Go to National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa
Volume 76, 1946-47
This text is also available in PDF
(184 KB) Opens in new window
– 58 –

List of Orchid Species Common to Australia and New Zealand.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, December 12, 1945; received by the Editor, January 10, 1946; issued separately, June, 1946.]

The close relationship between the orchid floras of Australia and New Zealand has become more and more evident with the passing of the years. When Hooker published the Flora Novae Zelandiae in 1853, he recognised only three species of orchids occuring both in New Zealand and in Australia. The present account recognises 34 such species, rather less than half the total orchid population of these islands, and an advance of 18 upon Cheeseman's Figure in the 1925 Manual.

To the Rev. H. M. R. Rupp, of Sydney, must go the credit for most of the research connected with proving the identity of the species under consideration. All the writer has done, has been to check and confirm the evidence and conclusions presented by Mr. Rupp. Sound reasons for the several changes of name are given in the Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 70, 1945. (Rupp & Hatch.) In the same paper the anomalous Caladenia bifolia Hook.f. becomes Aporostylis bifolia (Hook.f.) R. & H.

Only the current local synonymy has been quoted in the lists that follow.

An asterisk following a name indicates that the species has been recorded from New Zealand since the appearance of the 1925 Manual. In these cases a note of the general distribution of the form and its relationships with other New Zealand species, is added. The list has been divided for convenience into two sections—


Those species in which the New Zealand plant is exactly similar (except for normal epharmony) to the Australian.


Those species in which the New Zealand plant shows sufficient constant variation from the Australian to warrant varietal rank.

It is worth recording here that Thelymitra uniflora Hook. f., which Cheeseman (Manual, 1906, 672) thought might be identical with the Tasmanian Th. cyanea Ldl., is in fact quite distinct. Both belong to the evolutionary group of Th. venosa R. Br., but in Th. uniflora the lateral lobes of the column-wing are spirally involute and entire; whereas in Th. cyanea the lobes are not involute and are irregularly bifid.


Thelymitra ixioides Sw. Vet. Akad. Handl. Stockh., 21. 1800. 228. t. 3. L.


Thelymitra longifolia J. R. & G. Forst. Char. Gen. Plant., 1776. 98. t. 49.

– 59 –

Thelymitra aristata* Ldl. Gen. et. Spec. Orch., 1840. 521.

Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 70. 1945. Rupp & Hatch. Australia, N.Z.—N. Auck. Dist. Kaitaia, 4. 1928. H. B. Matthews.


Thelymitra pauciflora R.Br. Prodr., 1810. 314.


Thelymitra venosa R.Br. Prodr., 1810. 314.


Thelymitra matthewsii Cheesmn. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 43. 1910. 177.

Th. D'Altonii Rog.


Orthoceras strictum R.Br. Prodr., 1810. 317.


Microtis unifolia (Forst. f.) Reichb. f. Beitr. Syst., Pfl. 62. 1871.


Microtis parviflora* R.Br. Prodr., 1810. 321.

Australia, Islands of the Western Pacific, South China, N.Z.—N. Auck. Dist. Kaitaia, 11. 1924. H. B. Matthews.

Key to N.Z. Species of Microtis.


Labellum emarginate, with three callosities, two at the base and one at the apex M. unifolia.


Labellum entire, with the two basal callosities only M. parviflora.

Orch. N.S.W., 1943. 21. Rupp.


Prasophyllum patens R.Br. Prodr., 1810. 318.


Prasophyllum rogersii* Rupp. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 53. 1928. 340.

Orch. N.S.W. 1943. 28. Rupp. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 70. 1945. Rupp & Hatch.

N.S.W., Victoria, Tasmania, N.Z.—N. Auck. Dist. Kaitaia, 12. 1924. H. B. Matthews. Section Euprasophyllum.


Caleana minor R.Br. Prodr., 1810. 329.


Chiloglottis cornuta Hook. f. Flor. Ant., 1. 1844. 69.

Ch. Muelleri R. D. Fitzg.


Chiloglottis formicifera R. D. Fitzg. Austr. Orch., 2. 1885. 2.


Calochilus campestris* R.Br. Prodr., 1810. 320. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 70. 1945. Rupp & Hatch.

Australia (except W.A.), N.Z.—N. Auck. Dist. Kaimaumau, 11. 1924. H. B. Matthews. The C. campestris of Cheeseman was in fact C. robertsonii Benth. Details are given in the paper referred to above.


Calochilus robertsonii Benth. Fl. Austr 6. 1873. 315.

C. campestris Cheesmn. (not of R.Br.).


Calochilus paludosus R.Br Prodr., 1810. 320.

[Footnote] † Subsequent investigation suggests that Pr. patens will probably have to be deleted from the list and Pr. suttonii Rog. and Rees. substituted.

– 60 –

Caladenia carnea R.Br. var. minor (Hook. f.) Hatch Trans. R.S.N.Z. 75. 1945.

C. minor Hook. f.

Caladenia carnea R.Br. var. exigua (Cheesmn.) Rupp. Proc. Linn Soc. N.S.W., 69. 1944. 75.

C. exigua Cheesmn.


Caladenia lyallii Hook. f. Flor. Nov. Zel., 1. 1853. 247.

C. alpina Rog.


Townsonia viridis (Hook. f.) Schltr. Fedde. Repert., 9. 1911 249. T. deflexa Cheesmn. Acianthus viridis Hook. f.


Corybas aconitiflorus Salisb. Parad. Lond., 1805. t. 83.

Corysanthes cheesemanii Hook. f. ex T. Kirk.


Corybas unguiculatus (R.Br.) Reichb. f. Beitr. Syst. Pfl., 43.

Corysanthes Matthewsii Cheesmn.


Pterostylis furcata Ldl. Gen. et Spec. Orch., 1840. 390.

Pt. micromega Hook. f.


Pterostylis nutans R.Br. Prodr., 1810. 327.

Pt. matthewsii Cheesmn.


Pterostylis foliata Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel., 1. 1853. 249.

Pt. gracilis Nich.


Pterostylis nana R.Br. Prodr., 1810. 327.

Pt. puberula Hook. f.


Pterostylis mutica R.Br. Prodr., 1810. 328.


Pterostylis barbata Ldl. Swan. River. App., 1839. 53.


Gastrodia sesamoides R.Br. Prodr., 1810. 330.


Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames. Orch., 2. 1908. 53.

Sp. australis (R.Br.) Ldl.


Bulbophyllum tuberculatum Col. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 16. 1884. 336.

(Extends only to Lord Howe Island, so perhaps only politically Australian.)


Thelymitra carnea R.Br. var. imberbis (Hook. f.) R. & H. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 70. 1945.

Th. imberbis Hook. f.


Acianthus fornicatus R.Br. var. sinclairii (Hook. f.) Hatch.

Trans. R.S.N.Z. 75., 1945.

A. sinclairii Hook. f.


Acianthus reniformis (R.Br.) Schltr. var. oblongus (Hook. f.) R. & H. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 70. 1945.

Cyrtostylis oblonga Hook. f. C. rotundifolia Hook. f.