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Volume 76, 1946-47
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The Moss Flora of the Arthur Pass National Park.

[Read before Otago Branch, Royal Society of New Zealand, October 9, 1945; received by the Editor, January 9, 1946; issued separately, June, 1946.]

The Arthur Pass National Park embraces an area of approximately 120,000 acres of mountainous country in the Southern Alps, and comprises the basins of the Bealey and Otira Rivers, together with the headwaters of the Waimakariri. From Mount Murchison (7,873 ft.) the Park boundary follows the southern margin of the Waimakariri watershed along the Black Range, crosses this river near its confluence with the Bealey, continues east along the forest margin, and then swings north along the Polar Range and Aicken's Range to the junction of the Otira and the Taramakau Rivers. From here it follows the summit of the Kelly and Barron Ranges, thence to Mount Isobel, and along the Shaler Range to the commencing point.

The area south of a line from Mount Rolleston to Mount Temple and thence to Falling Mount on the Polar Range forms part of the Canterbury Province, the balance being in Westland. Botanically I regard the provincial boundary to be coincident with the boundary separating the Eastern and Western Botanical Districts, and shall so consider them in this paper.

Each of the three main rivers has its source in small glaciers flanking Mount Rolleston (7,453 ft.). The Bealey and Otira flow south and north respectively in a continuous valley in which Arthur's Pass forms the separating col. This valley divides the Park into an eastern and a western portion of approximately equal size, and through it run both the railway and the highway linking the two provinces.


Laing and Oliver, in their introductory notes to a joint paper on the vegetation of the Bealey Basin (1929, pp. 716–718, in summarizing the main features of the climate, have drawn attention to the surprising dryness of the atmosphere and high rate of evaporation in an area of exceptionally high rainfall, which for four consecutive years they give as 160 ins., 201 ins., 205 ins., and 171 ins., respectively. That for 1944 was 170.3 ins. In spite of this high rainfall, the vegetation is highly xerophytic, a fact that characterizes the moss flora also, though probably to a less extent. While discussing the Hymenophyllaceae of the National Park, Holloway (1923, 577–618) gives additional data relative to the climate, and attributes the xerophytic character of the filmy ferns of the Bealey mainly to the drying effect of the south-west winds which so often persist for days at a time.

The vegetation of the Otira Basin is much more mesophytic, due in some measure no doubt to the even greater rainfall (230 ins. in 1944) and higher atmospheric humidity. The rain-bringing winds

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are from the north-west, and the fact of their ascending in the Otira and descending in the Bealey, coupled with the further fact that rain frequently falls at Otira when snow is falling at the Pass, probably accounts for the difference both in humidity and in the character of the vegetation.

Winds are frequent and often of gale force. Mist caps the tops of the ridges for some portion of almost every day, the lower level of the mist zone being apparently coincident with the lower level of the Usnea belt, so obvious on clear days from the valley floor.


The rocks throughout the area examined are of similar type, being mainly argillites and greywacke. In consequence, the derived soils are of similar chemical composition, though they may vary greatly physically, i.e., they may be stony, silty, loamy, peaty, or clayey in character. In general, they are shallow, and lie as a veneer over broken rock or clay. Drainage is excellent, though tarns and boggy patches are frequent enough in natural hollows.


The lowest altitude in the Park area is at the junction of the Otira River with the Taramakau, being there about 1,000 ft. The Bealey joins the Waimakariri at about 2,000 ft., and the Pass itself has an altitude of 3,013 ft. The higher peaks range from 6,000 ft. to nearly 8,000 ft. with the ridges lowest in the north and highest in the south.

Zones of Vegetation.

Apart from the flood plains of the main rivers and their wide shingly beds, the whole area is covered in forest up to altitudes varying from 3,000 ft. (e.g., on the Kelly Range) in the north to almost 5,000 ft. on mountains south of the Mingha River. On an average and generally, forest gives way to subalpine scrub about 3,000 ft. on the Westland side and 4,000 ft. on the Canterbury side of the Pass. The forest south of the Pass is Southern Beech forest with Nothofagus cliffortioides as the sole species of this genus and almost the only tall tree. In Westland this species is unknown, the forest comprising a large assortment of trees chief of which are rata (Metrosideros lucida), rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum), red beech (Nothofagus fusca), kamahi (Weinmannia racemosa), totara (Podocarpus hallii), and cedar (Libocedrus bidwillii). Below 2,500 ft. the forest varies according as rata or beech and rimu are locally dominant; but above this level many subalpine trees put in an appearance, most striking and widespread of which is the nei-nei (Dracophyllum traversii).

Forest finally gives way to a narrow zone of shrubs, and this in turn to herb-field, grassland, scree, and rock. Tussock grasses may ascend the slopes to close on 6,000 ft. before finally merging into barren areas of broken rock and talus scree.

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The vascular plants of the Park are well known as the result of observations made by Cockayne, Laing, Oliver, Mitchell, Calder, and others; but no comprehensive account has hitherto been written concerning the extensive cryptogamic flora of the area, notwithstanding important observations made by Berggren, Brown, Beckett, Petrie, and others concerning the bryophytes, by Holloway concerning the filmy ferns, and by Du Reitz and Allan concerning the lichen flora. The present paper is the outcome of work carried out in the area by the writer during the summers of 1942, 1943, 1944, and 1945. It concerns only the valleys of the Bealey and Otira Rivers and wholly omits the head-waters of the Waimakariri (though these were visited by Armstrong, Brown, and Beckett), and the basins of the Mingha and Deception Rivers.

History of Bryological Research in the National Park.

The first collection of mosses known to have been made in the Arthur Pass National Park was made by J. B. Armstrong in March, 1867. A more comprehensive examination was, however, carried out by the Swedish botanist S. Berggren in the early months of 1874. His mosses, together with other rich collections both of phanerogams and of cryptogams made in both islands of New Zealand, were taken to Lund, where, unfortunately, most of them lay unidentified till in 1937 they were reviewed by Dixon and Bartram in a joint paper (1937, pp. 3684) which made it clear that of some fifty mosses listed from the Park, fully twenty were species new to science at the time of their collection. The following four have eluded all subsequent investigators, viz., Ditrichum capillifolium, Dicranella perfalcata, Conostomum giganteum, and Brachythecium subplicatum. A number of other interesting mosses collected and named by subsequent investigators or from their material, had previously been gathered in this area by Berggren. Of these, the two endemic species of Pseudodistichium, Campylopodium lineare, Anoectangium bellii, Pleuridium arnoldii, Braunfelsia obesifolia, Bryum huttonii, and Mittenia plumula may be mentioned as examples. In the “List of Species” at the end of this paper will be found a list of mosses known to have been collected in the Arthur Pass Park by Berggren. Besides the recorded species, a number of unrecorded species collected by Berggren occur in a suite of specimens presented to the Auckland Memorial Museum herbarium.

Following Berggren, the next investigators of the mosses of the Park were Robert Brown and T. W. Naylor-Beckett, both of Christ-church, and Donald Petrie, of Auckland. Brown first visited the Park in June, 1884, when he examined the moss flora of the Bealey and Arthur's Pass. He revisited the area at intervals until 1889, when he climbed Kelly's Hill and was rewarded by the discovery of the following recognised species then new to science, viz., Andreaea aquatica, Andreaea aquatilis, and Pseudodistichium brotherusii. Tortula bealeyensis and Dicranoloma integrifolium were also first detected in the Park by Brown, the first certainly, the latter presumably.

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From about 1880 till the end of the century, Beckett, who was interested in mountaineering, gave considerable attention to the mosses. He discovered on the Pass itself both Orthotrichum graphiomitrium and Funaria subattenuata, previously unknown, and on Kelly's Hill he detected in New Zealand the South American moss Cheilothela chilensis and the Australian moss Papillaria amblyacis.

In 1895, Dr. D. Petrie made the ascent of Kelly's Hill in the company of Dr. L. Cockayne and collected numerous mosses, several of which proved new to the New Zealand flora. As Petrie has at no time published anything concerning the mosses of New Zealand, his activities in this field and the value of his contribution have never received the recognition they merited; for not only did he collect copiously in the Otago and Auckland provinces, but he brought to light a very considerable number of mosses new to the flora or to science at the time of their discovery, or new to the districts where the discoveries were made. Most of his collection is now housed in the Dominion Museum, though the writer had received from Petrie a not inconsiderable collection of mosses accompanied by the hope that some attention should be paid to these plants.

On Kelly's Hill, Petrie first obtained Tortula petriei, then new to science, and Calliergon sarmentosum, a moss not previously detected in the Southern Hemisphere. From Petrie's specimens collected in the Taramakau Valley, Brotherus described his Eucamptodon petriei sp. nov. subsequently found to be Braunfelsia obesifolia. Miss L. B. Moore alone has located this fine endemic moss in areas other than Arthur Pass National Park, viz., at Mount Arthur in the North-Western Botanical District.

During the past fifty years, no further systematic study of the mosses of this region seems to have been undertaken, though Miss L. B. Moore has brought to light the European moss Polytrichum formosum, and Mr. G. O. K. Sainsbury the Grimmiaceous moss Coscinodon australis.

Apart from a small collection of mosses gathered in 1916, and added to in 1920, on the road from Arthur's Pass to Otira, the writer began his study of the bryophytic flora of the Park in 1942, and continued it in each of the following years. Besides noting and collecting most of the mosses previously reported, the writer has succeeded in discovering what may be a new Blindia or Blindiopsis, the epiphytic moss Dicranoweisia spenceri, and a moss identified by Mr. Sainsbury as Rhacomitrium striatipilum, an Andean species with which this appears to be identical. Dicranoloma integrifolium and Campylopodium lineare have again come to light. Homalia auriculata, noted on Kelly's Hill, has not before been observed in the South Island, and Homalia pulchella, found at Otira, has eluded previous workers. Braunfelsia has for the first time been found fruiting copiously. Indeed, some fifty mosses are recorded from the area for the first time, though it seems scarcely possible that such plentiful mosses as Leptotheca gaudichaudii, Lepyrodon australis, Neckera hymenodonta, or Ceratodon purpureus could have escaped the notice of previous students.

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The Moss Flora.

General Observations.

The Arthur Pass National Park being a region of very high rainfall and mostly clothed with forest on the lower mountain slopes, offers ideal conditions for the growth of bryophytes and lichens. In consequence, mosses are numerous both in species and in individuals, and with liverworts and lichens and ferns clothe the forest floor, rocks, and tree-trunks with a dense growth of cryptogamic vegetation.

On the other hand, branches of trees in the beech forests of the Bealey Basin are frequently singularly free of epiphytic growths, as are the trunks of the beech trees where exposed to the fury of the nor'-west gales. Almost all the mosses of the Canterbury beech forests are to be found also in the rata, pine, or kamahi forests of Westland; but not all the mosses of the Otira Basin occur in that of the Bealey. Superficially, the two florulas look very distinct and different; but this is due more to the varying degrees of dominance of individual species than to the presence of distinct species.

Above the forest line, the Canterbury moss florula is scanty and composed of few species, whereas the Westland equivalent is much richer both in species and in individuals. Indeed, it is from this zone that the richest harvest of new and rare mosses has been obtained, particularly on Kelly's Hill.

In the accompanying notes the mosses characteristic of the various substrata and associations are indicated, and this is followed by a list of species as complete as past and present research has made possible. That other mosses will be detected is almost certain, considering the inherent difficulties of field-work in bryology, and the fact that large areas still remain unexplored. The method adopted was to make the highway a base line from which as many trips as possible were made to east and to west, and on each traverse to collect and record the mosses of as many substrata as possible. The following high peaks were climbed in the course of the study: Mount Cassidy, Mount Blimit, and Mount Temple on the eastern side, and Kelly's Hill (twice), Mount Barron, Mount Philistine, and Mount Avalanche (twice).

Xerophytic Features of Moss Flora.

Goebel (1905, pp. 143149) enumerates the commoner adaptations in mosses for the retention and use of water. Mosses living perpetually in hygrophytic and often in mesophytic conditions usually have leaves of one cell thickness, and devoid of surface papillae or terminal aristae, structures common in mosses subject to periodic intervals of drought. The following features are all associated with the need for countering xerophytic conditions: (1) formation of compact cushion growth, (2) felted stems, (3) diaphanous hair-tips, (4) plication or undulation of the leaf-surface, (5) lamellation of the nerve, (6) incrassate cell structure, (7) incurving or recurving of the leaf-margin, (8) twisting, incurving, or enrolling of the leaves, (9) appression of the leaves against the stem, (10) thickening of the leaves for water-storage.

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Applying these tests to the moss flora of the Park area, it becomes obvious that in common with the phanerogamic and pteridophytic flora, the moss flora is essentially xerophytic in type though developed in a region of excessive rainfall. Indeed, each of the above types of adaptation has many representatives, and few mosses in the Park lack some such adaptation.

Habitats and Associations.

It is scarcely necessary to remark that the mosses associated with any substratum may be obligate or facultative members. Again, mosses may have a wide range of substrata, or a wide range in the pH values of these substrata; or, alternatively, they may be restricted to a single substratum, or to a very restricted interval in the pH. Unfortunately, no work has yet been done in New Zealand in classifying the mosses according to their pH range, but in a paper by Apinis and Lacis (1934, pp. 1100) entitled “Acidity of the Substrata of Mosses,” the pH range for some 45 New Zealand Mosses is given, of which nearly half occur in the Arthur Pass Park. The moss species associated with some 10 typical substrata in the Park area have been catalogued, however, and commonly associated hepatics and lichens listed. It will be noted that with one exception the associations are very distinct one from the other.

A. Consolidated River-bed Shingle.

In this area the first phanerogams to people river-shingle that has become at all stabilized are Raoulia tenuicaulis, Epilobium melanocaulon, E. microphyllum, and E. pedunculare. The pioneer mosses in such areas are Rhacomitrium lanuginosum var. pruinosum, Polytrichum juniperinum, and, more rarely, Pogonatum subulatum, all growing in fine grit; with Rhacomitrium crispulum as the first to establish itself on the rock surfaces, soon to be followed by Dicranoweisia antarctica. Further consolidation leads to the incursion of the cosmopolitan moss Ceratodon purpureus and the dark green Campylopus torquatus, which quickly forms a shallow covering mat with or without Bryum caespiticium.

Permanent consolidation leads to the establishment of a grassy herbaceous sward in which Acaena spp., Geranium microphyllum, and Wahlenbergia albomarginata are conspicuous members. Here Thuidium furfurosum and a dwarf form of Brachythecium rutabulum in the drier spots, and Breutelia pendula in the moister spots, are the mosses most commonly to establish themselves. In the upper reaches of the Bealey and Otira and their tributaries, Hypnum cupressiformis, Rhacocarpus australis, and various species of lichens of the genus Cladonia are additional members of an association from which Rhacomitrium lanuginosum var. pruinosum is never absent.

B. Rocks in the Stream-bed.

The mosses of this substratum may be more or less permanently submerged, or they may occupy stations on the sides or flat tops normally above the water level. Four mosses of the first category common in all streams in the Park area examined are Fissidens rigidulus, Grimmia apocarpa var. rivularis, Tridontium tasmanicum,

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and Philonotis australis, though the last-named is not restricted to this station, being common on any area over or through which water is moving.

On Kelly's Hill two submerged species of AndreaeaA. aquatica and A. aquatilis—are met with, the former where the water is running, and the latter on rocks in the still waters of the tarns on the Saddle behind the Patrick Carroll Memorial Hut. A. nitida has been obtained by Brown near the source of the Waimakariri River.

No moss is more common on the flat surfaces of rocks in the stream-bed, or more beautiful, than the golden mats of Sematophyllum tenuirostre. Associated with it, the following are abundantly common: Rhacomitrium crispulum, Dicranoweisia antarctica, Andreaea subulata, and, in more restricted localities, Brachythecium salebrosum and B. plumosum. Hepatics are not generally numerous on midstream rocks, but in Avalanche Creek, at Arthur's Pass, the following were quite common: Balantiopsis convexiuscula, Schistochila kirkiana, and Metzgeria sp., as was Chiloscyphus sinuosus in Kelly's Creek, at Otira.

Streams flowing through forested areas often have Mnium rostratum and Atrichum muelleri sheltering in grit on the downstream side of rocks in the stream-bed; while on the rocks themselves Cyathophorum bulbosum and its variety minus, Hypopterygium-novae-seelandiae var. nudicaule, and Hypnodendron arcuatum are probably the most commonly observed mosses.

Near or at their sources, streams often have no obvious channel, and the vegetation through which the water percolates rests on gritty soil rather than on rock. Here we find Sphagnum antarcticum, Bryum blandum, Drepanocladus brachiatus, and on Kelly's Hill D. fluitans. Blindia tenuifolia has twice been taken in streams originating in glaciers or snowfields. B. magellanica is likewise not uncommon on rocks near waterfalls in the beds of such streams, and a new (?) species of Blindia or Blindiopsis has been obtained in the bed of Avalanche Creek. It seems certain that Blindiopsis immersa would be obtained by Berggren in a similar habitat, if, indeed, this “new” moss be not an epharmone of that species.

C. Rocky Stream Banks.

I know of no moss which can be classified as obligate to this station, yet quite a number of mosses may most easily be observed here, and the moss florula of the stream bank is fairly constant in the Otira and Bealey areas according as each is well lighted or shaded, moist or dry.

(1) Damp Shady Banks.

This is the ideal home of the Bartramiaceae, of which the following representatives are present in all parts of the region: Bartramia papillata, B. norvegica, Breutelia pendula, B. elongata, Philonotis australis, P. tenuis, Conostomum australe, and at the higher altitudes C. pusillum. Philonotis scabrifolia is less common and is restricted apparently to the Canterbury side of the Pass. As might be expected, quite a considerable number of additional mosses find congenial conditions on these shady banks, especially such as normally grow in

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heavily forested areas. The following are the more common species observed: Rhizogonium mnioides, Rhacocarpus australis, Distichophyllum amblyophyllum, D. microcarpum (much less commonly), Hypnum cupressiforme, Dendroligotrichum dendroides, Dicranoloma cylindropyxis, D. plurisetum, Hypopterygium novae-seelandiae var. nudicaule, Hypnodendron marginatum, Polytrichadelphus magellanicus, Leptobryum pyriforme, Leptotheca gaudichaudii. The more commonly associated hepatics so far as my observations have gone appear to be Jamesoniella colorata, J. sonderi, Lepidozia pendulina, Chandonanthus squarrosus, Plagiochila circumdentata, and Bazzania involuta (?). Rather less common are Schistochila pinnatifida, S. ciliata, Balantiopsis rosea, Lepidozia ulothrix, Radula buccinifera. In really wet spots Lepidolaena menziesii and Chiloscyphus billardieri associated as a rule with Sphagnum antarcticum and Breutelia elongata, are characteristic species.

On still more deeply shaded banks within the forest itself Hypnodendraceous mosses are particularly well represented by Mniodendron comatum (M. comosum ?), Sciadocladus kerrii, Hypnodendron marginatum, and H. arcuatum. These, or some of them, with Sphagnum antarcticum, Hypopterygium novae-seelandiae var. nudicaule, and Breutelia elongata form a very common bryophytic association to which the following hepatics also belong: Balantiopsis convexiuscula, Monoclea forsteri, Chiloscyphus billardieri, Hymenophytum flabellatum, and several others not listed.

In the Westland portion of the Park Hookeriaceous mosses show a preference for the banks of forest streams and are represented by Pterygophyllum quadrifarium, P. dentatum, Eriopus cristatus, and, doubtless, by E. flexicollis, which was collected by Berggren but not by the writer.

Hepatics in this station were not collected in the Otira Valley, but in the valley of the Bealey and its tributaries the following were amongst the commonest or most conspicuous: Plagiochila banksiana, Balantiopsis convexiuscula, Isotachis subtrifida, I. lyallii, I. spp., Chiloscyphus billardieri, C. tricanthus, Jamesoniella colorata, J. sonderi, Schistochila kirkiana, S. ciliata, Metzgeria sp., Lepidozia sp., and Radula buccinifera. Chandonanthus squarrosus, apparently indifferent to the type of substratum—tree, rock, or ground, occurs here, too.

(2) Damp, Well-lighted Stream Banks.

Well-lighted banks over which there is a more or less continuous water seepage are the usual stations for Bryum laevigatum and B. curvicollum and commonly of Breutelia tenuis, less commonly of Philonotis australis. Fissidens rigidulus is a common associate, as is Polytrichum commune, a cosmopolitan moss of rather catholic tastes. On rocks in the Bealey Basin kept perpetually moist by the spray from waterfalls hepatics are more numerous than mosses and are represented by Lepidolaena taylori, Schistochila kirkiana, Plagiochila banksiana, Chiloscyphus beckettiana, Jamesoniella colorata, Isotachis sp. The mosses are mainly Bartramiaceous species.

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(3) Dry Rocky Stream Banks Exposed to Full Sunlight.

Mosses located on rocky stream banks fairly close to the water but normally wet only when rain is falling or has recently fallen include Rhacomitrium crispulum, Dicranoweisia antarctica, Conostomum australe, Rhacocarpus australis, Andreaea subulata, A. rupestris, A. acuminata, Polytrichum commune, P. juniperinum, Psilopilum australe, Ditrichum flexifolium, less commonly D. punctulatum, and Dicranum aucklandicum, and in rock crevices Amphidium cyathicarpum, or Cheilothela chilensis. All these occur in this station both east and west of the Pass itself.

(4) Dry Rocky Outcrops Exposed to Wind and Sun, but Not Close to Water.

Such localities occur well up the stream banks, beyond the influence of the stream on either the soil or the air, but perhaps more commonly as isolated outcrops of bare rocks on the mountain side such as are normally characterized by Exocarpus bidwillii, Leptospermum scoparium, Cyathodes empetrifolia, etc., and on Avalanche Peak by the fern Gleichenia cunninghamii. In such localities a number of strongly xerophytic mosses are usually associated with these plants, commonest of which are Rhacomitrium lanuginosum var. pruinosum, R. crispulum, Rhacocarpus australis, Campylopus introflexus, Dicranoloma robustum var. pungens, and Andreaea spp. Polytrichum juniperinum and Ditrichum flexifolium may or may not be present.

The usual associated lichens are Cladonia pycnoclada, C. retipora, C. aggregata, and C. pleurota. Hepatics on this substratum are few, being mainly Chandonanthus squarrosus and either Jamesoniella colorata or J. sonderi. I have no notes from any locality under this heading from the Western Botanical District or from elevations exceeding 3,500 ft. in the Eastern.

D. Alpine and Subalpine Rocks.

Under this term are included all rocks above the forest zone. These are the favoured substratum for the Grimmiacea and the Andreaeacea. The ubiquitous moss Rhacomitrium lanuginosum var. pruinosum, R. crispulum (in forms with and without hyaline hair-tips to the leaves), R. ptychophyllum commonest between 4,500 and 6,000 ft., and R. striatipilum, so identified by Mr. Sainsbury from material collected by me on Kelly's Hill, together with two species of Grimmia (G. apocarpa var. rivularis and G. sp.) and Coscinodon australis recently discovered here by Mr. Sainsbury, amply represent the first-named family, while most known New Zealand species of Andreaea occur in the Park and on this substratum also.

The Dicranaceae are likewise well represented, but particularly on Kelly's Hill, where the following have been gathered: Dicranoloma plurisetum, D. cylindropyxis, D. robustum var. pungens, D. robustum var. setosum, D. billardieri, and D. integrifolium; Braunfelsia obesifolia, Dicranum pumilum, Pseudodistichium brotherusii, P. buchanani, and Pleuridium arnoldii. The rare moss Ditrichum fragilicuspis (presumably) was obtained by me from rocks on Mount Cassidy at 4,500 ft. altitude.

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Kelly's Hill mosses of other families include Distichophyllum pulchellum and Homalia auriculata as well as Conostomum australe, Breutelia elongata, Bartramia papillata, B. norvegica, and Rhacocarpus australis. It is of interest to observe that Braunfelsia rarely occurs save in association with Breutelia elongata and the hepatics Lepidolaena menziesii and Chiloscyphus billardieri, and it was in this association that Distichophyllum pulchellum and Homalia auriculata were noted. Pleuridium arnoldii occurs on rocks covered with a veneer of soil, but more commonly on freshly-exposed soil with no underlying rock. It was noted for the first time by me both on Avalanche Peak and in the Temple Basin.

Andreaea micro-vaginata was sought for unsuccessfully, but A. subulata is common, which supports a supposition that the former may possibly be no more than a depauperated plant of the latter with a poorly-developed nerve. A. australis occurs on Mount Cassidy, and A. nitida at the source of the Waimakariri on Mount Rolleston.

In all parts of the Park, but especially east of Arthur's Pass, Dicranoweisia antarctica is abundant on alpine rocks. Indeed, at 6,000 ft. it, with Rhacomitrium ptychophyllum, R. lanuginosum var. pruinosum, and Andreaea rupestris, constitutes the usual rock association. Hepatics are not common at the higher altitudes, though Plagiochila banksiana was obtained at over 5,000 ft. on Avalanche Peak in the shelter of large rocks loosely piled together. Chandonanthus squarrosus and Herberta alpina grow here also.

E. Banks of Rock-and-Clay.

(1) Dry Rock-and-Clay Banks.

This term is here applied to all banks, cuttings, and vertical rock surfaces in areas clear of forest over which water is not seeping more or less continuously, and which therefore are subject to periods of desiccation of long or short duration during fine weather. Indeed, most of the observations were made on the twenty miles of highway that traverse the Park from Waimakariri to the Taramakau River. This substratum is not essentially different from that described in section C.4, save that it is never subject to the extremes of heat or drought experienced in the former case, while rotten rock and clay is much more prevalent.

The more usual mosses on this substratum (in the Otira Gorge for instance) are Rhacocarpus australis, Campylopus torquatus, Thuidium furfurosum, Rhacomitrium crispulum, R. lanuginosum var. pruinosum, Dicranoweisia antarctica, and Conostomum australe, with Amphidium cyathicarpum and Bryum kiamae (?) in the rock crevices.

The following are also common, though rather less so than those listed above: Hypnum cupressiforme, H. chrysogaster, Bartramia papillata, B. norvegica, Rhizogonium mnioides, Andreaea subulata, A. rupestris, Polytrichum commune, P. juniperinum, Polytrichadelphus magellanicus, Ditrichum flexifolium, D. punctulatum, Breutelia elongata, Psilopilum australe, and Leptotheca gaudichaudii.

Still less common and in several cases possibly confined to the Bealey Basin are Catagonium politum, Dicranum aucklandicum,

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Philonotis scabrifolia, Pleuridium arnoldii, Webera cruda, Brachymenium preissianum, and the rare Campylopodium lineare. East of Arthur's Pass township, near the “49” mile peg, Tortula rubra occurs in some quantity and, more rarely, Tortella calycina. No systematic collecting was undertaken of the associated hepatics.

(2) Wet Rock-and-Clay Banks.

This term is here applied to roadside banks over which the seepage of moisture or the presence of shallow forest streams prevents periodic desiccation from occurring. Much the commonest mosses in such places are Breutelia pendula and Philonotis tenuis, but almost all the Bartramiaceous mosses may be found. Where the bank is shaded Breutelia elongata and Sphagnum antarcticum are not infrequent. Associated hepatics include Monoclea forsteri in stream courses, Marchantia sp., Plagiochila deltoidea, P. banksiana, Schistochila ciliata, S. tuloides, Jamesoniella sonderi, and species of Lepidozia, Metzgeria, Isotachis, and Chiloscyphus.

E. Rocks of the Forest Floor.

The rocks scattered over the forest floor are covered with a copious growth of cryptogamic vegetation comprising mosses, liver-worts, ferns, and lichens. The following mosses, present throughout the Park area, are most abundant in the Western Botanical District:

Rhacopilum strumiferum, R. robustum, Echinodium hispidum, Camptochaete gracilis (including a very robust variety), C. ramulosa, Cyathophorum bulbosum and the var. minus, Thuidium sparsum, T. laeviusculum, T. furfurosum, and Dicranoloma menziesii. Rather less common and by no means restricted to this substratum are Hypopterygium novae-seelandiae var. nudicaule, Acanthocladium extenuatum, and Acrocladium auriculatum. Homalia falcifolia is local, and like both its congeners confined to the northern half of the Park. It grows also on tree-bases.

The following, also present throughout the area, are more abundant and conspicuous on the stony floor of the Beech forests than in Westland: Dicranoloma cylindropyxis, D. robustum var. pungens, and D. leucolomoides; Rhizogonium mnioides, Thuidium furfurosum, and in the better lighted places Brachythecium rutabulum. Everywhere the moss Ptychomnion aciculare may be found, and in places (e.g. The Birches, near the Pass) it may become the dominant moss not only on the stones but on the ground and trees equally. Lembophyllum clandestinum is not common, but when found it usually grows on rocks and logs in the forest.

The associated lichens are mainly species of Sticta. Common species of the beech forest floor are S. coronata, S. sinuosa, and S. cinereo-glauca, to which may be added the following in the forests of the northern area: S. dissimilis, S. filix, S. menziesii, S. fragillima, and, commonest of all, S. fossulata. The associated hepatics were not collected in Westland, but in the Canterbury half of the Park the following were listed:

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Chandonanthus squarrosus, Bazzania adnexa, B. involuta (?), Chiloscyphus billardieri, C. sinuosus, Lepidolaena menziesii, Schistochila pinnatifolia, Cuspidatula monodon, Plagiochila circinalis, P. deltoidea, P. circumdentata, Diplophyllum domesticum, Balantiopsis convexiuscula, Lepidozia sp., Jamesoniella colorata, and Riccardia sp.

G. Earthen Floor of the Forest.

(1) Beech Forest.

Many of the mosses named in the previous section are also to be met with on the earthern forest floor. Indeed, it is doubtful whether any of them is wholly restricted to a rock substratum. Together with all the moss species named in the previous section excepting Camptochaete gracilis and Homalia falcifolia, and the Lembophyllum, the following are to be met with in the wetter spots: Sphagnum antarcticum, Breutelia elongata, Hypopterygium novae-seelandiae var. nudicaule, and Hypnodendron arcuatum, and in the drier areas Leptotheca gaudichaudii, Bryum truncorum, Tayloria octoblepharis, and, rarely, Leucobryum candidum. The Tayloria I have found covering many square yards at a spot on the forest margin where night-soil had been regularly buried, and again on a rotting sack on the bank of the Bealey River. Plagiothecium denticulatum I have gathered only once in the beech forest near to the Pass itself. Distichophyllum amblyophyllum is very common on forest litter.

(2) Subtropical Rain-forest.

Mitchell (1935) distinguishes three types of forest in the northern half of the district, the first characterized by Libocedrus bidwillii, Podocarpus hallii, Dracophyllum traversii, etc.; the second by the dominance of Southern Rata (Metrosideros lucida); and the third by the abundance of Rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum), Kamahi (Weinmannia racemosa), and Red Beech (Nothofagus fusca). In reality, the first two are only to be distinguished by the local dominance of one or other tree, the forest being otherwise fairly homogeneous, and the moss flora practically identical. The upper Libocedrus forest, on the other hand, has a distinct florula in the mosses as in the trees and shrubs. The dividing line lies just beyond the 2,000 ft. level.

The forest floor of the Westland area has a totally distinct aspect from that of the beech forest, due mainly to the much higher percentage of liverworts, lichens, and ferns; the more numerous moss species, and the greater dominance of certain species which, though present in the southern area, are nowhere physiognomic. The same is true of the epiphytic moss flora.

Mosses showing a preference for the earthen forest floor as distinct from the stony floor include Breutelia elongata, Sphagnum antarcticum, Dicranoloma cylindropyxis, Distichophyllum amblyophyllum, Leptotheca gaudichaudii, Leucobryum candidum, Mniodendron comatum, Hypnodendron marginatum, H. arcuatum, Hypopterygium novae-seelandiae var. nudicaule, and near the forest margin Brachythecium rutabulum, Campylium relaxum, Fissidens oblongifolius, Homalia pulchella, Zygodon menziesii, and Dawsonia superba, the last four noted in Westland only.

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The upland forest in the Otira Basin is mainly characterized by the abundance of Dendroligotrichum dendroides, which grows in colonies of great extent. With it the commonest associate is Dicranoloma plurisetum. Others noted were D. platycaulon, Ptychomnion aciculare, Leucobryum candidum, Acanthocladium extenuatum, Rhizogonium mnioides, and Bartramia norvegica. The hepatic Isotachis lyallii seems to be as common here as at the Bealey, but Chandonanthus squarrosus is definitely less common in the areas examined. Neither liverworts nor lichens were listed from this substratum.

H. Epiphytic Mosses.

Practically all the epiphytic cryptogams of the beech forest reappear in the forests of the Westland portion of the Park; but not all the Westland species are met with on trees to the south of the Pass.

(1) Species Equally Common in Bealey and Otira Basins.

Dicnemon calycinum, D. semicryptum, Dicranoloma cylindropyxis, D. robustum, Dicranum trichopodum, Holomitrium perichaetiale, Leptostomum inclinans, Lepyrodon lagurus, Macromitrium erosulum, M. gracile, M. longipes, M. weymouthii, Orthotrichum beckettii, Ulota lutea, U. lateciliata, U. breviseta (?), and Zygodon intermedius.

Of these, much the most abundant and physiognomic are Leptostomum inclinans, Lepyrodon lagurus, Macromitrium longipes, and Zygodon intermedius on the tree trunks and Dicemon semicryptum on branches.

The hepatics in this category are numerous and include Chandonanthus squarrosus, Lepicolea scolopendra, Plagiochila deltoidea, and Bazzania involuta. Sticta dissimulata and S. latifroms are lichens under this heading.

(2) Species Commonest in the Bealey Basin.

Tortula bealeyensis, T. rubra, Sauloma tenella, and Lepyrodon australis are more frequently seen in the Bealey than in the Otira Valley, if, indeed, the first three occur there at all. Neckera laevigata and Orthotrichum graphiomitrium have been found only in the Bealey Basin and most commonly on lacebark (Hoheria glabrata). Hepatics which are either more common on the Canterbury side of the Pass or were not found at all on the Westland side include the following: Plagiochila annotina, P. radiculosa, P. circinalis, P. fuscella, Radula physoloba, Mylia australis, Frullania falcata, F. kirkii, F. falciloba, and Chandonanthus squarrosus. Frullania kirkii is everywhere abundant on beech trees fully exposed to light and is almost invariably associated with the lichen Parmelia sulcata, and frequently with P. lugubris, P. weindorferi, and P. reticulata.

Lichens epiphytic on forest trees within the forest include Sticta colensoi, S. variabilis, Sphaerophorus australis and the rarer S. coralloides (?). In bleak, exposed stations Sticta coronata occurs very commonly. Above 3,500 ft. Usnea contexta and U. pellucida drape the upper branches of the beech trees, but my notes do not

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reveal whether the same species of Usnea are found in Westland. U. arida occurs on exposed beech trunks, but is neither physiognomic nor conspicuous.

(3) Species Commonest in the Otira Basin.

Otira mosses rare or absent in the Bealey Basin include Bellia nervosa, Cladomnion ericoides, Cryptopodium bartramioides, Mesotus celatus, Lembophyllum clandestinum, Orthotrichum tasmanicum, Schlotheimia brownii, Weymouthia cochlearifolia and its var. billardieri, W. mollis, and Homalia falcata (more commonly rupestral). Hymenodon piliferus and Calomnion laetum, restricted to the stems of tree-ferns, are of necessity restricted to Westland, as tree-ferns, on which alone it grows, do not occur in the beech forest. Associated hepatics other than those listed in section 1 include (on Kelly's Hill) Lepidozia pendulina, Jamesoniella kirkii, Plagiochita circumdentata, and Porella elegantula (?). Porella stangeri is only locally common (e.g., summit of Otira Gorge).

Epiphytic lichens of the genus Sticta are numerous—S. sub-caperata, S. internectens, S. dissimilis, S. menziesii, S. fragillima, S. filix, S. fossulata, S. latifrons, and S. dissimulata. The velvety lichen (Coenogonium implexum) was observed on the trunks of trees on the forest margin at Otira.

(4) Epiphytic on Hoheria.

A very specialized association occurs on the lacebark (Hoheria glabrata) wherever it occurs in the Arthur Pass National Park (e.g., shingle slides, river terraces, slips) and rather more rarely on Aristotelia racemosa, A. fruticosa, and Coprosma propinqua. Mosses rarely missing are Calyptopogon mnioides, Orthotrichum beckettii, and Neckera hymenodonta, and with these are associated several of the following: Neckera laevigata, Ulota lutea, Sauloma tenella, Leptostomum inclinans, Macromitrium weymouthii, M. longipes, M. pusilla, and Orthotrichum graphiomitrium.

A very similar association occurs commonly in the North Island in which Calyptopogon mnioides is associated with an Orthotrichum (O. tasmanicum), one or both species of Neckera, Cryphaea tenella, and in some areas Dichelodontium nitidum. Neither of these last two genera, however, is known to be represented in the Park. Incidentally, it may be observed that whereas in the North Island Calyptopogon is a shy fruiter, in the National Park it fruits copiously.

To sum up, it may be remarked that the epiphytic bryophyte flora is varied and extensive and is associated with a conspicuous lichen flora comprising mainly species of Sticta and Sphaerophorus within the forest, and of Parmelia in open places, more particularly on Nothofagus cliffortioides. Many species are restricted or almost restricted in the Park to the Otira Basin, where alone several other species have been noted. Cushion-forming epiphytic mosses are abundantly represented by Leptostomum inclinans, Lepyrodon lagurus, and Zygodon intermedius, and at the higher altitudes by Lepyrodon australis. Macromitrium longipes and the two species of Dienemon are plentiful and very commonly in association. On

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branches, particularly on the upper forest margin, Ulota spp. are abundant. Dicranum trichopodum, which is far from rare at the lower levels, sometimes has setae up to four inches long. On Kelly's Hill Orthotrichum beckettii grows prolifically on Carmichaelia odorata in the subalpine scrub.

I. Logs, Fallen Trees, and Decaying Timber.

Wood in an advanced stage of decomposition is the ideal sub-stratum for Rhizogonium distichum, R. bifarium, R. novae-hollandiae, and Sematophyllum amoenum. Pterygophyllum quadrifarium and P. dentatum, neither of which appears to be common nor restricted to rotten wood, is very commonly found there in localities where it grows. I have failed to note either of them in the Bealey Valley. Timber in a less advanced stage of decay is usually occupied by mosses from the following list: Holomitrium perichaetiale, Dicranum trichopodum, Dicranoloma spp., Hypnum cupressiforme, Ptychomnion aciculare, Brachythecium rutabulum, Thuidium furfurosum, Acrocladium auriculatum, Acanthocladium extenuatum, Rhacopilum strumiferum, Sematophyllum amoenum, or Eurhynchium asperipes. The associated hepatics include Chandonanthus squarrosus, Chiloscyphus beckettianus, C. sinuosus, Schistochila tuloides, Lophocolea spinifera, L. sp., and Plagiochila spp., but here, as in some other stations, only the mosses were systematically collected or studied.

J. Swamps and Bogs.

Swamp mosses include first and foremost Sphagnum antarcticum, in which reddish patches of Bryum blandum may occasionally be observed (e.g., Kelly's Saddle, Mount Barron, Temple Basin). Where the water is moving slowly from the swamp, Drepanocladus brachiatus or D. fluitans may appear, and it is probable that Berggren secured Bryum huttonii from such an area of Swamp. Bryum curvicollum grows in swampy patches on the Bealey Flats, with Carex berggreni.

Bogs, on the other hand, usually have as their commonest mosses Rhacomitrium lanuginosum var. pruinosum, dwarf Campylopus torquatus, C. clavatus, C. introflexus, or C. bicolor, and Rhacocarpus australis. Hepatics are few and lichens mostly species of CladoniaC. pycnoclada, C. aggregata, C. retipora, and C. pleurota—and a dwarf white coralloid lichen Siphula medioxema particularly common on Avalanche Peak. It is noteworthy that the bog mosses and lichens are practically identical with those of exposed rock outcrops.


The preparation of this paper has only been possible by reason of the assistance so ungrudgingly given by Mr. G. O. K. Sainsbury, Mrs. E. A. Hodgson, and Dr. H. H. Allan with the mosses, hepatics, and lichens respectively. Indeed, all the liverworts and lichens mentioned have been identified by the above authorities. As the paper is concerned with the mosses in particular, unknown and doubtful species have been referred to Mr. Sainsbury for identification or verification; and it is true to say that without his help and criticism this paper could scarcely have been attempted. All field notes and observations are my own, and for the accuracy of these I take full responsibility.

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I desire also to acknowledge the ready assistance of Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, Dr. G. Archey, and Dr. R. Falla and their assistants in facilitating access to the valuable material housed in the herbaria of the Dominion Museum, Auckland Memorial Museum, and Canterbury Museum respectively.

Literature Consulted.

Arv. Apinis and L. Lacis, 1934. Data on the Ecology of the Bryophytes: Acidity of the Substrata of Mosses. Acta. Horti. Univ. Latviensis, 9, 1–100.

Beckett, T. W. Naylor-, 1892. Description of New Species of Musci. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 25, pp. 289296.

—— 1893. On Some Little-known New Zealand Mosses. Ibid., vol. 26, pp. 277288.

—— 1896. On New Zealand Mosses. Ibid., vol. 29, pp. 441450.

—— 1898. Some Recent Additions to the Moss Flora of New Zealand. Ibid., vol. 31, pp. 426437.

Brown, Robert, 1892. Notes on the New Zealand Species of the Genus Andreaea, together with Descriptions of Some New Species. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 25, pp. 276285.

—— 1894. Notes on the New Zealand Mosses. Genus Grimmia. Ibid., vol. 27, pp. 409421.

—— 1894. Notes on the New Zealand Mosses. Genus Orthotrichum. Ibid., vol. 27, pp. 422446.

—— 1896. New Zealand Musci. Notes on the Genus Dicranum with Description of New Species. Ibid., vol. 29, pp. 451465.

—— 1896. Notes on New Zealand Musci, and Description of New Species. Ibid., vol. 29, pp. 465477.

—— 1896. Further Notes on the New Zealand Musci. Genus Trichostomum, with Description of Some New Species. Ibid., vol. 29, pp. 478490.

—— 1897. Notes on the Genus Tortula, with Description of New Species. Ibid., vol. 30, pp. 399409.

—— 1898. Notes on the New Zealand Musci, and Description of New Species. Ibid., vol. 31, pp. 442470.

—— 1899. Ditto. Genus Bartramia. Ibid., vol. 32, pp. 140147.

—— 1900. Ditto. Genus Conostomum. Ibid., vol. 33, pp. 330333.

—— 1902. On the Musci of the Calcareous Districts of New Zealand, with Descriptions of New Species. Ibid., vol. 35, pp. 323342.

Cockayne, L., and Sledge, W. A., 1932. A Study of the Changes following the Removal of Subalpine Forest in the Vicinity of Arthur's Pass, Southern Alps, New Zealand. Linn. Soc. Jnl., vol. 49, pp. 115131.

Dixon, H. N., 1915. New and Rare Australasian Mosses, mostly from Mitten's Herbarium. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, vol. 42, pp. 93110.

—— 1913–28. Studies in the Bryology of New Zealand. Bull. N.Z. Inst., No. 3, pts. 1–6.

—— and Bartrum, E. B., 1937. S. Berggren's New Zealand Mosses. Botaniska Notiser, Lund.

—— and Sainsbury, G. O. K., 1933. New and Rare Species of New Zealand Mosses. Journal of Botany.

Goebel, K., 1905. Organography of Plants, Pt. II, pp. 143149.

Holloway, J. E., 1923. Studies in the N.Z. Hymenophyllaceae, Pt. I. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 54, pp. 577–618.

Laing, R., and Oliver, W. R. B., 1929. Vegetation of the Upper Bealey. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 59, pp. 715–730.

Mitten, W., 1859. Description of Some New Species of Musci from New Zealand. Journ. Linn. Soc. (Bot.), vol. 4, pp. 64100.

Sainsbury, G. O. K., 1932. Hybridism in Mosses. Bryologist, vol. 35.

—— 1935. South Island Mosses Recently Found in North Island. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 62, pp. 8285.

—— 1945. New and Critical Species of New Zealand Mosses. Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 75, pp. 169186.

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Arthur Pass National Park Moss Flora. Observer. Botanical District.
List of Species. Berggren Brown Beckett Petrie Martin Western Eastern Habitats Frequency
Sphagnum antarcticum Mitt. X X X w 5
Andreaea acuminata Mitt. X X X X h 2
" aquatica R. Br. ter. X X X a 2
" aquatilis R. Br. ter. X X X a 2
" australis F. M. X X h 1
" microvaginata C.M. X X h ?
" nitida H. f. and W. X X h 1
" rupestris Hedw. X X X X X X h 5
" subulata Harv. X X X h 3
Calomnion laetum H. f. and W. X X X l 3
Dawsonia superba Grev. X X X p 2
Atrichum muelleri Hpe. and C. M. X X X X j 2
Dendroligotrichum dendroides Hpe. and C.M. X X X X p 5
Oligotrichum tenuirostre (Hook.) Jaeg. X X o 5
Pogonatum subulatum (Menz.) Brid. X X X i, l 3
Polytrichadelphus magellanious Mitt. X X X X l 5
Polytrichum commune Hedw. X X X l, n, e 5
" formosum Hedw. X n 1
" juniperinum Willd. X X X l, n, m 5
Psilopilum australe (H. f. and W.) Jaeg. X X X X n, l, m 5
Fissidens asplenioides (Sw.) Hedw. X X X l, f 2
" oblongifolius H. f. and W. X X n 2
" rigidulus H. f. and W. X X X X a 5
Grimmia apocarpa Hedw. var. rivularis (Brid.) Web. et Mohr. X X X X X X a 4
Rhacomitrium crispulum (H. f. and W.) H. f. and W. X X X X X c 5
" lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. var. pruinosum H. f. et W. X X X X b, c, g, h, i, n, o, w 5
" ptychophyllum Mitt. X X X X h, g 3
" striatipilum Card. X X m 1
Blindia magellanica Sch. and C. M. X X X X f, b 3
" tenuifolia (H. f. and W.) Mitt. X X X X b 1
" sp. nov. (?) X X b 1
Blindiopsis immersa Bartr. and Dix. X ? X X b 1
Braunfelsia obesifolia (R. Br. ter.) Dixon X X X X X X m 2
Compylopodium euphorocladum (C. M.) Besch. X X l 1
" lineare (Mitt.) Dixon X X X X l 2
Campylopus appressifolius Mitt. X X X X l, t 3
" arboricola Card, and Dixon
" bicolor (Hornsch.) Hook. f. X X X X v, w 1
" capillatus H. f. and W. X w 1
" clavatus (R. Br.) H. f. and W. X X X X X l, t 3
" instititius H.f. and W. X X m, w 1
" introflexus (Hedw.) Mitt. X X X X X k, m, n, o, t, w 5
" torquatus Mitt. X X X X l, k, m 5
Ceratodon purpureus Brid. X X i 5
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Cheilothela chilensis (Mont.) Broth. X X X X X K 2
Dicranella cardotii (R. Br. ter.) Dix X f 1
" clathrata H.f. and W. X X f, b 1
" jamesonii (Tayl.) Broth. X X e 1
" perfalcata Bartr. et Dix. X X 1
Dicranoloma billardieri (Schwaegr.) Par X X X c, g 4
" cylindropyxis (C. M.) Dixon X X X X X X d, g, s, t 5
" leucolomoides (C. M.) Dixon X X X d, p 3
" integrifolium Dixon X X 1
" menziesii (H. f. and W.) Par X X X X d, p 5
" platycaulon (C. M.) Dixon X X X X X p, o 5
" plurisetum (C. M.) Dixon X X X X X p, o 4
" robustum (H. f. and W.) Par X X X X X s, t, d 3
" var. pungens H. f. and W. X X X X c, g, p, w 5
" var. setosum (H. f. and W.) Sainsb. X X m 2
Dicranum auoklandicum Dixon X X X X m, o 2
" pumilum Mitt. X X m, o 1
" trichopodum Mitt. apud Hook. f. X X X t 4
Dicranoweisia antarctica (C. M.) Par. X X X X X g, h, e 5
" spenceri Dix. and Sainsb. X X t 1
Distichium capillaceum (Sw.) Bry. Eur. X X X n, w 2
Ditrichum brevirostrum (R. Br. ter.) Broth. X X 1
" calcareum (R. Br. ter.) Broth. X X 1
" capillifolium Bartr. et Dix. X X 1
" flexifolium (Hook.) Hpe. X X X X X l 5
" fragilicuspis Dix. and Sainsb. X X k, g 1
" punotulatum Mitt. X X X X X X l 4
Holomitrium perichaetiale (Hook.) Brid. X X X X u 3
Pleuridium arnoldii (R. Br. ter.) Par. X X X X m 2
Pseudodistichium brotherusii (R. Br. ter.) Dix. X X o 1
" buchanani (R. Br. ter.) Dix. X X o 1
Thysanomitrium leptodus (Mont.) Dix. X X X X d 2
Trematodon flexipes Mitt. X X X l 1
Dicnemon calycinum (Hook.) Schwaegr. X X X X X r, s, u 5
" semicryptum C. M. X X X X X X r, s, u 5
Mesotus celatus Mitt. X X X X r, s 2
Leucobryum candidum (Brid.) H. f. et W. X X X X p, s 4
Barbula torquata Tayl. X X l 1
Calyptopogon mnioides (Schwaegi.) Broth. X X X X u 5
Tortella calycina (Schwaegr.) Dixon p
" knightii (Mitt.) Broth. X X c, t 1
Tortula bealeyensis R. Br. ter. X X X X r, u 2
" petriei Broth. X X X o 2
" rubra Mitt. X X X X c, r, d 3
Tridontium tasmanicum Hook. f. X X X X u 5
Macromitrium erosulum X X X X r 3
" eucalyptorum Hpe. and C. M. X X X r, s 3
" gracile (Hook.) Schwaegr. X X X X X r, s, u 5
" " var. proboscideum Dix. X X u 1
" longipes (Hook.) Schwaegr. X X X X r, s 5
" prorepens (Hook.) Schwaegr. X X X r 3
" pusillum Mitt. X X r 1
" weymouthii Broth. X X X X X r, s, u 5
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Orthotrichum beckettii C.M. X X X X u 5
" graphiomitrium C. M. and Becket X X X X u 2
" tasmanicum H. f. et W. X X X X u 3
Schlotheimia brownii Brid. X X X s 3
Ulota breviseta Malta. X X u 3
" lateciliata Malta X X u 2
" lutea Mitt X X X X u 5
" membranata Malta. X X u 1
Zygodon intermedius B. and S. X X X X s 5
" menziesii (Schwaegr.) W. Arn. X X c 2
Tayloria octoblepharis (H. f. and W.) Broth. X X z 3
Funaria sub-cuspidata Broth. X X X l 1
Anomobryum harriottii (R. Br. ter.) Dix. X X X X l 1
Brachymenium preissianum Hpe. X X l 1
Bryum blandum H. f. et W. X X X X X X f, v 4
" caespiticium Hedw. X X n 2
" curvicollum Mitt. X X X X e, b 4
" dichotomum Hedw. l 1
" huttonii R. Br. ter. X X n, v 1
" incurvifolium C. M. X X X b 2
" kiamae Broth. (?) X X e 1
" laevigatum H. f. and W. X X X l 2
" pachytheca C. M. X X l 1
" truncorum Brid. X X X X d, t, n, p 4
Leptobryum pyriforme (Hedw.) Schimp. X X l, e 1
Webera cruda (Hedw.) Schwaegr. X X X e, l 3
" nutans Hedw. X X X n 2
" tenuifolia (H. f. and W.) Jaeg. X X n 1
Plagiobryum novae-seelandiae Broth. X X 1
Leptostomum inclinans R. Br. X X X X X r, s, g 5
" macrocarpum (Hedw.) R. Br. X X r 1
Mnium rostratum Schwaegr. X X X X X j, e 4
Cryptopodium bartramioides (Hook.) Brid. X X X X x, s 5
Hymenodon piliferus H. f. et W. X X X x 2
Leptotheca gaudichaudii Schwaegr. X X p, l 5
Rhizogonium bifarium (Hook.) Schimp. X X X X t, d 4
" distichum (Sw.) Brid. X X X t 4
" mnioides (Hook.) Schimp. X X X X X t, d, p 5
" novae-hollandiae Brid. X X t 2
Mittenia plumula (Mitt.) Lindb X X 1
Calomnion laetum H. f. and W. X X X X x 3
Lepyrodont australis Hampe. X X X s 3
" lagurus (Hook.) Mitt. X X X X s, r 5
Bartramia norvegica (Gunn) Lindb. X X X b, e, l, k, p 5
" papillata H. f. et W. X X X X b, e, l, n, o 5
" robusta H. f. et W. X X 1
Breutelia affinis (Hook.) Mitt. X X X b, l, v 3
" elongata (H. f. et W.) Mitt. X X X X X X p, m, g, e 1
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Breutelia pendula (Hook.) Mitt. X X X X X l, a, b, f 5
Conostomum australe Sw. X X X X b, c, e, g, k 4
" giganteum Bartr. and Dix. X X 1
" pusillum H. f. et W. X X X X g, l, o 4
Philonotis australis (Mitt.) Jaeg. X X X X v, f, b, l, a 4
" scabrifolia (H. f. and W.) Broth. X X X l, e 2
" tenuis (Tayl.) Jaeg. X X X X X a, b, f, l, v 5
Hypnodendron arcuatum (Hedw.) Mitt. X X X e, p, v 3
" marginatum (H. f. and W.) Jaeg. X X e, b, j, v 3
Mniodendron comatum (C. M.) Lindb. X X X p 3
" comosum (La Bill.) Lindb. e. Broth. X X X X p 1
Sciadocladus kerrii (Mitt.) Jaeg. e. Broth. X X p, v 2
Rhacopilum robustum H. f. et W. X X X d, p 2
" strumiferum C. M. X X d, p, t 4
Rhacocarpus australis (Hpe.) Par. X X X X b, c, g, w 5
Cladomnion ericoides (Hook.) H. f. et W. X X X X s, u, t 4
Glyphothecium sciuroides (Hook.) Hpe. X X s 2
Ptychomnion aciculare (Brid.) Mitt. X X X X e, p, t, u 3
Trachyloma planifolium (Hedw.) Brid. X X s and lianes 3
Papillaria amblyacis (C. M.) Jaeg. X X X u 2
" crocea (Hpe.) Jaeg. X X g, u 2
Weymouthia cochlearifolia (Schw.) Dix. X X X u 3
" var. billardieri (Hpe.) Dix. X X X X s, u 5
" mollis (Hedw.) Broth. X X X X s, u 5
Homalia auriculata H. f. and W. X X g, m 1
" falcifolia (H. f. et W.) H. f. et W. X X X X X d, s 3
" pulchella H. f. et W. X X g, m, s 2
Neckera hymenodonta C. M. X X X s, u 5
" laevigata H. f. and W. X X s, u 2
Thamnium pandum (H. f. et W.) Jaeg. X X X f, v 1
Echinodium hispidum (H. f. et W.) Jaeg. X X X d, p 3
Acrocladium auriculatum (Mont.) Mitt. X X X X d, p, t, u 3
Cam [ unclear: ] tochaete arbuscula (Hook.) Jaeg. X X X s, d 5
" var. deflexa (Wils.) Dix. X X s, d, v 2
" gracilis (H. f. et W.) Par. X X X X X d 5
" ramulosa (Mitt.) Jaeg. X X X X X d, s 5
" f. robusta X X X 2
Lembophyllum clandestinum (H. f. and W.) Lindb. X X u, s 2
Bellia nervosa (H. f. and W.) Broth. X X X s, u 3
Distichophyllum amblyophyllum (H.f. et W.) Mitt. X X X X p, q 5
" microcarpum (Hedw.) Mitt. X X v, e 2
" pulchellum (H. f. et W.) Mitt. X X m, g 2
Eriopus cristatus (Hedw.) Jaeg. X X X X p, v, s 2
" flexicollis (Mitt.) Jaeg. X X X wet rocks 1
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Pterygophyllum dentatum (H. f. et W.) Mitt. X X X t 2
" quadrifarium (Hook.) Brid. X X t, d, p 1
Sauloma tenella H. f. et W. X X u, t 2
Cyathophorum bulbosum (Hedw.) C. M. X X X X d, e, s 5
" var. minus H. f. and W. X X X X X d, e 5
Hypopterygium concinnum (Hook.) Brid. X X X s and lianes 3
" filiculaeforme (Hedw.) Brid. X X X p 1
" novae-seelandiae C. M. X X X
" var. nudicaule Dixon X X X d, p, v, e 5
" setigerum (P. Beauv.) H. f. et W. X X p 2
Thuidium furfurosum (H. f. et W.) Jaeg. X X X X m, p, b, d, i 5
" var. fulvastrum (Mitt.) Dix. X X ? X d, b 2
" laeviusculum (Mitt.) Jaeg. X X X X d 4
" sparsum (H. f. and W.) Jaeg. X X X d, t, p 3
Calliergon sarmentosum (Nahl.) Kindb. X X X v, subalpine 1
Campylium decussatum (H. f. et W.) Broth. X X X n, v 2
" polygamum (Bry. Eur.) Bryhn. X X n, v 2
" relaxum (H. f. et W.) Broth. X X X X X n, v 3
Drepanocladus brachiatus (Mitt.) Dixon and/or X X X X X v 2
" fluitans (Hedw.) Warnst. X X X v 1
Brachytheoium albicans (Hedw.) Bry. Eur. X ? 1
" plumosum (Hedw.) Bry. Eur. X X X b 2
" rutabulum (Hedw.) Bry. Eur. X X X X n, p, i 5
" var. robustum Bry. Eur. X X X 2
" salebrosum (Hoffm.) Bry. Eur. X X b 3
" sub-plicatum (Hpe.) Jaeg. X X ? 1
Rhynchostegium tenuifolium (Hedw.) Jaeg. X X X 2
Acanthocladium extenuatum (Brid.) Mitt. X X X X X d, t 4
Sematophyllum amoenum (Hedw.) Dixon X X X X t 3
" tenuirostre (Hook.) Dixon X X X X b 5
Catagonium politum (H. f. et W.) Dus. X X l, p 3
Hypnum chrysogaster C. M. X X g, t, w 3
" cupressiforme Hedw. X X X n, s, t, d 5
" var. filiformis Brid. X X s 2
Plagiothecium denticulatum (L.) Bry. Eur. X X p 1
" novae-seelandiae Broth. X X 1
Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Bry. Eur. 1
Key to Habitats.
  • a—submerged rocks.

  • b—rocks in stream bed and wet rocks in full sunlight.

  • c—dry rocks in full sunlight.

  • d—rocks on forest-floor.

  • e—rocky stream banks.

  • f—rocks in spray of waterfalls.

  • g—subalpine rocks.

  • h—alpine rocks.

  • i—river shingle.

  • j—silt by stream margin.

  • k—rock crevices.

  • l—clay banks.

  • m—soil overlying rocks.

  • n—earth in open (montane).

  • o—earth in open (subalpine and alpine).

  • p—earthen floor of forest.

  • q—forest debris.

  • r—tree trunks in open.

  • s—tree trunks in forest.

  • t—logs, dead timber, stumps, etc.

  • u—shrubs, branches of trees.

  • v—swamp, or stream margin.

  • w—bog.

  • x—tree-fern stems.

  • z—excreta, decaying vegetation, etc.

Key to Frequency.
  • 1—seen only once or twice.

  • 2—far from common.

  • 3—fairly common in places.

  • 4—well distributed and common.

  • 5—abundant.