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Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Brachiopod Faunas in New Zealand: with an Index to the Genera and Species

Canterbury University College, Christchurch.

[Read before the Canterbury Branch of the Royal Society, March 1, 1944; received by the Editor, November 9, 1944; issued separately, June, 1945.]

To anyone familiar with the rich, varied and comparatively complete succession of well-preserved brachiopod faunas in the Palaeozoic rocks of England or the United States of America, the relative poverty and imperfection in this respect of the Palaeozoic section of the geological column in New Zealand is its most noteworthy feature.

In the Dominion, the oldest, and the most complete sequence of Palaeozoic strata is of Tremadocian and Ordovician age, and belongs to the graptolitic facies, in which brachiopods are rare. No brachiopods have yet been discovered in the shelly facies of Ordovician age which is found in the north of the South Island. Strata of Silurian age are unknown. The Lower Devonian is represented by two interesting faunal assemblages in which brachiopods are dominant and abundant. Two facies, the Rhenish and the Bohemian, are present. Middle Devonian limestones are exposed at Reefton but the few brachiopods they contain have yet to be described. Upper Devonian and Carboniferous times are blank in the Dominion record, and the succeeding Permian is represented at two localities, each yielding a meagre fauna with a few indifferently preserved brachiopods.

The oldest brachiopod assemblage in Mesozoic strata is late Middle or early Upper Triassic (Ladino-Carnic) in age. This occurs high in the Kaihiku Series and is a remarkably constant faunal unit throughout its range over the length of the South Island. In the Upper Triassic several horizons yield Carnic species, but more work is required before the succession of brachiopod faunas of this age can be fully determined. Noric strata are practically without brachiopods. Finally, in the Rhaetic a small but very interesting assemblage of brachiopods, including the local genera Clavigera and Rastelligera, is known in both Islands.

Trechmann, who was the first to study the New Zealand Triassic fauna in detail, stated that “the value of the Brachiopoda for zonal purposes in the New Zealand Trias seems to be limited” (1918, p. 215). In view of the value of these forms in the Kaihiku Series (Ladino-Carnic) and in the Rhaetic this statement seems to be premature. When stratigraphical and palaeontological studies go hand in hand, as they have rarely done in the investigation of the local Mesozoic sequence, this conclusion may well require modification.

In the Jurassic and Cretaceous strata of the Dominion brachiopoda are quite unimportant.

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(A) Tremadocian Fauna.

A single species of atrematous brachiopod was collected by W. N. Benson at the Morning Star Mine, Te Oneroa, Preservation Inlet, and described by Chapman (1934) as Leptobolus novaezelandiae. It is associated with the graptolites Adelograptus victoriae (T. S. Hall), Tetragraptus decipiens T. S. Hall, Didymograptus taylori T. S. Hall and Triograptus otagoensis Benson and Keble, forms indicating the zone of Adelograptus (Middle Lancefieldian) which, according to Bulman* “may provisionally be considered of late Tremadoc age.”

(B) Lower Devonian.

(i) Rhenish Facies.

At Lankey Creek, near Reefton, fine grained argillites, some 700 feet in thickness, have yielded Lower Devonian brachiopods. The most noteworthy feature here is the occurrence of comparatively thin bands containing a great abundance of a single species of brachiopod associated with a few other species in insignificant numbers. Meganteris neozelanica Allan, Chonetes maoria Allan, Acrospirifer cf. hercyniae (Giebel) and “Leptostrophia” reeftonensis Allan each occur in profusion in this way. Other species found in smaller numbers are Schizophoria, cf. provulvaria (Maurer), Hysterolites cf. hystericus Schlotheim and Eatonia parki Allan.

The characteristic species are closely similar to those of the Upper Siegenian—Lower Emsian (= Lower Coblenzian) of the Belgian-Rhine succession. The agreement in facies is extremely close.

There is an insignificant “austral” element in this fauna indicated by such species as Lingulidiscina ranfti Allan, Leptocoelia flabellites (Conrad) and the trilobite Homalonotus huttoni Allan. These have not been found in situ, and may not be part of a single assemblage.

(ii) Bohemian Facies.

The fauna of the Baton River beds of south-west Nelson, studied in detail by Shirley (1938), consists dominantly of brachiopods. The age is similar to that of the Reefton argillites—namely, Upper Siegenian or Lower Coblenzian, but the faunas have little in common. The Baton River beds belong to the calcareous or Bohemian facies of the Lower Devonian of Europe and Asia.

An analysis of the common brachiopods determined by Shirley shows three elements: (a) a group of species, including Eospirifer togatus (Barrande), Fascicostella gervillei (Defrance), Nucleospira cf. marginata Maurer, and Cymostrophia stephani (Barrande), which suggests comparison with the fauna of the Koněprusy limestone of Bohemia; (b) a second group, shared in part by the Reefton argillites, including Rhytistrophia shirleyi Allan, Schizophoria provulvaria (Maurer) and Acrospirifer arduennensis (Schnur); and (c) two North American Lower Devonian species, Hipparionyx minor (Clarke) and Cyrtinopsis perlamellosus (Hall).

Shirley reached the conclusion that the European affinities of the Baton River fauna, and probably also those of the Reefton fauna, are best explained by migration along the shores of a Lower Devonian

[Footnote] * Bulman, 1941, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 11, vol. vii, p. 119.

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Tethys sea-way. He also suggested tentatively that the circum-Pacific route so typical ofthe Triassic period may have been effective in Lower Devonian times. Shirley's palaeogeographic scheme was accepted for the Reefton fauna by Allan (1942) who had previously (1935, pp. 34–6) found no evidence for a Lower Devonian Tethys.

The Baton River fauna has nothing in common with the “aus tral” Lower Devonian fauna of South Africa and South America.

E. D. Gill (1942)* has recently shown conclusively that the Baton River fauna is identical with that of the typical Yeringian Series of Victoria, Australia. This is an extremely interesting discovery.

(C) Permian Faunas.

Fossiliferous Permian strata are known in Nelson, the Maitai Series of the Wairoa Gorge, and in Otago at Clinton. C. T. Trechmann (1917) has described the fossils from the Maitai Limestone of the Wairoa Gorge. The brachiopods are Strophalosia sp., Rhynchonella (? Pugnax) cf. pleurodon Phillips, Martinia subradiata G. Sowerby and Spirifer cf. bisulcatus J. Sowerby. The specimens are poorly preserved. Trechmann concluded that the evidence from these and the other fossils of the Maitai rocks was “overwhelmingly in favour of a correlation of these beds with the marine Permo-Carboniferous of New South Wales and Tasmania” (1917, p. 62).

None of the Nelson Maitai brachiopods has been recognised at Clinton, whence three species of fossils are recorded by Marwick (1925). The only brachiopod, Chonetes sp. cf. vishnu Salter, is abundant.

The two faunas have in common the myalinid, Maitaia trechmanni Marwick, and the coral Euryphyllum Hill (Proc. Roy. Soc. Q'land, xlix (2) 1938, pp. 25–26). The latter genus occurs in the Permian of Queensland, New South Wales and Western Australia, and in the Artinskian (Lower Permian) of the Urals.

(D) Triassic Faunas.

(i) Kaihiku Series (Ladino-Carnic).

The strata comprising this series in the type locality, the Kaihiku Range, have recently been investigated by M. Ongley (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Bull. no. 38, 1939, pp. 34–37) and the fossils from four localities determined by Marwick. The fauna, in which brachiopods arc dominant, is remarkably uniform throughout its whole geographical range in the South Island, and is best known by Trechmann's description (1918) of the fossils from Caroline Cutting, Hokonui Hills. Here the brachiopods include: Halorella zealandica Trechmann, Dielasma cf. himalayana Bittner, D. zealandica Trechmann, Spiriferina fragilis Schlotheim, S. kaihikuana Trechmann, S. (?) carolinae Trechmann, Mentzeliopsis horrida Trechmann, M. spinosa Trechmann, and Athyris kaihikuana (Trechmann). The first two and the last species are abundant, while S. fragilis Schl. and M. spinosa Trechm. are common.

[Footnote] * Gill, E. D., 1942. On the Thickness and Age. of the Type Yeringian Strata, Lilydale, Victoria. Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., 54 (N.S.), Pt. I, pp. 21–52, pls. 4–6.

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This brachiopod assemblage is everywhere associated with the mollusc, Daonella indica Bittner, a form confined in New Zealand to the Kaihiku beds, and one which according to Trechmann “affords very strong evidence that these are of Ladinic or Lower Carnic age” (1918, p. 197).

These fossils occur in a thin band, some 4,000 feet above the base of the Kaihiku Series.

Caroline Cutting is at the western extremity of the Hokonui Hills, and McKay (Rept. Geol. Explor. 1877–8, 1878, p. 90) has recorded that the fossiliferous horizon is very continuous, being traceable from the Oreti River to the neighbourhood of East Peak, near Gore. As noted above, Ongley found four fossiliferous localities in the Kaihiku Ranges (Warepa Survey District), south-east of Clinton. Still further south-east along the strike J. B. Mackie (Trans. R.S.N.Z., 64 (3), 1935. pp. 275–302) has traced the Kaihiku beds from Glenomaru to the sea at Nugget Point. Wilckens (1927, pp. 22–23) has described the brachiopods collected by J. Park from the Kaihiku Beds at Nugget Point. Park's collection was from more than one horizon, but Rhynchonella nuggetensis Wilckens and Spiriferina parki Wilckens appear to be additions to the Kaihiku fauna.

The Kaihiku Series is next found at Mount St. Mary, near Kurow, in North Otago. Trechmann (1918, pp. 176–7) described collections made by McKay and by Marshall; while Wilckens (1927, pp. 36–41) dealt with material secured by Park.* The brachiopods are typical Kaihiku species. Wilckens stated that “Large alate Spiriferinae are the most striking fossils from Mount St. Mary” (1927, p. 40).

In Canterbury the Kaihiku Series is fossiliferous at Mount Potts, in the Upper Rangitata Valley. The fossils have been described by Trechmann (1918, p. 176) and Wilckens (1927, pp. 32–35); the latter giving a useful historical summary. The fossils are poorly preserved, but most of Kaihiku brachiopods seem to be represented.

The last and most northerly locality yielding the Kaihiku (Ladino-Carnic) fauna is Eighty-eight Valley, Nelson. Fossils have been described by Trechmann (1918) and Wilckens (1927, pp. 16–19). The latter described collections made by Park and added two brachiopods—viz., Spiriferina parki Wilckens and Cyrtina trechmanni Wilckens to the fauna.

The stratigraphical relationships of the Kaihiku Series to the underlying Maitai and Clinton Series is obscure. (cf. Ongley, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Bull. no. 38, 1939, p. 35).

There is no palaeontological evidence for the presence in New Zealand of Mesozoic strata older than those containing the Kaihiku (Ladino-Carnic) fauna. The age of the lower 4,000 feet of the Kaihiku Series is unknown.

(ii) Oreti Series (Lower Carnic).

Ongley (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Bull. no. 38, 1939, pp. 37–8) employed this term for strata, some 4,000 feet in thickness, which overlie the Kaihiku Series, and are succeeded by the Maoria

[Footnote] * See Park, J., 1904. On the Discovery of Permo-carboniferous Rocks at Mount Mary, North Otago, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxvi, pp. 447–453.

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problematica beds. From the Oreti beds, at Locality 1442, Kaihiku Stream, Warepa Survey District, Marwick determined a single brachiopod, “Spirigera wreyi Zitt” = Athyris wreyi (Suess), which Trechmann found to be a common Carnic fossil in New Zealand.

Trechmann (1918, table facing p. 237) listed three species as doubtfully occurring in the Oreti Series. In each case, however, the doubt is considerable. As Ongley has suggested, the type locality is in need of re-study.

(iii) Otamita Series (Carnic).

This term proposed by Ongley (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Bull. no. 38, 1939, pp. 39–40) replaces part of the old “Wairoa Series” which is discarded, and is based on the section described by Trechmann (1918, pp. 178–9) in the Otamita Stream in the Hokonui Hills.

At the base is the widespread Maoria problematica bed. Above this, at the type locality, in Bed e, which is characterised by the bivalveHalobia zealandica Trechmann, Trechmann has described Spiriferina otamitensis Trechmann, and Athyris manzavinioides (Trechmann). At a higher horizon, Bed c, at Otamita two further brachiopods are found—viz., “Terebratula” pachydentata Trechmann, and “Terebratula” cf. hungarica Bittner.

Trechmann described other Carnic brachiopods from the Halobia Beds of Mount Heslington, in Nelson—viz., Spiriferina nelsonensis Trechmann, Psioidea australis (Trechmann), and Athyris wreyi (Suess.). The last named species is a common Carnic fossil at many localities in the South Island.

Wilckens (1927, pp. 6–7) described three species of Retzia from Bed A, Wells Creek, Nelson, which are apparently Carnic forms. They are Retzia novo-seelandica Wilckens, R. reticulata Wilckens (which Trechmann had previously described from Mount Heslington, as R. schwageri Bittner) and R. morganiana Wilckens.

Further field work is necessary before it can be decided whether the species here recorded as Carnic fossils belong to one or to several assemblages. Some of them may prove to have zonal value within the Otamita Series.

(iv) Warepa Series (Noric).

Ongley (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Bull. no. 38, 1939, pp. 40–41) proposed this stratigraphical unit, with the type locality in the Warepa Survey District, for beds which contain the widespread Monotis richmondiana Zittel. Marwick's re-study (Trans. R.S.N.Z., lxv (3), 1935, pp. 300–1) of this and related Pteriidae has thrown doubt on the reliability of Trechmann's subdivisions within the Noric as recognised by him. Further field-work is obviously necessary.

The two fully described brachiopods listed from the Noric by Trechmann—viz., Spiriferina gypaëtus Trechmann and Sp. acutissima Trechmann, are not definitely associated with Monotis beds. Both are doubtfully ascribed to the Noric horizon.

The only brachiopod that can be definitely referred to the Warepa Series is Cœnothyris sp. (Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.) lxxiii (3) 1918, p. 218, Pl. 23, Fig. 7), which Trechmann found in the Monotis richmondiana Bed at Richmond, near Nelson.

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(v) Otapiri Series (Rhaetic).

Trechmann (1918) described five species of brachiopods from strata he referred to the uppermost Triassic (Rhaetic). Two very interesting species occur together at the southern end of Roaring Bay, Nugget Point—viz., Spiriferina diomedea Trechmann (= Rastelligera elongata Thomson) and Hectoria bisulcata Trechmann (= Clavigera bisulcata Thomson). Of the first Trechmann wrote: “This is the largest and latest, as well as by far the most alate, of the New Zealand Triassic Spiriferinae.”

Park (Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxvi, 1904, pp. 383–4) has given the most detailed account of the Roaring Bay beds. He stated that Clavigera occurs in three thin bands separated by beds of barren sandstone. The lowest band, 40 inches in thickness, and dipping nearly vertically “stands up like the wall of a house, presenting an even surface 70 feet high and 100 feet long thickly encrusted with shells [of Clavigera and Rastelligera] which have weathered out of the matrix” (1904, p. 384).

Rastelligera elongata Thomson also occurs in the Hokonui Hills, as also does Clavigera bisulcata Thomson.

At Kawhia, in the North Island, the latter species occurs sporadically through a thick series of beds overlying the Monotis shales. North of Albatross Point, Kawhia Harbour, Trechmann collected two further species, both associated with Clavigera—viz., Mentzelia cf. ampla Bittner, and M. kawhiana Trechmann.

The fifth and last Rhaetic brachiopod is Clavigera tumida Thomson, which is abundant at Loc. 371, Benmore railway cutting, Hokonui Hills. This is a distinctive species, in a genus which Trechmann states is “a well-defined group of specialised bisulcate Spirigerids” characterised by an enormously enlarged cardinal process and greatly-thickened hinge-area.

(E) Jurassic.

The Jurassic brachiopod fauna consists of but three fully named species, Discina kawhiana Boehm, Cryptorhynchia kawhiana Trechmann and Clavigera cuneiformis Thomson. Other species have been recorded by Boehm and Trechmann under such headings as “Rhynchonella sp.” If these be included the total fauna, as indicated by Trechmann (1923, table facing p. 286), contains ten species. Clavigera cuneiformis Thomson is an interesting Lower Liassic survivor of a New Zealand Triassic genus; Cryptorhynchia kawhiana Trechmann indicates a Bathonian-Oxfordian horizon; and Discina kawhiana Boehm is an Upper Jurassic, probably Tithonian, form.

It is obvious that under the circumstances it is premature to discuss the succession of brachiopod assemblages in the Jurassic strata of New Zealand.

(F) Cretaceous.

No brachiopod has yet been described from Cretaceous strata in New Zealand. A small rhynchonellid occurs in the Upper Senonian Ostrea Beds of the Weka Pass—Middle Waipara District. Other species have been found in the Waipara greensands near Waikari.

Marshall (Trans. N.Z. Inst., 56, 1926, p. 207) has recorded that two unidentified species of brachiopods occur in the Batley

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Series, Kaipara Harbour. The age of these beds is Upper Santonian—Lower Campanian.

Index to Genera and Species.

In this index I have included all the fully determined species described or recorded in the literature listed at the end of this paper. Some authors have indicated the presence in New Zealand of brachiopod genera without naming any species. I have excluded these except in cases in which the generic record is of particular interest or of stratigraphical value. I have also excluded any references to the determinations made, mainly by Hector, in the early publications of the Geological Survey. These have no systematic value, and have been fully recorded by Thomson (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. no. 1, 1913, pp. 28–41).

The generic references are as complete as library facilities in the Dominion will allow. I have paid particular attention to the establishment of genotypes but have had to rely in some cases on the previous work of Schuchert and Le Vene (Brachiopoda (Generum et Genotyporum Index et Bibliographia) Foss. Cat., I. Anim., Pars 42, 1929, 140 pp.). Some of the original references to extra New Zealand Triassic species recorded by Trechmann have been obtained from Diener (Brachiopoda triadica. Foss. Cat., I. Anim., pars 10, 1920, 108 pp.).

References which have not been checked in the original publications are indicated by an asterisk or have their source noted.

Acrospirifer W. Helmbrecht and R. Wedekind, 1923.

Gliickauf, Jahig. 59, Nr. 41, 13 Oktober, p. 952.

Type (by subsequent designation—Allan, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 14, 1935, p. 18) Spirifer primaevus Steininger, 1853.

Acrospirifer arduennensis (J. Schnur, 1853).

* 1853. Spirifer arduennensis Schnur, Palaeontographica, iii, p. 199, pl. XXXII, figs. 3 a-e.

1938.Spirifer (Acrospirifer) arduennensis Schnur: Shirley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), xciv (4), pp. 480–1, pl. XLIV, figs. 4–5.

Locality: Baton River (Lower Devonian).

Acrospirifer cf. hercyniae (Giebel, 1858).

1935.Acrospirifer cf. hercyniae (Giebel): Allan, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. no. 14, pp. 18–19, pl. II, figs. 1–3.

Locality: Reefton (Lower Devonian).

Note: For synonymy of this species see Allan, 1935, p. 15.

Acrospirifer cf. hystericus (Schlotheim, 1820)” of Allan, 1935, see Hysterolites cf. hystericus Schlotheim, 1820.

Athyris F. McCoy, 1844.

Syn. Carb. Foss. Ireland, 1844, pp. 128, 146, fig. 19.

Type (on the basis of the “first species” rule) Terebratula concentrica von Buch, 1834, Ueber Tereb., p. 103.

Note: Spirigera D'Orbigny, 1847, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 25, p. 268 is based by monotypy, on the same species, and is, therefore, an absolute synonym of Athyris McCoy, 1844. (Details from Schuchert and Le Vene.)

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Athyris kaihikuana (C. T. Trechmann, 1918).

1918.Spirigera kaihikuana Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond), lxxiii (3) (Nov. 30), pp. 231–2, pl. XXV, fig. 5.

1927.Spirigera kaihikuana Trechmann: Wilckens, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. no. 12, pp. 18–19, pl. iii, figs. 17–21; pl. iv, figs. 1–2; p. 34, pl. vii, figs. 6–11; p. 41, pl. ix, figs. 7–8; pl. x, figs. 1–4.

Type locality: Cowan's Railway Station, Hokonui Hills, Kaihiku Series (Ladino-Carnic), Triassic.

Type in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Athyris manzavinioides (C. T. Trechmann, 1918).

1918.Spirigera manzavinioides Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3) (Nov. 30), pp. 232–3, pl. XXV, figs. 7a–7b.

Type locality: Bed e, Otamita, Hokonui Hills (Carnic) Triassic. Type in the Trechmann Collection.

Athyris wreyi (E. Suess, 1864).

1864.Spirigera wreyi Suess, in Zittel, Novara-Exped., Geol. Theil. 1 Bd. 2Abth. Palaont. von New-Seeland, pp. 28–9, taf. VII. figs. 3a-d.

1918.Spirigera wreyi Zittel (sic): C. T. Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3), p. 231. pl. XXV, figs. 6a–6b.

1927.Spirigera wreyi Suess: Wilckens, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull., no. 12, p. 6; pp. 10–11, pl. I. fig. 22.

Type locality: The only information is Suess's statement “Die Stiicke stammen aus dem Wairoa-Thal und Aniced-Valley (sic) unweit Richmond bei Nelson.” The selection of a lectotype, from the syntypes in the Vienna Museum, should be made by one familiar with the Nelson localities.

Horizon: Trechmann (1918) has shown that this species indicates a Carnic horizon. Triassic.

Camarotoechia J. Hall and J. M. Clarke, 1893.

Nat. Hist. N. York, VI. Palaeont., vol. viii (II), pp. 189–92.

Type (by original designation) Atrypa congregata Conrad, 1841.

Camarotoechia daleidensis (C. F. Roemer, 1844).

* 1844. Terebratula daleidensis Roemer, Das Rheinische Uebergangsgebirge, p. 65, pl. i, fig. 7.

1931.Camarotoechia daleidensis (Roemer): Maillieux Mem. Mus. roy. Hist. nat. Belg., 51, pp. 20–6.

1938.Camarotoechia daleidensis (Roemer): Shirley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), XCIV (4), p. 474, pl. XLII, fig. 2.

Locality: Baton River (Lower Devonian).

Camarotoechia mackayi R. S. Allan, 1935.

1935.Camarotoechia mackayi Allan, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull no. 14, (April 30), pp. 22–23, pl. II, fig. 14.

Locality: Reefton (Lower Devonian?).

Holotype in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Chonetes G. Fischer, 1830.

* Oryct. Gouvern, Moscou, 1830, sign. d1.

Type: Schuchert and Le Vene (Foss. Cat. I, pars. 42, 1929, pp. 40–41) cite as genolectotype “Chonetes sp. Fischer =C. variolata D'Orbigny 1842, as interpreted by De Koninck 1847.” Sherborn gives the following reference: “variolata Chonetes (Orb.), L. G. de Koninck, Rech. Anim. foss (1) post June, 1847, 206.”

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Chonetes maoria R. S. Allan, 1935.

1935.Chonetes maoria Allan, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 14 (April 30), pp. 13–14, pl. I, fig. 6.

Type locality: Reefton (Lower Devonian).

Type in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Chonetes nigricans R. S. Allan, 1935.

1935.Chonetes nigricans Allan, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 14, (April 30), p. 14, pl. I, figs. 7–8.

Type locality: Reefton (Lower Devonian).

Type in the New Zealand Geological Survey Collection.

Chonetes sp. cf. vishnu Salter, 1865.

1925.Chonetes sp. cf. vishnu Salter: J. Marwick, N.Z. Journ. Sci. & Techn., VII (6), pp. 362–3, text-figs. 2–5.

Locality: Clinton (Permian).

Note: The original reference is: Salter, J. W., 1865. Palaeontology of Niti, in the Northern Himalayas: being descriptions and figures of the palaeozoic and secondary fossils collected by Col. Richard Strachey. By J. W. Salter and H. P. Blandford, Calcutta, p. 54, pl. 5, figs. 12a, b.

Clavigera J. A. Thomson, 1913.

1913.Clavigera Thomson, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 1, pp. 49–50, (ex Hector M.S.).

1918.Hectoria C. T. Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3), (Nov. 30), pp. 233–5. Preoccupied.

1919.Clavigera Thomson, Geol. Mag., dec. vi, vol. vi (Sept.), pp. 411–12.

1927.Hectorina H. J. Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 57 (March 10), p. 533.

Type (by subsequent designation—Thomson 1919, p. 412) Clavigera bisulcata Thomson, 1913.

Note: Trechmann failed to designate the genotype of Hectoria. Thomson designated Hectoria cuneiformis Trechmann, 1918, =Clavigera cuneiformis Thomson, 1913. Hectorina Finlay has the same type as Hectoria Trechmann.

I do not consider that Clavigera Thomson should be rejected because of the prior use of Claviger by Preyssler, 1790 and Haldeman, 1842. Hectoria Trechmann is preoccupied by Hectoria Tepper, 1890.

Clavigera bisulcata J. A. Thomson, 1913.

1913.Clavigera bisulcata Thomson, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 1, p. 50, pl. I, fig. 1. (Name and figure) (ex Hector MS.).

1918.Hectoria bisulcata C. T. Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3), (Nov. 30), pp. 235–6, pl. XXV, figs. 1a-1b, (ex Hector MS.)—described as a new species.

1927.Clavigera bisulcata Thomson: O. Wilckens, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 12, pp. 30 and 31, pl. VI, figs. 6, 7, 8a-b.

Type locality: Locality 371. “Benmore sandstone, Benmore railway cutting, Southland (Rhaetic)”, McKay, 1878. Triassic.

Type in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Note: The type of H. bisulcata Trechmann, in the Trechmann Collection, is from the Rhaetic of Kawhia.

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Clavigera cuneiformis J. A. Thomson, 1913.

1913.Clavigera cuneiformis Thomson, N.Z. Geol Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 1, p. 50, pl. I, figs. 2, 2a (ex Hector MS.). (Name and figure.)

1918.Hectoria cuneiformis C. T. Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3) (Nov. 30), p. 237, pl. XXV, figs. 4a–4b.

Type locality: Taylor's Creek, Hokonui Hills, Southland (Lower Ammonite Bed). Jurassic (Lower Lias).

Type in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Clavigera gracilis Thomson, 1913, see Clavigera tumida Thomson, 1913.

Clavigeratumida Thomson, 1913.

1913.Clavigera tumida Thomson, N.Z. Geol Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 1, p. 50, pl. I, fig. 5 (name and figure) (ex Hector MS.).

1913.Clavigera gracilis Thomson, ibid, pl. I, fig. 3.

1918.Hectoria tumida C. T. Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3) (Nov. 30), pp. 236–7, pl. xxv, fig. 2; text-fig. 5 on p. 234. Described as a new species.

Type locality (for all three species) Loc. 371. Benmore railway cutting, Hokonui Hills (Rhaetic) Triassic.

Type in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Cryptorhynchia S. S. Buckman, 1914.

Gen. Jurass. Brach., 1914, p. 2; Palaeont. Indica, III (2) 1917, (July, 1918), pp. 66–7.

Type (by original designation) Rhynchonella pulcherrima Kitchen, 1897, Zur Kenntniss der jurass. Brachiop. von Kutch. Inaug. Dissert. 1897; Palaeont. Indica, ser. IX, vol. III (i) 1900, p. 52, pl. XI, figs. 1–9 and 16. Bathian, Jurassic.

Cryptorhynchia kawhiana C. T. Trechmann, 1923.

1923.Rhynchonella (Cryptorhynchia) kawhiana Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxix (3), (Sept. 22), pp. 283–284, pl. XVI, figs. 1–3.

Type locality: Totara Point, Kawhia (Bathonian-Oxfordian), Jurassic. Type in the Trechmann Collection.

Cymostrophia K. E. Caster, 1939.

Bull. Amer. Paleont., No. 83 (April 8), pp. 39–40.

Type (by original designation) Leptaena stephani Barrande, 1848.

Cymostrophia stephani (J. Barrande, 1848).

* 1848. Leptaena stephani Barrande, Naturw. Abhandl (Haidinger) II, p. 230.

1938.Stropheodonta stephani (Barr.): Shirley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., (Lond.), xciv (4), pp. 469–470, pl. XLI, figs. 11–12.

1942.Cymostrophia stephani (Barr.): Allan, Trans. R.S.N.Z., 72 (2), p. 146.

Locality: Baton River (Lower Devonian).

Cyrtina T. Davidson, 1859.

Mon. Brit. Foss. Brach. (Pal. Soc.) II (5) (2) (Nov.), pp. 66–7.

Type (by subsequent designation) Calceola heteroclita Defrance, 1824.

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Cyrtina heteroclita (M. J. L. Defrance, 1824).

* 1824. Calceola hetcroclita Defrance, Dict. Sci. Nat. XXXII, p. 306.

1932.Cyrtina hetcroclita (Defrance): Maillieux, Mem. Mus. roy. Hist. nat. bely., 52 pp. 55–9 (with synonymy).

1938.Cyrtina hetcroclita (Defrance): Shirley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), XCIV (4), p. 483, pl. XLIV, fig. 11.

Locality: Baton River (Lower Devonian).

Cyrtina trechmanni O. Wilckens. 1927.

1918.Spiriferina cf.austriaca Suess: C. T. Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3), pp. 224–5. pl. xxiv, fig. 5.

1927.Cyrtina trechmanni Wilckens, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 12, p. 18, pl. III, figs, 15a, b.

Type locality: It is not clear whether Wilckens named the material misidentified by Trechmann, or established a new species for material from Bed “D,” Wells Creek. As far as I can judge the former is probable. I, therefore, designate the original of Trechmann's pl. xxiv, fig. 5 as lectotype of C. trechmanni Wilckens. The type locality is Mount Potts, Canterbury (Kaihiku Series, Ladino-Carnic) Triassic. Lectotype in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Cyrtinopsis H. Scupin, 1896.

Neues Jahrb. f. Min., 1896 II, p. 247.

Type (by subsequent designation) Spirifer undosus Schnur, 1853, Palaeontogr., Bd. 3, Lief, 4–6, pp. 204–5, t. xxxv, figs. 1a-c. Devonian.

Cyrtinopsis perlamellosus (J. Hall, 1857).

* 1857. Spirifer perlamellosa Hall, 10th Ann. Rept. N. York State Cab. N.H., p. 57, figs. 1–2.

1938.Cyrtinopsis perlamellosus (Hall): Shirley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), XCIV (4), pp. 482–3, pl. XLIV, figs. 9–10.

1942.Cyrtinopsis perlamellosus (Hall): Gill, Proc. R.S. Vict., liv (n.s.) pt. I, pp. 42–3, pl. vi, figs. 6–7, (with synonymy).

Locality: Baton River (Lower Devonian).

Dielasma W. King, 1859.

* Proc. Dublin Univ. Bot. Zool. Assoc., I, p. 260.

Type: * Terebratulites elongatus E. v. Schlotheim, Denkschr. K. Ak. Wiss. Miinchen, VI, 1816–17 (1820), p. 27.

Dielasma cf. himalayana Bittner, 1899.

1918.Diclasma cf.himalayana Bittner: C. T. Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3), p. 217, n.f.

Locality: Caroline Cutting, Hokonui Hills (Ladino-Carnic) Triassic.

Note: The original reference is:Palaeont. Indica, ser. XV, Himal. Foss. III (2), 1899, p. 25, pl. V, figs. 1–8, 10, 11 (Diener). *1.

Dielasma zealandica C. T. Trechmann, 1918.

1918.Dielasma zealandica Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3), (Nov. 30), pp. 217–8, pl. xxiii, fig. 5.

1927.Dielasma zealandica Trechmann: Wilckens, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 12, pp. 8–9, pl. I, fig. 17; p. 19, pl. IV, figs. 3a-b.

Type locality: Caroline Cutting, Hokonui Hills (Ladino-Carnic). Triassic.

Type in the Trechmann Collection.

[Footnote] * 1 Diener (1920, p. 92) records that Bittner (Jahrb. Geol. Reichsanst. XLVIII, 1898, p. 691) named this species Dielasma tanguticum Bittner, and uses this instead of himalayana Bittner, 1899.

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Discina Lamarck,. 1819.

1819.Discina Lamarck, An. s. Vert. vi (1), p. 236.

1927.Discina Thomson, N.Z. Board Sci. & Art, Man. No. 7, pp. 133–4.

Type (by monotypy) Discina ostreoides Lamarck 1819, p, 237 =Crania striata Schumacher, 1817, Essai, p. 102, pl. 20, figs. 1a–f (Not of Defrance).

Discina kawhiana G. Boehm, 1911.

1911.Discina kawhiana Boehm, N.J. f. Min., Jahrg. 1911, Bd. I, pp. 6–7, taf. I, fig. 1.

Type locality: Te Puti Point. Tithonian (Jurassic).

Douvillina D. P. Oehlert, 1887.

In Fischer, Man. Conch., pp. 1282–3.

Type (by monotypy) Orthis dutertrii E. de Verneuil, Bull. Soc. géol. France, XI, 1840, p. 253, pl. 2, figs. 6a–c. Devonian.

Douvillina batonensis n.sp.

1938.Douvillina sp. J. Shirley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.) xciv (4), p. 469, pl. xli, fig. 10.

Type locality: Baton River (Lower Devonian).

Holotype: The original of Shirley's pl. XLI, fig. 10, specimen M330, in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Remarks: Shirley has described and figured the holotype; he also pointed out characters which distinguish the Baton River species from allied European forms.

Eatonia J. Hall, 1857.

10th Rep. New York State Cab. Nat. Hist., p. 90.

Type (by subsequent designation: Hall and Clarke, 1893), Atrypa medialis Vanuxem, 1842.

Eatonia cf. bithynica W. Paeckelmann and H. Sieverts, 1932.

1938.Eatonia bithynica Paeckelmann and Sieverts var.: J. Shirley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), xciv (4), pp. 473–4, pl. XLII, figs. 7–10.

Locality: Baton River (Lower Devonian).

Note: The specific reference is: * Abh. preuss. geol. Landesanst, N.F., 142, 1932, pp. 56–8, pl. I, fig. 12; pl. 2, figs. 21–22.

Eatonia parki R. S. Allan, 1935.

1935.Eatonia parki Allan, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 14 (April 30), p. 22 pl. II, fig. 11.

Locality: Reefton (Lower Devonian).

Holotype in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Eospirifer C. Schuchert, 1913.

In Zittel-Eastman, Text-book of Palacontology, vol. I, ed. 2, p. 411.

Type (by original designation) Spirifer radiatus J. de C. Sowerby, Min. Conch., Alph. Index, 1840, p. 9, Silurian (see J. K. S. St. Joseph—Geol Mag., LXXII, 1935, pp. 316–327, pls. xiv-xv).

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Eospirifer secans (J. Barrande, 1848).

* 1848. Spirifer secans Barrande, Naturw. Abhandl. (Haidinger) II, p. 168.

1938.Eospirifer secans (Barrande): Shirley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), xciv (4), pp. 478–9, pl. XLIV, figs. 1–2.

Locality: Baton River (Lower Devonian).

Eospirifer togatus (J. Barrande, 1848).

* 1848. Spirifer togatus Barrande, Naturw. Abhandl. (Haidinger) II, p. 167.

1938.Eospirifer togatus (Barrande): Shirley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), xciv (4), pp. 477–478, pl. XLIII, figs. 8–14 (with synonymy).

Locality: Baton River (Lower Devonian).

Fascicostella C. Schuchert and G. A. Cooper, 1931.

1931.Fascicostella Schuchert and Cooper, Amer. Journ. Sci., (5), xxii, (Sept.), p. 246.

1932.Fascicostella Schuchert and Cooper, Mem. Peabody Mus. N.H., IV (1), pp. 129–130.

Type (by original designation) Strophomenes gervilii Defrance, 1827. Devonian.

Fascicostella gervillei (M. J. L. Defrance, 1827).

1827.Strophomenes gervilii Defrance, Dict. sci. nat., 51, p. 152.

1938.Fascicostella gervillei (Defrance): Shirley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), xciv (4), pp. 466–67, pl. XLI, figs. 4–6 (with synonymy).

Locality: Baton River (Lower Devonian).

Halorella A. Bittner, 1884.

* Verh. geol. Reichsanst. Wien, 18, p. 107, footnote.

Type (by subsequent designation: Hall and Clarke, 1893).

* Terebratula amphitoma Bronn, 1832, Jahrb. f. Min., 1832, p. 162. Triassic.

Halorella zealandica C. T. Trechmann, 1918.

1918.Halorella zealandica Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3), (Nov. 30), pp. 216–217, pl. XXIII, figs. 1a–3.

Type locality: Caroline Cutting, Hokonui Hills, Kaihiku Series (Ladino-Carnic). Triassic.

Type in the Trechmann Collection.

Note: Wilckens (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 12, 1927, p. 8, pl. I, figs. 16a–b; p. 16, pl. III, figs. 4–10; p. 22 and p. 40), records various occurrences of Rhynchonella cf. zealandica (Trechmann).

Hectoria Trechmann, 1918, see Clavigera Thomson, 1913.

Hectorina Finlay, 1927, see Clavigera Thomson, 1913.

Hipparionyx L. Vanuxem, 1842.

* 1842. Hipparionyx Vanuxem, N.H. New York (Geol. 3 dist.), p. 124.

1892.Hipparionyx Hall and Clarke, Nat. Hist. N.Y., VI, Palaeont., VIII, (1), pp. 257–9.

Type (by subsequent designation: Hall and Clarke, 1892) Hipparionyx proximus Vanuxem, 1842. Lower Devonian.

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Hipparionyx minor J. M. Clarke, 1909.

* 1909. Hipparionyx minor Clarke, Mem. N.Y. State Mus., 9 (2), pp. 124–5, pl. 31, figs. 16–20.

1938.Hipparionyx minor Clarke: Shirley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), xciv (4), pp. 472–3, pl. XLII, figs. 1–6.

Locality: Baton River (Lower Devonian).

Hysterolites E. F. v. Schlotheim, 1820.

* Dic Petref., 1820, pp. 247–250.

Type: Hysterolites hystericus Schlotheim, 1820, p. 249.

Hysterolites cf. hystericus Schlotheim, 1820.

1935.Acrospirifer cf. hystericus (Schlotheim): Allan, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 14, p. 19, pl. II, figs. 4–5.

1942.Hysterolites cf. hystericus Schlotheim: Allan, Trans. R.S.N.Z., 72 (2), p. 147.

Locality: Reefton (Lower Devonian).

Note: For synonymy of this species see Allan, 1935, p. 19.

Hysterolites cf. subspeciosus (de Verneuil, 1850).

1938.Spirifer (Hysterolithes) cf.subspeciosus (de Verneuil).: Shirley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc (Lond.), XCIV (4), p. 480, pl. XLIV, fig. 3.

Locality: Baton River (Lower Devonian).

Note: The original reference is:Bull. Soc. géol. France (sér. 2) VII, 1850, p. 179 (Sherborn).

Kutchithyris S. S. Buckman, 1915.

Rec. Geol. Surv. India, XLV (1), 1915, p. 78; Palaeont. Indica, III (2), 1917 (1918), p. 113.

Type (by original designation) Terebratula acutiplicata Kitchen, 1897, Zur Kenntniss der Jurass. Brachiop. von Kutch. Inaug. Dissert.

1897; Palaeont. Indica, ser. IX, vol. III (1), 1900, p. 6, pl. I, figs. 1–7. Bathian, Jurassic.

Kutchithyris cf. acutiplicata (Kitchen, 1897).

1923.Terebratula (Kutchithyris) cf. acutiplicata Kitchen: C. T. Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxix (3), pp. 284–5, pl. XVI, figs. 5–7.

Locality: Totara Point, Kawhia (Bathonian-Oxfordian), Jurassic.

Leptobolus J. Hall, 1871.

* 24th Repl. N.Y. State Cab. N.H., p. 226, pl. 7, figs. 19–20.

Type (by subsequent designation—Hall and Clarke, 1892) Leptobolus lepis Hall, 1871. Ordovician. (Schuchert and Le Vene).

Leptobolus novaezelandiae F. Chapman, 1934.

1934.Leptobolus novaezelandiae Chapman, Trans. R.S.N.Z., 64 (2) (Sept.), pp. 115–116, pl. 11, figs. 1–4.

Locality: Morning Star Mine, Preservation Inlet.

Horizon: Zone of Adelograptus, Lancefieldian (Tremadocian).

Holotype in the Department of Geology, Otago University.

Leptocoelia J. Hall, 1859.

Nat. Hist. N. York, Palaeont., III, p. 449.

Type (by subsequent designation): Atrypa flabellites Conrad, 1841. Lower Devonian.

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Leptocoelia flabellites (Conrad, 1841).

1841.Atrypa flabcilites Conrad, 5th Ann. Rep. N.Y. Geol. Survey, p. 55.

1935.Leptocoelia flabellites (Conrad): Allan, N.Y. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 14, p. 21, pl. II, fig. 6 (with synonymy).

Locality: Reefton (Lower Devonian).

Leptostrophia J. Hall and J. M. Clarke, 1892.

Nat. Hist. N. York, Palaeont., VIII (1), p. 288.

Type (by subsequent designation) Stropheodonta magnifica Hall, 1857. Devonian.

Leptostrophia explanata (J. de C. Sowerby)” of Shirley 1938, see Rhytistrophia shirleyi Allan, 1942.

“Leptostrophia” reeftonensis R. S. Allan, 1935.

1935.Leptostrophia reeftonensis Allan, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 14 (April 30), pp. 12–13, pl. I, figs. 9–10.

Type locality: Reefton (Lower Devonian).

Type in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Lingulidiscina R. P. Whitfield, 1890.

Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., III (1), pp. 121–122—as Lingulodiscina.

Type (by original designation): Lingula exilis Hall, 1867.

Lingulidiscina ranfti R. S. Allan, 1935.

1935.Lingulidiscina ranfti Allan, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 14, (April 30), pp. 9–10, pl. II, fig. 8.

Locality: Reefton (Lower Devonian).

Holotype in the National Museum, Melbourne.

Martinia F. McCoy, 1844.

Garb. Foss. Ireland, 1844, pp. 128 and 139.

Type (on the basis of the “first species” rule) Spirifera decora J. Phillips, Geol. Yorkshire, II, 1836, p. 219 =Anomites glaber W. Martin, Petr. Derb., 1809, pl. 48.

Martinia subradiata G. B. Sowerby, I, 1844.

* 1844. Spirifera subradiata G. B. Sowerby, in C. R. Darwin, Geol. Obs. “Beagle,” II, p. 159. (Sherborn.)

1917.Martinia (Martiniopsis?) subradiata G. Sowerby: C. T. Trechmann, Geol. Mag., dec. VI, vol. IV, pp. 59–60, pl. V, fig. 3.

Locality: Junction of Wairoa and Roding Rivers, Nelson. Maitai Limestone (Permian).

Meganteris E. Suess, 1855.

1855.Meganteris Suess, Sitz. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien., Jahrg., 1855, pp. 51–65, pls. I-III.

Type (by monotypy) Terebratula archiaci Verneuil, 1850, Bull. Soc. geol. France, sér. 2, t. vii, pp. 175–6, pl. IV, figs. 2a-d. Devonian.

Meganteris neozelanica R. S. Allan, 1935.

1935.Meganteris neozelanica Allan, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 14 (April 30), pp. 23–24, pl. II, figs. 9–10; pl. III, figs. 3 and 5.

Type locality: Reefton (Lower Devonian).

Type in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Note: In a recent monograph of the Silurian and Devonian Terebratuloids P. E. Cloud, Jun. (Geol. Soc. Amer. Special Papers No. 38, 1942, pp. 66–67) has suggested that this species may belong to the genus Prionothyris, sub-family Eurythyrinae, family Centronellidae.

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Mentzelia Quenstedt, 1870.

Petref. Deutschl., II, p. 522.

Type: Spirifer medianus Quenstedt, 1851, Handb. Petref., p. 482 pl. 38, fig. 33 (=S. mentzeli Dunker, 1851) (Schuchert and Le Vene).

Mentzelia cf. ampla Bittner, 1890.

1918.Mentzelia cf. ampla Bittner: C. T. Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3), p. 228, pl. xxiii, fig. 9

Locality: North of Albatross Point, Kawhia (Rhaetic) Triassic

Note: The original reference is: Abhandl. Geol. Reichsanst., XIV, 1890, p. 165, taf. xli, figs. 10–11 (Diener).

Mentzelia kawhiana C. T. Trechmann, 1918.

1918.Mentzelia kawhiana Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3), (Nov. 30). p. 228, pl. xxiii, figs. 10a–10b.

Type locality: Cliff-section south of Kawhia Harbour (Rhaetic) Triassic.

Type in the Trechmann Collection.

Mentzeliopsis C. T. Trechmann, 1918.

Quart. Journ. Geol Soc. (Lond.), LXXIII (3) (Nov. 30), pp. 229–230. Type (by original designation) Mentzeliopsis spinosa Trechmann, 1918.

Mentzeliopsis horrida C. T. Trechmann, 1918.

1918.Mentzeliopsis, horrida, Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.) lxxiii (3), (Nov. 30), p. 230, pl. xxiii, figs. 17–18.

Type locality: Caroline Cutting, Hokonui Hills, Kaihiku Series (Ladino-Carnic). Triassic.

Type in the Trechmann Collection.

Mentzeliopsis spinosa C. T. Trechmann, 1918.

1918.Mentzeliopsis spinosa Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3) (Nov. 30), p. 230, pl. xxiii, figs. 11–16.

1927.Mentzeliopsis spinosa Trechmann: Wilckens, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 12, p. 34, pl. vii, figs. 12–19; p. 41, pl. ix, fig. 6.

Type locality: Caroline Cutting, Hokonui Hills, Kaihiku Series (Ladino-Carnic) Triassic.

Type in the Trechmann Collection.

Nucleospira J. Hall, 1859.

* 1859.Nucleospira Hall. 12th Rep. N. York State Cab. N.H., p. 24; Nat. Hist. N.Y., Palaeont., III, p. 219 (as new).

Type (by subsequent designation: Hall and Clarke 1893, p. 142) Spirifer ventricosa Hall, 1857. Lower Devonian.

Nucleospira cf. marginata Maurer, 1886.

1938.Nucleospira cf. marginata Maurer: Shirley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), XCIV (4), pp. 481–2, pl. XLIV, figs. 6–8.

Locality: Baton River (Lower Devonian).

* Note: The original reference is: Die Fauna des rechtsrheinischen Unterdevon, 1886, p. 19.

Proschizophoria cf. provulvaria (Maurer, 1893) see Schizophoria provulvaria (Maurer).

Psioidea J. A. Thomson, 1919.

Geol. Mag., dec. 6, vol. 6 (Sept.), p. 413 (ex Hector MS.).

Type (by original designation) Spiriferina suessi Winkler, 1859, var. australis Trechmann, 1918.

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Psioidea australis (C. T. Trechmann, 1918).

1918. Spiriferina suessi Winkler var. australis Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3) (Nov. 30), pp. 225–6, pl. XXIV, figs. 13a–14.

Type locality: Mount Heslington, Nelson (Carnic). Triassic. Holotype in the Trechmann Collection.

Rastelligera J. A. Thomson, 1913.

1913. Rastelligera Thomson, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 1, p. 50 (cx Hector MS.).

1918. Rastelligera Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3), p. 215.

1919. Rastelligera Thomson, Geol. Mag., dec. VI, vol. VI, pp. 412–413. Type (by monotypy) Rastelligera elongata Thomson. 1913.

Rastelligera elongata J. A. Thomson, 1913.

1913. Rastelligera elongata Thomson, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 1, p. 50, pl. II, fig. 8 (cx Hector MS.).

1918. Spiriferina diomedea C. T. Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3) (Nov. 30), pp. 222–3, pl. xxiv, figs. 1–2; text-fig. 3.

Type locality: The chirotype of R. elongata Thomson “is probably a specimen from Loc. 368 (Trigonia Beds, slopes of southern peak of Benmore, Hokonui Hills, Southland (Rhaetic)), collected by McKay in 1878.” (Thomson 1913, p. 50.)

Note: Trechmann did not indicate the holotype of his species. I designate the original of Pl. XXIV, Fig. 2, from Roaring Bay, Nugget Point (Rhaetic) as lectotype. It is in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Retzia W. King, 1850.

Mon. Perm. Foss. (Pal. Soc.), p. 137.

Type (by original designation) Terebratula adrieni Verneuil and Archiac, Bull. Soc. géol. France (sér. 2) II, 1845. pp. 471–2, pl. xiv. figs. 11a–d.

Retzia morganiana O. Wilckens, 1927.

1927. Retzia morganiana Wilckens, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 12, p. 7, pl. I, figs. 13a–b.

Locality: Wells Creek, Nelson (Carnic, Triassic).

Type in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Retzia novo-seelandica O. Wilckens, 1927.

1927. Retzia novo-seelandica Wilckens, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 12, pp. 6–7, pl. I, figs. 9–10.

Locality: Wells Creek, Nelson (Carnic, Triassic).

Type in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Retzia reticulata O. Wilckens, 1927.

1918. Retzia schwageri Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3), pp. 227–8, pl. XXIII, fig. 21 (not of Bittner, 1892).

1927. Retzia reticulata Wilckens, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 12, p. 7, pl. I, figs. 11–12.

Locality: Wells Creek, Nelson (Carnic, Triassic).

Type in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

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Retzia schwageri Bittner—Trechmann 1918, see Retzia reticulata Wilckens, 1927.

Rhynchonella G. Fischer, 1809.

* Notice Foss. Gouv. Moscou, p. 35.

Type: Rhynchonella loxia Fischer, 1809. Portlandian (Upper Volgian).

Rhynchonella (Cryptorhynchia) kawhiana Trechmann, 1923, see Cryptorhynchia.

“Rhynchonella” maorica O. Wilckens, 1927.

1927.Rhynchonella maorica Wilckens. N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 12, p. 23, pl. IV, figs. 10a, b.

Type locality: Bed “AA,” Shaw Bay, Nugget Point. (? Ladino-Carnic or Carnic). Triassic.

Type in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

“Rhynchonella” nuggetensis O. Wilckens, 1927.

1927.Rhynchonella nuggetensis Wilckens, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 12, p. 22–23, pl. IV, figs. 8–9.

Type locality: Bed “AA,” Shaw Bay, Nugget Point (? Ladino-Carnic or Carnic), Triassic.

Type in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

“Rhynchonella” cf. pleurodon (Phillips).

1917.Rhynchonella (? pugnax) cf. pleurodon (Phillips): C. T. Trechmann. Geol. Mag., dec. VI, vol. IV, p. 59, pl. V, figs. 6–8.

Locality: Martin's Sawmill. Wairoa Gorge (Permian).

Note: The original reference is: * Terebratula pleurodon Phillips Ill. Geol. Yorkshire, II. 1836, p. 222. pl. 12, figs. 25–30. T. pleurodon is a Camarotoechiq.

Rhytistrophia K. E. Caster, 1939.

Bull. Amer. Paleont., No. 83 (April 8), pp. 86–7.

Type (by original designation):Stropheodonta beckii Hall.

Rhytistrophia shirleyi R. S. Allan 1942.

1938.Leptostrophia explanata Shirley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), XCIV (4), p. 468, pl. XLI, figs. 7–9 (not of J. de C. Sowerby, 1842).

1942.Rhytistrophia shirleyi Allan, Trans. R.S.N.Z., 72 (2) (Sept.), p. 146.

Locality: Baton River (Lower Devonian).

Holotype in the Auckland University collection—the original of Shirley's pl. XLI, fig. 8.

Schizophoria W. King, 1850.

1850.Schizophoria King, Mon. Permian Foss. (Pal. Soc.), pp. 105–6.

1932.Schizophoria Schuchert and Cooper. Peabody Mus. N. H. Mem., 4 (1), pp. 143–4.

Type (by original designation):Anomites resupinatus Martin, 1809, Petref. Derb., t. 49, figs. 13–14.

Schizophoria allani J. Shirley, 1938.

1938.Schizophoria allani Shirley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), xciv (4) (Dec. 30), pp. 465–6, pl. XLI, figs. 1–3.

Locality: Baton River (Lower Devonian).

Holotype in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

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Schizophoria provulvaria (Maurer, 1893).

1893.Orthis provulvaria Maurer, Neues Jahrb. f. Min., 1893, (1), pp. 7–9, t. 3, figs. 1–4.

1904.Orthis (Schizophoria) provulvaria Maurer: Drevermann, Palaeonto graphica, L, pp. 267–69, t. 30, figs. 29–30; t. 31, figs. 11–19.

1935.Proschizophoria cf. provulvaria (Maurer): Allan, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 14, pp. 11–12, pl. III, figs. 4 and 7.

1938.Schizophoria provulvaria (Maurer): Shirley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), xciv (4), p. 465, pl. XL, figs. 10–13.

1942.Schizophoria cf. provulvaria (Maurer):Allan, Trans. R.S.N.Z., 72 (2), p. 147.

Localities: Reefton and Baton River (Lower Devonian).

Spirifer J. Sowerby, 1816.

Min. Conch., II, No. 21 (Feb.), pp. 41–42.

Type (fixed by International Zoological Congress—Nature, vol. 122, Dec. 8, 1928, p. 881). Anomites striatus Martin, 1809, Petref. Derb., tab. XXIII.

“Spirifer” bensoni R. S. Allan, 1935.

1935.“Spirifer” bensoni Allan. N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 14, (April 30), p. 20, pl. II, figs. 12–13.

Locality: Reefton (Lower Devonian?).

Holotype in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Spirifer cf. bisulcatus J. de C. Sowerby, 1825.

1917.Spirifer cf. bisulcatus Sowerby: C. T. Trechmann, Geol. Mag., dec. VI, vol. IV, p. 60, pl. V, figs. 1–2.

Locality: Martin's Sawmill, Wairoa Gorge (Permian).

Note: The original reference is: Min. Conch. V. 1825, p. 152 (Sherborn).

“Spirifer” chapmani R. S. Allan, 1935.

1935.“Spirifer” chapmani Allan, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 14 (April 30), p. 20, pl. II, fig. 7.

Locality: Reefton (Lower Devonian).

Holotype in the National Museum, Melbourne.

Spiriferina d'Orbigny, 1850.

* 1850. Spiriferina d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., 13, p. 334.

1929.Spiriferina Schuchert and Le Vene, Foss. Cat. I: Anim., pars. 42, p. 115.

Type (according to Schuchert and Le Vene). Spirifer walcotti Sowerby, 1823, Min. Conch., 4, pl. 377, figs. 1–2 =Terebratulites rostrata Schlotheim, 1822, Nach. zur Petref., pl. 16.

Spiriferina acutissima C. T. Trechmann, 1918.

1918.Spiriferina acutissima Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3) (Nov. 30), pp. 221–2, pl. xxiv, fig. 3.

Type locality: East side of Mount Heslington, Nelson (Noric?), Triassic.

Type in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Spiriferina cf. austriaca Suess” of Trechmann see Cyrtina trechmanni Wilckens, 1927.

Spiriferina (?) carolinae C. T. Trechmann, 1918.

1918.Spiriferina (?) carolinae Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3), (Nov. 30), pp. 226–7, pl. XXIII, figs. 19a–20.

Type locality: Caroline Cutting, Hokonui Hills, Kaihiku Beds (Ladino-Carnic) Triassic.

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Holotype in the Trechmann Collection.

Spiriferina diomedea C. T. Trechmann, 1918 =Rastelligera elongata Thomson, 1913.

Spiriferina fragilis (E. F. Schlotheim, 1813).

* 1813. Terebratulites fragilis Schlotheim, Tasch. Min. 1813, 104 (n. et f.).

1918.Spiriferina fragilis (Schlotheim):Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3), pp. 219–220, pl. XXIV, figs. 10–12.

1920.Sp[iriferina] fragilis (Schlotheim): Diener, Foss. Cat. I: Anim., pars. 10, pp. 46–7.

Locality: Caroline Cutting, Hokonui Hills, Kaihiku Beds (Ladino-Carnic) Triassic.

Spiriferina gypaetus C. T. Trechmann, 1918.

1918.Spiriferina gypaëtus Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxiii (3), (Nov. 30), p. 221, pl. xxiv, fig. 4.

Type locality: Slopes of South Peak (Benmore), Hokonui Hills (probably Noric) Triassic.

Type in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Spiriferina kaihikuana C. T. Trechmann, 1918.

1918.Spiriferina kaihikuana Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxiii (3), (Nov. 30), pp. 220–1, pl. XXIV, fig. 15.

1927.Spiriferina kaihikuana Trechmann: Wilckens, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 12, pp. 16–17, pl. III, figs. 11a–b; p. 23, pl. IV, figs. 14a–b, 15a–c.

Type locality: Eighty-eight Valley, Nelson. Kaihiku Beds (Ladino-Carnic). Triassic.

Type in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Spiriferina nelsonensis C. T. Trechmann, 1918.

1918.Spiriferina nelsonensis Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3) (Nov. 30), pp. 223–4, pl. XXIV, figs. 6–8.

1927.Spiriferina nelsonensis Trechmann: Wilckens, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 12, pp. 7–8, pl. I, figs. 15a–b.

Type locality: Western slopes of Mount Heslington, Nelson (Carnic). Triassic.

Type in the Trechmann Collection.

Spiriferina otamitensis C. T. Trechmann, 1918.

1918.Spiriferina otamitensis Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3), (Nov. 30), p. 225, pl. XXIV, figs. 9a–9b.

Type locality: Bed e, Otamita, Hokonui Hills (Carnic). Triassic. Type in the Trechmann Collection.

Spiriferina parki O. Wilckens, 1927.

1927.Spiriferina parki Wilckens, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 12, pp. 17–18, pl. III, figs. 12–14a-b; p. 23, pl. IV, fig. 11.

Type locality: Wilckens did not indicate either the type locality or the holotype of his species. I designate the original of pl. IV, fig. 11 as lectotype. It is from Bed AA, Nugget Point (? Ladino-Carnic). Triassic.

Lectotype in the N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Spiriferina suessi var. australis Trechmann, 1918, see Psioidea australis (Trechmann, 1918).

Spirigera D'Orbigny, 1847 see Athyris McCoy, 1844.

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Strophalosia W. King, 1846.

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XIV, 1844 (Nov.), p. 313 (no example cited); ibid., XVIII (July) 1846, p. 28.

Type: Orthis excavata Geinitz, 1842 =Strophalosia spinifera King, 1846.

Note: C. T. Trechmann (Geol. Mag., dec. VI, vol. IV, 1917, pp. 58–59, pl. V, figs. 4–5) has recorded Strophalosia sp. from the Maitai Limestone, Wairoa Gorge (Permian).

Stropheodonta stephani (Barrande, 1848) see Cymostrophia.

Terebratula O. F. Müller, 1776.

Zool. Dan. Prod., 1776, p. 249.

Type (by tautonomy) Anomia terebratula Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 703. Pliocene.

Terebratula (Kutchithyris) cf. acutiplicata Kitchen, 1900, see Kutchithyris.

“Terebratula” cf. hungarica Bittner, 1890.

1918.Terebratula cf. hungarica Bittner: C. T. Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3), p. 219, pl. XXIII, fig. 8.

Locality: Bed C, Otamita, Hokonui Hills (Carnic). Triassic.

Note: The original reference is: Abhandl. Geol. Reichsanst., XIV, 1890, p. 278, taf. XXVI, figs. 2–3 (Diener).

“Terebratula” pachydentata C. T. Trechmann, 1918.

1918.“Terebratula” pachydentata Trechmann, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3) (Nov. 30), pp. 218–219, pl. xxiii, fig. 6.

Type locality: Bed C, Otamita, Hokonui Hills (Carnic). Triassic.

Type in the Trechmann Collection.

Literature.

The items listed here are those in which brachiopods are described or recorded. Lists of brachiopods are seattered through the literature on the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic stratigraphy of the Dominion. Most of this may be found by using the bibliographies in the papers recorded below. I am grateful to Professor W. N. Benson for the loan of a reprint of Boehm's paper.

Allan, R. S., 1935. The Fauna of the Reefton Beds, (Devonian) New Zealand; with Notes on Lower Devonian Animal Communities in Relation to the Base of the Devonian System. N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull., no. 14, 72 pp., 5 pls.

——1942. The Origin of the Lower Devonian Fauna of Reefton, New Zealand: with Notes on Devonian Brachiopoda. Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 72 (2), pp. 144–147.

Boehm, G., 1911. Grenzschichten zwischen Jura und Kreide von Kawhia (Nordinsel Neuseelands). N.J.f.Min., Jahrg. 1911, Bd. I, pp. 1–24, pls. I–II. (Brachiopodá, pp. 6–7).

Chapman, F., 1934. On Some Brachiopods from the Ordovician of Preservation Inlet, New Zealand. Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 64 (2) (Sept.), pp. 115–116, pl. 11.

Finlay, H. J., 1927. New Specific Names for Austral Mollusca. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 57, (March 10), pp. 488–533. (Brachiopoda, pp. 532–533).

Hector, J., 1879. On the Fossil Brachiopoda of New Zealand. (Abstract.) Proc. N.Z. Inst., XI, pp. 537–539. (Introduces new generic names but without mentioning species.)

Marwick, J., 1925. Upper Palaeozoic (Permian) Fossils at Clinton (with a description of the locality by M. Ongley). N.Z. Journ. Sci. & Techn., VII (6), (May), pp. 362–4.

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Shirley, J., 1938. The Fauna of the Baton River Beds (Devonian), New Zealand. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), XCIV (4) (Dec. 30), pp. 459–506, pls. XL-XLIV.

Thomson, J. A., 1913. Materials for the Palaeontology of New Zealand. N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. no. 1, 104 pp., 6 pls.

——1919. Brachiopod Nomenclature: Clavigera, Hectoria, Rastelligera, and Psioidea. Geol. Mag. dec. VI, vol. vi (Sept.), pp. 411–413.

Trechmann, C. T., 1917. The Age of the Maitai Series of New Zealand. Geol. Mag., dec. VI, vol. iv (Feb.), pp. 53–64, pls. 4–5. (Brachiopoda, pp. 58–60).

——1918. The Trias of New Zealand. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (Lond.), lxxiii (3) (Nov. 30), pp. 165–246, pls. xvii-xvv. (Brachiopoda, pp. 213–237.)

——1923. The Jurassic Rocks of New Zealand. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (London), lxxix (3) (Sept. 22), pp. 246–312, pls. xii-xviii. (Brachiopoda, pp. 281–286).

Wilckens, O., 1927. Contributions to the Palaeontology of the New Zealand Trias. N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 12, 65 pp., 10 pls.

Zittel, K. A., 1864. Fossile Mollusken und Echinodermen aus Neu-Seeland. Novara-Expedition, Geol. Theil. 1 Bd. 2 Abth. Paläont. von Neu-Sceland, pp. 17–68, taf. vi–xv. (Triassic Brachiopoda by E. Suess, pp. 28–9).