Additions to the Rust Fungi of New Zealand, I.
[Read before the Auckland Institute, April 18, 1945; received by the Editor June 5, 1945; issued separately, December, 1945.]
Since the publication of the book Rust Fungi of New Zealand (1931) the following additional rusts and hosts have come to hand, bringing the number of species recorded for the Dominion to 150.
Phragmidium rubi-idaei (De Candolle) Karsten, Mycotheca Fennica, vol. 4, p. 52, 1878.
Urcdo rubi-idaci Pers., Syn. Mcth. Fung., p. 218, 1801.
Puccinia rubi-idaci DC., Fl. Fr., vol. 6, p. 54, 1815.
Phragmidium gracile Cke., Hdbk. British Fungi, p. 491, 1883.
Phr. byssinum Sacc. & Trav., Broteria, vol. 25, p. 56, 1910.
Phr. imilans Arth., N. Am. Fl., vol. 7, p. 165, 1912.
0. Pycniosori epiphyllous, in scattered groups associated with the cacomosori.
Cacomosori epiphyllous, orange yellow, in small circinnate groups, orbicular, to 1 mm. diameter, pulverulent, surrounded by numerous hyaline clavate paraphyses. Spores globose, subglobose or broadly elliptical, 20–24 × 16–20 μ, average 22 × 19 μ; epispore 2–2.5 μ thick, tinted yellow, sparsely and somewhat finely verruculose; germ pores not seen.
Uredosori hypophyllous, sparse, scattered, pulverulent, orbicular, to 1 mm. diameter, orange, enclosed by numerous peripheral paraphyses. Spores globose, subglobose, or obovate, 16–24 × 14–20 μ, average 20 × 18μ; epispore tinted yellow, 1–1.5 μ thick, coarsely and sparsely echinulate, spines to 2 μ long and hyaline; pores several, scattered, obscure.
Teleutosori hypophyllous, scattered, abundant, orbicular, to 1 mm. diameter, black, containing numerous spores, enclosed in a ring of hyaline paraphyses. Spores oblong-cylindrical, 6–8 celled, 88–128 × 24–32 μ, average 112 ×31 μ, apex acuminate, thickened to 8 μ, base rounded, tapering abruptly to the hyaline pedicel, not constricted at septa; wall chestnut brown, to 6 μ thick, covered with closely arranged, coarse, rounded, tinted warts; pedicel hyaline, 70–100 ×10–14 μ, thicker at the apex, hollow below.
Type Locality: Europe, on the same host.
Distribution: Europe; Asia; North America; New Zealand.
Host: Rubus idaeus L.
Wellington: Palmerston North, February, 1944, A. J. Cederman; Kumeroa; Feilding; Levin.
De Candolle was the first to name the teleutospores, so his specific epithet has priority over that of Persoon, since the latter used Uredo rubi-idaei for caeomospores. Although the species is the common European rust of raspberry, it has not been found hitherto in the Dominion nor, according to the literature, in Australia.
Puccinia rhei-undulati (Dietel) Hiratsuka, Journal of Japanese Botany, vol. 11, p. 332, 1935.
Uredo rhei-undulati Diet., Annales Mycologici, vol. 4, p. 304, 1906.
Uredosori amphigenous, mainly hypophyllous, and caulicolous, seated on yellow spots, scattered, orbicular, to 2 mm. diameter, commonly less, bullate, pulverulent, ferruginous, soon dissipated. Uredospores broadly elliptical or obovate, sometimes subglobose, 25–32 ×19–23 μ, average 29 ×22 μ; epispore 1.5–2 μ thick, pallid ferruginous, sparsely somewhat moderately echinulate, spines 1 μ long, hyaline; germ pores 3–4, equatorial, conspicuous.
Teleutospores not seen. Said by Hiratsuka to be oblong-elliptical, 30–40 ×15–20 μ, chestnut brown, smooth, apex rounded, 7–10 μ thick, base tapering or subrounded, slightly constricted at the septum; pedicel hyaline, to 45 μ long.
Type Locality: Tokio Botanic Gardens, on R. undulatum L.
Distribution: Japan; New Zealand.
Host: Rheum rhaponticum L.
Auckland: Owairaka; Mission Bay; Remuera. Wellington: Karori, J. G. Gibbs, March, 1932. Canterbury: Cheviot.
First found in a private garden in Wellington, this rust of rhubarb appears to be spreading slowly through the Dominion. It has been recorded elsewhere only in Japan on R. undulatum and R. rhaponticum, so has probably been introduced from that region to New Zealand with one or other of the hosts.
Uredospores alone are present on all collections examined. They agree closely with the original diagnosis published by Dietel of an uredostage collected upon R. undulatum in the Tokio Botanic Garden.
Puccinia vittadiniae McAlpine. Rusts of Australia, p. 164, 1906.
0. Pycniosori not seen.
Aecidiosori amphigenous, caulicolous and on involueral bracts, in crowded groups in slightly inflated areas, bright orange in mass. Peridia embedded, white, with erumpent dentate slightly revolute margins, cupulate, to 0.35 mm. diameter. Spores polygonal or subglobose, 14–16 ×11–14 μ, average 14 ×13 μ; epispore densely and closely verruculose, 2 μ thick, hyaline.
Teleutosori on stems, petioles, leaves and bracts, associated with aecidiosori, dark brown, almost black, elliptical, to 5 ×1 mm., naked, pulvinate, surrounded by the ruptured epidermis. Spores subclavate, 40–54 ×18–23 μ, average 46 ×21 μ, apex rounded or bluntly acuminate, frequently oblique, thickened to 6 μ, base attenuate, basal cell narrower, shorter and lighter in colour; slightly constricted at the septum; epispore smooth, 1.5–2 μ thick, thinner below, chestnut brown; pedicel persistent, hyaline, to 28 ×8 μ, tapering. Mesospores common.
Type Locality: Dimboola, Victoria, on the same host.
Distribution: Australia; New Zealand.
Host: Vittadinia australis A. Rich.
Canterbury: Hurunui River, December, 1943, A. J. Healy.
The collection agrees closely with the original description, save that teleutospores are somewhat longer. They match in size and shape teleutospores on the same host from a collection kindly forwarded by Professor Osborn from South Australia. The host has a fairly wide distribution in the Dominion, and occurs also in Australia and Tasmania. (Cheesem., 1925, p. 960).
Uredo horopito n.sp.
Sori hypophylli, maculis flavis pagina superiore visibilibus insidentes, in greges 2 vel 3 rarius plures circinatim arte dispositi, bullati, diu tecti, elliptici vel sinuosi interdum subglobosi, demum in longitudinem diffissi peniti partimque pseudoperidio ex hyphis fictis tecti. Sporae obovatae, lacrimiformes, fusiformes, vel ellipticae, apice rotundatae vel obtuse angustatae, basi truncatae 20–32 ×15–19 μ (medie 27 ×17 μ); episporio flavo-tincto, modice breviter echinulato, 2–2.5 μ crasso; poris germinalibus obscuris verisimiliter 5, dispersis.
Host: Pseudowintera axillaris (J. R. & G. Forst.) Dandy.
Wellington: Belmont Trig, Hutt Valley, January, 1934, J. G. Gibbs, type collection.
Sori are buried in the leaf tissues, enclosed within a peridiallike structure composed of woven hyphae. Spores are borne singly on pedicels, however, so that the species has been placed under the form genus Uredo. The host is endemic and widely distributed in the forest areas of both Islands (Cheesem., 1925, p. 456). I am indebted to Dr. H. H. Allan for compiling the Latin description.
Puccinia distincta McAlpine.
Aecidium calendulae McAlp. Ag. Gaz., N.S.W., vol. 7, p. 152, 1896.
Puccinia calendulae McAlp., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vol. 28, p. 558, 1903.
Host: Calendula officinalis L.
Wellington: Palmerston North, January, 1935, J. G. Gibbs.
Herbert (1941) has demonstrated by cross inoculations that the rust on cultivated marigold, named P. calendulae by McAlpine, is identical with P. distincta common on Bellis perennis in Australia and New Zealand.
Puccinia juncophila Cooke & Massee.
Host: Juncus novae-zelandiae Hook. f.
Otago: Maungatua, Dunedin, January 1938, J. S. Thomson & G. Simpson.
The host is endemic and widely distributed through both Islands (Cheesem., 1925, p. 300).
Uromyces fabae (Pers.) de Bary.
Host: Pisum sativum L.
Auckland: Owairaka, March, 1942, W. D. Reid.
Specimens were collected in the vicinity of heavily rusted broad bean plants.
Uromyces betae (Pers.) Lev.
Host: Beta vulgaris L.
Wellington: Palmerston North, September, 1935, R. Waters.
Aecidiosori, hitherto not collected in New Zealand, were abundant on leaves of these mangold specimens.
Melampsora lini(Ehrenb.) Lev.
Host: Linum marginale A. Cunn.
Canterbury: Rangiora, January, 1942, F. J. Newhook; Oxford, April, 1943, G. H. C.; Makikihi, March, 1944, G. H. C.
Uredosori and teleutosori are not uncommon on wild flax, which has been introduced from Australia and is now common in waste places throughout the lowlands of both Islands.
Aecidium otagense Linds.
Host: Clematis afoliata Buch.
Canterbury: Hurunui River, October, 1941, H. H. Allan.
The host is endemic and has a limited distribution in drier regions of both Islands (Cheesem., 1925, p. 432).
Aecidium disciforme McAlp.
0. Pycniosori amphigenous, scattered, dark brown, immersed flask-shaped, preceding aecidiosori.
Hosts: Veronica plebeia R. Br.
Auckland: Anawhata River, November, 1932, H. H. Allan.
Hebe salicifolia (Forst. f.) Pennell.
Auckland: Rangitoto Island, September, 1932, H. H. Allan.
Pycniosori, hitherto undescribed, are abundant on the collections of Hebe salicifolia, and precede aecidiosori. V. plebeia is widespread in Australia; in New Zealand it is confined to Auckland Province, where it is now rare and local; H. salicifolia, the most widely distributed of New Zealand species (Cheesem., 1925, p. 831), is endemic.
Aecidium disseminatum Berk.
Host: Hypericum japonicum Thumb.
Auckland: National Park, January, 1941, A. J. Healy.
The host has a fairly wide distribution through both Islands, and extends to Australia and Western Asia (Cheesem., 1925, p. 567). The original diagnosis was drawn from aecidiosori collected on this host; but as part of the type was not available, in Rust Fungi (p. 213) I described the species from a collection on H. gramineum. Comparison has shown that the forms on both hosts are identical.
Cheeseman, T. F., 1925. Manual of the New Zealand Flora, Ed. 2, 44 + 1163 pp. Government Printer, Wellington.
Cunningham, G. H., 1931. The Rust Fungi of New Zealand. 20 + 261 pp. John McIndoe. Printer, Dunedin.
Herbert, D. A., 1941. Puccinia distincta McAlp. as the cause of English marigold rust. Journ, Austral, Inst. Agric. Sci., vol. 7, pp. 27–28.