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New Zealand Hepaticae (Liverworts). V.

The Family Jungermanniaceae.
By E. Amy Hodgson, Kiwi Valley, Wairoa, Hawke's Bay.

[Read before Hawke's Bay Branch, 1945; received by Editor, December 1, 1945; issued separately, June, 1946.]

Formerly known as Epigonianthaceae, the name of this family was more suitably changed to that of Jungermanniaceae by Evans, in “The Classification of the Hepaticae”, in the Botanical Review, 1939. In New Zealand the family is represented by the following genera, in the order in which they appear in the 1939 list: Lophozia, Sphenolobus, Anastrophyllum, Cuspidatula, Chandonanthus, Jungermannia, Jamesoniella, Acrobolbus, Symphyomitra. The last two belong to the old family Geocalyceae, of the Synopsis, members of which bear their sporogonium in a pendent fleshy bag. These marsupia-bearing plants have long proved a stumbling-block to systematists, but at present they are distributed amongst the other familes on account of vegetative structural analogies. Other New Zealand marsupial genera, which will be dealt with later, are: Marsupidium (Cephaloziaceae), Geocalyx and Saccogyna (Harpanthaceae), Tylimanthus (Plagiochilaceae), and Balantiopsis (Schistochilaceae).

In the early stages of nomenclature, the name Jungermannia was applied to most of the Hepaticae by way of distinguishing them from the mosses. As the former became gradually divided up into generic groups, the name Jungermannia was retained for one genus only, and even this, for a time, gave way to the name of Aplozia, but reappeared in a preliminary check list compiled by Buch, Evans, and Verdoorn, 1937.

Key to Genera.
1. Plants normally erect and tufted, sporogonium enclosed in a leafy perianth 2
     Plants prostrate and creeping, sporogonium enclosed in a marsupium 8
2. Leaves entire 3
     Leaves bi-lobed 5
3. Leaves acute or cuspidate Cuspidatula
     Leaves rounded 4
4. Plants medium to robust, leaves imbricate, erect when dry, involucral stipule present Jamesoniella
     Plants small to medium, leaves usually soft and crumpled when dry, involucral stipule absent Jungermannia
5. Cauline stipules present Chandonanthus
     Cauline stipules absent 6
6. Plants robust, reddish Anastrophyllum
     Plants minute to small (in New Zealand) 7
7. Leaves remote, spreading (in New Zealand) Sphenolobus
     Leaves sub-imbricate, ± concave (in New Zealand) Lophozia
8. Leaves entire Symphyomitra
     Leaves bi-lobed or spinous-toothed Acrobolbus
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Plants small or more often large. Stems little branched (in New Zealand plants). Leaves succubous to transversely inserted, entire or 2-lobed. Cauline stipules generally absent. Perianth terminal, cylindrical or ovate, plicate.

The following descriptions of the genera are adapted from The Students' Handbook of British Hepatics, by S. M. MacVicar, and Tasmanian Bryophyta, vol. ii, by L. Rodway.

Genus Lophozia Dum.

Jungermannia Sect. Lophozia Dum., Syll. Jung., 1831; Lophozia Dum., Rec. d'obs., 1835.

Plants small to robust. Stem creeping or ascending, simple or slightly branched, sometimes with sub-floral innovations, rhizoids generally numerous. Leaves obliquely to transversely inserted, alternate, mostly 2-lobed, plane or dorsally concave. Stipules mostly wanting, or, when present, usually small, lanceolate-subulate, entire or bifid. Involucral leaves nearly always larger than, but similar to, the foliage, generally more lobed, margins sometimes dentate. Perianth terminal, ovate to cylindrical, plicate above the middle, or obscurely so at the mouth. Androecia terminal, median or hypogynous.

Stephani lists 51 species, mainly in the northern hemisphere.

Lophozia pumicicola Berggr.

L. pumicicola Berggr., N.Z. Hep., 21, 1898; St., Spec. Hep., ii, 142.

Plants minute, dioicous, dingy green with tinted perianths. Stems decumbent, ca. 2–3 mm., without the perianths, rhizoids very numerous, to ca. 1.2 mm., but mostly shorter. Leaves concave, obliquely homomallous, “reddish-brown”, orbicular-ovate, bifid, laciniae triangular, conniving, sub-acute, sinus also triangular and about the same size. Stipules “minute, linearia vel subulata”, but very hard to see amongst the rhizoids, cells rounded, averaging about 30μ, clear, basal larger. Trigones all confluent. Invol. leaves larger, very broad, shortly bifid, acute or cuspidate, margins variously toothed, may be whitish. Perianth terminal, oblong-ovate, upper portion 5-plicate, narrowed to the mouth, which is longly toothed; usually rose-pink, fading to whitish.

Dry ground amongst short, open manuka, E. of Waiotapu Valley, top of open road cutting near Atiamuri, K. W. Allison.

The type is from gravelly and pumice ground with Symphyomitra drummondii near L. Taupo, coll. Berggren.

Lophozia innominata sp. nov.

Planta parva, monoica, pallescens, depresso-caespitosa. Caulis ad 0.5 cm., simplex, radicellosus, sub-flore innovatus. Folia caulinis patula, subrotunda, bifida, sinu late obtuso, concava. Amphi. caulina nulla. Cellulae ca. 35–40μ, trigonis parvis vel majusculis. Folia floralia simillima caulinis, patula vel squarroso-decurva. Amphigastria floralia rectangularia, bifida. Perianthia optime pyriformia, inflata, eplicata (madida), lobis conniventibus, ore dentato-ciliato. Androecia hypogyna. Bracteae ca. 4-jugis, saccato-complicatae. Antheridia solitaria, globosa.

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Plants small, monoicous, pale brownish-green, in amongst Lepidozia sp. Stems simple with a sub-floral innovation, 0.5 cm., or may be a little longer, rhizoids usually present, of very varying lengths. Leaves spreading, usually subrotund, insertion more transverse than oblique, dorsally a little decurrent, ca. 0.6 mm., lower ones may be smaller, usually concave, bifid to less than ½, very rarely trifid, segments triangular, may be tapering on the innovation, ascending or incurved, rarely decurved, sinus obtuse to crescentic; dorsal and ventral margins arched, rarely subparallel. Cells ca. 35–40 μ, trigones small, larger when the lumen is rounded. Involucral leaves in 2 pairs, similar to the cauline, with an occasional lateral tooth. Invol. stipule sub-rectangular, bifid to ca. ⅓, appears to be free on one side only. Perianth obovoid, occasionally obovoid-elliptic, inflated, plicae discernible on the upper portion in the dry state, lobate, segments conniving to form an irregular dentate or ciliate-dentate, subhyaline mouth. Perigonial bracts usually in 4 pairs below the involucral leaves on some, but not all, of the fertile stems, imbricate, complicatesaccate. Antheridia usually solitary, globose.

This species differs from L. pumicicola Berggr. in the paroicous inflorescence and the inflated pyriform perianth with a sub-floral innovation.

Collected at Arthur's Pass, South Island, by H. M. Hodgson and F. MacDonald, June, 1942.

Type specimens are in the herbaria of E. A. Hodgson and K. W. Allison respectively.

Genus Sphenolobus (Lindb.) Steph.

Jungermannia subgen. Sphenolobus Lindb., Musc. Scand., p. 7.

Sphenolobus, Steph., Spec. Hep., ii, 1901.

An artificial genus separated from Lophozia on account of the transversely inserted and more concave leaves. But even these distinctions are not constant.

Sphenolobus perigonialis (Tayl.) St.

Jung. perigonialis Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot., 1844; Fl. Antarc., 1847; Fl. Tas., 1860; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 502, 1867.

Sarcoscyphus perigonialis G. L. et N., Syn. Hep. (Supp.), 1847.

Sphenolobus perigonialis St., Spec. Hep., ii, 163, 1901–5; Rod., Tas., Bry., ii, 32, 1916.

Plants minute, intermixed, caespitose, dark brown, tips lighter. Stems simple, 1–2.5 cm., dark brown to blackish, erect, sub-flexuous, branches few or none. Leaves small, distant, transversely inserted, 0.3–0.5 mm., generally squarrose, concave, emarginate to unequally bi-lobed, lobes acute to obtuse. Cells sub-quadrate, ± 30μ, apical small, marginal more oblong. Trigones small or absent. Invol. leaves scarcely differing from the foliage. What appears to be a stipule is connate with the leaf on one side. Perianth 1 mm. or more, one exceptionally big one measuring 2 mm., oblong-doliform or obovoid, upper portion plicate, mouth hyaline, variously dentate. One perianth was deeply cleft on one side, from which fissure the seta hung out.

The original plant, from the Auckland Islands, was a ♂ specimen, hence the name.

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Three specimens only have been examined, two from a creek bed on Mount Ruapehu, coll. G. O. K. Sainsbury, one with Radula sainsburiana, the other with Chiloscyphus ammophilus. Also from Ocean Peak, with Plagiochila circinalis, ex 17048, P. R. B. Herb., V. D. Zotov.

Berggren records it from the Bealey River. Rodway also records it from New Zealand.

Sphenolobus ocrophyllus (Tayl.) St.

Jungermannia ocrophyllus Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot., 368, 1844; Fl. Ant., 145, 1847; Syn. Hep., 617, 1847.

Gymnomitrium corophyllum, Syn. Hep., 617, 1847; Handb. N.Z. Fl., 501, 1867.

Sphenolobus ocrophyllus St., Spec. Hep., ii, 157, 1901.

“Stems pale green, filiform, sparingly branched 1–1 ½ in., high. Leaves distichous, loosely imbricate erecto-patent, concave, obovate or sub-quadrate, shortly 2-fid, segments obtuse, cells lax. Stipules very minute or absent.”—From Handbook N.Z. Flora.

“Lord Auckland's Group, 1200 ft., on rocks…. From J. perigonialis it may be distinguished by its greater size, paler hue, stout stems, and more crowded leaves, which are loosely reticulated and have obtuse segments.”—From Flora Antarctica.

Genus Anastrophyllum (Spruce) Steph.

Jungermannia subgen. Anastrophyllum Spruce, Lond. Journ. of Bot., 1876; Anastrophyllum Steph., Hedwigia, 1893.

Plants robust and rigid, simple or with few branches arising from the ventral angles of the leaves. Leaves succubous or nearly transversely inserted, strongly secund, base stem-clasping, apex unequally bifid; cells with sinuous walls and large trigones. Stipules none. Involucral leaves rather larger, usually armed; perianth terminal, cylindric, plicate above, mouth constricted, laciniate, capsule oval. Androecia terminal or at the middle of the stem, imbricate, saccate at the base; antheridia 2–4.

Stephani describes 31 species of this genus.

Anastrophyllum schismoides (Mont.) St.

Jung. schismoides Mont. in Ann. des. Sc. Nat., 1843; Syn. Hep., 81, 1844; Fl. Antarc., 1847; Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 129; 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 503, 1867.

Anastrophyllum schismoides St., Spec. Hep., ii, 119; Berggr., N.Z. Hep., 1898; Rod., Tas. Bry., ii, 37, 1916.

Plants red-brown, in tufts or solitary stems amongst other hepatics. Stems 2–3 cm., in plants seen (Berggren gives 5 cm.), sparingly branched, sub-flexuous, apparently no rhizoids, tips incurved. Leaves imbricate, ca. 1.2 mm., dorsally secund, asymmetric, ventral margin longer and more strongly curved than the dorsal, about ⅓, unequally bilobed, lobes conniving, variable, mainly acute. Cells ca. 25μ, varying in size and shape, walls may be sinuous; trigones also variable. Invol. leaves similar in shape to the cauline but larger, plicate in conformity with the perianth. Perianths lateral, presumably by reason of successive innovations, oblong-ovate, deeply plicate, mouth piliferous-ciliate.

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This species is quite distinct in appearance, and when once identified may be easily recognised. The absence of stipules and paraphylls distinguishes it from Chandonanthus squarrosus, while in Herberta alpina (Schisma juniperina of the Handbook), the only other plant with which it might be confused, the leaf-lobes appear more rigid, and are narrower and longer with a deep and narrow sinus.

Berggren's plants were from Porter's Pass, Bealey River. Other localities are: Moehau, ca. 2,950 ft., amongst mosses on summit rocks; Moehau summit, cold boggy ground with mosses, Oreobolus, etc., L. B. Moore, 1931 and 1930 respectively; semi-shady bank near heated' soil, Rainbow Mountain, near Rotorua, K. W. Allison; on log with Dicranoloma sp., L. Waikare-iti, 3,000 ft., E. A. Hodgson; Te Matawai, Tararuas, 6,642 P. R. B. Herb., V. D. Zotov. According to the Handbook, it is common in the Auckland and Campbell Islands, where it was collected by Hombron and Hooker.

Genus Cuspidatula Steph.

Jungermannia Tayl., G., L. et N., Syn. Hep., 664, 1847.

Cuspidatula St., Spec. Hep., ii, 126, 1901.

Plants dioicous. Stems simple or with few branches. Leaves often secund on the dorsal aspect, ovate with a broad base and acute apex, succubous; cells rotund, walls thick, trigones large, confluent. Stipules none. Perianth terminal, large, ovate-cylindric, plicate; mouth contracted, lobed and fimbriate. Invol. leaves and stipule large and deeply dentate.

Cuspidatula monodon (Tayl.) St.

Jungermannia monodon Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot., 1844; G., L. et N., Syn. Hep., 664, 1847; Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 128, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 1867; Fl. Tas., 1860.

Jung. geminiflora Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx, 243, 1887.

Jung. consimilis Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi, 47, 1888.

Cuspidatula monodon St., Spec. Hep., ii, 126; Rod., Tas. Bry., ii, 29, 1916.

Plants pale, golden or reddish-brown, prostrate, decumbent, in flattish mats or in tuffets, on earth, rock, tree-trunks, etc. Stems to ca. 5 cm., simple or sub-dichotomously branched, flexuous, rhizoids abundant. Leaves imbricate, dorsally secund, ovate-lanceolate, apex acute, acuminate piliferous or spinous, occasionally obtuse, ventral margin may show a tooth or rudimentary lobe. Cells ca. 20μ, rounded, walls thick, trigones confluent, more elongate towards the centre of the leaf with sinuous-walled trigones. Invol. leaves and stipules larger, undulate, deeply and variously incised, segments simple or forked and branched like antlers, main segments longly piliferous. Perianth large. ca. 2.5 mm., ovoid-cylindric, deeply furrowed, mouth contracted, fringed with numerous filiform fimbriae.

The following localities show this species to be widely distributed:

North Island: Poor Knight's Island, Rangitoto, Whangarei Heads, epiphytic on kauri and on roots, Moehau, 2,200 and below 2,200 ft., L. B. Moore; tree trunks in bush, Waipoua Forest, forming cushions on tree-trunks, Mangarewa Gorge, Matai Road, between Rotorua and Te Puke, K. W. Allison; Mount Ruapehu, G. O. K.

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Sainsbury; Maungataniwha, inland from Wairoa, B. Teague; with Anastrophyllum schismoides by Lake Waikare-iti, 3,000 ft., on tree-fern stump, bush at Maungapoike Falls, in bush at Morere, E. A. Hodgson; Ruahine foothills, A. L. Hodgson; Tararuas, 6,932, P. R. B. Herb., V. D. Zotov; Butterfly Creek, Wellington, W. Martin; also 4 specimens in Kirk's collection, P. R. B. Herbarium.

South Island: Marlborough, J. H. MeMahon; damp forest floor, Arthur's Pass, W. Martin; Taylorville, Westland, M. Berry; on rock, Lamb Hill, Central Otago, G. Simpson and J. S. Thomson; on rock, Mount Watkin, Waikouaiti, 1,500 ft.; bog, Key Summit, near Homer Tunnel, L. B. Moore; Stewart Island, with Chandonanthus, L. Cockayne.

K. W. Allison has a note to the effect that this species is sometimes found growing in the tops of tall forest trees.

Also grows in Tasmania.

Genus Chandonanthus Mitt.

Chandonanthus Mitt., Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 1867.

Blepharostoma Lindb., Musc. Asiae Bor., 1867.

Plants generally large and rigid. Stems rigid, simple or with few branches, the branches lateral. Leaves imbricate, nearly transversely inserted, semi-amplexicaul, dentate or spinous-dentate at the base, deeply 3–4 lobed, rarely 2-lobed, lobes entire or variously dentate. Stipules resembling the leaves in appearance, but smaller, deeply 2-lobed. Perianth terminal, often thrown to the side by a robust innovation, deeply multiplicate, the mouth slightly contracted, ciliate to coarsely dentate. Calyptra thin, free, surrounded at the base by the sterile archegonia.

This genus was formerly considered to belong to the Ptilidiaceae. It is omitted from the check list of 1937, but re-appears in the 1939 list.

Chandonanthus squarrosus (Hook.) Mitt.

Jung. squarrosa Hook., Musc. Exot., 78, 1818; G., L. et N., Syn. Hep., 130, 1844; Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 127, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 503, 1867.

Chandonanthus squarrosus, Appen. Handb. N.Z. Fl.; St., Spec. Hep., iii, 642; Rod., Tas. Bry., ii, 71, 1916.

Plants robust, yellow- to red-brown, in clumps or tufts. Stems alongate to 12 cm. or more, erect, flexuous, tips usually more brightly coloured, ± densely squamate, paraphylls simple or compound, simple or 1–2 branched, often near the apex. Leaves imbricate, squarrose, semiamplexicaul, broadly quadrate, undulate, bi-lobed, segments cuspidate to piliferous, hair-points glossy, may be dentate-lobate at the base. Stipules bifid, segments ovate, cuspidate to piliferous, margins laciniate. Invol. leaves and stipules similar but larger, and ornately margined with secondary segments. Perianth terminal, but may appear lateral by reason of an innovation, large, deeply furrowed, mouth lacerate-ciliate.

Recognised at a glance by the tall reddish stems, with characteristic leaves, stipules and paraphylls.

Widely distributed as follows:—

North Island: Rotten log in bush, Waipoua Forest; shady bank near Atiamuri; stunted beech, covering lower parts of trunk, Tonga-

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riro National Park, 3,000–3,500 ft., K. W. Allison; Whakapapa and Mount Ruapehu, G. O. K. Sainsbury; on logs with Dicranoloma sp., Waikare-iti, 3,000 ft., E. A. Hodgson; Northern Ruahines, two gatherings, H. M. Hodgson; Orongorongo, Tararuas, 7174, P. R. B. Herb., V. D. Zotov.

South Island: Marlborough, J. H. McMahon; eight gatherings from Arthur's Pass region, on ground, logs, beech trunks, etc., W. Martin, H. M. Hodgson, Mrs. M. Vere; near Cass Hut, E. Ensor; Mount Maungatua (very small) and Doubtful Sound, G. Simpson; Stewart Island, L. Cockayne.

Also Tasmania.

The type was collected at Dusky Sound in 1787 by Dr. Menzies.*

Genus Jungermannia L.

Jungermannia L., Sp. Pl., 1753?.

Jung. Sect. Aplozia Dum., Syll. Jung., 1831.

Aplozia Dum., Hep. Eur., 1874.

Jungermannia, Buch, Evans, and Verd., Pre. Check List, 1937.

Plants medium sized or small, caespitose. Stems simple or slightly branched. Leaves alternate, obliquely inserted, rounded, entire. Stipules absent except in J. rotata. Involucral leaves resembling the cauline. Perianth usually ovate or ovate-cylindric, upper portion plicate, mouth contracted when young. Androecia terminal, median, or basal in dioicous species.

Jungermannia inundata H. f. and T.

Jung. inundata Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot., 559, 1844; Syn. Hep., 669, 1847; Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 129, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 502, 1867.

“Stems ¼–½ in., dirty green, procumbent. Leaves imbricate, almost vertical orbicular, quite entire, dorsal margin decurrent, opaque; invol. larger, spreading. Stipules 0. Perianth turbinate 4–5 plicate and laciniate. Capsule globose.”

The above citation from the Handbook, together with the description from the Flora Novae Zelandiae, are the accepted authorities for the identification of Jungermannia inundata, over which much confusion has arisen, due partly to an error in Taylor's description, and partly to the numerous variations of this very plastic species.

In Taylor's original description, mention is made of large ovate stipules, but the Flora Novae Zelandiae explains that there are no stipules, but that those described as belonging to it belong to another plant intermingled with the specimen. Stephani follows Taylor, and Pearson follows Stephani in ascribing stipules to the species, and gives the name of Solenostoma brevissima to the ordinary small form of Jungermannia inundata. Berggren contributes to the general muddle by imputing the name of J. inundata to some sterile plant with rigid imbricate leaves, and stems 3–4 cm. tall, while dividing the true J. inundata into two separate species which he calls Nardia humilis and Nardia patellata. Nardia is a related genus in which

[Footnote] * The Musci Exotici says, “Collected at Dusky Bay by D. Menzies, 1787.” However, other gatherings at “Dusky Bay” by D. Menzies are dated 1791, so I should say that this also should read “Collected at Dusky Sound by D. Menzies in 1791.”

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the involucral leaves are fused with the perianth for part of their length. There are probably no true species of Nardia in New Zealand, and Stephani seems to have realised this when he removed Nardia humilis Berggr. and Nardia patellata Berggr. to the genus of Solenostoma, founded by Mitten for plants in which the perianth culminates in a tubular beak. This genus is now merged in Jungermannia, as the apical beak tends to disappear as the capsule ripens and breaks its way through.

The story of Nardia humilis Berggr., N.Z. Hep., 7, appears to be as follows: In the London Journal of Botany, 468, 1844, Dr. Taylor described a plant from Kerguelen Island (with stipules), which he called Jungermannia humilis. Later, in a Royal Society publication, 1879, Mitten stated that Taylor had described it wrongly, and that it had no stipules, for which reason he referred it to his new genus Solenostoma. On the strength of this and of the original drawing, Berggren decided that a New Zealand plant must be the same thing, but he gave it the name of Nardia humilis (Tayl.) Berggr. Stephani, however, in Species Hepaticarum, vol. 2, p. 50, definitely says that he had seen the Kerguelen Island plant, and that Taylor had described it correctly, and that it was not a Jungermannia (in the restricted sense), but a Lophocolea. He therefore, as mentioned before, referred Berggren's New Zealand plant to Solenostoma humilis (Berggr.) St.

In studying the various forms of this species, I have been quite unable to correlate the variations, with a view to delimiting a separate species. For instance, plants with large cells may be rose-coloured or dull green, very short with as few as two pairs of cauline leaves, or taller; perianth broad and sub-campanulate or cylindric-ovate, leaf-margins differentiated or doubtfully so, cell-walls not, or strongly thickened, trigones small or large. In one specimen the large basal cells extended well up the sides of the involucral leaves.

Plants with medium cells, ca. 30μ, and small trigones, also vary in size, with perianth short and sub-campanulate to as long as 2.5 mm., with a long neck; and here, again, the cell-walls of some or of most of the leaves may be very thick, and either fawn-coloured or beautifully rose-tinted.

From even smaller than the Handbook measurement of ¼–½ in. (Pearson's Solenostoma brevissima measures ¼ in.), the plant ranges to as much as 2.5 cm., often with delicate sterile stems with small distant leaves, intermingling with the main stems. The inflorescence is usually dioicous, but occasionally monoicous, as in a specimen from damp, open bank, E. of Taupo, 2,000 ft., K. W. Allison, 1935, and at least two gatherings from the Kiwi Hills, Wairoa, in all of which the ♂ bracts are in 3–4 pairs at the bases of stems with perianths. In tufts of plants from bank on side of Mangatangi Stream, Hunua Ranges, Auckland, L. B. Moore, the ♂ stems are separate, with the bracts basal. In plants from Stewart Island, Mrs J. D. Smith, stalked antheridia, 0.2 mm. in diameter, are in 1.2 pairs of bracts at the apex of the stem. Other ♂ plants have the bracts on the upper part of the stem, and on others the bracts constitute most of the cauline leaves.

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Semi-aquatic plants are usually sterile, taller, and with more shrivelled leaves.

Colenso has 3 species of Jungermannia, all of which are probably the same species. They are J. humilissima Col., J. rufiflora Col., and J. paucifolia Col., all in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 18, p. 237, 1885. His note on J. rufiflora so aptly describes one ordinary little form of J. inundata that it seems worth repeating: “It is a striking and neat object in its flowering season owing to the tips of its numerous and compact perianths being coloured a lively pink-red, and generally each stem bearing one, and all of a uniform height, so that it is detected at some distance when passing by.”

Further localities: North Island—Birkdale, near Auckland, 321, Auckland Museum, H. B. Matthews; Mount Egmont, G. O. K. Sainsbury; numerous localities near Atiamuri, K. W. Allison; Whenuakura, Patea, A. L. Hodgson; Rotorua Public Gardens, The Blowhole, Mount Maunganui, side of track to Aniwaniwa Falls, L. Waikaremoana, E. A. Hodgson; sea-cliffs between Clifton and C. Kidnappers, E. S. West; North face of Mount Hector, 7498, P. R. B. Herb., and Akatarawa Saddle, 9220 in part, V. D. Zotov. Little Barrier Island, L. B. Moore.

South Island—Tableland Track, Mount Arthur, Nelson, G. O. K. Sainsbury; forest above Routeburn Huts, V. D. Zotov; L. Wakatipu, T. Kirk, 6109, P. R. B. Herb.; moist ground, Glenledi, G. Simpson, 24746, P. R. B. Herb.; Kinloch Track, Queenstown, J. Hodgson.

Hooker collected Taylor's type.

Jungermannia rotata Tayl.

Jung. rotata Tayl., in Lond. Journ. of Bot., 560, 1844; Syn. Hep., 669, 1847; Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 129, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 503, 1867; St., Spec. Hep., ii, 51, 1901–5.

Plants green or blackish, often submerged and water-worn. Stems mostly separate, to 4 cm., little branched, slightly zig-zag in appearance. Leaves rounded, spreading, more or less shrivelled when dry a little decurrent dorsally; in the Waipoua specimen, the ventral end of the leaf insertion is hamate, as in some species of Plagiochila. Cauline stipules rudimentary, bifid. Perianth “obovate above, obtusely 4-gonous with 4 inflexed laminae.” Stems much longer than in J. inundata, but it is very difficult to set a definite line of demarcation between these two species, unless the occurrence of rudimentary stipules be regarded as a specific difference. The cells of this species also appear to be smaller.

Two certain specimens are from: (a) Stream bank in shade, near Atiamuri, K. W. Allison, H.385; (b) sandy stream-edge in shade (must be frequently submerged), Waipoua River, North Auckland, K. W. Allison, H.706.

Neither Berggren nor Pearson make any mention of this species.

Watery place near Taupo is given as the locality of Colenso's plants.

The type was collected by Hooker.

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Genus Jamesoniella (Spruce) Schiff.

Jung. Sub-genus Jamesoniella Spruce, Journ. of Bot., 1876.

Jamesoniella Schiffn., in Engl. and Prantl, Die Pfanzenf., 1893.

Plants rather large to large, variously coloured. Stems usually ascending or erect in tufts, apex may be incurved. Leaves alternate, obliquely inserted, erecto-connivent, entire, ovate to somewhat rounded or kidney-shaped. Stipules absent except in the involucre. Inflorescence dioicous. Invol. leaves smaller than to larger than, the cauline, laciniate, stipule small to large, also laciniate, may be somewhat united with the leaves. Perianth large, oblong-ovate, deeply pluriplicate in the upper part, mouth somewhat contracted. Androecia terminal.

Stephani describes 34 species of Jamesoniella in vol. 2 of Species Hepaticarum.

Key to Species.
1. Stems filiform, ± julaceous, leaves minute inflexo-limbata
     Stems and leaves otherwise 2
2. Leaves sub-reniform, ventral margin markedly reflexed occlusa
     Ventral leaf-margins plane or inflexed 3
3. Leaves ± plano-distichous, the upper portion often decurved tasmanica
     Leaves erecto-appressed to dorsally secund 4
4. Leaves obliquely ovate with ventral margin ± at right angles to the stem axis kirkii
     Leaves more erect, with the ventral margin rounded and forming an acute angle with the stem 5
5. Leaf-margin plane, leaf surface rough, cells opaque, often richly coloured colorata
     Ventral margin mostly inflexed, more shiny, lower leaves often spreading sonderi

Jamesoniella colorata (Lehm.) Spruce.

Jung. colorata Lehm., Linnaea, iv, 306; G., L. et N., Syn. Hep., 86 and 673, 1844–47; Fl. Antarot., 1847; Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 128, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 502, 1867; Fl. Tas., 1860.

Jamesoniella colorata St., Spec. Hep., ii, 89; Rod., Tas. Hep., ii, 31, 1916.

Plants tufted, decumbent, shaded brown to reddish or chocolate-purple, upper leaves frequently yellow-green, margined with red, often associated with Cuspidatula monodon. Stems usually about 3 cm., flexuose, radiculose, branches with smaller leaves, or flagelliform with minute scales, sterile stems generally inclined or curved towards the dorsal side of the stem. Leaves imbricate, ovate-suborbicular, nearly vertical, secund, with more of the lamina on the dorsal than the ventral side of the stem, entire, margin almost plane. Cells 25–30 μ, verrucose, opaque, trigones present. Invol. leaves broadly orbicular, concave, neatly fitting round the perianth, sub-entire to laciniate-fimbriate, stipule lanceolate, sometimes missing. Perianth 2–3 mm., ovoid-cylindric, apex deeply 8–10 plicate, grooves becoming shallower or disappearing; mouth narrowed, sub-entire with lobes alternating with the furrows. Antheridia in about 5 pairs of bulging perigonial bracts, at intervals along the ♂ stem.

The distinctive colouring, together with the verrucose, non-shiny leaves are useful guides in the identification of this species, the stations and habitats of which are as follows:—

North Island: damp bank on roadside near Aorangi, north of Dargaville, K. W. Allison; Rangitoto Island, 24688 P. R. B. Herb.;

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exposed summit rocks, filling cracks, etc., Mount Moehau, 2,950 ft., L. B. Moore; dry steep bank under manuka, ca. 950 ft., Ongaroto Road; dry bank, partial shade, Old Mangaiti Road, both near Atiamuri; shady rock on hillside with south exposure, Kaingaroa Plains, all coll. K. W. Allison; Mount Maungapohatu, Urewera, ca. 4,000 ft., B. Teague.

South Island: Marlborough, J. H. McMahon; growing freely on damp rocks, foot of Otira Gorge; on dry rocky outcrop, Avalanche Creek, 3,000 ft.; near base of waterfall on rock, Avalanche Peak, 3,000 ft., Arthur's Pass, W. Martin; headwaters of E. Branch of Hawdon R., North Canterbury, H. M. Hodgson; Regina Valley, South Westland, B. Teague.

Summit rocks on Mount Anglem, 3,200 ft., Stewart Is., 1/3/46, W. Martin; Campbell Is., J. H. Sorensen, Jan., 1946; Mount Honey, Campbell Is., R. L. Oliver, 24/9/44; frozen ground and snow showers, Flat-topped Mt., Auckland Is., E. G. Turbott, 19/8/44.

A note in the Flora Antarctica is: “This is one of the most universally diffused species in the Southern Hemisphere.” Cape of Good Hope is the first of the localities mentioned in the Synopsis.

Jamesoniella sonderi (G.) St.

  • Jungermannia sonderi Gott., Linnaea, 550, 1856,

  • Jam. sonderi St., Hedwigia, 48, 1895; Spec. Hep., ii, 99, 1901–05; Rod., Tas. Bry., ii, 31, 1916.

  • Jam. nervosa Berggr., N.Z. Hep., i, 15.

  • Jam. hectori, ibid., 13.

Plants decumbent or erect, very variable, light brown to dark purple. Stem blackish, subflexuous, to 6 cm., but generally shorter, with few branches, apex not, or little curved, rarely flagelliferous. Leaves frequently shiny, imbricate, contiguous or remote, lower ones or occasionally all, may be squarrose, obliquely obovate, often whitening with age, ventral margin inflexed, i.e., towards the stem, decurrent. Cells variable in size and shape, but mainly quadrate with thick walls, mid-basal conspicuously rectangular. Invol. leaves hidden, variously laciniate, subinvol. rounded, spreading a little, stipule free, also laciniate. Perianth oblong-ovate, 6–12 plicate, mouth contracted sub-entire.

An unstable species, varying in colour size and in the texture of the leaves, but none of the forms seem able to be separated sufficiently satisfactorily to constitute another species. Berggren's J. nervosa and J. hectori, pieces of which have been sent by Dr. Verdoorn, are considered by Stephani to be the same, though nervosa is certainly more slender and with smaller and remote leaves. J. colorata is the most likely to be confused with J. sonderi, but it has a roughened leaf surface, while J. occlusa is much rarer and has the ventral margin curved outwards.

The following are the localities of the plants studied: Great Barrier, sub nomine Leioscyphus ansatus, T. Kirk, 6172 P. R. B. Herb.; Te Whau, 4889 P. R. B. Herb., also coll. T. Kirk; on paths, etc., Arikikapakapa Reserve, Rotorua, K. W. Allison; edge of paths, Whakarewarewa Thermal Reserve; shady roadside cutting, Mahia Peninsula, both coll. E. A. Hodgson; Whakapapa (1930); on rock,

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Maungaturuturu, Mount Ruapehu (1932); in running stream on rock, Maungaturuturu Gorge (1929); in bed of creek, Mount Ruapehu (1932); edge of pool in open tussock, Mount Hauhangatahi, ca. 4,500 ft. (1932); also Mount Egmont, all coll. G. O. K. Sainsbury; Te Matawai, Tararuas, 24690 P. R. B. Herb.; Ruamahanga, 9256 P. R. B. Herb.; watercourse west of Kime Hut, 7661 P. R. B., Herb.; watercourse, north face of Mount Hector, 7410 P. R. B. Herb.; West Peak, Tararuas, ca. 4,600 ft., 7383 P. R. B. Herb., all coll. V. D. Zotov.

South Island: damp ground, forest margin, near Bealey Glacier; dry rock outcrop, 3,000 ft., near Avalanche Peak, Arthur's Pass; Upper Bealey Forest, all coll. Wm. Martin; Arthur's Pass, H. M. Hodgson; Arthur's Pass, A. L. Hodgson; Bealey R. (J. nervosa) Bealey R. (J. hectori), S. Berggren, 1874; Regina Valley, South Westland, B. Teague; Silver Peak, Dunedin, 24689 P. R. B. Herb., G. Simpson; rock crevice on east face of Maungatua Range, Otago, ca. 1,200 ft., K. W. Allison; near Summit on open ground on gully side, Maungatua Range, Otago, ca. 2,500 ft., 11/1/46, K. W. Allison; on dripping rock face, waterfall, Head of Glory Harbour, Stewart Is., 3/46, W. Martin.

Also found in Tasmania, where the type was probably collected.

Mention must here be made of Jamesoniella nigrescens St., Hedwigia, 1895, Spec. Hep., ii, 48, Syn. Jam. patula St. The drawing of this plant does not differ essentially from J. sonderi, but according to the description, the antical margin is broadly incurved, and the trigones are sub-nodulose: No Jamesoniella with incurved dorsal margins has yet come to hand, and I am inclined to think that this is an error on Stephani's part, and that J. nigrescens St. is J. sonderi, especially as the latter does have patulous leaves.

*Jamesoniella occlusa (Tayl.) St.

Jung. occlusa Tayl., in Lond. Journ. of Bot., 1844, 369; Fl. Antarct., 1847.

Alicularia occlusa G., L. et N., Syn. Hep., 619 (Supp.), 1847.

Jamesoniella occlusa St., Spec. Hep., ii, 102, 1901–05.

Plants sterile, varying shades of brown, in bogs or watery places. Stems to 10 cm., simple or branched, branches lying in the same direction as the stems, scarcely flexuous. Leaves imbricate, appressed, dorsally secund, broader than tall, 1.2 mm. tall by ca. 1.9 mm. broad, sub-reniform, the greater part of the leaf on the dorsal side of the stem, ventral margin markedly reflexed, the actual margin itself again finely but definitely reflexed (in Ohakune specimen). Cells varying in size, round about 20 μ, marginal smaller, basal longer with trigones more in evidence, walls thick.

[Footnote] * What appears to be the genuine Jamesoniella occlusa is a recent gathering of J. H. Sorensen's from Campbell Island. The leaves are reniform to sub-circular, olive-green and flat-margined, increasing in size upwards, and the stems have ± circinate apices—all of which is in accordance with Taylor's description. About the same time, another specimen came to hand—Jamesoniella occlusa det. K. W. Allison. This was collected at the Head of Lake Manapouri to Willmott Pass by Mr. G. Simpson, Dec.–Jan. 1945–46, and in my opinion it is the same species as Mr. Sorensen's plant from Campbell Island. The Ohakune and Tararua plants, which are certainly distinct from these, must therefore constitute a new species for which I suggest the name of Jamesoniella pseudocclusa Hodgson.

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We are indebted to Dr. Herzog for this identification. The measurements given are those of the Ohakune plant, which is by far the most robust and aquatic-looking of the three, the stems being matted and many of the leaves waterworn. It differs from J. sonderi in the leaves being subrcniform, and broader than tall, and in the ventral margin being recurved, i.e., curved away from the stem, which makes it at once recognisable.

The known localities are: near Ohakune Mountain Hut, 4,500 ft., G. O. K. Sainsbury; bog near Kime Hut, Tararuas, L. B. Moore; watercourse on north face of Mount Hector, 4,300 ft., V. D. Zotov, 7495 P. R. B. Herb.

The original plant was from Campbell Island, leg. Hooker.

Jamesoniella kirkii St.

Jung. flexicaulis Nees, in Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 502, 1867.

Jam. scolopendrina Berggr., in Hep. Nov. Zel., i, 16.

Jam. kirkii, Spec. Hep., ii, 94.

Plants in broad flattish tufts, robust, pale brownish green. occasionally rose-tinted, seldom fruiting. Stems very flexuose, apex usually arcuate towards the dorsal surface, to 4 or 5 cm. when straightened out, simple or sub-dichotomously branched, branches lateral or postical, sometimes with minute leaves, rhizoids sometimes present. Leaves closely imbricate, dorsally secund, obliquely inserted, obliquely ovate; dorsal margin may be undulate, basal marginal portion sometimes inflexed; each ventral leaf-base, in turn, overlapping a portion of the nearest opposite leaf, thus producing a plaited effect along the whole length of the stem. Cells marginal, ca. 15 μ, increasing inwards to ca. 35 μ, basal still larger, trigones large, confluent. Invol. leaves broadly concave, plicate, with the folds fitting into those of the perianth. Stipule shortly bifid, with segments acuminate also with 2 smaller lateral segments also acuminate. Perianth ovate, plicate with folds inflated, mouth contracted, finely ciliate.

An outstanding and constant species, always knowable by the flexuose stem and the dorsally conniving ovate leaves.

In the Handbook this species is represented under the name of Jungermannia flexicaulis. Nees, a Javan species, and the Flora Novae Zelandiae remarks that “the specimens agree entirely with authentic ones from Java and also from the Sandwich Islands”. Having examined Javan plants kindly sent by Drs. Verdoorn and Herzog respectively, I am inclined to agree with the Flora Novae Zelandiae, though the New Zealand plants are, if anything, more rigid than the Javan.

Localities of specimens examined are:—

North Island: North Auckland, H. B. Matthews; on fallen lim [ unclear: ] of rimu, Roto-a-kui bush, E. of Taupo, ca. 2,500 ft., K. W. Allison; Wairaumoana, Waikaremoana, Mrs. G. O. K. Sainsbury; Waikaremoana, 2,000 ft., E. A. H.; Mount Holdsworth, W. Martin.

South Island: Marlborough, J. H. McMahon; in forest, watershed of Kaituna Creek, Nelson, G. Simpson and S. Thomson; tree trunk with Hymenophyllum demissum, Ten Mile Creek, Greymouth, E. B. Ashcroft; Taylorville, M. Berry; Teremakau, S. Berggren,

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1874, comm. Fr. Verdoorn; common on trees, Kelly Range, 2,700 ft., Arthur's Pass, W. Martin; headwaters E. Branch of Hawdon R., North Canterbury, H. M. Hodgson.

The Handbook gives Canterbury, Travers, and Tararuas, Colenso, as localities.

Jamesoniella tasmanica (Tayl.).

Jung. tasmanica Tayl., in Lond. Journ. of Bot., 274, 1846; G., L. et N., Syn. Hep., 678 (Supp.), 1867; Fl. Tas., 1860; St., Spec. Hep., ii, 100; Rod., Tas. Bry., ii, 31, 191.

Plants light green, sometimes tinged with red, in matted patches on logs, stumps, earth and humus. Stems 2–3 cm., decumbent, not wiry, considerably branched, rhizoids abundant. Leaves imbricate, ovate to broadly ovate, obliquely spreading, decurved, margins may be somewhat uneven, apex obtuse, or maybe retuse. Cells rather obscure, ca. 25–30 μ, trigones small or negligible. Invol. leaves and stipule toothed or laciniate. Perianth 3–4 mm., more tubular than ovate, mouth plicate, fimbricate-ciliate, grooves rarely extending downwards. Involucre sometimes enclosing archegonia with an undeveloped perianth. Androecia terminal or intercalary, in about 6–10 pairs, bracts saccate but otherwise scarcely different from the ordinary leaves.

A definite species, differing from all the others in New Zealand in its striking similarity to the entire-leaved species of Lophocolea, that is, of course, from the dorsal aspect. From Plagiochila gregarïa it can be distinguished by the more ovate leaves, with the dorsal margins not revolute from the base as in that species, and by the radicellose stems.

Specimens are from the following places:—On ground and old logs in clearing in taraire forest, Waiwera, north of Auckland, L. B. Moore; on stumps and humus, Waipoua Forest, 2 gatherings; on log in damp, heavy bush, Trounson Kauri Park, north of Dargaville, K. W. Allison; beech forest, N.E. Ruahines, ca. 2,500 ft., A. P. Druce, 2 gatherings; a1714 and a1655, Herb. Colenso; Ruahines foothills, Dannevirke, A. L. Hodgson; Stewart Island, Mrs. J. D. Smith; also on earth bank, ± 2,500 ft., Roto-a-kui bush, E. of Taupo, K. W. Allison.

Jamesoniella inflexo-limbata Herz.

J. inflexo-limbata Herz., New Sp. N.Z. Hep., 2, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 68, p. 41, 1938.

Plants small, forming loosely woven, widely extended mats on sloping rocks of crater rim, Mount Tongariro, greenish when fresh, drying to cream and pale shades of brown. Stem to about 2 cm., flexuous, filiform, a little branched, partly or sometimes wholly julaceous. Leaves minute, imbricate or not, oval, entire, strongly concave, margins hyaline, showing signs of weathering, usually appressed to the stem, but the upper ones may be erecto-patent and somewhat larger. Cells ca. 20 μ, quadrate to hexagonal, trigones 0 or negligible. Invol. leaves and stipule appressed to the perianth and hard to discern, irregularly toothed or lobed. Perianth ca. 1.5 mm., usually ovate, may be oblong-ovate, or even oblong-obovate, grooved, or inflated with just the apex plicate, mouth lobed with the laciniae generally elongate.

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In some way which I am as yet quite unable to understand, this species appears to be inextricably mixed up with Gymnomitrium (no perianth, Marsupellaceae), or at any rate what is the Gymnomitrium concept here. The perianth is undoubtedly that of a Jamesoniella, but that is all, and even this is not fertile (in the plants seen), but encloses merely a clump of archegonia arising from the stem apex as in Gymnomitrium. Dr. Herzog himself identified as Gymnomitrium stygium approaching var. denticulatum Bergg. a sterile gathering from an earth pocket on rock, near Mangaturuturu Valley, Mount Ruapehu, leg. G. O. K. Sainsbury, summer 1929–30, which I consider to be Jamesoniella inflexo-limbata Herz. In this connection, it might not be out of place to mention here that Gymnomitrium acinacifolium Tayl., from Campbell Islands, leg. Hooker, has been classed as a Jamesoniella by both Berggren and Stephani.

The type was collected by L. B. Moore, 12/1/33, no. H184

Genus Acrobolbus Nees.

Acrobolbus Nees, in G., L. et N., Syn. Hep., 5, 1844.

Gymnanthe Tayl., G., L. et N., Syn. Hep., 192, 1844.

Stems prostrate, with rhizoids simple or slightly branched, bilobed with unequal lobes. Stipules absent or minute. Sporophyte inserted in the base of a terminal marsupium.

Eleven species of this genus are described by Stephani.

Acrobolbus unguiculatus (Tayl.) Mitt.

Jung. aerobolbus Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot., 27, 1846.

Gymnanthe unguiculatus, Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 144, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 519, 1867.

Acrobolbus unguiculatus, Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 753, 186; Berggr., N.Z. Hep., 1898; Step., Spec. Hep., ii, 176; Rod., Tas. Bry., ii, 33, 1916.

Plants prostrate, creeping, matted, pale green or deeply rosetinted, swamp-loving, often with Campylopus kirkii. Stem to about 4 cm., but usually shorter, with numerous rhizoids. Leaves to 5 mm., but often smaller, cellular, reniform or sub-quadrate-rotundate, imbricate, dorsally sub-secund, obscurely 2-lobed, 8–10 coarsely or spinulose-toothed. Cells mainly hexagonal, ca. 40 × 55 μ, basal still larger, trigones small. Stipules minute or apparently missing. Invol. leaves similar to, but larger than, the cauline. Marsupium long (Stephani gives 18 mm.), terminal, cylindric; archegonia immersed in the free end, which finally becomes detached and remains buried in the ground; calyptra partially adnate with the inside wall of the marsupium.

A very distinct plant with its broad, sinuate-lobed and attractively coloured leaves. Miss Cranwell, who made an intensive study of plant growth in New Zealand bogs, states that this hepatic is a peat-former.

Bay of Islands, Berggr., 1877, comm. Fr. Verdoorn; peaty area on roadside in open, Waipoua Forest, K. W. Allison; bog near Cambridge, H. H. Allan; Moanatuatua Swamp, L. M. Cranwell; hillside, pumice formation, “Waiputaputa”, Wairoa, E. A. Hodgson; not uncommon in Atiamuri district, K. W. Allison.

The Handbook records it from the South Island also. The type was from sulphur springs at Waimata, coll. Colenso.

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Additional localities are: fern land, Kaingaroa Plains State Forest; swampy hillside under light shade, Waipoua Forest, both leg. K. W. Allison; terrestrial on “papa” bank or cutting, sea level, Nihotapu Valley, Auckland, E. D. Hatch, comm. K. W. Allison.

Acrobolbus lophocoleoides (Mitt.) Steph.

Gymnanthe lophocoleoides Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 144, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 519, 1867.

Acrobolbus lophocoleoides St., Spec. Hep., ii, 461.

Plants bright yellow-green, creeping through other bryophytes. Stems to 4 cm., flaccid with tufts of rhizoids, specially at the junction of the ventral leaf margin with the stem. Leaves remote, more or less oblong, the ventral margin curved in a little at the base, dorsal margin somewhat decurrent; bi-lobed, segments longly setaceous, often diverging, sinus obtuse to crescentic. Stipules none. Cells ca. 25–40 μ, basal still larger, rounded, trigones large, convex, confluent, cuticle minutely and densely asperate, more easily discerned when dry. “Folia floralia plurijuga, caulinis similia multoties tamen major, margine saepe crispata. Sacculus conico-cylindricus, dense radicellifer, ore pauce foliolis ovatis acutis vel bifidis circumdato.”

The absence of stipules at once distinguishes this species from a Lophocolea, which it certainly resembles.

In the Flora Novae Zelandiae and the Handbook, this species comes under the heading of Gymnanthe, with the fructification undescribed. Fertile plants collected by Kerr and Kirk (Auckland Islands), enabled Stephani to supply this omission as above, and to allocate the plant to this genus.

There is another plant, probably a Tylimanthus, which might be confused with Acrobolbus lophocoleoides, owing to a similarity in both colour and appearance. But on examination this is seen to have many irregularly shaped leaves, with lobes less setaceous and margins armed with spiny teeth. (Ruamahanga, V. D. Zotov, 9271 P. R. B. Herb., in part.)

My specimens, from the following localities, consist of a few single stems picked out from amongst other bryophytes: Te Moehau Mt., more or less exposed, L. B. Moore; Little Barrier Island summit, epiphytic on Dicranoloma, W. M. Hamilton; Wilton's Bush, Wellington, R. Mason.

The type was from the Tararuas, creeping amongst Adelanthus falcatus, coll. Colenso.

Acrobolbus cinerascens (L. et L.) Steph.

Jung. cincrascens L. et L., in Pug., iv, 46; G., L. et N., Syn. Hep., 178, 1844.

Gymnanthe cinerascens Mitt., Fl. Tas., 229, 1860.

Marsupellopsis cinerascens Eng. and Prantl., Pflanzenf.; Berggr., N.Z. Hep., 1898.

Acrobolbus cinerascens St., Spec. Hep., ii, 176; Rod., Tas. Bry., ii, 1916.

Plants pale green to whitish, in a thick mat or mixed with other bryophytes. Stem 1–1.5 cm., rhizoids may be present, upper portion may be attenuated with minute leaves, simple or little branched, papillate. Leaves varying in size, contiguous to remote, spreading or dorsally secund, bifid, ventral lobe narrow-ovate, ventral margin strongly arched, apex sub-acute; dorsal lobe small, dentiform, everywhere papillose, all margins crenulate, caused by the projecting cells

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and minutely papillate. Stipules minute, bifid, obscure. Cells ca. 35 μ, opaque, trigones medium, convex, acute. Fructification not seen, but according to Berggren, the female plant repeatedly produces flowers at the swollen decurved apex of the procumbent stem, which apparently continues its growth beyond the flower. Outer invol. leaves large, inner ones smaller with margin repando-subdentate, shell-like, compressed. Perigonial leaves in 3–4 pairs, broadly ovate, equally bifid. The Flora Tasmaniae reads as follows: The invol. leaves scarcely differ in form from the cauline, but are concave and enclose 4 or 5 pistils, seated on the dorsal side of the abrupt and slightly thickened apex of the stem itself; with the invol. leaves there has been observed a small stipule-like leaflet …. Stephani has nothing to add to these observations, so apparently a fully developed torus has not yet been discovered.

Berggren seems to have been the first to have found this Australian and Tasmanian plant in New Zealand, on roots of trees, mountains by Bealey River. W. Martin has recently made two gatherings from the same district—forest floor, 4,000 ft., Avalanche Peak, Arthur's Pass, and “beech” trunks near Halpin's Creek, Arthur's Pass. Governor's Bush, Mount Cook, G. O. K. Sainsbury.

Lehmann's plant was from Australia (Nova Hollandia).

Genus Symphyomitra Spruce.

Gymnanthe Tayl. M.S., G., L. et N., Syn. Hep., 192, 1844.

Symphyomitra Spruce, 1885.

Plants dioicous, prostrate with rhizoids. Stems mostly simple. Leaves succubous, alternate, entire, obliquely inserted, usually increasing in size upwards, stipules absent. Sporophyte terminal, at the base of a descending cylindric marsupium.

Seven species are described by Stephani.

Symphyomitra drummondii (Mitt.) St.

Gymnanthe drummondii Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 144, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 519.

Lethocolea drummondii Handb. N.Z. Fl., 753, Appen., 1867; Berggr., N.Z. Hep., 1898.

Symphyomitra drummondii St., Spec. Hep., ii, 106; Rod., Tas. Bry., ii, 24, 1916.

Plants dioicous, variable, prostrate, covering bare patches of hillsides in early spring, deep green on shady banks, red-brown and usually smaller if exposed to sunlight; may be gemmiparous. Stems creeping in all directions, areuate-decurved at the apex, and terminating in the marsupium, rhizoids numerous or few. Leaves imbricate or sub-remote, fleshy, may be papillose, ovate or oblong-ovate, obliquely affixed to the stem, a little decurrent dorsally, dorsal margin perhaps recurved, apex obtuse, may also be recurved, increasing in size upwards to the first pair of involucral leaves. Inside these and adnate to them at their bases is a pair or ring of very small variously shaped leaves, the bases forming the mouth of the marsupium. Cells smooth to papillate, ca. 30 μ, increasing in size towards the base, with an oval, brownish chloroplast in the middle of the lumen when fresh; trigones small to medium. Gemmae in clusters on the dorsal surface of the stem, near the axils of the upper leaves on sterile plants, flattish but solid, 0.1–0.25 mm. across. Marsupium greenish-white

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or reddish, terminal, as long as the stem, slender, rigid, fleshy, with scattered rootlets, descending perpendicularly or sloping. Sporogonium in a club-shaped hollow at the base. ♂ plants smaller, apparently dying after releasing the antheridia. These are solitary in the concave basal portion of the perigonial leaves, orange, more oval than spherical, shortly stalked.

No previous mention of the gemmae appears to have been made.

Mr. K. W. Allison, who watched the development of the fructification over a considerable period, observed that the sporogonium in the form of a little bulb became detached as the upper portion rotted, but was unable to discover whether it sent up a stalked capsule or whether the capsule merely liberated its spores, which would be later brought to the surface by moisture, etc. This also applies to the sporogonium of Acrobolbus unguiculatus.

What appears to be an aquatic form is from Kaitaia, North Auckland, mixed with Sphagnum sp., coll. H. B. Matthews. The stem is somewhat elongate and the leaves soft and scarcely imbricate, to remote.

According to Mitten, the above plant is the same species as Riccia squmata, Podanthe squamata and Jungermannia pansa, all collected by Drummond in the Swan River District, Western Australia, and named and described by Taylor in the London Journal of Botany, 1846. But why Mitten changed the specific name, or why it has not been changed back again, I am unable to say. In this country it is very variable, and I do not agree with Berggren, who would foist on to New Zealand a Tasmanian doubtful species, S. concinna (Mitt.) St. Berggren avers that S. drummondii has leaves longitudinally inserted, and that this is the main distinction between this species and S. concinna. But this is quite at variance with Mitten's plate in the Flora Novae Zelandiae, in which the leaf insertion is shown as markedly oblique. As a matter of fact, I have yet to see a specimen of Symphyomitra with longitudinally affixed leaves, though I do not doubt that the angle of insertion may vary.

In addition to numerous gatherings from the Wairoa Hills, I have three: from swampy ground near Atiamuri; also from rather open bank facing south, Kaingaroa S.F. Plantation (gemmiferous); in shade of tussocks on a flat, near Rangitaiki, all coll. K. W. Allison. In grass, shady side of Mount Drury, Tauranga, E. A. Hodgson.

Symphyomitra grandifolia (Berggr.) St.

Lethocolea grandifolia Berggr., N.Z. Hep., 26, 1898.

Sym. grandifolia St., Spec. Hep., ii, 107.

Plants pale green, terrestrial in association with Isotachis subtrifida and Lepidozia cavernarum Herz. Stems ca. 1.5 cm., prostrate, densely matted in a wad of hair-like rhizoids, simple, the upper portion in some cases rose, and terminating in 1 or 2 rose-coloured, somewhat flattened, juvenile marsupia with a very dense tuft of rhizoids on the under surface. Leaves imbricate, sub-orbicular, a little under 2 mm., with a broader base, flimsy, cellular, margins somewhat undulate when dry, obliquely inserted, alternate, may be a little concave. Cells large, hexagonal, 40–50 μ, basal elongate to 100 μ

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(Stephani gives 130 μ), walls thin but not clearly defined, trigones small.

Fortunately, I have a specimen of this plant from North Westland, collected by M. Berry, January, 1941, and am thus able to confirm Berggren's description. It differs from S. drummondii in the rounded, cellular leaves, and the abnormally densely hairy stems.

The type, sterile, was collected by Berggren “in solo micaceoglarioso ad flumen Teremakau”.

Concluding Notes.

There are indications that further New Zealand members of this family yet remain to be described.

Jungermannia frullanioides Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 21, p. 47, 1888, is, according to Stephani, a moss.

The loan of Dr. F. Stephani's Species Hepaticarum, vol. 2, from the National Herbarium, Botanic Gardens, Sydney, per Mr. R. H. Anderson, is gratefully acknowledged.

Grateful thanks are also extended to Dr. Herman Persson, of the Natural History Museum, Stockholm, through whose good offices I have just received from that Institution and from Mrs. Elsa Nyholm, Lund, named fragments of eight specimens of New Zealand hepatics collected by Dr. S. Berggren. These include Symphyomitra grandifolia (Berggr.), “inter Blake's et Kelly's”, Teremakau, Aplozia acroclada Berggr., Lake Taupo, and Lophozia pumicicola Berggr., Taupo.

Aplozia acroclada Berggr is a species of Lembidium.


Berggren, S., 1898. N.Z. Hepaticae, Lund.

Buch, H., Evans, A. W., and Verdoorn, Fr., 1937. A preliminary check list, including a complete enumeration of all genera of the Hepaticae. Annales Bryologici, 10, 4–8, Leiden.

Colenso, Rev. W., 1885. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 18, pp. 236237.

—— 1886. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 19, p. 280.

—— 1887. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 20, p. 243.

—— 1888. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 21, p. 47.

Evans, A. W., 1939. Classification of the Hepaticae, Botanical Review, vol. 5, p. 90.

Gottsche, C. M., Lindenberg, J. B. G., et Nees, C. G. ab Esenbeck, 1844–47. Synopsis Hepaticarum, including Supplement.

Hooker, Sir William, 1818. Musci Exotici.

Hooker, Sir J. D. Botany of the Antarctic Voyage.

—— cum W. Mitten, 1867. Handbook of New Zealand Flora, vol. 2, London.

MacVicar, S. M., 1927. The Students' Handbook of British Hepatics, 2nd Edition. London.

Mitten, W., 1855. In Flora Novae Zelandiae, vol. 2, London.

—— 1860. In Flora Tasmaniae, London.

Pearson, W. H., 1923. Notes on a Collection of New Zealand Hepatics. Univ. Cal. Pub. Bot., vol. 10, p. 317.

Rodway, L., 1919. Hepatics. Tas. Bry. Hobart.

Stephani, Fr., 1892. Colenso's New Zealand Hepaticae. Journ. Linn. Soc., vol. 29, pp. 263–280. London.

—— 1901–05. Species Hepaticarum, vol. 2. Geneva.

—— Icones Hepaticarum. Unpublished Hand-drawings of Species.

Taylor, T., 1847. In Flora Antarctica. London.