spiralis (Marshall).
1918. Phos spiralis Marshall. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 50, p. 265, pl. 18, figs. 5, 5a.
In his description Marshall states that Suter regarded Marshall's shell as immature. Several other specimens recently collected show the same formation of aperture and body, and internal thickening
of outer lip, so that the shells are almost certainly adult. Obviously spiralis is not correctly located in Phos. Search through available literature has revealed that spiralis has many features in common with Murex inflatus Brocchi, quoted by Cossman (Essais, vol. 4, p. 178, 1901) as genotype of Pisanianura Rovereto, 1899, and figured in the same volume (pl. 6, fig. 17). Nevertheless, Cossmann's description of the protoconch in his generic diagnosis, based on the type-species, differs from that of the protoconch of Marshall's species, Inflatus has a three-whorled embryo ornamented with weak spiral threads, the nucleus being smooth and depressed. Spiralis has a finely cancellated protoconch of 3 ½ volutions, the spiral elements a little stronger than the axial ones. In addition, close observation under the microscope in favourable light shows the presence of exceedingly fine, regular axial striae over the whole surface of the embryo.
Part of the body-whorl of a small shell has been collected at Pakaurangi Point. There is an undescribed species in the Miocene beds in the South Island. New record.
Comparison of the protoconchs of certain Australian and New Zealand species hitherto ascribed to Typhis with those of certain boreal species of that genus (e.g., T. tubifer Bruguière and T. fistulosus Bronn) indicates that generic distinction should be drawn between these austral and boreal species. Harris (C.T.M., Part 1, Australasia, p. 170, 1897), remarked on the divergent apices when comparing T. pungens Solander (European Eocene) with T. maccoyi Tenison-Woods of the Victorian Eocene. The former has an embryo of three smooth turns elevated to a sharp point, while maccoyi has a smooth paucispiral embryo of two volutions, its nucleus oblique and laterally situated. For these southern species having the few-whorled protoconch a new name may have to be proposed. Along with maccoyi may be associated T. hebetatus Hutt and T. francescœ Finlay (Miocene of New Zealand) and T. acanthopteris Tate, T. yatesi Crosse, T. evaricosus Tate, all from the Tertiary of Australia.
[While this paper was in the press, a comprehensive revision of the Typhiinae by Dr A. Myra Keen (Journ. Pal. vol. 18, no. 1, Jan., 1944) came to hand. Time prevents its consideration here.]
Pteronotus cf. lætificus Finlay.
This consists of part of the body-whorl of a small shell that appears to resemble lætificus. It possesses three prominent wedge-like varices. The canal is closed, and there is no large channelled spine on outer lip as in New Zealand species referred to Pterochelus. This may prove to be the same species as “Pteronotus n.sp.” recorded by Marwick (N.Z. Geol Surv. Pal. Bull., no. 13, p. 118, p. 12, fig. 226) from the Ormond Series. New record.
There is a juvenile shell showing the embryo and first whorl with the sculpture typical. New record.
Xymenella lepida (Suter).
A single shell having the posterior spiral less in evidence than that of lepida. New record.
Fig. 1, 3—Pleuriometis instata n.sp.; holotype, × 10.5.
Fig. 2—Austrosarepta inusitata u.sp.; holotype, × 20.0.
Fig. 4—Cuna kaipara u.sp.; holotype, × 20.2.
Fig. 5—Pleuromeris otamateaensis u.sp.; holotype. × 18.6.
Fig. 6, 7—Atthrtica ambotruncata n.sp.; holotype, × 17.5.
Fig. 8—Mysella apudalpha u.sp.; holotype, × 20.0.
Fig. 9—Rochefortula brevitas n.sp.; holotype, × 22.2.
Fig. 10—Pteromyrtea disparilis n.sp.; holotype. × 5.7
Fig. 11—Bankia aemula n.sp.; holotype, × 6.5.
Fig. 12—Bankia aemula n.sp.; holotype, × 5.3.
Fig. 13—Anachrs (Postonnachis) proble mutren n.sp.; holotype, × 10.0.
Fig. 14—“Graphis” problanda n.sp.; holotype, × 38.4.
Fig. 15—Plretstala komitiea n.sp.; holotype, × 10.0.
Fig. 16—Actilla karparaeuses n.sp.; holotype, × 5.6.
Fig. 17—Etiemopsis duospualis n.sp.; paratype × 9.6.
Fig. 18—Limatula icatuotea n.sp.; holotype, × 5.1.
Fig. 19—Balers collator n.sp.; holotype, × 9.3.
Fig. 20—Spitatella ferax n.sp.; holotype, × 24.1.
Fig. 21, 23—Spitatella atypica n.sp.; holotype, × 38.4.
Fig. 22—Spitalatrs cohaerentia n.sp.; holotype, × 17.2.
Fig. 24—Cusonella amplector n.sp.; holotype. × 22.6
Fig. 25—Stgapatella otamatea n.sp.; holotype. × 5.3
Fig. 26—Dimya kaipatnensis n.sp.; holotype, × 6.6
Fig. 27, 28—Zeradina (Naridista) esculenta n.sp.; holotype, × 10.0
Fig. 29—Austrosarepta obsoleta n.sp.; holotype, × 20.0
Fig. 30—Scalaronoba chemnitzia n.sp.; holotype, × 58.0
Fig. 31—Dalhella neozelanica n.sp.; holotype, × 5.5
Fig. 32—Etremopsis disposita n.sp.; holotype, × 9.6
Fig. 33—“Epigrus” pakaurangia n.sp.; holotype, × 53.5
Fig. 34—Zaclys violator n.sp.; holotype, × 10.0.
Genus Anachis H. and A. Adams.
Type (sub. desig., Tate): Columbella scalarina Sowerby.
Subgenus Costoanachis Sacco.
Type (sub. desig., Pace): Columbella (Anachis) turrita Sacco.
Anachis (Costoanachis) problematica n.sp. (Fig 13).
Shell small, height of spire nearly twice that of aperture, whorls lightly convex, axially costate and with indistinct spirals. Spirals weak and fine over middle part of whorls, a single coarser one near posterior suture, several coarse ones near anterior suture. Fine, close, regular spirals over base and neck. Axials thin, sharp, spaced twice own width apart, extending across entire whorl, 11 in number on body, extending forward to neck. There is a low, broad varix set back a little from edge of outer lip. Aperture strongly notched anteriorly; columella not bearing denticles, but with a broad, shallow groove extending along most of its length a little within aperture. Protoconch of 1½ smooth volutions, similar to that described for Columbella, Mitrella and other Pyrenid genera.
Height, 4.2 mm.; width, 1.9 mm.
This shell does not agree entirely with the diagnosis of Costoanachis, but no other Pyrenid genus seems to accommodate it any more satisfactorily, and the writer prefers to locate it here in the meantime, following Woodring (Miocene Molluscs from Bowden, Jamaica, Part 2, p. 276, 1928), who has used the name for “small axially sculptured columbellids that have at least some trace of an anterior canal.” This shell has some resemblance to Anachis (Costoanachis) orthopleura figured by Woodring (op. cit., pl. 16, fig. 16). It has not been possible to inspect the inside of the outer lip owing to the presence of matrix which cannot be removed. A new record.
Etremopsis duospiralis n.sp. (Fig. 17).
Shell small, narrow, elongate. Length of body-whorl a little over half that of shell. Whorls angled a little below middle, shoulder long and sloping steeply. Body-whorl strongly convex, contracting quickly to neck. Protoconch typical, small, sharply pointed. Spire-whorls with two strong, close spiral cords below angle, a weak threadlet between them. Shoulder of body-whorl with six spiral threadlets. Body with 16 to 18 spirals below shoulder, these developed right down to beak. All adult whorls axially costate, the costae extending across entire whorl and nodulated where crossed by spirals. Axials die out low down on base. Outer lip broken away.
Height, 5.9 mm.; width, 2.9 mm.
Comparison with similar species:—clifdenica Pow. (type probably not adult) has four distinct and equally spaced spirals on spire-whorls; elata Pow. three such spirals, and compta Pow. two. Compta, however, has these spirals widely spaced and without interstitial threadlets. New record.
Etremopsis disposita n.sp. (Fig. 32).
Shell small, spire about one-half total height. Protoconch damaged, but apparently normal, strongly keeled latterly. Whorls angulated rather above middle. Early post-embryonic sculpture consists of a thread developing on keel, and another (lighter) just below
it; narrow, spaced axials with light nodulations where these cross keel. Nearly one volution later a third spiral thread appears anterior to the two previous ones. Immediately above the point where the third spiral emerges the shoulder spirals first appear, suddenly, four of them, on the slope of one of the axials. The shoulder spirals are fine, spaced, even threadlets, and on the whorl below that of their first appearance they are six in number. Body-whorl with six shoulder spirals, then three cords with interstitial threadlets; below that many fine, close, even spirals down to beak, with no interstitials.
Height, 4.9 mm.; width, 2.9 mm.
Apparently most like E. latiapex Powell, but with body-whorl fuller and more strongly convex and sharply-angled brephic whorls; three main spirals on post-nuclear whorls, as against four on latiapex. New record.
Spiratella atypica n.sp. (Figs. 21, 23).
Shell very small, coiled in plane spiral, sinistral, top flat. Whorls evenly convex, gradually enlarging. Aperture discontinuous, distended below. Umbilicus of moderate size. No sculpture.
Height, 0.8 mm.; diameter (greatest), 1.1 mm.
Spiratella is not planorboid, but the height of spire is subject to variation. For example, S. australis has the spire high, but S. inflata D'Orbigny has it rising only a little. In fact, inflata and atypica are very much alike apart from the matter of elevation. In apertural features atypica seems to agree fairly well with S. australis Eydoux and Souleyet. Atypica is common in sievings of Pakaurangi matrix. Lornia Marwick is somewhat similar but has the aperture entire.
The figure is that of a paratype. New record.
Spiratella ferax n.sp. (Fig. 20).
Shell very small, planorboid, sinistral, apical whorls slightly sunken. In shape of aperture, which is discontinuous, resembling S. atypica from the same beds, but differing in possession of a very marked channel around whorl just behind outer lip. Umbilicus small. Basal lip drawn down below level of rest of base.
Height, 0.9 mm.; diameter (greatest), 1.2 mm.
Extremely plentiful in sievings of Pakaurangi Point matrix. One specimen has been obtained from band 6B, Clifden. Southland. A very closely allied species occurs equally plentifully in the Janjukian beds at Muddy Creek, Victoria. It has the whorl more narrowly rounded and the channel near aperture not so strongly defined. New record.
Dr. Marwick has kindly drawn the writer's attention to a curious circumstance relating to Cardium (Glans) kaiparaensis Marshall, 1918, T.N.Z.I., vol. 50. On page 272 and in the legend to pl. 21, figs. 5, 5a, the name is so given, obviously a slip for Cardita, to which Glans belongs. Then on p. 274, in the faunal list, there appears Cardita (Glans) kaiparaensis, showing that it was a genuine slip of Marshall's part. In view of this it is necessary to propose a new name for Cardita kaiparaensis Laws (T.R.S.N.Z.; vol. 68, p. 473), which the writer takes pleasure in renaming Cardita marwicki Laws, nom. nov.