Notes and Synonymy on Some Generic Names of the Collembola.
[Read before the Wellington Branch, 25th: October, 1944; received by the Editor, 26th October, 1944; issued separately, June, 1945.]
Recently F. Bonet [Ciencia III, (2), pp. 36–59] has published an account of several cases of synonymy which he has discovered among certain groups of the Collembola. This has prompted me to bring forward, for the information of other workers, several further cases of synonymy among the genera of Collembola that have come to my notice during some recent investigations on the Order. I also take this opportunity to propose a new genus Quatacanthella for one of my earlier species, and to raise the status of the subgenus Ballstrura Börner.
Sub-order Arthropleona Börner.
Family Achorutine Börner.
Sub-family Achorutinae Börner.
Genus Beckerellodes noV.
1912. Beckerella Axclson.
Previous to its use by Axelson, the name Beckerella had been used by Enderlein in 1911 for a genus in the Diptera (Zool. Anz., 38, p. 122). This usage takes priority over that of Axelson, and the name Beckerella Alexson falls as a primary synonym, in place of which I propose the name Beckerellodes for which the Genotype is: Beckerellodes (Beckerella) incrmis (Tttllberg).
Sub-family Neanurinae Börner.
Tribe Pseuddachorutini Börner.
Genus Quatacanthella nov.
I am proposing this new genus for the reception of the species previously described by me as Polyacanthella proprieta [Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 70, (4), p. 296], which I am convinced cannot be included in the genus Polyacanlhella. Quatacanthella is characterised by having Abd. VI almost enclosed by Abd. V; four minute spines, no larger than cuticular granules, on Abds. IV and V: there being one pair to each side of Abd. VI, with one spine on Abd. IV and one on Abd. V. Ocelli eight to each side. Post-antennal organ with seven peripheral lobes. Empodial appendage and tenent hairs absent. Furcula absent.
Genotype: Qualacanlhclla (Polyacanthella) proprieta Salmon, 1941.
Family Isotomidae Schaeffer.
Sub-family Isotominae Schaeffer.
Genus Balljstrura (Börner, 1906).
1906 Ballistrura Börner (subgenus.of Proisoloma Börner).
I propose here that the subgenus Ballistrura henceforth be regarded as a full genus. It was erected by Börner in 1906 (Mitt.
naturh. Mus. Hamburg, 23, p. 172) as a subgeims of Proisotoma for those species of the latter genus in which the dentes were neither anuulated nor corrugated. Genotype: Ballistrura schötti (Dalle Torre).
One species of Ballistrura (B. aqutalata Salm.) is known from New Zealand, several are known from Europe and America, and Yossii recently has described several species of the genus from Japan.
Genus Rhodanella nov.
1934 Rhodesia, Womersley.
Womersley erected the genus Rhodesia for the species Vertagopusminos Denis after this species was found by him in a collection of Collembola from South Africa (Trans. Roy. Soc. Sth. Austr., 58, p. 132), but the name Rhodesia had then been used previously, once by Warren in 1905 for a genus in the Lepidoptera (Novit. zool., 12, p. 386), and again by Distant, in 1916, for a genus in the Hemiptera (Ann. Sth. Afr. Mus., 10, p. 41). The name Rhodesia, therefore, falls as a primary synonym, so I propose the name Rhodanclla in its place. Genotype: Rhodanella (Vcrtagopus) minos Denis.
Family Tomoceridae Schaeffer.
Sub-family Tomocerinae Börner.
Tribe Paratomocerini nov.
The sub-family Paratomocerinae was erected in 1938 by I. Tarsia in Curia to receive a single genus and species Paratomocerus pierantonii Tarsia in Curia [Ann. Mus. Zool. Univ. Napoli, 7, (6), p. 1]. There is no doubt that the species is unique, and that it required the erection of a new genus for its reception, but I do not think that the erection of a new sub-family was justified. The formation of a new tribe was all that was necessary. This tribe, the Paratomocerini, falls comfortably into the family Tomoceridae. In relation ship the tribe Tomocerini is intermediate between the Novacerini and the Paratomocerini.
Family Mydoniidae nov.
Sub-family Mydoniinae nov.
Genus Mydonius Gistel, 1848.
1861 Entomobrya Rondani.
The name Entomobrya was proposed in 1861 by Rondani (Dipterol. ital. p. 40) for those species of Collembola placed previously in the Genus Deyeeria Nicolet because the name Degeeria had previously been used by Meigen in 1838 for a genus in the Diptera. (Syst. Beschr. Zweifl, Insekt., 7, p. 249.) For the same reasons, however, in 1838 Gistel (Nat. Thierr., IX) had proposed the name Mydonius for those species of Collembola included under Degeeria of Nicolet. According to the law of priority, the name Mydonius Gistel must take precedence over Entomobrya Rondani, and the necessary adjustments made in Collembolan literature.
Genus Propesineuda nov.
1935 Parasinella Carpenter.
The name Parasinella was first used for a genus of Collembola in 1934 by Bonet (Arch. Zool. Exp. gén., Paris, 76, p. 365) when he erected the sub-genus Parasinella for the species P. cavernarum
(Packard). Bonet's use of the name takes priority over that of Carpenter, and I propose the new name Propesinella for Parasinella Carpenter (Bull. B.P. Bishop Mus. 113, p. 138) of which the Genotype is: Propesinella (Parasinella) adamsoni (Carpenter).
The genera Ptenura Templeton, 1842; and SEIRA Lubbock, 1869.
Considerable confusion appears to have arisen amongst workers on the Collembola regarding the true identities of these two genera. The genus Ptenura was erected in 1842 by Templeton for several species previously included in the genus Podura. Templeton included in Ptenura his species nitida, nigromaculata and albocincta together with P. grisea Fabr. The genus Seira (often mis-spelt Sira by later authors) was erected by Lubbock in 1869 for the species Degeeria domestica of Nicolet and a new species, S. buskii. Later Lubbock added a third species, S. nigromaculata, and it was this species that Börner confused with P. nigromaculata of Templeton when he stated that Seira was a synonym of Ptenura (Das System der Collembolen, Mitt. Naturf. Mus., Hamburg, 23, p. 157). The species P. nigromaculata Templeton and S. nigromaculata Lubbock are not the same thing. Börner could not have studied Templeton's description of P. nigromaculata very closely or he would not have made this statement. Börner's error herein was first pointed out by Axelson (Die Apterygotenfauna Finlands, 1907–12, p. 215), but this appears to have been overlooked by subsequent authors. From a study of his description and figures of the species P. nigromaculata Temp., it seems almost certain that Templeton had before him, when he made this description, a species of what is now known as Mydonius. This is further borne out by the fact that Lubbock, in his monograph on the Order (Ray Society, 1873), placed P. nigromaculata Temp, in the genus Degeeria as a synonym of D. annulata Fabr. This issue is, however, further complicated by the fact that Templeton did not designate as the type of the genus Ptenura any particular species of the four he named. Of the other three species named by Templeton, albocincta is also probably a Mydonius, grisea an Isotoma and nitida belongs to the genus Heteromurus (Templetonia of Lubbock). The only possible way of fixing a type for the genus Ptenura is to take the first species mentioned in order of page priority, which, in this case, happens to be the species P. nitida. Accordingly the genus Heteromurus Wankel becomes a synonym of Ptenura Templeton, 1842, and the Genotype of the genus Ptenura must be Ptenura nitida Temp.
Turning to the genus Seira Lubbock, this was read before the Linnean Society of London in 1869, but it did not appear in print until the Transactions of the Society for that year were published in 1871. Here, on page 277, in his opening remarks, Lubbock expressly states that Nicolet's species Degeeria domestica forms the type of his new genus Seira: to quote—-“In placing on record the existence of Nicolet's Degeeria domestica as a British species…. I cannot regard it as belonging to the genus Degeeria, but rather as constituting the type of a separate genus of much interest as …” On page 279 of the same work the genus Seira is described and includes Seira domestica Nicolet and Seira buskii n.sp. In the year 1893 Schött split tip the
genus Seira forming Pseudosira for those species with a falciform mucro and scaled dens, which definition included the species S. domestica Nic. However, as Lubbock had expressly stated that the species S. domestica formed the type of his genus Seira the name Pseudosira must fall as a primary synonym of Seira. Schött should have proposed his new name for these forms like nigromaculata and buskii with a bidentate mucro and scaleless dens; but Schött did not do this and, therefore, the name Willowsia proposed by Shoebotham in 1917 [Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), 19, p. 431] must stand for these latter forms. The Genotype of the genus Willowsia is Willowsia (Seira) nigromaculata (Lubbock).
This synonymy of the genus Pseudosira was pointed out by J. W. Shoebotham when he erected the genus Wilowsia in 1917, but it has apparently been overlooked by later authors. Denis (Bull. Soc. Ent. France, 1923, p. 54) recognised the genus Willowsia and in the same paper stated that he considered Seira trouessarti Moniez as identical with Seira domestica (Nic.) and published a full description of Seira domestica taken from the type specimens of S. trouessarti. In this description he states that Ant. IV is annulated; but, as Lubbock expressly stated in his description of the genus Seira, of which domestica is the type, that the antennae were not annulated, the species S. trouessarti Moniez cannot be the same as S. domestica (Nic.), Lubb. S. trouessarti is properly a species of the genus Lepidocyrtinus and there seems no doubt that the species referred to as Lepidocyrtinus domesticus (Nicolet) by more recent workers is Lepidocyrtinus trouessarti (Moniez). In his Monograph (1873) Lubbock figures the species Seira domestica from specimens apparently captured in England by a Mr. McIntyre. The antennae in these figures are not annulated.
The following synonymy should, therefore, be recognised in connection with these genera:—
Genus Seira Lubbock 1869.
1872 Sira Tullberg.
1893 Pseudosira Schott.
Genus Ptenura Templeton 1842.
1801 Heteromurus Wankel.
1802 Templetonia Lubbock.
* 1942 Propemesira Salmon.
Sub-family Paronellinae Börner.
Genus Phorophysa nov.
1925 Microphysa Handschin.
The name Microphysa was preoccupied in the Mollusca having been used by Alpers (Martens Helic., ed. 2) in 1860. Its use by Handschin in the Collembola (Treubia, 6, p. 257) cannot be upheld, and I propose the name Phorophysa in its place. The Genotype of the genus Phorophysa must be Phorophysa (Microphysa) vestita Handschin.
[Footnote] * In a recent letter to me F. Bonet suggested that my Propemesira duo-oculata might be the cosmopolitan P. nitida. Re-examination of my material shows this to be correct, the fifth antennal segment on my material being somewhat obscured through the antennae sinking into the top of the head, and my genus Propemesira becomes, therefore, a synonym of Ptenura.