New and Critical Species of New Zealand Mosses.
[Received by the Editor, March 1, 1945; issued separately, September, 1945.]
In the Journal of Botany, August, 1933, the late H. N. Dixon and the writer published, under the title “New and Rare Species of New Zealand Mosses,” a supplement to his “Studies in the Bryology of New Zealand” (N.Z. Inst. Bull. No. 3). For some years prior to his death we had intended to issue a second supplement containing descriptions of new species and other matters of interest. In the following list an attempt has been made to give effect to this intention. The diagnoses have been prepared by myself, with the exception of that of Macromitrium subfragile which, with its accompanying note, is given as drawn up by Mr. Dixon. The specific names are of his choosing, and the notes on the new species are mostly prepared from his reports. It is to be understood that where in the list the systematic or taxonomic status of a moss is altered, the change, except where otherwise indicated, has been suggested or approved by Mr. Dixon either in our correspondence or in his published writings. As in the first supplement, the characters which are intended to be emphasised are printed in italics. The types of the new species and varieties should be considered as those in my herbarium, with the exception of the above-mentioned species, which should be treated as in Herb. H. N. Dixon at the British Museum. The collector's number, when given, follows his name, and my herbarium number is placed at the end of the reference.
Archidium elatum Dix. & Sainsb. sp. nov.
Rupestre. Perrobustum; caespitosum, caespitibus densis, late extensis, fulvis. Caulis 1 cm. vel ultra altus, simplex aut parce ramosus, laxiuscule foliosus. Folia 1.50–1.75 mm. longa, e basi latiuscula sensim lanceolato-subulata, concava, integerrima vel apicem versus indistincte crenulata, marginibus planis, raro anguste recurvis. Costa validiuscula, apud basin usque ad 100 μ lata, summo apice soluta. Cellulae rhomboideo-oblongae, 30–55 μ longae et 9–11 μ latae, parietibus firmis; basilares per totam latitudinem folii quadratae vel breviter rectangulares. Cetera ignota.
Hab. On coastal rocks, Ahipara, North Auckland; coll. H. B. Matthews (335), January, 1931, No. 961.
Probably the most robust species of the genus. The foliation is rather lax and even, not markedly comose, the leaves erecto-patent above and more widely spreading below. A well-marked area of subquadrate cells occupies the leaf base and contrasts with the longer cells of the lamina. The nerve is wide below and well defined. This is the first record of the genus for New Zealand.
* In conformity with the rules as to articles in the Transactions specific names have throughout been decapitalized.
Bruchia minutissima Dix. & Sainsb. sp. nov. (§ Sporledera).
Minutissima. Plantae tantum usque ad 2 mm., plerumque multo breviores. Folia comalia usque ad 1.4 mm. longa, e basi anguste ovata sensim lineari-subulata, apice vix angustato, subobtuso, denticulato, marginibus planis, apicem versus obsolete denticulatis. Folia inferiora breviora, latiora. Costa infra carens, superne tenuissima, subulam implens. Cellulae 45–80 μ longae, 12–18 μ latae, irregulariter oblongae vel rhomboideae vel rhomboideo-hexagonae, tenerae, chloro-phyllosae. Seta crassa, circa 180 μ longa. Theca circa .5 mm. longa, subglobosa, obtuse conica; exothecii cellulae irregulariter hexa-gonae, isodiametricae, parietibus tenuibus. Calyptra mitriformis, superiorem partem thecae contecta. Spori 65–100 μ Dioica?
Hab. Old track, Kaingaroa State Forest Plantation, Rotorua district; coll. K. W. Allison (605), 21/5/1938, No. 923, type. Same collector and locality, 16/7/1938, No. 952.
Possibly the smallest of all known mosses! The upper leaves, both wet and dry, are somewhat spreading, and this exposes to view the almost sessile capsule which they greatly overtop. They are gradually narrowed from an ovate base to a linear subula, scarcely narrowed and subobtuse at the apex, and serrulate there and for some distance down the margins, usually very faintly. The leaf margin is quite plane. The nerve is extremely sporadic and difficult to make out, so much so that Mr. Dixon finally concluded that the opacity of the subula is due to chlorophyll. I am satisfied, however, that the cell layer there is bistratose and forms at any rate a rudimentary nerve. The cells are rhomboid-hexagonal or irregularly rectangular, chlorophyllose and thin-walled, not at all incrassate. The seta is short and thick, the capsule subglobose and bluntly conical with isodiametrical thin-walled outer cells. The campanulate calyptra, crenulate at the base by the projection of large hyaline cells, covers the conical apex of the capsule. Mr. Dixon found the spores to measure 65–70 μ, but I have seen some, doubtless riper, that attain fully 100 μ. The inflorescence is doubtful because, although male flowers, with antheridia, were found near the fruit, it is uncertain whether or not they are separate plants. Possibly the inflorescence is rhizautoicous. Difficulty over the systematic position was caused by the plant's possible identity with the Australian B. whiteleggii C. M., of which no specimen was available in England for comparison, but Mr. Dixon was eventually satisfied that the New Zealand species is distinct.
Ditrichum falcifolium Bart. & Dix.
This species, founded on material collected by Berggren at Kelly's Hill, Westland, appears to be inseparable from Dicranum auckland-icum Dix. The latter is a troublesome plant, having the alar cells sometimes so greatly reduced as to bring it near Ditrichum, and with the fruit also tending in that direction. I have, however, a fruiting plant from the original gathering of D. falcifolium which agrees completely with authentic specimens of the Dicranum from the same district, and there seems to be no doubt that the reduction should be made.
Dicranella vaginata (Hook.) Card. var. nov. longifolia Dix. & Sainsb.
A forma typica differt subula folii multo longiore, attenuata, filiformi.
Hab. Forest near Fox Glacier, Westland; coll. Mrs. Knight, April, 1940; com. E. A. Hodgson (728). No. 964.
In the Studies (p. 65) this species is treated as being identical vegetatively with D. clathrata H. f. and W., but when reporting on Mrs. Knight's plant, which was not fruiting, Dixon mentioned that his opinion had altered, and that D. vaginata is separable, apart from the habit and leaf arrangement, by the basal cells being much narrower than in the allied species. In the new variety the leaf is narrowed to a long flexuose filiform subula, slightly denticulate at the apex and occupied almost entirely by the nerve.
Dicranoweisia spenceri Dix. & Sainsb. sp. nov.
Corticola. D. antarcticae (C. M.) Par. similis. Differt cellulis alaribus paucis, paullo notatis; sed praecipue characteris sporophyti-bus. Folia perichaetialia perlata, obtusa, raptim in acumen cuspidatum angustata. Seta usque ad 1 cm. longa, flavida, tenuis. Operculum longe subulato-rostratum. Theca usque ad 1.3 mm. longa, anguste ovata vel oblonga, pallida, laevis, leptodermica, orificio rubro, stomatis apud basin praedita. Annulus bene evolutus. Exothecii cellulae irregulariter oblongae, parietibus tenuibus, sinuolatis. Peris-tomium ad orem situm. Peristomii dentes lanceolato-subulati, apud basin connati, leniter trabeculati, inferne flavidi, inde per majorem partem longitudinis in crura duo pallida divisi, fere ubique dense oblique striolati, superne minute papillosi. Spori circa 22 μ, granu-losi. Autoica. Flora masculina sub perichaetio sita.
Hab. Bark of scrub and small trees, Waihohonu, Mount Rua-pehu; coll. G. O. K. S., 24/2/1942, No. 975, type. Tree stump, Mount Cassidy track, Arthur's Pass, Canterbury; coll. W. Martin (109), January, 1944.
There are no vegetative characters, other than the weakly developed alar cells, to separate this from small forms of D. antartica, but the fruiting characters are cogent. The perichaetial bracts, obtuse and bluntly cuspidate, contrast with those in that species where they are gradually tapered. Annulus and stomata are present here, but absent there, and the peristome teeth, instead of being entire, coarsely papillose and inserted well below the capsule mouth as they are in D. antarctica, are bifid throughout the greater part of their length, densely and obliquely striolate, finely papillose above, and inserted practically on the rim. The exothecium cells are irregularly oblong or quadrate, with thin sinuous walls. The Arthur's Pass plant has only immature fruit, but can probably be safely referred here. The species is named after my friend, Mr. H. M. Spencer, a companion on many collecting expeditions. It is a widely distributed and quite common corticolous moss on Mount Ruapehu. Mr. Dixon reported that the fruiting characters separate it satisfactorily from the numerous antarctic and subantarctic species that have been published.
Dicranum mackayi Broth. & Dix.
Collections of this species and of Dicranoweisia antarctica (C. M.) Par. made by me in recent years on the Pinnacles Ridge of Mount Ruapehu have raised a strong suspicion that they are inseparable. In that case, D. mackayi would have to be dropped. The gatherings in question (Nos. 970, 976–9) show the dwarf habit and short seta—sometimes so reduced that the capsule is completely immersed—of the Dicranum, but structurally there does not appear to be anything to separate them from the other plant, and in No. 979 there is a distinct link. The difficulty is that the Dicranoweisia usually grows in exposed positions similar to those favoured by the Dicranum, and yet does not adopt the short dense habit of the latter. Whatever the cause may be, however, I think that only one species is involved, though the difference in appearance is sometimes so marked that, as Mr. Dixon observed, it is hard to feel convinced that they are the same.
Campylopus clavatus (R.Br.) H. f & W.
There is some uncertainty as to what New Zealand moss should be referred here. Although it is probable that Thysanoniitrium leptodus (Mont.) Dix. is the same thing, there is a possibility that Campylopus arboricola Card. & Dix. is involved. Assuming that the type of R. Brown's Dicranum clavatum (from Dusky Sound) in Schwaegrichen's Herbarium is barren, which apparently is the case, then a thorough examination would be required to settle the question. All the fruiting plants that I have seen from New Zealand museums would have to be referred to the Thysanoniitrium in the event of Campylopus arboricola being identical with R. Brown's species, and consequently having to fall into the synonymy of it. This is unlikely, because what is generally known as Campylopus clavatus is one of the commonest New Zealand mosses, while C. arboricola is quite rare. Moreover, from an account of the Dusky Sound plant the vegetative characters appear to be rather those of the former. The matter, however, cannot be considered as free from doubt. It should be mentioned that, according to some leading authorities, Thysano-mitrium should not now be treated as generically distinct from Campylopus, and that the peristome characters, though well marked in T. leptodus, grade into those of the other genus in species from other regions.
Hymenostylium curvirostre (Ehrh.) Lindb.
This species must be deleted from the New Zealand flora, as Mr. Dixon agreed that the plant referred to in the Studies (p. 117) is Anoectangium bellii Broth.
Triquetrella curvifolia Dix. & Sainsb.
This distinct species, of which only one finding is recorded (E. A. Hodgson, Havelock North, Hawke's Bay), was recently sent to me by Mr. F. Robbins, of Castlemaine, Victoria (No. 999 Herb. G. O. K. S.), where it was collected by him at Granite Wall, Barker's Creek, in April, 1943. It agrees quite well with the New Zealand plant.
Pottia zealandioides Dix. & Sainsb. sp. nov.
P. zealandiae (R. Br. ter.) Par. proxima et similis; differt foliis longioribus, angustioribus, magis acuminatis; theca breviore (deoper-culata circa .75 mm. longa), orificio lato, sporis 18–28 μ aculeate papillosis, haud tuberosis. Peristomium nullum, vel raro valde inchoatum.
Hab. On bare soil beside old track through grass, Cement Works, Warkworth, North Auckland; coll. L. B. Moore (636) 3/6/1934. No. 773.
I have followed Mr. Dixon in treating this plant as nearest to P. zealandiae, and so far as New Zealand affinities are concerned, this is no doubt correct. If, though, the European species are compared, then I think that P. minutula Fuernr. must be considered the closest relation. In that species, as here, the spores are bristly papillose instead of coarsely tuberculate as in P. zealandiae, and the capsule is shorter and, when deoperculate, with a wider mouth. I have found only occasional traces of a rudimentary peristome, the great majority of the plants being quite gymnostomous.
Tortula flavinervis Dix.
It is surprising that Mr. F. Robbins should have sent me material of this species from Castlemaine, Victoria, at the same time as he sent Triquetrella curvifolia, and thus at one blow deprived two well-marked New Zealand species of their endemic status. Until the mosses of Australia have been far more thoroughly investigated than at present the claims of many New Zealand endemics can only be considered as provisional. Mr. Robbins's specimen (No. 998 in Herb. G. O. K. S.) is remarkable for the extraordinary length of the arista, and has other characters which probably give it varietal rank. Curiously enough I collected recently at Tarawera (Napier-Taupo Road) a plant with a strikingly long arista, not much shorter than that of the Victorian moss.
Grimmia asperitricha Dix. & Sainsb. sp. nov.
§ Gasterogrimmia. Caepites compactae. Caulis usque ad 1 cm. longus, simplex vel parce ramosus, haud tomentosus. Folia circa 1.75 mm. longa, sicca habitu varia, nunc conferte erecto-appressa, nunc laxiuscule erecto-patentia, madida erecto-patula, ovato-lanceolata, sensim acuminata, concavo-carinata, apice hyalina, pilifera, pilo elongato, hyalino, spinulose denticulato vel fere laevi. Margines integri, plani vel raro inferne uno latere leniter recurvato, superne interdum bistratosi. Costa validiuscula, ad basin circa 45 μ lata, profunde carinala, indistincte in pilum excurrente. Cellulae super-iores extra partem hyalinam apicis isodiametricales, 7–9 μ, obscurae, incrassatae, haud vel vix sinuosae; inferiores breviter rectangulares, 14–16 μ longae. Folia perichaetialia multo majora, circa 3 mm. longa. Seta brevis, superne leniter curvata. Theca immersa vel breviter exserta, deoperculata usque ad 1 mm. longa, oblonga vel ovato-oblonga, pallide fusca, laevis, erecta, ad basin uno latere leniter inflato, orificio lato. Operculum brevirostratum aut obtuse conicum. Peri-stomii dentes lanceolati, flavidi aut aurantiaci, integri aut superne rimosi vel perforati, dorsaliter plus minusque papillosi, trabeculati.
Spori laeves, pallidi, 6–8 μ. Calyptra haud visa. Inflorescentia incerta.
Hab. On rock near Hermitage, Mount Cook; coll. G. O. K. S. 29/1/1934, No. 573. On rock, De la Běche, Tasman Glacier; coll. G. O. K. S. 20/1/1934, No. 756. On rock Malte Brun, Tasman Glacier; coll; G. O. K. S. 22/1/1934, Nos. 757, 771, 772. On rock, Pinnacles Ridge, Mount Ruapehu; coll. G. O. K. S. January, 1930, No. 799.
This was a troublesome plant, due to the range of variation in the shape and size of the capsule and the extent of its immersion in the perichaetium. The hair-point, too, varies greatly in length and roughness, being sometimes markedly spinulose and prolonged to more than twice the length of the leaf, and at others being very short and almost smooth. In the Mount Cook district it forms dark brown patches with silvery tops due to the hair-point usually occupying part of the leaf apex, but where the pilum is reduced, as in the Mount Ruapehu plant, the appearance is correspondingly duller. The leaf is narrow, resembling in shape that of G. trichophylla, the upper cells isodiametrical, obscure and hardly ever sinuose, the lower shortly rectangular, as in G. pulvinata. The capsule in the Tasman Glacier specimens is often entirely immersed, but normally it is emergent or somewhat exserted. It is quite smooth, erect or nearly so, and is slightly but constantly inflated on one side at the base. The operculum may be shortly and obliquely rostellate or bluntly obtuse. The peristone teeth are entire or irregularly cracked or perforated above. The only male flower found was on a fertile stem, but the inflorescence can hardly be considered as certain. It is given as autoicous for Gasterogrimmia. The Ruapehu plant, besides having the hair-point greatly reduced, is of laxer habit with the leaves less erect. In view of the variation shown, due no doubt partly at any rate to environment, I have not considered it advisable to make any particular gathering the type.
Grimmia inaequalis Dix. & Sainsb. sp. nov.
§ Gasterogrimmia. G. argenteae R.Br. ter. affinis, sed bene distincta foliis multo longioribus atque angustioribus, linearibus, costa validiore, pilo vix denticulato, cellulis inferne linearibus. Folia perichaetia multo latiora. Seta perbrevis, curvata. Theca omnino immersa, parva, laevis, subglobosa, ad basin uno latere valde inflato, orificio lato. Exothecii cellulae perincrassatae, lumene anguste. Peristomii dentes aurantiaci, lanceolati, integri, trabeculati, dorsaliter papillosi. Spori circa 9 μ. Cetera ignota.
Hab. On rock, Mount Watkin, near Waikouaiti, Otago, ca. 1500 feet; coll. Simpson and Thomson, 30/11/1935, No. 823, type. Same locality and collectors, 13/7/1935, No. 811.
A well-marked species, having little in common with G. argentea except the completely immersed and almost sessile capsule, subrotund wide-mouthed and greatly swollen on one side at the base. The stems are 1 cm. and upwards in length, simple or branched, and forming hoary tufts. The leaves 2 mm. or more long, erect and appressed when dry, linear from a somewhat widened and rather
long base, shortly acuminate, concave but not carinate, with erect entire margins, sometimes bistratose above. Nerve rather strong (circa 50 μ. at base) clearly excurrent into the hair-point and projecting dorsally. Upper cells 7–9 μ, isodiametrical and very incrassate, merging lower down into a short area of much longer and less incrassate cells with sinuose and often porose walls, these in turn giving place to an area of linear thin-walled almost hyaline cells which occupies a substantial part of the lamina from the base. The cells of the capsule wall are strongly incrassate, in contrast with those in G. argentea, which are rather lax and membranous. The vegetative differences between the two species are strongly marked, the leaves in G. argentea being very short, broad and concave, with the hair-point wide, rough and often laciniate, the nerve narrow and weak, and the lower cells subquadrate or shortly rectangular. Owing to an extensive algal invasion, both specimens of the new species have an unnatural black tint, and are in rather indifferent condition, but the later gathering is perhaps the better and is therefore selected as the type.
Coscinodon australis Dix. & Sainsb. sp. nov.
Dense caespitosus, flavido-viridis, hic illic incanus. Caulis usque ad 1 cm. altus, tenuis, ramosus, inferne laxe, superne comose foliosus. Folia inferiora circa 1 mm. longa, breviter oblongo-lanceolata, concava, superne incurvata, apice obtuso, marginibus erectis, superne plerumque bistaratosis. Costa valida, ad basin circa 50 μ lata, ibi debilior, superne dorso prominens, sub apice soluta. Folia superiora majora, usque ad 2 mm. longa, pilo hyalino, denticulato praedito, costa in pilo excurrente. Folii lamina saepe hic illic longitudinaliter seriatim bistratosa. Cellulae superiores hand sinuosae, sat incrassatae, subquadratae, 6–9 μ, inferne sensim majores, semper subquadratae vel breviter rectangularae, parietibus tenuioribus. Dioica verisimiliter Folia perichaetialia lata, usque ad 2.5 mm. longa, ovato-acuminata vel acuta, pilo longo, bene evoluto. Seta circa .5 mm., erecta. Vaginula ovata, laevis. Theca omnino immersa, operculata circa 1 mm. longa, late obovata vel subglobosa, orificio lato; exothecii cellulae irregularieter subrectangulares, parietibus perincrassatis. Annulus nullus. Peristomii dentes rubri, lanceolati, superne rimosi vel perforati, vix trabeculati, papillosi. Operculum breviter erecte rostellatum. Spori 8–12 μ, laeves, pallide flavidi. Calyptra haud visa.
Hab. On stones, damp slope in open, Mount Cassidy, Arthur's Pass, Canterbury; coll. G. O. K. S. 31/12/1935, No. 827.
The first record of the genus in the southern hemisphere, unless an Andean species spreads over the equator. The plant forms extensive yellow-green patches, flecked here and there with silver from the hoary tips. The stems are slender, branched by innovating shoots, and somewhat comose. The leaves shortly and bluntly oblong-lanceolate with incurved subula, the upper ones much longer and hair-pointed. The cells are subquadrate above, not at all sinuose, larger but of much the same shape below and thinner walled there. The leaf margin is usually thickened in its upper part, and a distinctive though inconstant feature of the leaf tissue is the presence
of longitudinal rows of bistratose cells which give the back of the lamina here and there a faintly ridged appearance. The capsule is entirely immersed in the large broad and hoary bracts, the seta being very short and straight. The exothecium cells are irregularly four-sided with greatly thickened walls. The peristome in the genus sometimes has the teeth cribrose throughout their length, but in the present instance, the perforations and cracks are confined to the upper part, the surface below being unbroken. The teeth are papillose, finely below and more coarsely above. The beak of the operculum is short and erect. The calyptra, plicate and campanulate in this genus, is the most important character separating it from Grimmia. Although fruit in good condition and with operculate capsules is present here, no calyptra has been found; but the vegetative and fruiting characters are otherwise sufficiently well marked to allow the plant to be safely referred to Coscinodon. Dissection of several fertile stems failed to reveal any male flowers, so the inflorescence is almost certainly dioicous.
Rhacomitrium striatipilum Card.
A subantarctic species, found by Mr. A. Martin (20) on rock, near summit of Kelly's Hill, Westland, January, 1943, No. 990. The striated hair-point separates it from R. crispulum (H. f. and W.) H. f. and W., and the habit is different, the lateral branches being numerous, short and rigid. It is a form with short upper cells and plicate leaves, but not separable on that account.
Zygodon rufescens (Hampe) Broth. Syn; Z. vestitus Williams.
Distribution: Equador, Bolivia and Columbia.
Hab. On Leptospermum, near Taupo; coll. K. W. Allison, January, 1934, No. 765. On cabbage-tree, Kaingaroa Plains, Rotorua district; same collector, July, 1939, No. 5362. Both plants barren.
Malta, in his revision of the genus (Die Gattung Zygodon Hook. et Tayl., p. 179), treats Z. vestitus as inseparable from Z. rufescens. The chief character is the strong recurvature of the leaves when moist. Mr. Allison's first gathering, which showed this peculiarity and which was obviously new to New Zealand, was referred by me to Mr. Dixon as being perhaps Z. vestitus, but he considered it distinct and proposed the name Z. persquarrifolius. The grounds given were the absence of broodbodies, the shorter naked stems, and the leaves not crisped when dry. The geographical distribution was also mentioned. In the subsequent gathering, which was never submitted to him, the stems are to some extent tomentose, broodbodies are present of the same structure as in the American plant, and the leaves are quite often crisped when dry. I have also found similar broodbodies in the Taupo plant, and as, moreover, the leaf shape and cell measurements substantially agree with those given for Z. rufescens, I think that in the meantime the New Zealand plant should be referred there as a form, or perhaps a local race, with stem and leaves shortened and without the abundant red tomentum which, to judge by the specific names, has attracted attention in the American plant.
Genus Bryodixonia Sainsb. nov.
Ulotae Mohr. affinis. Habitus et foliorum structura plantae robustae illius. Differt theca fere sessili, omnino immersa, calyptra parvissima, perichaetii foliis conspicuis, in vaginula insertis.
B. perichaetialis Sainsb. sp. unic.
Corticola. Dense caespitosa. Caulis circa 2 cm. altus, simplex aut breviter ramosus, superne viridis vel pallide flavus, inferne fuscus, sparse tomentosus. Folia sicca crispata, madida erecto-patentia, 3 mm. vel ultra longa, e basi breviter oblonga vel obovata sensim elongate lineario-lanceolata, longe anguste acuminata, marginibus planis vel uno latere recurvato, integris vel apicem versus papillis minute serrulatis. Costa valida, inferne circa 45 μ. lata, rufo-fusca, dorso valde prominens, infra apicem desinens. Cellulae superiores 8–12 μ, subrotundae, valde incrassatae, cellulae basilares elongatae, angustissimae, perincrassatae, ad marginem in seriebus pluribus (3–6) subquadratae, parum incrassatae, hyalinae, limbum notatum instruentes.
Autoica. Perichaetium conspicuum, bracteis numerosis. Bracteae perlatae, lanceolatae, acuminatae, saepe plicatae, sicca haud mutatae. Vaginula ovalis, ochreata, peristomii bracteis vestita. Theca omnino immersa, fere sessile, circa 2 mm. longa, late obovata, 8-costata, stomatibus ad basin theca positis. Exothecii cellulae seriebus longitudinalibus dispositae, in costis subquadratae. Peristomii dentes 8, deinde secedentes, papillosi. Processus nulli. Operculum erecte rostellatum. Calyptra minutissima, operculum tantum contingens, 4–5 lobata, lobis integris, expansis, sat parce hirsuta. Spori 40–50 μ, papillosi.
Hab. On bark of subalpine scrub, Mount Egmont, ca. 4000 feet; coll. G. O. K. S., January, 1945, No. 6005, type. Probably Mount Egmont, earlier, unspecified date; coll. J. H. McMahan, com. E. A. Hodgson (788), No. 6004.
This interesting moss, which was never seen by the great bryologist whose name it commemorates, was first collected by Mr. J. H. McMahon, in all probability on Mount Egmont, though possibly in Marlborough. I have made my own gathering the type because it has the fruit in more mature condition. There can be no doubt that a new genus is involved, and even if, as is quite possible, Ulota and Orthotrichum are eventually united, the generic status of Bryodixonia could hardly be affected, because the highly differentiated and conspicuous perichaetial bracts and the diminutive calyptra are characters peculiar to it. A further peculiarity is that the vaginula is clothed with bracts instead of being either naked or beset with paraphyses. The latter organs are here very few or altogether lacking. The bracts are unaltered when dry, more or less plicate, and widely lanceolate. They are scarcely longer than the ordinary leaves, but as the latter are strongly crisped when dry the bracts are in that condition very conspicuous. The ordinary leaves are Ulotoid in shape and areolation. The ovate base is rather gradually narrowed to a long linear-lanceolate acuminate subula. The margin is often recurved
on one side. The upper cells have their walls considerably thickened and the lumen correspondingly reduced. Those in the dilated base are also markedly incrassate and greatly lengthened, and at the margin there is a conspicuous border of hyaline subquadrate cells characteristic of the areolation in Ulota. The capsule, which is completely immersed, is rather thin-walled, broadly obovate, distinctly 8-ribbed, and with the stomata in the lower part, as is usually the case in that genus. The peristome consists of 8 teeth, splitting later into lanceolate halves which are papillose throughout and cracked or perforated here and there at the tips. Processes are lacking, there being only occasional rudimentary projections between the teeth, which are too indistinct and infrequent to be considered as such. The spores are large, green and papillose. The male flowers, borne on the fertile stems, are large and gemmiform.
Ulota pygmaeothecia (C. M.) Besch.
This Magellan species was collected by me on Mount Egmont (near Dawson Falls, on bark, 16/1/1935, No. 777), and is new to New Zealand. Fruiting plants were present.
Ulota rufula (Mitt.) Jaeg.
Another addition to the New Zealand species of the genus; coll. J. H. McMahon, Marlborough, January, 1936, No. 836, in fruit. It is a plant of central Chile and Argentina. In Malta's “Survey of the Australasian Species of Ulota” (Acta Horti Botanici, Universitatis Latviensis, VII) four new species of the genus have been described from New Zealand material, so there are now six species to be added to those mentioned in the Studies.
Macromitrium subfragile Dix. & Sainsb. sp. nov.
Eu-Macromitrium. § Goniostoma. Gracile, condensatum, fuscum. Folia perconferta, fragilia, patentia, sicca compacte spiraliter contorta, circa 2 mm. longa, lingulata, obtusa vel subobtusa, saepius robuste apiculata. Cellulae parvae, 7–10 μ, humillime papillosae, incrassatae; basilares pellucidae, omnes brevissimae, subquadratae, paucae tantum infimae marginales elongatae, angustissimae, lineares, limbum angustum brevem instruentes.
Autoicum. Flos ♂ in ramulo brevi terminalis. Seta brevissima, 2–3 mm. longa; theca parva, ovata, microstoma, leniter plicata. Peristomii dentes, brevissimi, pallidi, rudimentarii. Spori circa 27 μ. Calyptra nuda.
Hab. Top and inner side of rock against cliff on seashore, Stony Bay, Cape Colville; coll. L. B. Moore, 19/5/1933, No. 770. On cliffs, North Cape; coll. L. W. Millener, 10/12/1934, No. 781, type.
Of the erosulum and pusillum group, but distinguished at once by the leaves not circinate-incurved at the points when dry, but closely spirally twisted round the stem, by the cells short to the base, and by the very short seta. It has also been collected by Miss Moore on the Hen and Poor Knights Islands.
Macromitrium gracile (Hook.) Schwaegr. var. retusum (H. f. and W.) Sainsb. comb. nov. Syn; M. retusum H. f. and W.
Folia retusa, costa in aristam longissimam fragilem excurrente; aristae integres tantum ad apicem rami, ibi in fasciculo conspicuo coarctatae.
I am satisfied that the doubt expressed in the Studies (p. 367) as to the standing of M. retusum is fully justified, and that this plant is not specifically distinct from M. gracile. Since that publication further intermediate forms between retusum and the var. proboscideum of gracile have been found, and also at least one gathering of the type form of gracile (E. Pigott, No. 28, Gollan's Valley, Wellington) where some of the characteristic apical penicillate tufts of retusum are also present; so in the absence of any other character it is impossible to keep up a specific distinction.
Macromitrium petriei Dix. and M. rigescens Broth & Dix.
As the result of recent study of the New Zealand species of Macromitrium with a view to their revision I formed the opinion that these species should be dropped, as they appeared to be no more than habit forms of M. erosulum Mitt. and M. grossirete C. M. respectively. Mr. Dixon accepted this view, so the two species mentioned should now be deleted.
M. eucalyptorum Hampe & C. M. var. recurvulum (C. M.) Sainsb. comb. nov. Syn; M. recurvulum C. M.
The leaf recurvature here, though striking, is inconstant, and a gathering by Mr. K. W. Allison (No. 404, near Atiamuri) shows stems bearing branchlets some of eucalyptorum and some of recurvulum type! Mr. Gray's Wairarapa plant is mentioned in the Studies (p. 182) as having the seta shorter and the capsule smaller than in eucalyptorum, but I have specimens of the latter which are quite indistinguishable in this respect. Mr. Dixon, though not disagreeing with the reduction, would have preferred to retain the species in view of the relationships of some Indo-Malayan species with one another, where recurving of the leaves seemed to him to be of some specific value. I think, though, that in view of the fact that the proposed variety comes well within the scope of the species in other respects, it should not be given more than varietal rank.
Tetraphis browniana Grev.
This primitive moss has been collected by myself in several localities on Mount Ruapehu, and always in shaded damp fissures in lava rock (Maungaturuturu Valley, 27/3/1940, Nos. 962, 969; Silica Springs, etc.). It has not been previously reported in the southern hemisphere, and its family, Georgiaceae, has no other representative in New Zealand. It is a curious little moss with frondiform leaves and a peristome consisting of four solid undifferentiated teeth.
The New Zealand species described in the Studies (p. 196) belong to the subgenus Eumielichhoferia Mitt., where the outer peristome is lacking. A plant collected by Miss B. Molesworth near Queenstown, Lake Wakatipu (28/3/1941, No. 115) has a distinct, though rudimentary, outer peristome and belongs to the subgenus Mielichhoferiopsis Broth. It is probably one of the Australian species of that group, but I have no authentic specimens for comparison.
Webera elatior Dix. & Sainsb. sp. nov.
Elata; ad 6 cm. alta, caespitosa, parce ramosa, subnitida, infra tomentosa, fusco-viridis. Folia laxiuscule disposita, 2–3 mm. longa,
per totum caulem subaequalia, madida suberecta, siccitate inferne adpressa, superne saepe laxe patentia, breviter decurrentia, lanceolata vel ovato-lanceolata, marginibus planis, superne plus minusve denticulatis. Costa ad basin praecipue pervalida, decurrens, paullo sub apice plerumque desinens. Cellulae sat anguste rhomboideae vel rhomboideo-hexagonales, 50–80 μ longae et 12–22 μ latae, parietibus firmis, basilares vix mutatae, marginales angustiores sed limbum distinctum haud formantes. Cetera ignota. Dioica ut videtur.
Hab. On rock at ca. 8000 feet, Mount Girdlestone (Ruapehu), No. 966.
The decurrent leaves with plane margins and stout nerve, especially at the base, are the distinguishing characters here, and separate the plant clearly from other New Zealand species. The habit is nearer to that of European mountain species such as W. commutata Schp. Mr. Dixon reported that it was a male plant and dioicous, but I have not found any male flowers in my duplicate. The cells are rather narrowly rhomboid or hexagonal with firm walls and little altered throughout, except at the margin where they are narrower, but not markedly so. The upper leaves when dry are often rather widely spreading and somewhat spirally twisted on the stem.
Bryum appressifolium Broth.
This well-marked species has been collected in several North Island localities, and always in silty river beds from sea-level to quite high altitudes. I have found it growing in the Lake Waikaremoana (at over 2000 feet) and Ruakituri districts of Wairoa County, and also at the mouths of the Raukokore and Awatere Rivers in the Bay of Plenty.
Bryum tenuidens Dix. & Sainsb. sp. nov.
§ Cladodium; Inclinatiformia. Dense caespitosum, humile. Caulis vix .75 cm. altus, parce ramosus, nunc comosus nunc sub-aequaliter dense foliosus. Folia sicca madidaque erecto-adpressa, usque ad 2 mm. longa, e basi late rubra, oblonga, breve acuminata, margines plani, integri aut apice sparse denticulati. Costa validiuscula, ad basin circa 60 μ lata, in cuspidem sat longam, rigidam, parce denticulatam excurrens. Cellulae laxe rhomboideo-hexagonae, 50–80 μ longae, basin versus rectangulares, parietibus tenuibus; marginales 2–3 seriebus lineares, limbum angustum sat distinctum formantes.
Synoicum. Seta tenuis, 1.5 cm. alta, ad apicem abrupte arcuata. Theca nutans, 2–3 longa, pallide fusca, clavata, symmetrica, collo fusciore, microstoma. Annulus bene evolutus. Peristomii dentes tenues, breves, tantum 300 μ longi, anguste lanceolato-subulati, inter se remoti, inferne pallide flavidi, marginati, linea media angulata, dorsaliter minutissime papillosi, lamellae tantum perleniter intus prominentes. Endostomium pallidum, membransa basilari humili, plus minusve adherens. Processus dentes subaequantes, hyalini, hiantes. Cilia (1) rudimentaria. Operculum conicum, mamillatum. Spori 22–26 μ.
Hab. On earth, Mount Arthur, Nelson district, at ca. 4000 feet; coll. G. O. K. S. No. 689.
This was placed by Mr. Dixon as very close to his B. crateris and B. imperfectum Card., both from the antarctic, differing apparently mainly in the thin peristome teeth almost without lamellae, but vegitatively very nearly agreeing. So far as the New Zealand species are concerned, it is quite distinct, there being no other Cladodium except B. mucronatum Mitt., which differs radically in having much wider shortly pointed leaves and closely set peristome teeth, much longer and more strongly developed. The habit in B. tenuidens is somewhat that of Caespitibryum, the stems being sometimes comose, with the leaves densely set, erect and little altered when dry. They are oblong from a wide base, rather shortly acuminate, with margins quite plane and practically entire. The nerve is excurrent in a long rigid and slightly denticulate point. The cells are rather lax and thin-walled, mostly rhomboid-hexagonal except towards the leaf base, where they are rectangular. At the margin they are lengthened and narrowed to form a distinct though narrow border. The pale brown capsule, usually pendulous is clavate and symmetrical, with a narrow mouth and with the neck inconspicuous except for its darker colour. The exothecium cells are large, more or less isodiametrical, and with sinuose walls. The peristome is strikingly distinct from that of any other New Zealand Bryum, the teeth being very thin, short and widely separated. Their dorsal surface is finely papillose, the weakly developed lamellae projecting slightly on the inner surface. The inner peristome has a low basal membrane, more or less adherent, with processes hyaline and widely gaping at their clefts, in length equal to the teeth or nearly so. The cilia, one to each process, are very short and rudimentary, neither nodose nor appendiculate. Gemmae in the form of rudimentary buds are sometimes present. They resemble the axillary buds occasionally to be found in B. argenteum, and no doubt have the same origin and function.
Goniobryum subbasilare (Hook.) Lindb.
G. pellucidum (Mitt.) Broth. (Studies, p. 222) must be reduced to the synonymy here. A comparison of specimens had convinced me that no reliance could be placed on the nature of the toothing of the leaves, single or double, as a separating character, and I find that Mr. Dixon (in Notulae Bryologicae, Journal of Botany, May, 1937, p. 123) had come to the same conclusion.
Meesia novae-zealandiae Dix. & Sainsb. sp. nov.
Robusta; pallide viridis. Caulis 6 cm. longus, hic illic radiculosus, superne irregulariter ramosus, ramis flexuosis, simplicibus. Folia sicca erecta vel erecto-patentia, 2.5–3.5 mm. longa, e basi lata (circa .8 mm.) oblongo-lanceolata, acuminata, marginibus erectis, ab apice fere ad basin serrulatis. Costa breve excedens, superne dorso serrulata. Cellulae superiores 30–80 μ longae et 10–30 μ latae, irregulares, sed plerumque oblongae, infra sensim majores, laxiores, ubique parietibus tenuibus. Cetera ignota.
Hab. Poporangi River, Ruahine Range, Hawke's Bay; coll. E. S. West, August, 1938, No. 924.
The generic position of this moss, of which only one barren stem was found, is not quite certain, but as the mosses with which
it was gathered appear to have been growing on wet soil or rock the genus Meesia is indicated. The stem for nearly half its length is unbranched and bare, and the long (2–3 cm.) flexuose branches that are produced in the upper part give the impression of a pleurocarpous moss, as is the case with some other species in the genus. The leaves when dry are loosely imbricated, except at the ends of the branches, where they are rather widely spreading. The nerve is about 80 μ wide at the base, and is shortly excurrent from the tapered leaf apex. The cells, though usually oblong, are often pointed at one end or otherwise irregularly shaped. The dorsal nerve serrulation, unlike that of the leaf, is faint and inconspicuous.
Aulacopilum glaucum Wils.
Re-discovered, nearly 100 years after the original finding, at Raukokore River mouth, Bay of Plenty; coll. G. M. O'Malley, October, 1943.
Cryphaea exannulata Dix. & Sainsb. sp. nov.
C. tenellae (Schwaegr.) Hornsch. & C. M. affinis et simillima; differt solum characteris sporophytibus bene notatis. Annulus nullus, peristomium perbreve, longe sub ore insertum, dentes fere omninolaeves, rimosi.
Hab. On bark, Mokoiwi, Mount Hikurangi, Poverty Bay; coll. G. O. K. S., 1/4/1929, No. 703, type. On stems of Rhipogonium scandens, between Lake Rotoiti and Bay of Plenty coast; coll. K. W. Allison, 7/3/1941, No. 6002.
Vegetatively there seems to be nothing to separate this plant from C. tenella, but the fruiting characters are very distinct. In that species the annulus is well-developed and persistent, the peristome at least twice as long as it is here, inserted practically at the capsule mouth, with the teeth densely papillose and their surface unbroken. In Mr Allison's gathering the teeth are slightly papillose above, but otherwise accord with the type, being somewhat fissured, very short, and inserted far below the rim. There do not appear to be any other differences in the sporophytes. C. exannulata has also been collected in one other locality, about 25 miles north of Gisborne.
Papillaria crocea (Hampe) Jaeg.
A fruiting plant of this was collected, I believe for the first time, by Mr. Allison, near Lake Rotoehu, Rotorua district (No. 643). The capsule is deoperculate and the peristome in bad repair, but from what can be seen without dissection it appears that the teeth are inserted below the orifice, linear-lanceolate and trabeculate. The inner peristome could not be made out. Spores about 22 μ; vaginula densely covered with long hairs, seta flexuose, about 4 mm.; capsule erect, ovoid-oblong, pale green, slightly over 1.5 mm. long. In this specimen the branches produce here and there remarkable dendroid branchlets, scarcely .5 cm. long, which are densely pluribranched and bear tiny rudimentary leaves. The appearance of these clusters suggests an adaptation for asexual reproduction, but as neither they nor their buds are deciduous this cannot be their function.
Papillaria filipendula (H. f. and W.) Jaeg.
I doubt whether this is really separable from P. flexicaulis (Tayl.) Jaeg., and suspect that one plant only, of a variable habit, is involved.
Homalia auriculata H. f. and W.
A rare species, previously considered as endemic in the Auckland district, but lately found in the South Island; coll. W. Martin, Kelly's Hill, Westland.
Camptochaete aciphylla Dix. & Sainsb. sp. nov.
C. ramulosae (Mitt.) Jaeg. affinis et similis; sed bene distincta foliis subrotundis, subito in acumen filiformi-subulatum, longissimum, longitudinem folii aequantcm, attenuatis. Folia perichaetialia longiores, vaginantes, subula recurvata. Seta circa 1 cm. longa. Theca et peristomium generis. Operculum conicum, mamillatum. Spori 14–16 μ.
Hab. Conical Hill, Otago; com. Plant Research Bureau, No. 17165; coll. Mr. Rowlings, November, 1936, No. 880.
An interesting moss, unique in the genus through having the suborbicular cochleariform leaves suddenly contracted into long fine points, fully equalling their length, which on the stems is about 1 mm. In other respects the plant resembles dendroid forms of C. ramulosa, the leaves, as there, being rigidly set and unaltered when dry, but the bristly appearance of the frond is so striking that there could be no possibility of mistaking the plant for that, or any other species. The cells are narrow and sigmoid, the alar cells fairly numerous but not particularly so, and, as is often the case in the genus, there is sometimes a trace of a double nerve. As compared with C. ramulosa, there are some slight differences in the fruit, the exothecium cells in the new species being a little larger and somewhat turgid, so that the capsule wall, instead of being smooth, as in all the other New Zealand species, is very slightly but quite distinctly rough. The spores, too, differ in being a little larger, 14–16 μ, as against 10–12 μ.
Pterygophyllum distichophylloides Broth. & Dix.
This had only been recorded from a few localities, all in the North Island and none south of Hawke's Bay. It has recently been collected in the South Island by Miss C. Ellis (No. 26), Maitai Valley, Nelson, March, 1944.
Rhacopilum strumiferum C. M.
I think that R. cristatum H. f. & W. and R. laetum Mitt. should be treated as nothing but forms of this. I have not found that any of the characters given, including that of the calyptra, are constant.
Sematophyllum macrosporum Dix. & Sainsb. sp. nov.
Corticola. S. amoeno (Hedw.) Sainsb. affine et similis; differt foliis plerumque marginibus anguste recurvis, ciliis interdum nullis vel inchoatis, sporis multo majoribus, 16–22 μ.
Hab. Bark of small tree, Mangatepopo Valley, Mount Ngauruhoe; coll. G. O. K. S., 31/12/1926, No. 695, type. On bark of twigs, Huiarau Range, Lake Waikaremoana, Wairoa County; coll. G. O. K. S., 3/1/1934, No. 4740.
I am doubtful whether Mr. Dixon ever published the change of genus in Rhaphidostegium amoenum (Hedw.) Jaeg., the name appearing in the Studies, but I know that he intended to do this, so if the combination has not already appeared the present notice will suffice. The new species is closely related, but the recurvature of the leaf margin, on one side or both, is fairly general in all the gatherings, and the difference in size of the spores is a well-marked character. In S. amoenum the leaf margin is practically always plane, and the spores measure only 8–12 μ. In the type specimen of macrosporum the cilia are either absent or rudimentary, but the Waikaremoana plant has them as well developed as in S. amoenum. The endostome appears to be more or less adherent to the outer peristome, and this might account for the irregularity. The capsule is straight, symmetrical and more or less erect, and though similar capsules are sometimes found here and there in the other species, they are not at all usual, whereas in S. macrosporum the fruit is generally uniform enough to permit identification in the field. The plant has also been found in the Mount Cook district in the South Island.
Amblystegium juratzkanum Schp.
A plant collected by me on marshy sandy ground at Mahia Peninsula, Hawke's Bay (No. 874) may be this, but Mr. Dixon was not prepared to record it without qualification, though he found it to agree with the species as he understood it.
Caliergon sarmentosum (Wahl.) Kind.
So far as I am aware, there had been only three findings of this up till quite recently, and all in the South Island. A few barren stems were, however, received by me from Mr. N. L. Elder, who collected them in a bog on Makirikiri Reporoa, Ruahine Range, Hawke's Bay (31/12/1943). No fruit has been found in New Zealand.
Acrocladium cuspidatum (L.) Lindb.
Further records are Warkworth, Auckland district (L. B. Moore 604 and 617) and Greymouth (H. M. Hodgson). These specimens are all barren, but I do not know whether this is the case with the original New Zealand gathering. The correct name now appears to be Calliergonella cuspidata (Hedw.) Loeske.
Eurhynchium ellipticifolium Dix. & Sainsb. sp. nov.
Gracilescens; laxe caespitosum, sordide viride, nitidiusculum. Caulis sat elongatus, hic illic radiculosus, irregulariter subpinnatim complanate ramosus, ramis 1–2 cm. longis, flexuosis, interdum ramulosis. Folia sicca patentia, laxe et distanter disposita; caulina 1.5–1.7 mm. longa, circa .8 lata, breviter acuminata, marginibus erectis, hic illic indistincte denticulatis. Costa distincta, ad 2/3 folii evanida. Cellulae prosenchymatae, perangustae, 15–20 X 1, circa 6 μ latae, infimae laxiores, alares paucae, majores, breviter rectangulares, bene delimitatae. Folia ramea breviora sed vix angustiora, elliptica, breviter late acuta vel apiculata, ubique denticulata; costa, ad basin praecipue, valida, ad 4/5 folii evanida, apice extante; cellulae
breviores, chlorophyllosae, 10–15 X 1, ad basin vix mutatae, alares nullae.
Synoicum. Ditissime fructificans. Peristomii bractae internae scariosae, e basi lata raptim in subulam piliferam reflexam angustatae. Seta usque ad 2 cm. longa, rubra, tenuis, flexuosa, nunc indistincte et humiliter papillosa, nunc fere laevis. Theca (deoperculata) circa 2 mm. longa. Exothecii cellulae oblongae, seriebus verticalibus sat regularibus dispositae, parietibus incrassatis. Peristomium aurantiacum. Peristomii dentes inferne haud lamellati, superne lamellis intus valde prominentibus; endostomii membrana alta, processus longi, hiantes; cilia 2–3 nodosa.
Hab. On earth, in hollow in bush gully, between Lake Rotoiti and Bay of Plenty coast; coll. K. W. Allison, 11/8/1943 (667), No. 983, type. Same locality and collector, September, 1942, No. 6003.
Mr. Dixon reported on this as being a new species of Oxyrrhynchium, but as in the Studies he had retained other members of that genus in Eurhynchium, I think it is desirable, for the sake of uniformity, to follow the same course. In habit there is a close resemblance here to common forms of Rhynchostegium tenuifolium (Hedw.) Jaeg., and the areolation of long narrow prosenchymatous cells is much the same; but the elliptic branch-leaves, closely denticulate, and the sporadically roughened seta serve to distinguish them. The stem-leaves are shortly acuminate, scarcely denticulate, and with a small but distinct alar group of much widened oblong cells. The branch-leaves are bluntly and shortly acute, not at all acuminate, with shorter cells and the alar group entirely lacking. The nerve, longer in these leaves, often ends in the dorsally projecting spine which is a generic mark in both Oxyrrhynchium and Eurhynchium. The peristome teeth are boldly lamellate above on the inner face, but nearly smooth below. The inner peristome consists of a high basal membrane with long widely-split processes and nodose, but not appendiculate, cilia. I am indebted to the collector for drawing by attention to the synoicous inflorescence which has probably never been reported before in this genus.
Rhynchostegium peracuminatum Dix. & Sainsb. sp. nov.
Autoicum. Gracilescens, pallide flavum, nitidum. Caulis usque ad 8 cm. longus, repens, hic illic fusco-radiculosus, regulariter distanter complanate pinnatim ramosus, ramis horizontaliter patentibus, simplicibus, brevibus, vix 1 cm. longis. Folia patentia, laxe disposita; caulina circa 1.25 mm. longa atque .6 mm. lata, ovata, acuta vel breve acuminata, in acumen elongatum filiformem dimidiam partem folii aequantem attenuata, marginibus planis, integris. Costa debilis, nunc supra medium folium attingens, saepe multo brevior. Cellulae anguste lineares, prosenchymatae, pellucidae; basilares laxiores, alares haud distinctae. Folia ramea interdum eiusdem caulinis similia, sed plerumque multo angustiora, circa 40 μ lata, ovato-lanceolata, sensim in acumen longe filiformem attenuata, superne interdum indistincte denticulata. Folia perichaetialia suberecta, triangulario-cordata, pilifera. Seta circa 1 cm. alta. Theca circa 1.5 mm. longa, erecta vel inclinata, angusta, fere symmetricalis. Peristomium generis.
Hab. On damp log, Ohakune; coll. R. Mundy, 20/8/1926, No. 728a.
A small-leaved species with stems regularly pinnately branched, the branches being short, more or less equal, and set at right angles to the stem. The leaves are remarkable for the long filiform point. The stem-leaves are ovate, acute or shortly acuminate, whilst the branch-leaves, though sometimes of similar shape, are more often ovate-lanceolate and gradually narrowed in the filiform acumen. The margin is erect and entire, except for some faint denticulation here and there in the upper part of the branch-leaves. The nerve, always weak, is lost about mid-leaf. The areolation resembles that of R. tenuifolium, the cells being long, narrow and prosenchymatous, sometimes laxer at the leaf base. The capsule is usually erect and symmetrical. The plant was collected with Eurhynchium muriculatum (H. f. and W.) Jaeg., with which it was interwoven and to which it has, in some respects, a baffling resemblance. It lay in my herbarium for years as that species, until the smooth seta revealed its correct place. The “composite” species R. elusum (Mitt.) Jaeg., which was annulled in the Studies (p. 329), was a similar close mixture—R. laxatum (Mitt.) Par. being involved—and the difficulties already present in dealing with the New Zealand species of the two genera are often further increased by the occurence of such mixtures.
Eriodon cylindritheca (Dix.) Dix. & Sainsb. comb. nov.
In the Studies (p. 328) this appears as Rhynchostegium cylindritheca Dixon, but the fruiting characters (peristome and capsule) are quite those of Eriodon. The genus had included only two species, one in each of two subgenera, and the New Zealand plant is an addition to the subgenus Eu-Eriodon Broth., the other member being the Chilean E. conostomum Mont., which is, to judge by a specimen I have of it, a closely related plant of slenderer habit.
Mniodendron comosum (La Bill.) Lindb. e Broth.
I confess to being unable to distinguish this satisfactorily from M. comatum (La Bill.) Lindb. e Broth., though the two are placed by Brotherus (Musci, 2nd edn. vol. 1, p. 439) in different sections, the latter being put in Eu-Mniodendron Broth. and the former in Comatulina (C. M.) Broth. I do not find either in the width of the nerve or the degree of thickening of the leaf-margin any constant correlation with the difference of habit which is given as one of the separating characters. It seems to me that only one systematic entity is present here, very variable in habit and other respects, including length of seta and capsule, but incapable of satisfactory division.
Sciadocladus kerrii (Mitt.) Jaeg. e Broth.
It is unfortunate that the character tentatively given in the Studies (p. 340) to separate the gametophyte here from that of S. menziesii (Hook.) Lindb. e Broth., is not always reliable. Although there is no doubt that in S. kerrii the cells are usually smooth at the back of the upper part of the leaf, I have a fruiting specimen of that species collected at Lake Waikaremoana in which the fruit is quite normal, but the cells are distinctly rough, as in S. menziesii. I do not think, therefore, that the two plants can be safely placed when barren.