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Volume 75, 1945-46
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Contributions to a Knowledge of the Naturalized Flora of New Zealand: No. 1.

Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Wellington.

[Read before Wellington Branch, September 26, 1945; received by the Editor, September 27, 1945; issued separately, March, 1946.]

The naturalized flora of New Zealand is increasing annually, owing to accidental introduction of species, to escape and establishment of horticultural species, and to the discovery of species established apparently for some time, but only recently noted; this paper records a number of such species not previously noted as occurring in New Zealand. Also dealt with are several species which were erroniously determined when originally recorded, the correct species here being given, and the transfer to the naturalized flora of two species at present included in the indigenous flora is discussed.

Specimens of the species discussed are deposited in the herbarium of the Botany Division, Plant Research Bureau, Wellington, the numbers given after each specimen being the herbarium number. Unless otherwise specified, the specimens were collected by the author.


*Berberis darwinii Hook. (Chile to Patagonia.) An escape from hedges, the fruits apparently being dispersed by birds. Khandallah Domain, Wellington, R. Mason, No. 23770; established on fringes of coastal manuka scrub, Otaitai Bush, Southland, No. 33758.


*Crassula colorata (Nees) Osten. (South Australia; Victoria; West Australia.) Established in depleted danthonia grassland, Wither Hills conservation area, near Blenheim, No. 33609. Descriptions of Australian material give the carpels as 2-seeded, whereas the Wither Hills specimens have carpels constantly 1-seeded, my specimens have been examined by Mr. J. M. Black, of Adelaide, South Australia, and he concurs with the determination, but states: “…is rather denser than our plant…”


Alternanthera denticulata R. Br. The species was first recorded from New Zealand by A. Cunningham (1838, p. 456, No. 367), who stated: “A procumbent plant, growing in bogs and open marshy grounds. Bay of Islands.—1834, R. Cunningham.” Hooker (1854, p. 212, and 1864, p. 234) and Cheeseman (1906, p. 577, and 1925, p. 413) accepted the nativity of the species without question, but Allan (1937, p. 30) expresses a doubt, noting: “Its occurrences in the field rather suggest that it is introduced only.” The first

[Footnote] * Species recorded for first time for New Zealand.

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occurrence of the plant was at the Bay of Islands, a locality where colonization had been carried out for some years prior to 1834, and the species could very feasibly have been introduced from Australia, perhaps with some of Samuel Marsden's importations of plants or animals. The subsequent spread of the plant, it must also be noted, has been to localities where it could have been carried by the early settlers, and later by commercial activities. Cheeseman (1925, p. 234) gives the distribution as from the North Cape to Rotorua and Hawke's Bay, rare and local south of Auckland; it has been found along the railway line at Feilding (Nos. 18518, 33643, 33659) and Featherston (V. D. Zotov, No. 51230), indicating that it has been dispersed by means of the railways. Recently, I found the species well established over a stony flat at Birdling's Flat, near the mouth of Lake Forsyth, Canterbury (Nos. 51020, 51021, 51022), definitely in the role of a naturalized plant. It would seem that it came into this latter locality in recent years only, since it was not recorded by Laing (1919, pp. 355–498), nor was it represented in Kirk's collection from that locality.

Having regard to the original locus and subsequent spread, I suggest that this species be removed from the indigenous flora and placed in the naturalized flora.


Ribes glutinosum Benth. (California.) All specimens I have examined in New Zealand herbaria under the name R. sanguineum Pursch. have been wrongly determined and belong to R. glutinosum Benth. R. sanguineum Pursch. was recorded by Smith (1904, pp. 208, 219) from Ashburton County, but I cannot trace whether Smith had the true R. sanguineum Pursch. or R. glutinosum Benth. Thomson (1922, p. 409), under R. grossularia Linn. states: “Cockayne reports it from Kennedy's Bush, Port Hills, Canterbury.” I think this line has been misplaced and refers to R. sanguineum Pursch., which is immediately below. I have examined the occurrence on the Port Hills, where this currant is common in bush remnants and forms thickets in the open, and have found it to be R. glutinosum Benth.


Vicia disperma D.C. (Mediterranean region.) Examination of specimens of Lens esculenta Moench. from Auckland and Wellington showed that the specimens were wrongly determined originally by Cheeseman (1883, p. 281), being actually V. disperma D.C. Allan (1940, p. 122) gives the distribution as grassland in the Auckland Domain; it has since been found in waste land, Wellington (No. 45347), and is established for a distance of several miles in grass along the railway line near Upper Hutt (Nos. 33581, 33582, 33583, 33584).


*Casuarina glauca Sieb. (Queensland, New South Wales; Victoria; South Australia.) Established and spreading on sandy areas, mouth of Wairoa River, M. Hodgkins, No. 33759.

[Footnote] * Species recorded for first time for New Zealand.

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*Parietaria officinalis Linn. (Europe.) Established along roadside, Tarakohe, Golden Bay. Mrs. D. M. Mason, No. 33760.


*Parthenocissus quinquefolia Pl (North America.) Established in waste land along railway line, Haywards, Hutt Valley No. 33738. Has also been noted at Napier and Nelson.


*Buddleia davidii Franch. (China.) An escape from gardens and hedges. Established in waste land near Haywards, Hutt Valley, No. 33740. Has also been noted as established at Te Awamutu; on sawdust heap of abandoned mill south of Mangapehi; Ongarue; Mananui; Piriaka; Kakahi; and Pohangina Valley.

*B. madagascariensis Lam. (Madagascar.) Established on sand dunes in shelter of Pinus insignis, Bream Bay, Whangarei, H. H. Allan, Nos. 48546, 48312.


*Galium murale (Linn.) All. (Mediterranean region.) Dunstan Mountains, near Cromwell, e. 700 ft., H. H. Allan, No. 48439; dry, stony creek bed, Weka Creek, Waipara, North Canterbury, No. 33614.


*Artemisia vulgaris Linn. (Europe.) Roadside, Blenheim, H. H. Allan, No. 33684; waste land, Remuera, Auckland, R. D. Scott, No. 33761.

Bidens vulgata Greene. (North America.) The specimens in New Zealand herbaria under the name of B. tripartitus Linn., a European species, have been wrongly determined and actually belong to B. vulgata Greene. Our plant differs markedly in leaf and achene characters from B. tripartitus Linn., and the name therefore requires to be expunged.

*Brachycome perpusilla (steetz.) J. M. Black. (Victoria; New South Wales; Western Australia; South Australia.) Established on erosion debris in gully bottoms, and in depleted danthonia grassland, Wither Hills, Conservation area, Blenheim, H. H. Allan, Nos. 48436, 48445.

*Centaurea maculosa Lam. (Europe.) Established on roadside and waste land, Glenmark Drive, near Waipara, North Canterbury, No. 33599; L. Kay, Nos. 33713, 33671.

*Filgo gallica Linn. (Europe, Mediterranean region.) Established in tussock grassland, Landsdowne Station, Wairau Valley, Marlborough; Nos. 33698, 47108, 48332; depleted danthonia grassland, Wither Hills Conservation area, Blenheim, No. 33624. The species has been noted as common along the hills between the Taylor and the Omaka Rivers, and over the dry stony land, formerly the bed of the Opawa River near Renwiektown, Marlborough.

*Hieraceum lachenalii Gmel. (Europe.) Established in pasture, Avoca Valley, Selwyn County, Canterbury, R. Mason, No. 51434.

[Footnote] * Species recorded for first time for New Zealand.

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*Galinsoga hispida Benth. (South America.) Specimens from Auckland, H. H. Allan, No. 18438, appear to belong to this species.


*Centaureum exaltatum (Griseb.) W. F. Wight. (North America.) Abundantly naturalized in salt meadows, Lake Ellesmere, Canterbury, growing with Plantago coronopus, Lepturus cylindricus, etc. There are specimens in the herbaria of the Botany Division, No. 33763, and the Dominion Museum, collected by T. Kirk at Lake Ellesmere, under the name of Erythrea centaureum var. tenella, these being identical with my own specimens; it also indicates that the species has been established for many years.


*Cobaea scandens Cav. (Mexico.) A garden escape, established and elimbing over trees, Day's Bay, Wellington, No. 33653.


*Datura tatula Linn. (Eurasia; Tropical America?.) Waste places, Auckland Domain. There was a patch in waste land amongst debris and packing dumped from an American military camp, and it is possible that the plant came in by this means.


*Antirrhinum majus Linn. (Mediterranean region.) Established in waste sections, on earth covering air-raid shelters, on roadsides, Napier. No. 33764. The species has definite claims to naturalization in this one locality; noted elsewhere as an occasional garden escape.

Veronica plebeja R. Br. (Eastern Australia.) This species was recorded as V. calycina R. Br. erroneously by A. Cunningham (1838, p. 382, No. 459) from “Banks of the Keri-Keri River, in grassy places.—1834, R. Cunningham.” Cheeseman (1925, p. 832) gives the distribution as “In grassy places in lowland situations from the North Cape to the Thames River, once not uncommon, now rare and local.” Allan (1937, p. 30) states that the species has doubtful claims to being considered indigenous, and that “there was frequent communication in the early days between Bay of Islands and Thames.” Oliver (1944, p. 230) says: “The only true Veronica indigenous to New Zealand seems to be V. plebeja, a species widely distributed in Eastern Australia. It is no doubt a straggler from that country.” By this it is not certain whether Oliver regards it as introduced, or merely on the outer fringe of its range. Considering the present distribution of the species, and its relation with the spread of settlement, and also its anomalous position taxonoimically, I suggest that it be transferred from the indigenous to the naturalized flora.

*V. triphyllos Linn. (Europe.) Growing in earth footpaths, Alexandra, G. Simpson, No. 48478.


*Lathraea clandestina Linn. (West and South Europe.) A note on the occurrence of this species was published by H. H. Allan in the

[Footnote] * Species recorded for first time for New Zealand.

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Bulletin of the Wellington Botanical Society, No. 3, February, 1942; the specimens, parasitic on a willow tree, were from Tutira, Hawke's Bay, H. Guthrie Smith, No. 33765.


Nothoscordum fragrans (Linn.) Kunth. (Subtropical America.) This species apparently erroneously recorded for New Zealand (T. W. Kirk, 1899, p. 225) has now been found to occur in arable land at Whakatane, No. 33637; it was formally recorded recently by Allan (1945, p. 26).


Romulea rosea (Linn.) Eckl. (South Africa.) In an early paper by the author (1944, p. 229), a species of Romulea was recorded and doubt was expressed as to whether it was R. rosea (Linn.) Eckl. Recently I have received flowering material from Miss M. J. Forbes, Mangonui, which has made possible definite identification as R. rosea (Linn.) Eckl.


Bromus rubens Linn. (Mediterranean region.) This species was collected in waste land in an abandoned American camp at McKay's Crossing, near Paekakariki, apparently having been introduced from the United States, where it is naturalized, in military equipment or packing of supplies (Nos. 47234, 47247, 47231, 47232). Allan (1940, p. 27) formally records the species for New Zealand.

*Danthonia auriculata J. M. Black. (South Australia.) Established in depleted grassland, Wither Hills Conservation area, near Blenheim, Nos. 45289, 45394, 45406, 45388, 45390. Specimens were submitted to Mr. J. M. Black, Adelaide, who states that New Zealand specimens agreed with Australian material, but in ours “the palea is more glabrous and the leaves with denser hairs, the stem is much shorter…”

*D. geniculata J. M. Black. (South Australia.) Established in depleted grassland, Wither Hills Conservation area, near Blenheim, Nos. 45395, 45403, 45404, 45405, 45402.

*Miscanthus nepalensis (Trin.) Hack. (Nepal, India.) Used for ornamental purposes in gardens, and escapes in northern parts of North Island. Waste land on roadside, Athenree, Tauranga County, A. L. Poole, No. 29201; Tauranga, A. Wall, No. 29202; C. Walker, No. 19200; amongst manuka on roadside, Waiwhiu, Wark-worth, L. B. Moore, No. 33766.

*Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx. (North America.) Common along railway line, Cambridge, E. P. White, No. 33757; Auckland, Agricultural Instructor, No. 7765; Nursery, Rotoehu State Forest, Bay of Plenty, K. W. Allison, No. 42714a and b.

*Phalaris paradoxa Linn. (Mediterranean region.) Established in swampy arable land, near Lake Ellesmere, No. 48813.

*Sorghum halepense (Linn.) Pers. (Mediterranean region.) Waste land, Napier—spreading out of section and breaking through asphalt footpath and road, Nos. 33767, 33768.

[Footnote] * Species recorded for first time for New Zealand.

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Allan, H. H., 1937. The Origin and Distribution of the Naturalized Plants of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society, London, Session 150, Part I, p. 30.

—— 1945. Annual Report, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Wellington, New Zealand, pp. 26–27.

Bailey, L. H., 1928. The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. Edition 2, revised. New York.

Beck-Managetta, G., 1930. Orobanchaceae. Das Pflanzenreich, 96; iv.

Bentham, G., 1873. Flora Australiensis. Vol. 6, pp. 192–202. London.

Black, J. M., 1922–29. Flora of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia.

Brand, A., Polemoniaceae. Das Pflanzenreich, 27: iv, pp. 24–25.

Britton, N. L., and Brown, A., 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada, etc. Edition 2, vol. 3, p. 3. New York.

Cheeseman, T. F., 1883. The Naturalized Plants of the Auckland Provincial District. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 15, p. 281.

—— 1925. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. Edition 2. Wellington.

Cunningham, A., 1837–40. Florae Insularum Novae Zelandiae Proecursor…Magazine of Zoology and Botany, vol. 1–4.

Healy, A. J., 1944. Some Additions to the Naturalized Flora of New Zealand. Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 74, p. 229.

Hegi, G., 1908–31. Illustrierte Flora von Mittel-Europa. Munchen.

Hitchcock, A. S., 1935. Manual of the Grasses of the United States. Washington, D.C.

Hooker, J. D., 1852–55. Flora Novae-Zelandiae. London.

—— 1864–67. Handbook of the New Zealand Flora. London.

Kirk, T. W., 1889. Annual Report, New Zealand Department of Agriculture, p. 225.

Laing, R. M., 1919. The Vegetation of Banks Peninsula, with a list of Species. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 51, pp. 355–408.

Oliver, W. R. B., 1944. The Veronica-like Species of New Zealand. Records of the Dominion Museum, vol. 1, p. 230.

Rehder, A., 1927. Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs. New York.

Sherff, E. E., 1937. The Genus Bidens. Part I. Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series, vol. 16, pp. 33–71, 246–50, 268–89.

Smith, W. W., 1904. Plants Naturalized in the County of Ashburton. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 36, p. 208, 219.

Thomson, G. M., 1922. The Naturalization of Animals and Plants in New Zealand. Cambridge.