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Volume 77, 1948-49
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The Royal Society of New Zealand

Minutes Of The Annual Meeting Of The Council, Held On 22nd May, 1947.

The Annual Meeting of the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand was held in the Council Room, Victoria University College, Wellington, on Thursday, 22nd May, 1947.

Present: The President, Professor W. N. Benson (in the chair), the Vice-President, Dr. P. Marshall; Representing the Government: Dr. G. Archey, Mr. B. C. Aston, Dr. E. Marsden, Dr. W. R. B. Oliver; Representing Auckland Institute: Dr. L. H. Briggs and Mr. A. T. Pycroft; Representing Wellington Branch: Dr. L. I. Grange and Professor L. R. Richardson; Representing Canterbury Branch: Dr. R. A. Falla and Dr. O. H. Frankel; Representing Otago Branch: Dr. C. O. Hutton and Dr. H. D. Skinner; Representing Hawke's Bay Branch: Mr. J. D. H. Buchanan; Representing Nelson Institute: Dr. D. Miller; Representing Southland Branch: Mr. R. W. Willett; Co-opted Member: Dr. J. Marwick. The Honorary Treasurer, Mr. S. Cory Wright, also attended.

New Member: The President welcomed Dr. C. O. Hutton, who took his seat for the first time on the Council, succeeding Dr. C. M. Focken, who is in England.

Presidential Address: Dr. Archey made reference to the inspiring address delivered by Professor Benson the previous evening to the Science Congress, stating that it was of great significance. On the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Dr. Marshall, it was resolved that the President's address be printed in the Transactions immediately and that copies of it be distributed without delay.

Hector Award: The Hector Award Committee (Sir William Benham and Dr. H. J. Finlay) recommended that the Hector Medal and Prize be awarded to Mr. A. W. B. Powell for his outstanding and long-continued study of Mollusca.

The Committee's recommendation was adopted.

It was resolved that the amount of the Hector Prize be £50 as usual,

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Hutton Award: The Hutton Award Committee (Dr. H. H. Allan, Professor W. N. Benson, and Dr. D. Miller) recommended that the award be made to Professor C. A. Cotton for his researches on the Geomorphology of New Zealand.

The Committee's recommendation was adopted.

T. K. Sidey Summer-time Award: The Summer-time Award Committee (Dr. H. H. Allan, Dr. D. B. Macleod, and Professor D. C. H. Florance) recommended that the Medal and Prize be awarded to Dr. D. F. Martyn for research on solar radiation, the effect of solar radiations on our atmosphere, and the mechanism of the propagation of long electro-magnetic waves in the atmosphere.

The Committee's recommendation was adopted.

Hamilton Award: The Hamilton Award Committee (Professor L. R. Richardson, Dr. R. A. Falla, and Dr. W. R. B. Oliver) recommended that the prize be awarded to Miss E. J. Batham for her work on Pollicipes. The Committee stated that the work of the second candidate is of high calibre and shows much promise.

The Committee's recommendation was adopted.

Fellowship Election: The Fellowship Selection Committee, consisting of Dr. H. H. Allan, Dr. J. Marwick, Mr. B. C. Aston, and Dr. R. A. Falla, unanimously recommended that the following be elected to the Fellowship:—

Dr. M. A. F. Barnett.

Dr. E. Beaglehole.

Miss L. B. Moore.

Professor H. G. Forder.

The Committee's recommendation was adopted.

Award Committees: On the motion of Professor Benson, seconded by Dr. Marshall, a very hearty vote of thanks was accorded to the various award committees for the work they had done.

Honorary Members: Owing to the death of Sir James Jeans and of Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, two vacancies in the Honorary Membership were declared.

Member Bodies' Reports and Balance Sheets: The annual reports and balance sheets of the following Member Bodies were laid on the table:—

Auckland Institute for the year ended 31st March, 1946.

Wellington Branch for the year ended 30th September, 1946.

Canterbury Branch for the year ended 31st October, 1946.

Otago Branch for the year ended 31st October, 1946.

Hawke's Bay Branch for the year ended 31st December, 1946.

Nelson Institute for the year ended 31st December, 1946.

Southland Branch for the year ended 31st March, 1947.

Report of the Standing Committee: The following report of the Standing Committee was then considered:—

Annual Report of the Standing Committee for the Year Ended 31st March, 1947.

Meetings: During the year eight meetings of the Standing Committee were held, the attendance being as follows: Dr. P. Marshall (Vice-President), Wellington, 7; Dr. G. Archey, Auckland, 1; Mr. B. C. Aston, Wellington, 6; Dr. L. I. Grange, Wellington, 5; Dr. E. Marsden, Wellington, 2; Dr. J. Marwick, Wellington,

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7; Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, Wellington, 6; Professor L. R. Richardson, Wellington. 8

Council: Acting on a verbal opinion on Clause 4 (ii) of “The Royal Society of New Zealand Act, 1933,” given by the Crown Solicitor, the Council at the last Annual Meeting elected Professor W. P. Evans and Dr. H. H. Allan additional co-opted members. At a meeting of the Standing Committee on the 29th May, Professor Evans and Dr. Allan questioned the interpretation of the clause, and the Vice-President was asked to again discuss the matter with the Crown Solicitor. Subsequently, the Crown Solicitor, on a more thorough reading of the clause and its context, reversed his decision, thus making the Annual Meeting appointments ultra vires.

Publications: There has been considerable delay in the printing and distribution of Parts 2 and 3 of Volume 76. Part 2 bears the date of issue as September, 1946, but it was actually distributed in March, 1947. The explanation given by the Otago Daily Times Company is that the printing trade is experiencing the almost universal lack of labour.

In October the Standing Committee received notice from the Otago Daily Times Company that it was necessary to increase printing prices from 17s 6d per page text to 22s 6d per page and tabular matter and plates to 30s per page. It was decided to call for quotations from leading local printing firms, but without exception all replied that owing to the difficulty in obtaining labour they could not enter into any further printing contracts.

Obituary Notices: It was decided to ask Dr. J. T. Salmon to write for the Transactions an Obituary Notice of Mr. G. V. Hudson, Professor G. J. Williams one of Professor James Park, and Dr. H. H. Allan one of the Rev. Dr. J. E. Holloway. These notices have appeared or will appear in Volume 76.

Hamilton's ‘Maori Art’: In view of the reduced stocks of sets of “Maori Art,” it was resolved to increased the price to £10 10s per unbound set of five parts and £12 12s for the set bound in brown buckram.

It was decided to present the British Museum with a bound copy (original cover) of “Maori Art” to replace its copy destroyed during the war.

Financial: On the 29th May the Standing Committee resolved that a deputation should wait on the Minister of Scientific and Industrial Research to make a request for an increased annual grant, namely, £1,500. Several attempts were made to obtain an interview without success, and a statement and covering letter setting out the Society's financial position and the increasing cost of publishing its Transactions was then sent to the Minister. On the 19th August, advice was received that an additional £250 had been voted by Cabinet. In view of the latest increased printing prices this additional grant was considered inadequate, and a further letter was sent to the Minister, with the result that the grant has been increased to £1,250 per annum.

Library: Professor C. A. Cotton resigned the office of Honorary Librarian, and Professor L. R. Richardson was elected by the Standing Committee.

On the recommendation of the Library Committee the following were added to the Exchange List:—

The New Zealand Institute of Foresters.

North Queensland Naturalists' Club.

Louisiana State University.

Universidad de Sao Paulo.

Instituto Oswaldo Cruz.

Societe des Sciences Naturelles du Maroc.

Gordon Memorial College.

Institut Royale Colonial Belge.

Museum of Natural History, Goteborg.

Polish Academy of Sciences and Letters, Cracow.

Faculty of Science, Caroline University, Prague.

Observatoire et Jardin Botanique, Institute de Botanique systematique de l'Universite, Geneve.

University of Hawaii.

Further recommendations approved were as follows: That vertical cases for current publications be procured to give additional space in the Library and one or two additional shelves on top of the existing cases round the walls; that a book plate be printed for inserting in books presented by the late Mr. G. V. Hudson, and that Professor Richardson report on the question of library assistance.

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Dr. L. J. Comrie has presented a set of publications to the Library including “An Index of Mathematical Tables.”

A great many of the publications accumulated during the war years by exchanges are now reaching the Library, making for congestion on the existing shelving.

Binding is at a standstill owing to the difficulty experienced by the Society's binder in obtaining assistance.

Member Bodies: Annual reports and balance sheets have been received as follows:—

Wellington Branch for the year ended 31st September, 1946.

Auckland Institute for the year ended 31st March, 1946.

Canterbury Branch for the year ended 31st October, 1946.

Otago Branch for the year ended 31st October, 1946.

Hawke's Bay Branch for the year ended 31st December, 1946.

Southland Branch for the year ended 31st March, 1946.

Nelson Philosophical Society for the year ended 30th September, 1946.

Inquiries were made by the recently-formed Waikato Scientific Association regarding conditions of affiliation with the Royal Society of New Zealand, but no application has yet been received.

Fellowship: In accordance with a resolution of last annual meeting, Section G.I. Fellows, Rule 2 amendment was gazetted as follows:—

Rule 2: “That Rule 2 be amended by the deletion of the word ‘forty’ and insertion of the word ‘fifty’ in place thereof.”

Member Bodies were again asked to consider the rules governing the Fellowship, and a sub-committee consisting of Dr. H. H. Allan, Dr. G. Archey, and Professor L. R. Richardson had before it the opinions of Member Bodies and Fellows. This sub-committee's report is appended.

Nineteen nominations to fill the four vacancies in the Fellowship were received from Member Bodies, and on the 6th December were sent to the Fellows for selection. Subsequently the voting papers were submitted to the Fellowship Selection Committee. Its report will come before the Annual Meeting.

Hector Award: At a meeting of the Auckland Institute on the 15th August, Dr. G. Archey (acting on behalf of the President of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Professor Benson, who was unable to be present) presented the Hector Medal and Prize to Professor H. G. Forder.

Hutton Grants: The following applications for Hutton Grants were recommended by the Standing Committee on the 7th March, 1947, for approval:—

Dr. H. B. Fell, £4 10s for research on the Bronze Cuckoo.

Dr. H. B. Mason, £25, for geological work in North Canterbury.

Dr. H. B. Richdale, £30, for research on Bird Life on the Otago Peninsula and Stewart Island.

Dr. C. O. Hutton, £40, for research on the Granites of the South Island and Stewart Island.

Dr. K. Wodzicki and Mr. C. A. Fleming, £40, for a Gannet census.

Comment has been made at various times on the time that must elapse under the existing rules between the date of applications for Hutton grants and approval by the Annual Meeting. It is considered that this is often a deterrent to those who might otherwise benefit from a Hutton grant. It is proposed to give consideration to this matter at the Annual Meeting.

Research Grants: In accordance with a direction of the Standing Committee the following motion will come before the Annual Meeting for consideration:—

Professor Richardson to move: “That while the increased Government grant falls far short of the necessary amount, we recognise our function in the encouragement of research by setting aside the sum of £100 as a sum to be expended in grants in aid of research and call immediately for applications against this sum by notice in the Transactions and to the constituent branches.”

T. K. Sidey Summer-time Award: A notice and advertisement calling attention to the award of the T. K. Sidey Summer-time Medal and Prize in 1947 was drawn up by Dr. C. M. Focken, referred to Professor Florance, Professor of Physics at Victoria University College, and approved. The advertisement was inserted in all the leading newspapers throughout New Zealand and in Nature and the notice was sent to scientific institutions and universities in New Zealand and overseas.

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Six applications for the award were received and were submitted to the Award Committee, Dr. H. H. Allan, Sir Charles Hercus, and Dr. D. B. Macleod. Sir Charles Hercus later advised that he had intended to resign from the Award Committee, and after seeing the applications, only one of which remotely concerned his work, he suggested that a physicist be appointed in his place. The Award Committee then co-opted Professor Florance, and his appointment will be ratified by the Standing Committee at its next meeting.

Science Congress: The Wellington Branch applied to the Standing Committee for financial assistance in organising the Science Congress, and at a meeting on the 11th December it was decided to make a grant of £100 to the Wellington Branch for the purpose. It was reported by the Branch that the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research had offered to publish the Proceedings of the Congress, and this offer was accepted and the hope expressed that when published the volume would appear as a Part of the Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand. In a further discussion on the proposed volume, it was agreed that where an author desired to publish his papers elsewhere, an abstract and a reference to where the paper was published in full would be sufficient for the Congress volume.

Dominion Museum: Following on the discussion at the last Annual Meeting and the press publicity given to the fact that the Dominion Museum was still occupied by the Forces, continued endeavours were made to secure an interview with the Prime Minister without success.

It was reported in December that the Forces were moving out, but slow progress is being made in the restoration of the Museum to its previous standard.

Museum Management Committee: At a meeting of the Standing Committee held on the 15th July, Mr. H. C. McQueen was nominated to succeed the late Mr. G. V. Hudson on the Management Committee.

International Council of Scientific Unions: After being in recess during the war years, the International Council of Scientific Unions was revived and a General Assembly was held in London in July, 1946. Sir Theodore Rigg was appointed to represent the Society at the General Assembly.

The Society's subscription to the Unions for 1939 (£7) was due and was paid, also that for 1946 (£8). Notification was received that adhering organisations would in future be asked to pay £40 per annum, and the Standing Committee felt that it would be unable to pay this increased subscription. Subsequently, Dr. Archey pointed out to the Standing Committee that it would be a retrograde step for the Society to disassociate itself from the International Scientific Unions, especially at the present time when indications were that scientific union would attain a reality and a development far in advance of past attainment and he referred to the part UNESCO would play through the Unions. He suggested that Member Bodies be asked to contribute part of the subscription. The Standing Committee agreed to this suggestion, and later it was decided to pay the annual subscription to the Unions.

UNESCO: An endeavour was made to have the Royal Society more directly represented on the UNESCO Advisory Committee in New Zealand and an assurance was given by the Secretary that after the Paris Conference in the setting up of a permanent committee due consideration would be given to the Society's request.

Dr. R. A. Falla, who attended the UNESCO Paris Conference, was invited to inform the Royal Society on the functions of UNESCO. A Summary Report on the Paris Conference submitted by Dr. R. A. Falla is appended for consideration, and Dr. Falla will speak to this report at the Annual Meeting.

Adult Education: The Society's sub-committee on Adult Education submitted a report which by direction of the Standing Committee was circulated to members of the Council and to Member Bodies. The Committee was asked to continue in operation to take any action desired in accordance with its recommendations.

Wild Life Control: The report of the Wild Life Control Committee and its subsidiary reports were again brought to the notice of the Prime Minister, who passed them on to the Minister of Internal Affairs. On the 26th September the Hon. Minister wrote that the question of setting up an Advisory Wild Life Council was then under consideration and it was his intention to proceed with

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the formation of such a Council as soon as possible, when the Society's suggestions and opinions would be born in mind. No further advice has been received.

Preservation of Bush: Representations were made to the Society that a piece of native bush adjacent to No. 6 Radar Station, north of Kaitaia, should be declared a scenic reserve, as it was in danger of being milled, and the Society was asked to use its influence in having it preserved. After some inquiries a letter setting out the botanical interest in this particular bush was sent to the Hon. Minister of Internal Affairs.

National Academy of Sciences and American Philosophical Society: An invitation to the Society to send a delegate as the guest of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences at their autumn meetings in October, 1946, was received. Member Bodies were given an opportunity to nominate a representative and from the nominations received Dr. R. S. Allan, of Canterbury University College, was selected by the Standing Committee. Dr. Allan has been asked to report on his visit at the Annual Meeting.

Liaison With Scientific Visitors: At the suggestion of Professor Richardson, it was agreed to write to the several legations and the Departments of Internal and External Affairs, Scientific and Industrial Research, and Agriculture with a view to being notified of impending visits of prominent scientists so that full advantage may be taken by the Branches and scientific institutions of such visits. Further, Member Bodies were asked to notify the Society of any impending visits overseas by their members.

Professor R. B. Goldschmidt: Through the efforts of Professor Richardson, a sum of £475 was contributed by the University Colleges and the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research to enable Professor Goldschmidt, Professor of Zoology in the University of California and an eminent geneticist, to give a series of lectures to the Colleges and the Branches and other scientific bodies while on tour in New Zealand. The University of New Zealand and the Royal Society are acting as joint hosts during Professor Goldschmidt's visit.

Overseas Meetings: Notice has been received that the Centenary Celebrations of the Chemical Society will be held in London on July 15–17 and that the Tenth International Congress of Pure and Applied Chemistry will be held in London on July 17–24, 1947. A provisional programme of this is available at the Society's office.

Preliminary advice has been received of the eighteenth session on the International Geological Congress to be held in London in August, 1948. The Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science will be held at Perth on August 20–27, 1947.

The Princeton University is celebrating its bicentennial, and the President of the Society was invited to attend. Professor Benson, however, could not go to America, and he suggested that Professor F. J. Turner should act in his place. Professor Turner could not accept the invitation, and the Scientific Liaison Officer in the New Zealand Legation in Washington, Mr. J. A. D. Nash, has been asked to represent the Society.

Dr. Marsden and Sir Theodore Rigg and Professor Soper represented the Society at the Newton Tercentenary Celebrations, which were organised by the Royal Society of London and coincided with the Empire Science Congress.

Atomic Scientists' Association: At the request of this association a corresponding member in New Zealand was appointed by the Standing Committee. The professors of physics nominated Professor R. Jack, and he was appointed to the office.

Carter Observatory Board: On the 11th December, Dr. M. A. F. Barnett and Mr. C. G. G. Berry were nominated for a further term on the Board.

Parliamentary Scientific Committee: At the request of the Association of Scientific Workers to appoint a delegate to represent the Society on a sub-committee set up towards the promotion of a Parliamentary Scientific Committee, Dr. E. Marsden was appointed.

Arising therefrom:—

  • (1) Publications: Dr. Archey drew attention to the delay in the printing of the Transactions and the length of time elapsing between the date printed on the quarterly part and the actual date of issue. On the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Mr. Pycroft, it was

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  • resolved: “That the actual date of issue of the quarterly parts of the Transactions be printed thereon and on the separate papers.”

  • (2) Dominion Museum: Mr. Pycroft asked if the progress of the restoration of the Dominion Museum was considered satisfactory. Professor Richardson replied that at last progress was being made, but it was slow.

    Dr. Marshall stated that considering the state of the Museum when the Forces moved out, great progress had been made in repair work. In reply to a question by Dr. Archey, Dr. Oliver stated that the Board of Trustees was not responsible financially for the restoration of the building, the Defence Department having contracted to restore the building to its former state.

  • (3) Adult Education: Dr. Archey asked if the Adult Education Committee's Report would come before the meeting, and it was decided to include it in the Agenda for the afternoon session.

  • (4) Visiting Scientists: Professor Richardson said he considered the Royal Society of New Zealand should be regarded as a Liaison Office to be kept informed by all concerned of impending important scientific visitors. He reported on the recent visit of Professor R. B. Goldschmidt, stating that the visit of such a man was of inestimable value to students of the University and to scientific societies. During his lecture tour, Professor Goldschmidt had addressed over 2,000 people, and he had inspired the University students who attended his lectures. The cost, say, to Victoria University College was approximately two shillings per student, while the value could hardly be assessed. Professor Richardson hoped that Professor Goldschmidt's visit would be merely the forerunner of many such visits and that greater efforts would be made to bring to New Zealand eminent scientists. Professor Benson, Dr. Marshall, and Dr. Archey all spoke in support of Professor Richardson's remarks regarding Professor Goldschmidt's visit.

Dr. Marsden intimated that Professor David Jones is visiting New Zealand almost immediately at the request of the Department of Mines and the Scientific and Industrial Research Department to advise on coal dust problems, and Sir Reginald Stradling, of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Department in England, is to visit New Zealand in September.

Dr. Marsden also stated that while he was in England the Nuffield Trust had been approached with a view to securing for overseas lecture tours some of the leading scientific authorities. It was hoped that something would emanate from these discussions.

Dr. Falla stated that plans had been made for a visit by Dr. Robert C. Murphy, of the American Museum of Natural History, during October and November.

  • (5) International Council of Scientific Unions: Some discussion arose regarding the payment of the increased subscription to the International Council of Scientific Unions. The Canterbury Branch wrote stating that it was considered that the subscription should be paid by the parent body and that the Branches should not be called upon to assist. It was pointed out that the Member Bodies had signified their willingness to bear a portion of the cost of the subscription for the current year. On the motion of Dr. Briggs,

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  • seconded by Dr. Frankel, it was resolved that the Royal Society continue to pay the annual subscription to the International Council of Scientific Unions.

On the motion of Professor Benson, seconded by Dr. Marshall, the report of the Standing Committee was adopted.

Honorary Treasurer's Report and Balance Sheet:
Report of Honorary Treasurer.

In presenting the annual report and statement of accounts for the year ended 31st March, 1947, I have to report that the Society's finances continue to be satisfactory.

The increase of £500 in the Government's annual grant, making the total for the year £1,250, is very much appreciated and will help the Society materially, but, as was expected, it will be largely absorbed by the increased costs, more especially for printing, which are much heavier than they were.

The statement of total receipts and payments, which includes the Trust Accounts, shows a credit balance of £2,688, as against £1,420 last year. This is due to the following factors:—

  • (a) The grant was increased from £750 to £1,250.

  • (b) There has been considerable delay in the printing office (Otago Daily Times Co., Ltd.). Instead of the four quarterly parts normally printed, only three parts were printed, charged, and paid for.

  • (c) The Society undertook the administration of monies subscribed by the S.I.R. Department and the University Colleges in connection with the lecture tour of Professor R. B. Goldschmidt, and at the end of the year £228 showed as a credit balance in this account. The whole of the money subscribed or promised (£475) will be absorbed by travelling expenses and grants to Professor Goldschmidt.

  • (d) Additional copies of the Transactions have been ordered by Member Bodies and the levy is consequently higher this year.

  • (e) There were more sales of publications during the year.

  • (f) Repayment of capital Endowment Fund (£75) and reimbursements from Trust Accounts to General Account.

The Revenue Account, which includes all Trust Accounts, shows a credit balance of £1,693 16s 5d, less about £225 due for the printing of Part 3 of Volume 76, which should have come into the year's printing account, leaving £1,468 16s 5d to meet the expenses of the year 1947–48 as compared with £1,100 4s 2d for the year 1946–47, a net increase of £368 12s 3d.

The Trust Accounts are all in a healthy condition. As mentioned above [see (f)] in the Endowment Fund stock to the value of £75 matured and was redeemed, and this amount is in the Post Office Savings Bank pending investment in Inscribed Stock.

The balance sheets of the Member Bodies which have been submitted reveal that Rule 3 governing financial condition of affiliation is being complied with. The following is the analysis of the accounts presented by the Member Bodies:—

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Member Body. Membership. Receipts. Expenditure. Levy. Rule 3.
£ £ £ s. d.
Auckland Institute 728 13,885 12,893 70 10 0 Levy
Wellington Branch 328 430 282 61 12 0 Levy
Canterbury Branch 187 276 244 40 8 0 Levy
Otago Branch 164 270 133 45 0 0 Levy
Hawke's Bay 111 122 112 5 8 0 Levy
Southland Branch 40 89 49 11 6 0 Levy
Nelson Phil. Society 63 10 2 0 Levy

Nelson Institute (Member Body)—not yet to hand.

S. Cory Wright

, Hon. Treasurer.

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Statement of Receipts and Payments for the Year Ended 31st March, 1947.

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Receipts. £ s, d.
Balance at 31st March, 1946 1,420 3 5
Annual Government Grant 1,250 0 0
Levy, Vol. 75, Trans. R.S.N.Z. 244 12 0
Sales of Publication 139 11 7
Travelling Expenses: Member Bodies' Share 29 4 10
Member Bodies' Contribution to Inter. Scientific Unions 23 6 2
Contributions to Published Papers 37 5 0
Research Grant Refunded 28 0 0
Contributions to Prof. Goldschmidt's Tour 350 0 0
Favourable Exchange 7 2 7
Interest Post Office Savings Bank Account 21 17 7
Endowment Fund: Redemption Matured Stock 75 0 0
Endowment Fund Interest 77 11 6
Hector Memorial Fund Interest 51 14 3
Hutton Memorial Fund Interest 68 0 1
T. K. Sidey Summer-time Fund Interest 25 9 1
Cockayne Memorial Fund Interest 12 13 6
Carter Library Legacy Interest 6 7 6
Plant Diseases Trust Interest 17 2 11
Hamilton Memorial Fund Interest 2 4 0
Repayment Trust Funds to General Account 237 18 5
Cockayne Memorial Fund Donation 1 0 0
£4,126 4 5

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Payments. £ s. d.
Printing Transactions, Vol 75 (3, 4), 76 (1) 392 11 3
Salary 360 0 0
Charges (Telephone, Audit, Insurance) 12 16 7
Subscriptions Inter. Scientific Unions, 1939, 1946 18 15 4
Petty Cash: Secretary and Hon. Editor 25 12 3
Stationery 17 7 5
Science Congress: Grant for Expenses 100 0 0
Travelling Expenses 49 12 2
Professor Goldschmidt's Tour 121 5 10
Hutton Grants 104 0 0
Hector Prize and Engraving Medal 50 13 3
Trust Funds Audit Fee 1 1 6
Sidey Summer-time Award: Advertising 8 18 4
Interest paid direct to Trust Accounts 144 8 4
Adjustments between B.N.Z. and Trust Accounts 30 15 4
Balance as under 2,688 6 10
£4,126 4 5

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£ s. d. £ s. d.
Bank of New Zealand 758 0 2
Less Unpresented Cheques 46 5 10
0 2 0
46 7 10
711 12 4
Post Office Savings Bank 1,966 15 3
Cash in Hand 0 0 4
Petty Cash in Hand 9 18 11
£2,688 6 10
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Statement of Assets and Liabilities at 31st March, 1947.
Liabilities. £ s. d. Assets. £ s. d.
Hector Memorial Fund Capital Account 1,184 18 1 Hector Memorial Fund: Ins. Stock (face value, £1,250) 1,184 18 1
Hector Memorial Fund Revenue Account 79 3 3 Hector Memorial Fund: P.O.S.B. Account 79 3 3
Hutton Memorial Fund Capital Account 1,506 8 6 Hutton Memorial Fund: Ins. Stock (face value, £1,570) 1,506 8 6
Hutton Memorial Fund Revenue Account 358 13 0 Hutton Memorial Fund: P.O.S.B. Account 358 13 0
T. K. Sidey Summer-time Fund Capital Account 541 17 11 Sidey Summer-time Fund: Ins. Stock (face value, £510) 500 2 6
T. K. Sidey Summer-time Fund Revenue Account 185 12 8 Sidey Summer-time Fund: P.O.S.B. Account 227 8 1
Cockayne Memorial Fund Capital Account 249 12 0 Cockayne Mem. Fund: Ins. Stock (face value, £260) 249 12 0
Cockayne Memorial Fund Revenue Account 40 5 4 Cockayne Memorial Fund: P.O.S.B. Account 40 5 4
Hamilton Memorial Fund Capital Account 76 1 2 Hamilton Mem. Fund: Ins. Stock (face value, £60) 60 0 0
Hamilton Memorial Fund Revenue Account 4 8 3 Hamilton Memorial Fund: P.O.S.B. Account 20 9 5
Carter Library Legacy Capital Account 162 19 0 Carter Legacy: Inscribed Stock (face value, £160) 162 19 0
Carter Library Legacy Revenue Account 19 13 9 Carter Legacy: P.O.S.B. Account 19 13 9
Plant Diseases Trust Capital Account 542 13 5 Plant Diseases: Inscribed Stock (face value, £500) 500 0 0
Plant Diseases Trust Revenue Account 67 4 5 Plant Diseases: P.O.S.B. Account 109 17 10
Endowment Fund Capital Account 2,129 2 5 Endowment Fund: Inscribed Stock (face value, £2,070) 2,054 2 5
Endowment Fund Revenue Account 381 13 8 Endowment Fund: Part Gen. Account, P.O.S.B. Account 456 13 8
Research Grants Fund 118 7 0 Sundry Debtors 35 12 1
Otago Daily Times Co., Ltd. 203 1 6 Bank of New Zealand 711 12 4
International Scientific Unions 23 6 2 Post Office Savings Bank 1,510 1 7
Professor Goldschmidt's Tour 228 14 2 Cash in Hand 0 0 4
Balance of Assets over Liabilities 1,693 16 5 Petty Cash in Hand 9 18 11
£9,797 12 1 £9,797 12 1

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Property Assets: Estimated and Insured Value.
Est. Value. Ins. Value.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
Library and Stack Room. V.U.C 11,592 12 0 4,500 0 0
Furniture 40 0 0
Stock stored in room in cellar, Parliament Buildings 500 0 0
Carter Library, Dominion Museum (jointly owned by Museum) 500 0 0
£5,540 0 0
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Revenue Account for the Year Ended 31st March, 1947.
Expenditure £ s. d. Income. £ s. d.
To Printing Transactions, Vol. 75 (4), 76 (1,2) 508 1 9 By Balance at 31st March, 1946 1,100 4 2
" Stationery 17 7 5 " Annual Government Grant 1,250 0 0
" Salary 360 0 0 " Levy, Volume 75 244 14 0
" Petty Cash (Secretary, Hon. Editor) 25 12 3 " Contribution to Papers published 37 5 0
" Grant, Science Congress Expenses 100 0 0 " Cockayne Memorial Fund: Memorial Volume Reprints 11 10 0
" Charges 24 9 4 " Trust Funds Administration Expenses 5 2 6
" Travelling Expenses 20 7 4 " Sales of Publications 100 18 10
" Balance 1,693 16 5
£2,749 14 6 £2,749 14 6

The Audit Office having examined the Balance Sheet and accompanying Accounts required by law to be audited, hereby certifies them to be correct.

(Signed) J. P. Rutherford

, Controller and Auditor-General.

(Signed) S. Cory Wright

, Honorary Treasurer.

– xii –

Trust Accounts for the Year Ended 31st March, 1947

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Hector Memorial Fund.
Dr. £ s. d. Cr. £ s. d.
To Hector Prize 50 0 0 By Capital Invested 1,184 18 1
" Exchange on Cheque 0 1 3 " Balance Revenue A/c at 31/3/46 79 5 3
" Engraving Medal 0 12 0 " Interest 51 14 3
" Administration Exs. 1 3 0
" Balance 1,264 1 4
£1,315 17 7 £1,315 17 7
By Balance Capital A/c. £1,184 18 1
" Balance Revenue A/c. 79 3 3

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Hutton Memorial Fund.
Dr. £ s. d. Cr. £ s. d.
To Grants 104 0 0 By Capital Invested 1,506 8 6
" Administration Exs. 1 3 0 " Balance Revenue A/c. at 31/3/46 395 15 11
" Balance 1,865 1 6 " Interest 68 0 1
£1,970 4 6 £1,970 4 6
By Balance Capital A/c. £1,506 8 6
" Balance Revenue A/c. 358 13 0

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T. K. Sidey Summer-time Fund.
Dr. £ s. d. Cr. £ s. d.
To Advertisements 1947 Award 8 18 4 By Capital Invested and in P.O.S. Bank 539 7 0
" Administration Exs. 1 2 6 " Balance Revenue A/c. at 31/3/46 172 15 4
" Balance 727 10 7 " Interest to
    Rev. A/c. 22 18 2
    Cap. A/c. 2 10 11
25 9 1
£737 11 5 £737 11 5
By Balance Capital A/c. £541 17 11
" Balance Revenue A/c. 185 12 8

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Cockayne Memorial Fund.
Dr. £ s. d. Cr. £ s. d.
To Reprints Mem. Volume 11 10 0 By Capital Invested 249 12 0
" Administration Exs. 0 5 0 " Balance Revenue A/c. at 31/3/46 38 6 10
" Balance 289 17 4 " Donation St. Andrew's College, Christchurch 1 0 0
" Interest 12 13 6
£301 12 4 £301 12 4
By Balance Capital A/c. £249 12 0
" Balance Revenue A/c. 40 5 4
– xiii –

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Hamilton Memorial Fund.
Dr. £ s. d. Cr. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 0 5 0 By Capital Invested and in P.O.S. Bank 74 19 2
" Balance 80 9 5 " Balance Revenue A/c. at 31/3/46 3 11 3
" Interest to
Rev. A/c. £1 2 0
Capital A/c. 1 2 0
2 4 0
£80 14 5 £80 14 5
By Balance Capital A/c. £76 1 2
" Balance Revenue A/c. 4 8 3

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Carter Library Legacy.
Dr. £ s. d. Cr. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 0 12 63 By Capital Invested 162 19 0
" Balance 182 12 9 " Balance Revenue A/c. 31/3/46 13 18 9
" Interest 6 7 6
£183 5 3 £183 7 6
By Balance Capital A/c. £162 19 0
" Balance Revenue A/c. 19 13 9

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Plant Diseases Trust.
Dr. £ s. d. Cr. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 0 5 0 By Capital Invested and in P.O.S. Bank 542 13 5
" Balance 609 17 10 " Balance Revenue A/c. at 31/3/46 50 6 6
" Interest 17 2 11
£610 2 10 £610 2 10
By Balance Capital A/c. £542 13 5
" Balance Revenue A/c. 67 4 5

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Endowment Fund.
Dr. £ s. d. Cr. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 1 8 0 By Capital Invested 2,054 2 5
" Balance 2,510 16 1 " Capital in P.O.S.B. 75 0 0
" Balance Revenue A/c. at 31/3/46 (Publication Expenses) 283 12 7
" Interest 99 9 1
£2,512 4 1 £2,512 4 1
By Balance Capital A/c. £2,129 2 5
" Balance Revenue A/c. 381 13 8
– xiv –

On the motion of Dr. Marshall, seconded by Mr. Pycroft, the report and balance sheet were adopted.

Secretary's Salary: It was resolved that the Secretary's salary be at the rate of £425 per annum as from the 1st April, 1947.

Honorary Editor's Report:
Report of Honorary Editor.

During the year ended 31st March, 1947, Parts 1 and 2 of Volume 76 were issued, Part 3 is in galley form, and Part 4 is ready to be sent to the printers. There has been delay in getting all the printing done.

The subjects of the papers of Volume 76 are as follows:—

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Subjects. No. of Papers. Pages. Plates. Figures and Graphs.
Botany 15 104 19 9
Zoology 19 159 39 40
Palaeontology 5 32 2
Palaeontology 9 106 4 29
Chemistry 2 9 1
Miscellaneous 2 33 11
Obituaries 4 9 4

The papers will comprise 597 pages of Volume 76.

The following manuscripts have been handled during the year:—

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In Volume 76 52
In hand, approved by referees 10
Returned to authors for revision 5
With referees 5
Declined 8

Sincere thanks are tendered to the referees who have so carefully carried out their work.

J. Henderson

, Hon. Editor.

On the motion of Dr. Marwick, seconded by Dr. Grange, the report of the Honorary Editor was adopted. Professor Richardson stated that there was some complaint regarding the quality of the paper used in the Transactions, and he considered that the Society should rightly demand the provision of better paper for the printing of its papers. It was pointed out that the printers had been approached in this matter and had replied that no other paper was obtainable. On the motion of Professor Richardson, it was resolved that the Standing Committee be asked to inquire from authoritative sources regarding the possibility of obtaining better paper.

Honorary Librarian's Report:
Report of Honorary Librarian.

This year the Library received 1,285 volumes or parts of volumes. Two-thirds of this total come from three countries—the United States (544), Sweden (141), Britain (128). Borrowings total 463 volumes, including 87 volumes posted. In addition, the Library is freely consulted.

Briefly, the Library is a valuable scientific asset in heavy demand.

The work of the Library now warrants assistance to the present Secretary and Librarian.

Additional temporary shelving and space-saving accommodation for current accessions are planned, but are held up through timber shortage. This will mean some early temporary relief to present overcrowded conditions, which it is hoped can be fully eased in the building programme envisaged at the College.

Binding is still well behind accessions. At least 2,500 volumes are to be bound. This cannot be done at present nor in the future unless there is an accumulating reserve to meet this charge, which at current rates would cost at least £1,875.

– xv –

Of twenty-four requests for exchange, twelve were approved, three of these provisionally. Additional information is being sought on the remainder of the applications.

The valuable entomological library of the late Mr. G. V. Hudson was transferred as a gift to the Royal Society and is housed in the main stacks. A book-plate has been selected and will be placed in each volume.

L. R. Richardson

, Honorary Librarian.

In presenting the Honorary Librarian's report, Professor Richardson stated that the work of the Library had increased and it warranted an assistant. He had been hopeful that an assistant with binding experience could be procured, but unfortunately that did not seem possible at present. He referred to the necessity for building up a reserve for binding; at present the Society's binder was unable to cope with the work owing to the lack of labour, and there was an immense amount of work to be done.

In the proposed building scheme at Victoria University College he envisaged adequate accommodation for the Royal Society's Library.

On the motion of Professor Richardson, seconded by Dr. Grange, it was resolved: “That the sum of £125 be set aside for the employment of a library assistant during the current year.”

On the motion of Professor Richardson, seconded by Dr. Grange, it was resolved: “That a sum of £50 be set aside each year as a reserve for binding expenses.”

Reports of Research Grantees:
Reports of Research Grantees.

Miss E. J. Batham and Miss B. I. Brewin were granted £15 in 1944 for research on the plankton and coastal rock fauna at Portobello Marine Biological Station. Miss Batham has gone to England. Miss Brewin reported on the 29th April that investigations are still being carried out. The bolting silk has been purchased to replace that belonging to the Zoology Department and to the Fish Hatcheries, as they were forced to use theirs for the plankton survey, new silk of the correct mesh not being available at that period. The 4oz. screw-top jars are used for collecting and preserving embryological stages of one of the coastal ascidians. A paper on the plankton of the Otago Harbour is now ready for submission to the Editor of the Transactions. expenditure to date amounts to £11 10s 2d.

Dr.L. H. Briggs, who in 1943 was granted £25 for research on essential oils and £60 in 1945 for the purchase of a Hydrophil Balance, reported on the 1st May that very full use has been and is being made of the apparatus purchased from the above grants. Nine research men working directly under his supervision are benefiting by the use of the apparatus. Some work has been completed, and the following seven papers dealing with the work are in the press. All give acknowledgment of the assistance given by the Royal Society of New Zealand:—


Liversidge Research Lecture: Plant Products of New Zealand (L. H. Briggs).


The Occurrence of Isophyllocladene in the Essential Oil of Araucaria excelsa (Briggs and Taylor).


The Essential Oil of Dacrydium kirkii (Briggs and Taylor).


The Essential Oil of Phyllocladus trichomanoides (Briggs and Sutherland).

5, 6.

Chemistry of the Coprosma Genus. part 1, The Colouring Matters from Coprosma australis. Part 2, The Colouring Matters from Coprosma areolata (Briggs, Dacre, and Miss M. R. Craw).


A Terpene-type Essential Oil from a Fern (Paesia scaberula) (Briggs and Sutherland).

In addition, the following researches in progress are still being assisted by grants:—

– xvi –

Surface Film Studies of Organic Compounds (using the Hydrophil Balance recently purchased).


The Constitution of Kaurene, the diterpene from the essential oil of Agathis australis.


The Colouring Matters from Coprosma lucida, C. rubra, and C. acerosa.


The Constitution of Solanum alkaloids.


The Colouring Matters from Melicope ternata.


The Alkaloids from Litsaea calcicaris.


Chelate compounds from Hydroxyamidines.

The total cost of the Hydrophil Balance and duty on it amount to £71 3s 2d, and Dr. Briggs asks for an additional grant of £11 3s 2d to cover the balance.

Dr. G. H. Uttley, by permission of the Council, has now repurchased the microphotographic camera used in his research.

Professor B. J. Marples was in 1938 granted £20 for research on the Little Owl and the balance of the grant was reallocated for expenses in a visit to Green Island. He reported on the 4th May that owing to weather conditions at the suitable season for such a visit he was unable to make the trip, and he asked that the balance of the grant (£5) be held over.

Reports of Hutton Research Grantees

Miss M. Fyfe, who in 1945 was granted £20 for a study of Leiopelma, reported on the 21st April that before applying for the grant she had been assured that no one else had done any work or was working on Leiopelma. In 1944 she had obtained a permit from Internal Affairs to visit Coromandel for the purpose of collecting the frogs and studying them in their environment. In examining M.Sc. theses at the end of 1945 she found that an Auckland student had collected material from Coromandel before she went there and had published a short paper in the Transactions in which it was stated that a series of studies on the whole structure, ecology, and development of Leiopelma would follow. This made it impossible for Miss Fyfe to continue the research, but she reports that the material she has collected will still be of value. In the circumstances, she asks if she may claim from the grant made to her the expenses, £17 5s 4d, incurred in visiting Coromandel.

Mrs. E. A. Hodgson, who was granted £5 for the purchase of two books on Hepaticae, reported on the 30th April that she had purchased a copy of Sim's Bryophyta of South Africa, also a number of photostats of pages from Vol. 3 of Stephani's Species Hepaticarum. The whole of the grant except 2s Id was expended.

Professor B. J. Marples, who in 1945 was granted £20 for investigation in vertebrate palaeontology at Duntroon, reported on the 4th May that he has made two trips to Duntroon. During these, some four miles of cliffs and fallen blocks have been examined, and the remains of five whales and one penguin were located. Of the penguin, only one coracoid could be collected, but it is one of the largest and best-preserved in existence. Of the whales, one is represented by badly-preserved fragments and does not warrant further excavation. One has yielded a periotic bone of some interest, but is unlikely to provide much else. Further details of the results of the excavation were given. The total expenses in connection with these trips was £6 12s.

Dr. B. H. Mason, who in 1945 was granted £25 for research in Geology, reported on the 12th July, 1946, that the grant had been practically expended on a geological survey of the Pahau-Mandamus area in the Culverden district. The field work on this survey has been completed, a short paper on some zeolites from the area is in the press, and a general account of the geology of the area has been written, but publication will be delayed for some time until the appearance of a new classification of New Zealand Tertiary formations by Drs. Finlay and Marwick.

Mr. D. W. McKenzie was granted £44 in 1946 for aerial photographs in connection with a geographic study of Wellington. On the 5th May he reported that “the Air Department was originally to fly the area and take the photographs. They advised later that the briefing was too complex and they would fly me if I took the photographs myself. The Air Force then lent me an AK20 aerial camera, which proved unsatisfactory for the standard of work I expected. I expended a little over £7 on photographic material for this—most of which I am holding. The Air Department is endeavouring to obtain for release to me

– xvii –

a more suitable type of camera. I have also made application to Victoria College for a grant of £540 to purchase one from the United States. Until either of these as arrives I feel it would be unwarranted of me to expend the grant in flying the area with inferior instruments. I would therefore be grateful if I could retain the unexpended portion of the grant for use in 1948.”

Mr. R. J. MoLaughlin was granted £30 in 1946 for geological work on the Haurangi Range area, Wellington Province. He reported on the 4th May that his investigation, entitled “The Geology of East Palliser Bay,” has been concluded and hopes that the work will be published in the near future. The whole of the grant was expended in travelling expenses to and from the area during week-ends and holidays. The grantee thanks the Society for its generous financial assistance, for which he is very grateful.

Miss L. B. Moore was granted £10 in 1945 for the study of marine algae on the Wellington Coast. She reported on the 2nd May that the grant has not been expended, and she would like to suggest that it should be used to buy the following books, which are not often obtainable, but were quoted in a recent catalogue of Wheldon and Wesley: De Toni, Sylloge Algarum, omnium hucusque cognitarum, Vol. 4. Section 1, Bangiaceae—Rhodophyllidaceae, £2 10s; Section 3, Rhodomelaceae—Ceramiaceae, £4; Section 4, Gloiosiphoniaceae—Corallinaceae, £2 10s.

Miss Moore states that the present grant would not be quite enough to cover the purchase of all three parts, but she would be willing to make up the difference, unless the Council should see fit to increase the grant to cover the whole cost.

Mr. L. E. Richdale, who in 1944, was granted £30 for work on the bird life of Stewart Island, reported on the 2nd May that he had made one Visit to Whero Island to see that the hut and equipment were in order. The total expenses to date amounted to £19 11s 9d.

Mr. M. Te Punga, who in 1946 was granted £30 for work in connection with geological aspects of palae-botany and petrography, reported on the 1st May that during the year samples of Kaitangata coal have been prepared and at spores separated from them. Some thirty spore slides have been prepared, and at present preliminary measurements and drawing of the spores are being made. Expenditure to date has been £13 8s.

On the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Dr. Oliver, the reports of the recipients of research grants and of Hutton grants were adopted.

Arising therefrom:—

Dr. L. H. Briggs: It was resolved that Dr. L. H. Briggs be granted an additional amount of £11 3s 2d to cover the duty on the Hydrophil Balance for which his grant of £60 had been given.

Miss M. Fyfe: In view of the circumstances outlined by Miss Fyfe, it was decided that the amount of £17 5s 4d expended from her Hutton grant be approved as an expenditure.

Miss L. B. Moore: It was decided to increase Miss Moore's Hutton grant to enable her to purchase the three books required.

Research Grant: On the motion of Professor Richardson, seconded by Dr. Grange, it was resolved: “That while the increased Government grant falls far short of the amount necessary for all purposes, we recognise our function in the encouragement of research by setting aside the sum of £100 as a sum to be expended in aid of research. That we call immediately for applications against this sum by notice in the Transactions and to the constituent Branches.”

Hutton Grant Rules: Dr. Archey drew attention to the advisability of amending the rules in order to expedite the granting of applications, and he was requested to give notice of motion to this effect to the next annual meeting.

– xviii –

Carter Observatory Board:
Carter Observatory Board.
Report of Representatives of Royal Society.

For the year ending 31st March, 1947, the constitution of the Carter Observatory Board was as follows: Representing the Government—Mr. R. G. Dick, Professor D. C. H. Florance, Mr. R. E. Hayes, Dr. E. Marsden, Professor F. F. Miles; representing the Wellington City Council—Mr. M. M. F. Luckie (Chairman), Mr. E. P. Norman (Deputy Chairman); representing the Royal Society of New Zealand—Dr. M. A. F. Barnett and Mr. C. G. G. Berry.

Seven meetings of the Board were held. Mr. S. Coppin, who acted as Secretary and Treasurer to the Board during the war years, relinquished this position in August owing to pressure of other duties. This work was taken over by the Director of the Observatory.

Building and Environs: Apart from a few leaks which have developed in the building, it is in a satisfactory state of repair. The domes were painted during the year. Mr. Gray Young was appointed Honorary Architect to the Board for the purpose of making an annual inspection and report.

The path leading from the cable car to the Observatory was scaled by the Public Works Department and now provides much more comfortable access.

The lawns surrounding the Observatory have been maintained by the Reserves Department of the City Council.

Instruments: Small critical adjustments still have to be made to the 9-inch telescope, as well as providing the illumination system. Suitable furniture in this dome, in the way of a better observing ladder and storage cupboards, are badly needed. The 20-inch telescope still remains unmounted, and owing to lack of funds there seems no immediate prospect of putting it into use. The spectrohelioscope is in operation. A 5-inch telescope is on loan to Mr. B. E. Stonehouse for solar work in conjunction with the Observatory. A 4-inch telescope and a 3 ½-inch telescope, on loan from the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand, have been used for much miscellaneous work. Much use has been made of the 5-inch telescope of the Wellington Branch of the Royal Society for solar projection work. There is much equipment needed for which funds are not available.

Educational Work: The Observatory has been open to the general public regularly on Friday evenings, as well as on other nights by special arrangement with schools and clubs. A course of sixteen lectures to twenty amateur astronomers was conducted, as well as & three-day course, with night sessions, to fourteen secondary school teachers from all over New Zealand, by arrangement with the Education Department. For all sessions conducted at the Observatory, there was a total attendance of nearly 3,000. The maximum attendance at any one meeting was 160.

An effort was made through the New Zealand Survey Board, the New Zealand Institute of Surveyors, and the Education Department to undertake the teaching of practical astronomy for survey cadets, but these negotiations were unsuccessful.

The lecture room at the Observatory has been made available for meetings of the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand and the Astronomical Section of the Wellington Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.

The result of the year's work has shown that the Observatory can fulfil an important function in the educational and cultural life of the community. With the present lack of staff, however, this work cannot be expanded and, indeed, it would appear that in future it may even have to be reduced.

Research Work: In general, the Observatory has made considerable use of work done by local astronomical societies and individual amateurs of proven skill, throughout New Zealand. This has been of mutual advantage.

The main work of the Observatory has been in connection with sunspots and auroral studies, also solar and terrestrial relationships. During the year 858 observations were made of sunspots by twelve observers including the Observatory staff, and involved the measurements of about 9,000 sunspot positions. At least 60 observations were made with the spectrohelioscope for determining positions of prominences, and bright and dark hydrogen flocculi. Monthly reports of sun-spot observations have been regularly forwarded to the Swiss Federal Observatory at Zurich, under the auspices of the International Astronomical Union, for inclusion in. the international determination of sunspot character figures. As well as this, a local determination of sunspot character figures has been made for rapid dissemination to local workers. Some of the main organisations receiv-

– xix –

ing this data are the Ionosphere Section, the Magnetic Observatory, and the Radio Research Committee of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research and the Physics Department of Auckland University College.

Commeneing in 1947, forecasts of general radio conditions were issued to the Post and Telegraphic Department and the New Zealand Broadcasting Service. So far, these forecasts have been considered fairly satisfactory by the officers receiving them. A preliminary approximate analysis by the Observatory to date shows an accuracy of prediction, within fairly close limits, of slightly over 80 per cent.

A course of five days on solar observing was given to Mr. L. R. N. Beaumont, of Wanganui, in the hope that solar work may be undertaken by the Wanganui City Council Observatory.

A very large number of reports of auroral displays has been received from voluntary observers scattered over the whole of New Zealand, as well as from a few observers in Australia and Tasmania. A valuable adjunct in this work has been the auroral observations made at Campbell Island. For the rapid utilisation of Campbell Island data, a close liaison has been maintained with the Magnetic Observatory at Christchurch, where the results are analysed by Mr. A. H. Atkinson. A course of a fortnight on auroral observing and requirements was given to Mr. J. H. Sorensen, leader of the Campbell Island Expedition. Some consideration has been given to the development of an auroral index figure.

Comet information has been issued regularly to about a dozen amateurs who are likely to make use of it. Cabled information has been supplied to and received from the International Astronomical Union through the Mount Stromlo Solar Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory.

New Zealand observers recorded forty-eight occultations during the year, and these are in process of partial reduction prior to forwarding to H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, England.

Miscellaneous Work has been carried out at the Observatory on comet sweeping, verification of objects and altitudes of the sun and moon, phases of the moon, and sun-dial making has been supplied to architects, publishers, and interested members of the public. Observations were made of the planet Jupiter during its 1946 apposition, but have not yet been reduced. Requests have been received from the Astrophysical Institute of France for observations of the planet Mars at its apposition in 1948.

The Director was appointed a member of the Research Committee on Calendar Reform at the last meeting of the Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science.

All local evidence so far, supported by expression of opinion of overseas astronomers. indicates that the Observatory can fulfil an important place in general astronomical research, if given the opportunity.

Staff: The staff consists of the Director, Mr. I. L. Thomsen, and an assistant, Miss K. H. Turner. Mr. R. Humphreys was employed for a short period as part-time assistant. Considerable help has been received from several voluntary workers on public nights at the Observatory.

M. A. F. Barnett

C. G. G. Berry

Representatives of the Royal Society on the Carter Observatory Board.

On the motion of Dr. Marshall, the report of the representatives on the Carter Observatory Board was adopted.

Royal N.Z. Institute of Horticulture:
Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture.
Report of Representative.

The question of a complete reorganisation of the Institute's publications has occupied most of the time of the Council, and on this point a decision is likely to be reached in the near future.

The preservation of the Waipoua Kauri Forest was considered by the Council and a resolution was forwarded to the Government urging that 9,000 acres of primitive forest be set aside with sufficient other areas to adequately protect it.

The Taranaki District Council passed a resolution urging the Government to take immediate action to cope with, on a sufficient scale, the problem of goat extermination on Mount Egmont. This resolution was duly forwarded to the

– xx –

Minister of Internal Affairs, who replied that work on the extermination of deer, goats, etc., would be prosecuted as comprehensively as possible.

The annual conference was held at Hastings in February, 1947. The Banks Lecture, entitled “The Salient Features of Our Native Flora, With Special Reference to the Northern End of the South Island,” was given by Mr. W. C. Davies.

A new District Council was formed for the Manawatu District.

W. R. B. Oliver

Representative on the Council of the
Royal N. Z. Institute of Horticulture.

On the motion of Dr. Oliver, the report he presented as the Society's representative of the Royal N. Z. Institute of Horticulture was adopted.

Great Barrier Reef Committee:
Great Barrier Reef Committee
Report of Representative.

Two meetings of the Committee were held in 1946. Discussions concerned mostly the programme of future work, publications, and the prospect of another large-scale expedition.

The Reef was visited by J. S. Hynd in H.M.A.S. Warrego in August-September, 1946. The work included the taking of samples of surface water and of the sea bottom, shore collecting, dredging and trawling, and the taking of sea temperatures.

In November-December, 1946, O. A. Jones and W. Boardman, in the lighthouse tender Cape Leeuwin, visited various places between Thursday Island and Brisbane. Information was gained to show that there are at least eight distinct types of islands and reefs having a definite distribution. Observations were made on the effects of tidal and other currents on the form of the reefs.

W. R. B. Oliver

Representative on the Committee.

On the motion of Dr. Oliver, representative on the Great Barrier Reef Committee, the report was adopted.

Tongariro National Park Board:
Tongariro National Park Board.

A meeting of the Board was held on the 26th November, 1946. Applications were received from three clubs for permission to erect huts on the slopes of Mount Ruapehu. The application of the New Zealand Ski Club and of the New Zealand Alpine Club were accompanied by plans of the proposed buildings and of details of the sites. These were both approved.

The repairs that are required for the Chateau building have not yet been commenced, and it is probable that nothing will be done before the spring. The Government has made a grant for the construction of the rangers' lodge and for the trucks that will be necessary for the rangers' work. The site for this lodge has not yet been selected.

P. Marshall

Representative of the Royal Society of N.Z. on the Tongariro National Park Board.

On the motion of Dr. Marshall, the report presented by him as representative on the Park Board was adopted.

National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum:
National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum.
Report of Representatives on Board of Trustees.

During the year Dr. W. R. B. Oliver retired from the position of Director. His successor has not yet been appointed.

The necessary repairs to the building are now in progress. It will shortly be possible to use Wellington Branch's (R.S.N.Z.) room and the lecture hall.

The trustees decided to purchase the Suter collection of recent mollusca.

This collection has not yet been received.

P. Marshall


W. P. Evans

, Representatives on Board of Trustees.

– xxi –

On the motion of Dr. Marshall, the report of the representatives on the Board of Trustees of the National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum was adopted.

Dr. Archey drew the attention of the Council to the fact that after many years of service Dr. Oliver had recently retired from the office of Director of the Dominion Museum, and on his motion, seconded by Professor Benson, the best wishes of the Council were conveyed to Dr. Oliver and the hope expressed that he would long enjoy a happy retirement. In reply, Dr. Oliver said that although he had retired from the Museum, he had in no way relinquished his scientific work.

Unesco: Dr. Falla presented the following brief outline of the work of UNESCO and his visit to the recent Paris Conference:—

Summary Report on Unesco Conference, 1946.
Presented by Dr. R. A. Falla to the Standing Committee.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation is a specialized agency of the United Nations which aims, in the words of its charter, “to contribute to peace and security by promoting collaboration among the Nations through education, science, and culture.”

Other specialized agencies already formed, such as the temporary UNRRA and the more permanent Would Health Organisation (W.H.O.) and Food and Agricultural Organisation (F.A.O.) are charged with the urgent task of relieving material distress and helping national economics to provide food, clothing, and shelter. That reconstruction in the cultural field, beginning with education, was of almost equal importance was recognized at a Conference of Allied Ministers of Education held in London in November, 1945. During 1946 the forty-four members of the United Nations agreed in drawing up UNESCO's charter, and by the end of the year, when the First General Conference was held in Paris, twenty-eight had ratified its constitution and were able to exercise a vote; others were present as observers. With the notable exception of Russia, practically all members of the United Nations were represented. The main work of the Conference was to set up administrative and financial machinery and to authorise the Secretariat to embark on a limited programme for 1947. Priorities were given to urgent tasks of relief and reconstruction, and some of the long-term plans were fully discussed. As the programme was divided into six sections, it will be convenient to indicate some of the more important projects under headings:—

1. Education.

  • (a) UNESCO is to commence in 1947 a study of Education for International Understanding, and how it can best be developed in primary and secondary schools and in institutions of higher learning of the member countries.

  • (b) Publication of an International Educational Year Book—information services are an important feature of every section of the UNESCO programme.

  • (c) A study of Fundamental Education to help establish minimal educational standards in all countries.

  • (d) Improvement of teaching material, including text books, as aids to international Understanding.

2. Natural Sciences

  • (a) Formal agreement approved between UNESCO and the International Council of Scientific Unions. This provides for full co-operation and reciprocal help.

  • (b) Field teams for the study of Nutritional Science and Food Technology to operate in India, China, and South America (later in Africa).

  • (c) Field Science Co-operation offices to be established in regions remote from centres of science and technology—four of these in 1947.

  • (d) Establishment as a UNESCO project of an International Institute for the study of all aspects of tropical life and resources (in Brazil).

In addition to these immediate projects there are a number of long-term plans for mutual co-operation and advancement of science. They are to be found outlined in Document C/23

3.Arts and Letters.

The conference emphasised the need for freedom for all creative artists, and

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proposed to encourage world-wide circulation of the products of all the arts. Practical proposals were for translation services in literature, sponsoring an International Theatre Institute, and encouraging international festivals.

4. Mass Communication.

Recognising the potential influence of journalism, radio, and films, UNESCO is to undertake a survey of this field in 1947. Projects to be examined include proposals to undertake a world-wide radio network, and numerous smaller ones dealing with the distribution of documentary films. The basic aim is to assist the free flow of information and ideas.

5 and 6. In the section of Social Science and of Libraries, Museums and Archives, the trend of proposals was similar. They had reconstruction and relief as a first priority and long-term projects in full collaboration with other sections of UNESCO and with existing international organisations.

The success and future of UNESCO will depend not only on the inclusion of nations that have not yet become members, although its scope is undoubtedly restricted by the absence so far of the U.S.S.R. It will depend on the active work that can be done between annual conferences by National Commissions, which should include some representatives of voluntary organisations. It is through them that peoples can make a genuine national contribution when their delegates go to Mexico City next November for the second Annual Conference. It is expected that when Dr. Beeby's report has been reviewed by the Government and by the present interim committee early steps will be taken to form a New Zealand National Commission.

R. A. Falla.

Dr. Falla was thanked for his report.

In reply to a question, Dr. Falla undertook to seek adequate representation for the Society on the New Zealand UNESCO Regional Committee when it is set up.

Fulbright Act and U.S.-N.Z. Lease-Lend Settlement: Professor R. S. Allan attended the meeting to bring before it certain provisions in the above Act affecting educational, scientific, and cultural matters in New Zealand.

The matter was taken in committee and later, on the motion of Professor Richardson, seconded by Dr. Archey, it was resolved that a sub-committee of five to co-operate with the New Zealand University be set up. The personnel of the committee was left in the hands of the Standing Committee.

Dr. Archey stated that the Council was indebted to Professor Allan for the steps he had taken to give this valuable intimation to the Council.—Carried by acclamation.

Fellowship Rules: Dr. Archey submitted the following report of the Sub-committee set up to consider amendments to the Fellowship Rules:—

Fellowship Rules.
Report of Sub-committee set up at the 1946 Annual Meeting.

The Committee appointed for the purpose has considered the proposals brought up by a sub-committee of the Otago Branch and the comments forwarded by the various branches of the Society and as a result of meetings held by Fellows in different centres. Your Committee reports as follows:—

1. That the Fellowship be awarded independently in four groups (specified). The maximum number of Fellows for each group to be fixed.

There is a definite majority against this proposal. There is some support for asking the Selection Committee to use the grouping suggested as a general guide in arriving at decisions.

Your Committee considers that the matter of “due representation of the different branches of science” is adequately covered by Rule 6 (d) and that the suggested change is inadvisable. It sees, however, no objection to the suggested grouping being taken into consideration by the Selection Committee.

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2. That the number of Fellows elected in any one year be not more than six. There is a majority support for the number being four.

Your Committee recommends that Rule 4 should stand.

3. That the Selection Committee have power to co-opt three additional members.

A slight majority favours the insertion of the words “not more than” before “three.”

Your Committee considers that such a rule is both unnecessary and undesirable.

4. That some reference should be made in the rules concerning the motion carried at the 1942 Annual Meeting (Transactions, Vol. 72, 1942, p. xx).

There is a slight majority against this proposal.

Your Committee considers that there should be no discrimination as between amateur and professional, and is against the proposal to embody the motion in the Rules. The Selection Committee will be aware of the motion.

5. That no discrimination be made between nominees the bulk of whose work has been done in New Zealand and those the bulk of whose work has been done abroad.

There is a definite majority against the above being made a rule.

Your Committee considers such a rule unnecessary.

6. That each member body shall nominate as many persons for election as there are vacancies.

The vote in favour of this was unanimous, and your Committee agrees.

7. The Wellington Branch favoured altering Rule 2 to read “sixty” in place of “forty.”

The general view favoured “fifty.” Your Committee considers that the decision to raise the number of Fellows to fifty should stand for at least ten years.

8. The Auckland Branch recommends that a rule be added to the effect that any person not already a Fellow should become one on receiving the award of the Hector or the Hutton Medal, and that the necessary consequential amendment to Rule 2 be made.

Your Committee recommends the alteration.

9. The Otago Fellows recommend a rule “that at the time of his election every Fellow shall be a member of the Royal Society.”

Your Committee recommends that this be an addition to Rule 5.

H. H. Allan

G. Archey

L. R. Richardson

The Committee's findings on the proposed amendments Nos. 1–7 were approved.

After consideration of the proposed amendment No. 8 which had been approved by the sub-committee, it was resolved, on the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Dr. Falla: “That there be added to Clause 6 of the Fellowship Rules a sub-clause—

(e) Any person not already a Fellow who is awarded the Hector or the Hutton Medal shall have the Fellowship conferred on him on the day of the award if, after the current election of Fellows, a vacancy exists or otherwise when a vacancy next occurs.”

After some discussion on the proposed amendment No. 9, it was resolved, on the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Dr. Skinner: “That No. 5 of the Fellowship Rules be amended by the deletion of the words ‘unless he has been a member of the Royal Society of New Zealand’ and the substitution thereof of the words ‘unless he is a member of the Royal Society of New Zealand and has been a member either.”’

Rule No. 5 will now read: “No person shall be nominated or elected as Fellow unless he is a member of the Royal Society of New

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Zealand and has been a member either for three years immediately preceding his nomination or for five years at any period preceding his nomination.”

Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science: Dr. P. Marshall briefly reported that he had attended the last meeting of the Association.

American Philosophical Society and National Academy of Sciences: Professor R. S. Allan, who had been selected to represent the Society at the Autumn Meetings of these societies, wrote as follows:—

… First, I wish to thank the Council for forwarding my name to the American sponsors of these meetings. I will always be grateful for a wonderful experience and for such a splendid opportunity to enrich my intellectual life. I return a convinced believer in the value of international co-operation in scientific research, and eager to see the Royal Society play a worthy part in such co-operation.

To this end I make some suggestions which I trust your Council will favourably consider.


That the Royal Society should set up a standing committee to be called the “Pacific Research Committee.”


That the Royal Society should invite the Director of Institut Francais d'Oceanie at Noumea to visit New Zealand.


That the Royal Society should take the initiative in inviting the Pacific Science Association to hold the Seventh Pacific Science Congress in New Zealand.


That the Royal Society should consider the appointment of a Foreign Secretary.

The suggestions made by Professor Allan were then discussed. On the motion of Professor Richardson, seconded by Dr. Oliver, it was resolved that the Standing Committee give consideration to the setting up of a Pacific Research Committee.

On the motion of Professor Richardson, seconded by Dr. Grange, it was decided to refer the matter of extending an invitation to the Director of the Institut Francais d'Oceanie at Noumea to the Standing Committee.

On the motion of Professor Richardson, seconded by Dr. Falla, it was resolved that the Society elect a Foreign Secretary.

Pacific Science Congress: It was reported that the following cable had been received:—

Philippines withdraws invitation seventh Pacific Science Congress United States and other Research Councils consulted welcome an invitation from New Zealand and offer full assistance; date suggested late 1948.

Herbert Gregory

, Bishop Museum.

In the discussion that followed, it was generally agreed that, if possible, an invitation should be extended for the Congress to meet in New Zealand. Dr. Marshall stated that such a Congress would be of inestimable value, but if done properly it would be very costly—he referred to the scale on which previous Congresses had been conducted—that in Japan being very lavish. It would be a matter for the Government, as the Society could not finance it. Dr. Falla stated that it might be possible to secure co-operation from the American Foundations. Attention was drawn to the words “full assistance offered” in the cable.

Finally, it was resolved that the Royal Society should approach the Government asking support for an invitation to the Pacific Science

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Association to hold its Seventh Pacific Science Congress in New Zealand.

Hutton Grants: The following applications for Hutton grants were approved:—

Dr. H. B. Fell, £4 10s for research on the New Zealand Bronze Cuckoo.

Dr. K. Wodzicki and Mr. C. A. Fleming, £40 for a census of the gannet colonies in New Zealand.

Mr. L. E. Richdale, £30 for a gannet census at Solander Island, subject to inquiry by the Standing Committee.

Two other applications were withdrawn by the applicants on account of their proceeding to appointments overseas.

It was decided to remind those conducting gannet research from grants from the Hutton Fund that copies of the photographs taken should be handed to the Royal Society.

Science Congress: It was reported in a letter from the Secretary, Scientific and Industrial Research Department, that Cabinet had approved a grant of £500 towards the printing of the Science Congress volume. Appreciation of the action of the Government was expressed.

Calendar Reform: The opinions expressed by the Member Bodies on the proposed calendar were read and referred to next Annual Meeting.

Wild Life Control: A letter from the Hon. Minister of Internal Affairs stated that although he approved of the principle of the formation of a Wild Life Advisory Council, his Department was not yet in a position to proceed with the scheme, but that it would be proceeded with as soon as circumstances permitted. The letter was criticised by Dr. Archey, who stated that the Society had placed the scheme before the Prime Minister in 1945 and again in 1946, when the proposals had been referred to the Minister of Internal Affairs. He stated that the Department of Internal Affairs was only one of many departments concerned in the control of wild life problems and involved in the proposed scheme, and he did not consider the setting up of an Advisory Council should be controlled by one State Department. Dr. Archey moved that the Prime Minister be written to again and that the reports of the sub-committee should now be sent to all the Departments concerned in the proposed Advisory Council.

Representation of Fellows on the Council: Professor Richardson moved and Dr. Marsden seconded: “That the Fellows have direct representation on the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand.” After considerable discussion, it was moved by Dr. Frankel, seconded by Dr. Grange: “That the matter be referred to the Standing Committee to devise means of representing the Fellows without increasing the size of the Council.” After further discussion, the amendment was put to the meeting and was lost. The motion was then put and carried on a show of hands.

Kindred Societies: On the motion of Dr. Briggs, seconded by Dr. Hutton, it was resolved: “That a committee be set up to find ways and means of greatly widening the scope of the Royal Society by including direct representation of other scientific societies such as

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the N.Z. Institute of Chemistry, the N.Z. Institute of Engineers, and the N.Z. Geographical Society.”

Offices of President and Vice-President: On the motion of Dr. Briggs, seconded by Dr. Hutton, it was resolved: “That a committee be set up to find ways and means of improving the methods of election of President and Vice-President. That the committee should also consider the advisability of electing more than one Vice-President.”

Waipoua Forest: The Forest and Bird Protection Society wrote asking that the Society should be represented in a deputation to the Minister of State Forests in connection with the preservation of Waipoua Forest. On the motion of Mr. Aston, it was resolved that Dr. Marshall should represent the Society.

Adult Education: The report of the Committee on Adult Education was presented by Dr. Frankel, who was thanked by the President, and it was decided that the Committee continue to act.

Geological Congress: An invitation to the Congress was referred to the Standing Committee for action.

Observatories Committee: The Chairman of the Observatories Committee wrote stating that again there had been no meetings to report and it appeared that the present Committee served no useful purpose. Referred to the Standing Committee for report.

Election of Officers:

  • President, Dr. E. Marsden.

  • Hon. Editor, Dr. J. Henderson (re-elected).

  • Hon. Librarian: Professor L. R. Richardson.

  • Hon. Treasurer: Mr. S. Cory Wright (re-elected).

  • Managers Trust Funds, Mr. S. Cory Wright and Dr. W. R. B. Oliver.

  • Co-opted Member: Dr. J. Marwick (re-elected).

  • Representative Royal N.Z. Institute of Horticulture, Dr. W. R. B. Oliver.

  • Representative Great Barrier Reef Committee, Dr. W. R. B. Oliver.

  • Representatives Observatories Committee, Professors D. C. H. Florance, P. W. Burbidge.

  • Fellowship Selection Committee—Dr. H. H. Allan, Dr. J. Marwick, Mr. B. C. Aston, Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. L. H. Briggs.

  • Hector Award Committee, Dr. H. H. Allan, Dr. W. R. B. Oliver.

  • Library Committee—Professor L. R. Richardson, Professor C. A. Cotton, Professor W. P. Evans, and Dr. H. H. Allan.

  • Wild Life Control Committee—Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, Dr. H. H. Allan, Dr. G. Archey, Mr. E. F. Stead, Dr. R. A. Falla, and Mr. L. E. Richdale.

Vates of Thanks: On the motion of Dr. Marshall, seconded by Dr. Archey, a cordial vote of thanks was accorded to Professor W. N. Benson for his services as President during the past two years. On the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Mr. Aston, it was resolved to place on record the Society's indebtedness to the retiring Vice-President, Dr. P. Marshall, for his long service on the Council and its regret that his term of office had expired. Other votes of thanks

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were passed to the press, Victoria University College Council, and to the Secretary, Miss M. Wood.

Annual Meeting, 1948: Standing Committee to fix date.

Travelling Expenses: It was resolved that travelling expenses be paid.

Reports of Member Bodies.
Annual Report of the Auckland Institute and Museum
For the Year Ending 31st March, 1947.


This Institute has over the years received from members and from friends of the Museum many notable gifts, not only of specimens for exhibition, but also of money and other endowments.

Two years ago Mr. E. Earle Vaile transferred to the Museum Trust Board in trust for the Museum two valuable properties close to the city, and the Museum has already greatly benefited from that endowment.

This year Mr. Vaile has crowned that, and his many other gifts, with a still further endowment comprising a very valuable freehold property in the heart of the city. This property, which is situated in Queen Street, is let for a term of years at an annual rental of £1,244, the tenant paying the rates. It will be seen that it would take over £40,000 invested in Government bonds to produce the same revenue. The fee simple of the property has been transferred to the Museum Trust Board upon the same trusts as attach to the earlier gift, namely, for the purchase of Maori, South Pacific and Australian ethnographical collections and literature on the same areas and on New Zealand history.

This munificence on Mr. Vaile's part is a continuation of the fine spirit of giving which he has always exercised towards this Institution.

Members will be glad to join with the Council in heartily thanking Mr. Vaile and in wishing him many years of continued health and well being.

The twenty-four Local Bodies who a short time ago increased their annual contributions to the War Memorial Museum will feel that their confidence in this Institution is shared by the citizens whom they represent, and among whom Mr. Vaile stands pre-eminent for public-spirited generosity.

Membership.—The year commenced with a membership roll of 728, including 206 Life Members, of whom we lost 20 by death and 41 by resignations and deletions. A total of 66 have been elected this year and the roll now stands at 733, of whom 208 are Life Members.

Obituary.—The death of the following members is recorded with sincere regret. Miss E. Melville, Dr. R. H. Makgill, and Messrs. George Baildon, A. G. Cooke, F. J. Dignan, P. A. Edmiston, C. H. Furness, D. Holderness, E. Le Roy, T. E. Montgomery, F. O. Peat, J. N. Rishworth, J. W. Shannon, C. S. R. Tilly, J. F. Wells, P. C. White, C. R. Williamson, A. M. Wilson, and H. A. Wood.

Finance.—The past year was the first in which the generously increased contributions of the Local Bodies became payable; it was also the first since the opening of the War Memorial Museum that closed with a small credit balance in the Income and Expenditure Account. This position was, however, contributed to by a greater expenditure on permanent assets such as improved study-room accommodation and scientific equipment, and the balance carried forward in the Working Account is only £78 above the customary £1,400 kept in hand to meet expenditure in April and May. An increased commitment for salaries and the high cost of goods and services required for the Museum still call for careful budgeting in the future. It will be seen that the whole of the net revenue from the Edward Earle Vaile Trust Fund was spent; a valuable ethnographical collection and a number of important books on early voyages of discovery and the history of New Zealand, purchased from the fund, have enhanced both the Museum and the Library collections.

Cheeseman Memorial.—To commemorate the distinguished services of the late Mr. T. F. Cheeseman to the Auckland Museum and his notable contributions to botanical science, the Council decided to name the main natural history hall the Cheeseman Hall. A commemorative bronze plaque has been placed at the entrance to the hall, and Her Excellency Lady Freyberg kindly came to Auckland

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to perform the combined function of unveiling the plaque and declaring open the eleventh Cheeseman Memorial Native Spring Flower Show.

Honours.—Members will wish to join with the Council in congratulating Sir Peter Buck, K.C.M.G., and Sir Cecil Whitney on the honour of knighthood conferred on them by His Majesty the King. Congratulations are also extended to Professor H. G. Forder on the award of the Hector Medal. The medal was presented on behalf of the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand by Dr. Archey, Past President, at a special meeting at which Professor Forder delivered an address. “Are There Laws of Nature?”

At the last Annual Meeting the members elected Professor H. W. Segar and Mr. W. G. White Honorary Life Members in recognition of their notable services to the Institute and Museum.

War Memorial.—During the past year the question of a memorial to those who died in the Second World War has been exercising the minds of the people of Auckland.

In this connection the Council supplied to His Worship the Mayor, at his request, information concerning the educational and cultural activities of this institution. The Institute's honorary architect, Mr. Keith Draffin, also at the Mayor's request, prepared a design for a suggested extension of the Hall of Memories, together with plans for further Museum space both for exhibits and for the educational services which have become such a feature of the Museum's activities.

The final decision as to the nature of the memorial rests, of course, with the public as a whole. As custodians of the War Memorial Museum, and having on our Council representatives of the Local Bodies who contribute towards its maintenance, we cannot but have a vital interest in the War Memorial as it stands to-day.

That memorial at the present time is incomplete. To keep the Hall of Memories as a living memorial the names of those from the Auckland Province who made the supreme sacrifice in the Second World War must be added, but in a position not secondary in any way as compared with the position of the names already there. The shine should still be in the centre of the enlarged Hall of Memories, and the installation of stained glass windows, for which considerable funds are already available, should be a prime element in the new conception. Space for the appropriate recording of battle honours will also need to be provided.

A worthy design will be one that with dignity and beauty will symbolize this: that love and self-sacrifice in service to one's fellow-man under all circumstances transcends all other human endeavours.

If these things be done, our War Memorial will not be divided. Let us hold fast to the high ideals inspired by our gallant dead of both wars, and at the same time maintain the unity of the memorial to their common sacrifice.

J. C. Rennie.


Institute Meetings.—During the last year we returned from the previous year's set of lectures on one theme to the usual arrangement of a full syllabus of eight lectures on a wide range of subjects. Our cordial thanks for lectures given are due to Professor V. J. Chapman (“Mangroves”), Dr. E. E. Chamberlain (“Viruses—Their Nature and Role in Plant Diseases”), Dr. C. P. McMeekan (“The Effects of Undernutrition Upon the Animal”), Dr. G. Blake Palmer (“Lepeis, Oea and Sabratha—Lost Cities of Libya”), Dr. Elizabeth Hughes (“Penicillin et al.—A Study of Antibiotics in Medicine”), Lieut.-Colonel W. Wesley Clemesha, C.I.E. (“The Earliest Known Epidemic—First Egyptian Dynasty”), Dr. Gilbert Archey (“Ancient Civilisations of Further India and the East Indies”), Dr. H. H. Allan (“Tussock Grasslands—A Safeguard Against Erosion”), Mr. W. R. McGregor, B.Sc. (“The Preservation of Waipoua Forest”), Professor H. G. Forder (“Are There Laws of Nature?”).

Two ordinary meetings were held, papers being presented by Professor V. J. Chapman. Dr. J. Hardie Neil and Dr. W. Gilmour, and Messrs. J. D. Atkinson, R. A. McIntosh, F.R.A.S., and Mr. E. G. Turbott.

Sunday Lectures.—A wide choice of subjects was also offered to the Museum visitors who attended the Sunday afternoon lectures in the Library: Mr. A. D. McKinnon, B.Sc.For. (“Perpetuation of Native Forest”), Dr. H. H. Allan, F.R.S.N.Z. (“New Zealand Alpine Plants”), Mr. E. J. Searle, M.Sc., “The Geological Foundation of Auckland”), Dr. G. Blake Palmer (“Umbria, and the.

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Journeys of St. Francis of Assisi”), Mr. C. Reginald Ford, F.R.G.S. (“Pottery and Porcelain”), Miss M. W. Crookes, M.A. (“plants of the Water”).

Members of the staff continue to give lectures to outside organisations. These totalled 50: Miss Lloyd 8, Mr. Powell 10, Mr. Fisher 11, Mr. Turbott 8, Miss Molesworth 1, and the Director 12.

Anthropology and Maori Race Section.—The Section experienced a successful year. The membership increased to thirty-seven, and attendances at lectures showed a marked improvement, while the discussion following the lectures was usually vigorous and sustained.

Lectures were delivered by Colonel W. W. Clemesha, Dr. G. Archey, Dr. G. B. Palmer, and Messrs. J. C. Andersen and R. A. Scobie.

The officers for the year were: Chairman, Mr. R. A. Scobie; Vice-Chairmen, Mr. A. D. Mead and Dr. G. B. Palmer; Hon. Secretary, Mr. V. F. Fisher; Committee—Miss O. L. G. Adams, Miss L. Chrisp, Mrs. O. M. Turbott, Mr. J. Paykel, Mr. A. T. Pycroft; Hon. Auditor, Mr. H. B. Wilkinson.

The Section has benefited from the arrival of Mr. Johannes C. Andersen, who is now residing in Auckland. Indications for the future both in membership and activity are very hopeful.

Astronomical Section.—The Auckland Astronomical Society has received a bequest of £1,500 which will be devoted towards the purchase of a telescope and the erection of an observatory, when building materials become more plentiful. The officers of the Section are: President, Mr. R. A. McIntosh; Vice-President, Professor P. W. Burbidge; Committee—Messrs. W. A. Jackson, S. Mayer, T. Rounthwaite, R. Sharp, R. D. Thompson; Secretary-Treasurer, Mr. J. L. Stichbury.

Exhibitions.—“Jade” was the subject of a special exhibition arranged in January by Captain Humphreys-Davies, Hon. Curator of Oriental Collections. Three showcases of pieces from the Dadley, Rutherston, Sir George Gray and Humphreys-Davies collection provided the Chinese section, and Maori hei tiki, matua, pekepeka and other pendants, together with beads, maces and axes from New Caledonia, were the South Pacific contribution. The exhibition was opened by Dr. F. J. Gwynne at a Saturday afternoon function.

A special exhibition of Philately, arranged by Mr. Powell, was opened by Mr. A. W. Parker, Deputy Chief Postmaster, at an evening gathering on the 11th December. The material, special New Zealand issues and all phases of stamp production, was provided by the New Zealand Government through the courtesy of the Director-General, Post and Telegraph Department, Wellington.

The numerous exhibits presented during the year include a builder's model of T.S.S. Opawa, presented by the New Zealand Shipping Company, a gift from the Otago Museum of a selected series of the fine collections brought from Egypt by Colonel Waite, Pacific War weapons and records from Northern Command, from Brigadier Dove and from Mr. J. C. Whitney, an excellent Maori canoe prow brought back from England by Mr. T. H. Hopkins, special minerals obtained through the R. C. Horton Fund, and a very fine pair of rainbow trout preparations presented by Mr. C. W. Dover.

Publications.—Concentrations on the preparation of handbooks and educational leaflets prevented the issue of the usual part of the “Records.” A guide to the Jade exhibition by Captain Humphreys-Davies and two leaflets, “How to Make an Insect Collection” and “Life Histories of New Zealand Insects, by Mr. Turbott were published; the issue of Mr. Powell's completed handbook, “New Zealand Animals,” is held up by lack of the necessary paper; a new edition of “South Sea Folk” awaits the completion of certain illustrations, and handbooks on English and European China by Mr. Ford and on Silver by Mr. Comyns are in preparation.

Research—Field work has been undertaken by all members of the staff, and details will be found in their reports. Improved accommodation has been provided for the Geology and Entomology Departments and a set of steel storage cabinets and specimen containers has been distributed among the departments. Inquiries for a suitable petrological microscope were unsuccessful, and neither wooden nor steel book-shelves could be obtained. The prevailing shortages of timber, scientific equipment, stationery, and binding materials, and of supplies for display have constantly hampered staff endeavours during the year.

Education.—Constantly increasing demands on the School Service call for at least one additional assistant. The Department and the Education Department

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have not yet been able to meet the Council's requests for an additional teacher, but it is hoped the appointment of an assistant preparator for setting up loan displays may be approved.

The question of adult education, particularly in science, has been considered by the Council, at whose invitation the following gentlemen have agreed to act as an Adult Education Committee: Professor V. J. Chapman, Messrs. P. Martin Smith, A. W. B. Powell, P. R. Parr, N. H. Burton, and V. F. Fisher. Lack of lecture room and club workshop accommodation in the Museum is a present handicap to this work, but the Committee's suggestions for co-operation with other adult education organisations will provide for immediate activity. A new cinema-sound projector, the gift of Sir Frank Mappin, is on order from London and will be a valuable help to our educational work, as well as an opportune complement to the production of natural history films by means of the cinematography endowment established by a lady member of the Institute two years ago.

Museum Policy.—Dr. W. R. B. Oliver's valuable report on national museum policy was closely considered by the Council, and it was agreed that an essential first step in the formulation of such a policy was to establish a New Zealand Museums Association. In co-operation with the Library Committee of the City Council the Council agreed to sponsor a conference of representatives of Museum Councils and staffs, and Dr. Oliver has agreed to convene the meeting during the coming year. The question of a policy on museums in Auckland City has also been considered by the Council and will be the subject of discussions with the City Council and the Mackelvie Trustees during the year.

Forest Preservation.—The Council has been represented on the Waipoua Forest Protection Committee and has made representations to the Commissioner of Forests for the setting aside as a National Park of the whole of the 27,000 acres of indigenous forest in this area. In order that members might be informed on the matter, lectures were arranged to be given by Mr. A. D. McKinnon, of the Forestry Service, and Mr. W. R. McGregor, who has been prominent in the movement for the reservation of the whole area. The Council has also discussed the intrusion of exotic pines on Rangitoto, and the Scenery Preservation Committee now has before it a report by Miss Molesworth on the situation.

Staff.—Members of the staff join in expressing their deep regret at the death of Mr. Marshall C. Cleland, who had only recently retired from the post of Librarian. Mr. Cleland was the senior member of the staff, having served the Institute and Museum for thirty-five years. His cheerfulness and his ready willingness will long be remembered by many members of the Institute as well as by his staff colleagues.

Captain Humphreys-Davies, Honorary Curator Oriental Collections, is visiting England.

Mr. R. A. Scobie is congratulated on his being awarded a rehabilitation scholarship at the London School of Economics.

Miss Lloyd has returned as Education Officer and Miss Hurrey has been reappointed Assistant Education Officer.

Dr. A. R. Lillie, who was appointed Geologist at the beginning of the year, resigned in February to accept a lectureship at Victoria University College; Mr. M. H. Battey, M.Sc., has since been appointed by the Council in his place. The appointment of a full-time Geologist has terminated the position of Associated Geologist which Mr. C. W. Firth has kindly filled during most of the last twelve years; members of the staff join in thanking him for the skilled displays he made and for the great help he has willingly given to all of us during this time.

Gilbert Archey

, Director.

Canterbury Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual Report For The Year 1946.

The Council desires to submit the following report on the year's work to the Annual General Meeting, to be held on Wednesday, 4th December, 1946:—

Membership: There has been a substantial increase in the ordinary membership from 159 to 187. Twenty-six new members have been elected, two have resigned, and two have died. Transfers from associateship and between Branches account for the balance of the increase shown on 31st October, 1946. Associate membership remains at 10.

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Obituary: The Society records with deep regret the death of two members during the year.

Mr. G. S. A. Bilteliffe, a life member, died early in 1946. While he had many scientific interests, he was concerned particularly with Maori culture, and made a special study of Maori genealogy; it is fortunate that much of his material has either been published or can still be prepared for publication.

Dr. William McKay, of Greymouth, who died in August, was a man of many interests beyond his work as a physician. He was a keen student of the flora of New Zealand and in his garden was one of the finest private collections; with some 600 species, it was an attraction to visiting botanists from elsewhere in New Zealand and from abroad. Dr. McKay was noted, too, for his work in photography, mountaineering, and West Coast history.

Council: Twelve meetings of the Council were held during the year. When Mr. G. Guy was appointed an inspector of post-primary schools with headquarters in Wellington he resigned from the honorary secretaryship, and in May Mr. C. R. Russell accepted the Council's invitation to succeed him.

Leave of absence was granted to Dr. R. S. Allan and Dr. R. A. Falla. When the Royal Society of New Zealand received an invitation from the National Academy of Sciences and the American Philosophical Society to send a guest to their October meetings in Washington and Philadelphia, Dr. Allan was nominated by this Branch and selected to represent New Zealand. Dr. Falla was appointed one of the two New Zealand delegates to attend the conference of the United Nations' Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation being held in Paris this November.

Programme: Nine meetings were held during the year. Six of these were addresses, of which five formed a series dealing with various aspects of research in New Zealand. Three meetings were devoted to the reading of papers.

The following addresses were given:-March 6, “The Organisation of Knowledge in Print” (Presidential address), Mr. C. W. Collins; April 3, “Geological Research in New Zealand,” Dr. B. H. Mason; June 5, “New Zealand Research in the Physical Sciences,” Dr. H. N. Parton; August 7, “Biological Research in New Zealand,” Professor E. Percival, Mr. C. E. Foweraker, and Dr. O. H. Frankel; October 2, “Agricultural Research in New Zealand,” Professor E. R. Hudson; November 6, “The Sciences of Man and the Maori-A Survey of Maori Research,” Dr. 1. L. G. Sutherland.

The following papers were presented:-March 6, “A New Species of Caddis Fly,” A. G. Macfarlane (read by title); May 1, “Additions to the Rotatoria of New Zealand-Part 1,” C. R. Russell; July 3, “The Controlled Evolution of Cultivated Plants,” Sheila W. Boyce, L. G. L. Copp, and O. H. Frankel (communicated by Dr. Frankel); September 4, “The Origin of Jet” and “Some Evidence for Glacial Action in the Westport District,” S. A. A. Fry; October 2, “Divided Winter Band in Brown Trout Scales from the Rakaia River,” M. H. Godby. One paper was accepted by title by the Council, for the sake of publication; it will probably be read next year: “A New Diatom from the Oamaru Diatomite,” R. Reed.

In addition, on May 1 Dr. R. A. Falla showed a U.S. Soil Conservation Ser-vice film, “Our Heritage,” and on September 4 he spoke on “Sealing and Whaling in Relation to Stocks.”

Lectures to Secondary Schools: The series of lectures organised by the subcommittee under the chairmanship of Dr. R. A. Falla again proved very popular both with pupils and teachers. Letters of appreciation have been received from the headmasters of some schools. The programme was as follows:-“Advances in Photography” (illustrated by slides in natural colour), Mr. E. E. Wiltshire; “How to Use Books and Libraries,” Mr. C. W. Collins; “A Musical Career and How to Prepare for It,” Professor Vernon Griffiths; “Stone Age Men of Australia,” Mr. G. H. Lawton; “The Romance of Contacts in Electricity” (e.g., crystals in radio reception, metal rectifiers, light meters, with demonstrations), Mr. T. W. Straker; “The Work of a Geologist,” Dr. B. H. Mason. The Council wishes to record its thanks to all those who have contributed towards the year's programme.

Riccarton Bush: An important activity of the Society during the year has been an attempt to improve the status and maintenance of Riccarton Bush. Our Society has nominated a member of the Board of Trustees ever since the Deans family gave the original fifteen acres and three-quarters as a public reserve

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in 1914. For various reasons it has become increasingly difficult for the Trustees to keep the Bush in a satisfactory state. During the early part of this year, negotiations were in progress between the local bodies in the Christchurch area for the purchase of the Deans Homestead block adjoining Riccarton Bush. An announcement that negotiations had failed was viewed with some concern by the Council, as the alternative was the sale of the twelve acres and a-half for residential subdivision.

Our representative on the Board of Trustees, Mr. W. B. Brockie, was asked to report on the possible effect that the subdivision of this adjoining land might have on the Bush itself. Mr. Brockie's report, supported by the opinion of members with engineering experience, indicated that further drainage adjacent to the Bush, especially in the area in question, would so reduce the soil moisture that there would be a drastic change in the physiognomy of the Bush. The Council placed the matter before a general meeting in July, when it was decided to invite the Canterbury Progress League to join the Society in calling a public meeting of local bodies, institutions, and persons interested. It was considered that improved maintenance of the original Bush should be linked with any proposal to extend the area of the reserve.

The public meeting was held on the 14th August, under the chairmanship of His Worship the Mayor of Christchurch, Mr. E. H. Andrews, President of the Canterbury Progress League. A large attendance unanimously supported the proposal to ensure the preservation and adequate maintenance both of the Bush and of the Deans Homestead block, and called on the Canterbury Progress League to set up a representative committee which could prepare a detailed scheme for submission to the local bodies concerned. This Committee, on which the President and Mr. C. E. Foweraker represent our Society, has been active, and it now seems almost certain that satisfactory permanent arrangements will be made.

The annual report of our nominee on the Board of Trustees is as follows: “During the past year public interest in Riccarton Bush increased as a result of negotiations (referred to above) for the public purchase of the adjoining Deans Estate, and for improving the finances of the Riccarton Bush Board of Trustees. The Bush has been well patronised by visitors and by conducted parties of students and school children. Ordinary maintenance work, the clearing of fallen branches and tree-pruning necessitated by severe damage resulting from the heavy snowstorm of July, 1945, has been carried out satisfactorily, and it is appropriate to record the willing and able service of the Ranger, Mr. L. Arm-strong, in carrying out these duties.”

General: Other events of the year worth recording are these:—

The council enrolled the Society as an institutional member of the Friends of the Canterbury Museum, believing that members would approve this method of supporting the Museum itself.

Dr. O. H. Frankel and Dr. P. R. McMahon were appointed our representatives at the twenty-fifth meeting of the A.N.Z.A.A.S. in Adelaide during August.

Mr. W. B. Brockie, our nominee, was awarded the Loder Cup by the N.Z. Institute of Horticulture, chiefly for his work in connection with the Cockayne Memorial Garden. Mr. N. Lothian, another member, was awarded the Cockayne Medal.

During the year, the monthly notices have been expanded so that members may be kept informed of matters of interest. In addition, the notices of sections have been incorporated.

At the request of the Royal Society office, a census has been conducted during the year of scientific workers among our members, including both those engaged full-time and amateurs.

The Council has prepared a leaflet describing the Society and its activities. This, with a nomination form, will be available for members to use in introducing the Society to prospective members.

After a discussion at the May ordinary meeting, the Council set up a Public Relations Committee to take note of scientific events and public discussion of scientific matters and, when thought desirable, to ask qualified persons to comment in the press. It was understood that the Society could take no responsibility for the opinions thus expressed, only for the fact that an invitation had been given.

A third section, the Biology Section, was established by the Council in August.

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Hon. Librarian's Report: Bindery congestion, which has been acute in recent years, eased early this, year, but only temporarily. Many more volumes are ready to be sent as soon as the binders can attend to them. A number of wartime issues of journals have been received, including the complete file of the great French scientific weekly commonly known as Comptes Rendus. The Farr Memorial issues of the Proceedings A of the Royal Society of London are now arriving steadily. We continue to be indebted to a number of institutions and individuals for valuable donations. During the year building alterations have made conditions very bad in the room where unbound material of the Society's Library is still housed, but arrangements have been made for a thorough vacuum cleaning shortly. Publications have sold steadily, and scarcely any copies remain of the Natural History of Canterbury except the reserve dozen which will be sold only by Council resolution.

Wellington Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual Report for the Year ended 30th September, 1946.

Membership: The total membership of the Branch now stands at 328, which is made up of 250 full members and 78 associate members. During the year 25 full members and 10 associate members have been elected; 12 full members and 5 associate members have resigned; 8 members have been transferred to other Branches of the Royal Society, and this Branch has received 4 members by transfer from other Branches; 1 member has died during the year, and 6 members and 3 associates have been struck off the books as their correspondence was returned through the post.

Syllabus: The meetings of the Branch and the majority of the Section meetings during the year have continued to be held at Victoria University College. Following is a list of the titles of addresses presented to the Branch during the year under review:—24th October. 1945. Annual Meeting, followed by a screening of scientific films; 24th April, 1946, Presidential address, “The Influence of the Older Sciences on Soil Science,” by Dr. J. K. Dixon; 22nd May, 1946, Address and Demonstration, “The Work of the Dominion Laboratory,” by Mr. R. L. Andrew, assisted by members of his staff; 27th June, 1946, “Notes on Economics and Organisation of Trans-Ocean Airways,” by Wing Commander E. A. Gibson; 24th July, 1946, “Chemistry and Tobacco Growing,” by Dr. H. O. Askew; 25th September, 1946, “The Coal Resources of New Zealand,” by Mr. C. H. Benney. The meeting for 28th August was organised as a conversazione, which it is estimated approximately 600 members and their friends attended.

The following addresses have been given to the various sections:—

Astronomy Section: “Sun Spots, Radio, and Aurorae,” by Mr. I. L. Thomsen; “Stellar Temperatures,” by Mr. R. A. Garrick; “Nebulae and Star Clusters,” by Mr. J. Janisch; “Precision Time Keeping,” by Mr. G. A. Eiby; “Recent Developments in Astronomy,” by Mr. I. L. Thomsen.

Biology Section: “‘The Electron as an Instrument of the Biologist,” by Dr. H. B. Fell; “The Alien Flora of New Zealand,” by Mr. A. J. Healy; “The Cape Kidnappers Gannet Colony,” by Dr. K. A. Wodzicki and Dr. C. P. McMeekan; “Exploration of the Southern Sounds by the New Golden Hind,” by Dr. H. H. Allan; “The Vegetation of Finland,” by Mr. B. D. van't Woudt: “Animal Pigments,” by Mr. N. T. Clare; “Fauna and Flora of Campbell Island,” by Mr. J. H. Sorensen.

Geology Section: “The Scheelite Lodes of Glenorchy,” by Mr. J. J. Reed; “The Geology of the Wanganui District,” by Mr. C. A. Fleming; “The Stratigraphy of Chalk Hill, Oxford County,” by Mr. E. O. Macpherson; “Origin of the Greymouth Coals,” by Mr. M. Gage.

Physics Section: “Radar,” by Mr. I. D. Stevenson; “Science in Internment,” by Professor Alexander, of Raffles College, Singapore; “International Units,” by Dr. E. R. Cooper; “Physics and Engineering in the Development of the Jet-propulsion Engine,” by Mr. N. A. McKay; “Loran, Some Development Work,” by Messrs. F. Evison and B. Olsson; “Science in the New School Curriculum,” by Mr. S. J. Lambourne (joint meeting with the Wellington Branch New Zealand Institute of Chemistry).

Social Science Section: “The B.B.C.,” by Mr. G. H. O. Wilson; “The Constitution of U.N.E.S.C.O.,” by Mr. A. E. Campbell; “The Place of Archives in Research in the Social Sciences,” by Mr. E. H. McCormick; “Industrial

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Psychology,” by Mr. R. Waite; “Progress versus Security—An Economist's View,” by Mi. R. A. Low; “A Logic of Social Science Thought,” by Dr. E. G. Jacoby.

Technology Section: “The Electroplating Industry—Recent Developments and their Application in New Zealand,” by Mr. M. Fields; “Health Hazards in Industry,” by Dr. Hubert Smith; “Coastal Drift Problems, with Special Reference to Westport Harbour,” by Mr. F. W. Furkert; “You and the Kilowatt Hour,” by Mr. S. A. Vineze; “The Patent Problem in the Post-war World,” by Dr. J. W. Miles; “The Influence of Mechanisation on the Development of the Dairy Industry,” by Dr. W. M. Hamilton; “Recent Advances in the Processing of Wool,” by Mr. R. V. Peryman.

Special Meetings: Three special meetings were arranged during the year, the first of which was held on 7th November, 1945, when Dr. E. Marsden spoke on “Atomic Energy.” On the 13th March, 1946, Mr. C. S. Wright, C.B., Director of Royal Naval Scientific Service, addressed the Branch on “Science in the Battle of the Atlantic.” and on the 11th July the Branch co-operated with the New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, New Zealand Institute of Engineers, and the New Zealand Association of Scientific Workers in arranging a meeting which was addressed by Dr. K. Compton, President, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Mr. Bradley Dewey, President. American Chemical Society, on the subject of “The Bikini Atomic Tests” and “The Influence of Two World Wars on Chemical Engineering.” All these meetings were very well attended. On the 24th July a special general meeting of the Branch agreed to an amendment to Rule 20 which read: “Offices vacant through insufficient nominations shall be filled by nomination and election at the annual general meeting.”

Visits to Place of Interest: Several visits have been arranged by the sections during the year, the following places being selected: Wallaceville Animal Research Station, Dominion Physical Laboratory, Makara Radio Station, Evans Bay Electric Power Station.

Public Lectures: For some time members of the Council felt that the Branch should do more towards the publicising of science to the lay public, and as a step towards this end a series of six public lectures were organised, commencing on Tuesday, 10th September, and continuing each Tuesday there-after for six weeks. Half of these lectures have now been given, and though at first the support was only fair, it is now increasing and it is hoped that by the end of the session the attendances will have been sufficient to warrant the continuation of this activity of the Branch in future years. Following are the titles of the three addresses delivered to date: “Wellington Weather,” by Dr. R. G. Simmers; “The Development of Medical Thought.” by Dr. Hubert Smith; “The Development and Operational Use of Radar,” by Mr. S. C. Shea.

Papers for Publication: Titles of papers read before the Branch for publication in the Transaction of the Royal Society of New Zealand were:—25th September, “Ophiomyxa duskiensis, a New Ophiuroid from the Southern Fiords,” by Dr. H. B. Bell; “The Migration of the New Zealand Bronze Cuckoo, Chalcites lucidus lucidus (Gmelin),” by Dr. H. B. Fell.

Representation on the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand: Dr. L. T. Grange and Professor L. R. Richardson have continued to represent the Branch.

Presidential Addresses, New Zealand Institute of Chemistry: An invitation was extended by the New Zealand Institute of Chemistry to members of the Branch to attend the addresses of the New Zealand President of the Institute and the President of the New Zealand Section Royal Institute of Chemistry given during the Institute's Conference in Wellington during August. A number of our members availed themselves of this invitation.

Library: Books ordered last year have not all arrived, and a large number of books have been ordered this year. The periodicals, The Westinghouse Engineer. Swiss Tecnics, and Electrical Communications. have been added to the Library through the courtesy of the agents of the Westinghouse Company, the Swiss Consul for New Zealand and Standard Telephones and Cables Proprietary. Ltd., respectively. It has also been decided to resume subscription to the Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science and to the monthly edition of Science News Letter. A catalogue of the Library was prepared during the year in mimeographed form and copies distributed to section secretaries. A limited number

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of copies of this catalogue are available to members at a cost of 1s per copy on application to the Secretary.

Recent additions to the Library have been available to members at each general meeting at Victoria College and have been freely borrowed. Increasing use is being made of the Library both by members and by research workers through the Library Inter-loan System.

Wild Life Committee: Representations made by the Branch to the Minister of Internal Affairs concerning the Sounds District National Park have received the Minister's approval. All the western divide, including all rivers and streams entering the sea on that coast from Milford Sound to the Waiau, is to be declared a sanctuary and no alien plants or animals, including fish, are to be introduced into that area. All entries are to be posted, and rangers appointed as soon as possible. The Council is also considering a request from Mr. R. H. Mitchie, President, Kaitaia Forest and Bird Protection Society, concerning the preservation of a piece of bush between Spirits Bay and Tom Bowling Bay reputed to contain many interesting plants and which the owner is proposing to sell for milling. Investigations have been made into Mr. Mitehie's submissions and the Council has decided to approach the Royal Society with the request that support be given to Mr. Mitchie in this matter.

Election of President and Vice-Presidents of the Royal Society: The suggested rules submitted by this Branch to regularise these elections were approved by the Annual Meeting last May.

Cockayne Memorial: Following Dr. Hutton's departure for Dunedin, Mr. M. Ongley took over this committee and some progress has been made.

Adelaide Science Congress: Dr. I. V. Newman, of Victoria College, was elected to represent officially this Branch at the Adelaide Conference. Dr. P. Marshall, a former President of this Branch, was President of the Conference.

New Zealand Representative to Congress of National Academy of Sciences of U.S.A. and American Philosophical Society: The Branch made nominations along with the other Branches of suitable persons to represent New Zealand in response to an invitation received from the American Academy. The final selection was made by the Royal Society of New Zealand, and Dr. R. S. Allan, of Christchurch, was selected.

Fellowship of Royal Society of New Zealand: The Council has approved of eight nominations to be sent forward. to the Royal Society for selection at the next Annual Meeting in May, 1947.

Science Congress: It has been decided to hold the next Royal Society Science Congress in Wellington from the 20th to 23rd May, 1947, inclusive, this Branch acting as the host. A committee has been set up and the initial organisation is now well under way. The co-operation of other scientific bodies in Wellington is being sought. and it is hoped that the various congresses scheduled to be held in this city next year will be held together under the auspices of the Royal Society of New Zealand.

Calendar Reform: Correspondence concerning proposals for world calendar reform were submitted to the Branch for opinion by the Royal Society of New Zealand. After examination it was agreed that the Branch should support the principle of the Year Calendar.

Dominion Museum Building: The continued use of this building by the Armed Services was taken up by the Royal Society of New Zealand at its Annual Meeting in May and given considerable publicity. Resolutions in support of the Royal Society were passed and published in the press by the New Zealand Association of Scientific Workers and the New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, with the result that the Services have now vacated the building. The restoration of the building to its original condition is not proceeding at the pace that was expected, and the Branch has been unable, so far, to resume occupation of its rooms. Some improvement of the Branch's quarters is, however, being planned, and it is confidently expected that the next session will be able to commence in excellently-appointed quarters at the Museum.

Meeting Rooms: A sub-committee of the Council inspected alternative meeting rooms in the city which it was suggested might be more suitable for our purposes. After they had reported to the Council and full discussion, it was agreed that the best interests of the Branch would be served by a return to the quarters provided at the Dominion Museum.

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Observatory: The Observatory has continued in regular use, especially for the routine examination of sunspots.

Accounts: The accounts of the Branch reveal an improving financial position. Very few members have not paid their subscriptions for the current year. Members, however, are tardy in forwarding their subscriptions, many not doing so until they have received a reminder from the Secretary in July. The work of the Council would be facilitated if members would remember to pay their subscriptions earlier in future years. Two reserves have been set aside in the Library Account to cover cost of books on order not yet to hand and to cover the cost of binding periodicals. No binding has been done for the last two years on account of the inability of the Branch's bookbinders to handle this work at present.

Thanks: The thanks of the Council are again due to the Council of Victoria College for continuing to allow the Branch's meetings to be conducted in the University buildings while the Museum quarters have been unavailable. The Council also wishes to record its appreciation of the services of all those persons who have helped with the activities of the Branch during the year just closed. We would particularly like to record our thanks to all those who helped to make the conversazione such an outstanding success and to the members of the staff of the Dominion Laboratory who supported Mr. R. L. Andrew's address with such an excellent demonstration of the activities of the Laboratory.

For and on behalf of the Council,

J. K. Dixon

, President.

J. T. Salmon

, Secretary.

Otago Branch of the Royal Socieity of New Zealand.
Annual, Report for Session 1946.

Membership: Membership stands at 164, compared with 158 in the 1945 session. There have been seventeen new members elected. One member was struck off the roll, three were transferred, and seven members died.

Deaths: The Council records with regret the deaths of the following members: W. G. Howes, Willi Fels, C.M.G. Professor James Park, Sir Louis Barnett, G. Z. Lindley, Miss K. Mullin, Miss F. Reid, John Williams, B.Sc.

W. G. Howes was an amateur entomologist of note and had contributed a number of papers to the Transactions of the Royal Society. In 1921 he was President of this Society. He had been President of the Dunedin Naturalists' Field Club, and was for many years a director of the Portobello Marine Biological Station.

Willi Fels, C.M.G., became a member of this Society forty-six years ago.

He served on the Council and held the offices of Treasurer and Vice-President, and he had made a gift to the Society of £1,000 towards the building of an auditorium. He was for long an energetic member of the Field Club. Widely lead and widely travelled, he was a collector of objects of art and of ethnographic material. By generous gifts of money and collections he became the greatest benefactor of Otago Museum. This Society honours the memory of a loyal member and a generous and enlightened citizen.

Professor James Park. formerly director of the Otago School of Mines, had a long and distinguished career as geologist and mining engineer. He served for many years on the Council of this Society, was president in 1909, and for long represented it on the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand.

Sir Louis Barnett joined this Society in 1892 and at his death was second in seniority among members only to Sir Lindo Ferguson, whose membership dates from 1883. Sir Louis presented to this Society a small-scale planetarium which has been of very great use to the Astronomical Section. He will always be remembered as an enlightened and generous citizen.

Attendance at Main Branch Meetings: Attendances numbered 50, 45, 41, 30, 50, 40, 40. This appears to be about the average attendance over the last decade, and, compared with attendances in earlier years (within the Secretary's memory), it is very satisfactory.

The attendance at Junior meetings has averaged 60.

Representatives on Museum Committee: Messrs. C. V. Dayus and George Simpson continued to represent this Society.

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Representatives on Council of Royal Society: Drs. C. M. Focken and H. D. Skinner.

Fellowship of the Royal Society of New Zealand: The recommendations formulated by your Council last year, considered by the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand at their Annual Meeting in May, and referred back by them to constituent bodies, were considered by a special committee of your Council, whose report was adopted at the July meeting. The report has been sent to the Secretary of the Royal Society for communication to the next Annual Meeting. A request was added that the report be circulated to constituent bodies some months before the Annual Meeting.

Nomination of Fellows, Royal Society of New Zealand: Your Council considered possible nominees for Fellowship and sent forward four names.

World Calendar: Your Council having given consideration to the proposed World Calendar, wrote to the. Secretary, Royal Society of New Zealand, recommending its adoption and asking that, should their recommendation be adopted by the Royal Society at its next Annual Meeting, the recommendations be forwarded to UNESCO.

Census of Scientific Workers: The Secretary circularised members with a view to drawing up an Otago list; less than fifty replies have been received, although it is estimated that there are 150 scientific workers in Otago.

Dr. F. J. Turner: The Society extends to Dr. Turner its congratulations on his appointment to the chair of Metamorphic Geology in the University of California. Dr. Turner served on your Council for twenty years, representing the Society on the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand for nine years. He was Secretary of this Society for four years and President in 1933 and in 1946. He was for four years Editor of the Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand. This Society acknowledges with gratitude his pre-eminent services to it in this generation.

Drs. G. J. Williams and C. O. Hutton: The Society welcomes back these graduates of Otago, the former to the directorship of the Otago School of Mines, the latter to fill the place of Dr. F. J. Turner.

Provincial Centennial Memorial: The Society extends its congratulations to the Otago Museum Committee on Otago Museum being selected as Centennial memorial for the province. Throughout its history, the Society has been intimately associated with the Museum. Help has been mutual. The Society hopes that the expansion of the Museum buildings may continue and that its influence in provincial education may be on a greater and greater scale.

Conversazione: The annual conversazione in conjunction with the Association of Friends of the Museum has been arranged to be held on the evening of November 13.

Main Branch Meetings: 9th April, Presidential address (Dr. F. J. Turner); 7th May, Professor B. J. Marples, “A Zoologist in Samoa” (joint meeting with Dunedin Naturalists' Field Club); 11th June, Lieut.-colonel Fred. Waite, D.S.O., “Egypt—The Predynastic Age” (illustrated with tools, weapons, and pottery of the period); 9th July, Gordon Anderson, M.Sc., “The Wind Bloweth” (a talk on weather forecasting); 13th August, Dr. R. Jack, “The Physical Characteristics of Uranium and Thorium”; Dr. C. Osborne Hutton, “The Occurrence of Uranium and Thorium in New Zealand”; 10th September, H. S. Tily, B.Sc., “The Strath-Taieri Crater”; Dr. G. T. S. Baylis, “The Three Kings Islands” (lectures illustrated with epidiascope and film); 8th October, Dr. W. E. Adams, Dr. G. J. Williams, Dr. Basil Howard, “Problems of Science Teaching in Otago University”; 12th November, Annual General Meeting (exhibition of Ceramics).

Original Papers: The following papers were read by title at ordinary meetings and forwarded to the Editor of Transactions:—Marion Fyfe, M.Sc., “The Classification and Reproductive Organs of New Zealand Land Planarians,” part 2; F. J. Turner, D.Sc., “Origin of Piedmontite-bearing Quartz-muscovite-schists of North-West Otago”; W. B. Benham. K.B.E., F.R.S., “The Occurrence of the Genus Pheretima in New Zealand”; C. O. Hutton, Ph.D., “Contributions to the Mineralogy of New Zealand,” parts 2 and 3; J. B. Mackie, M.Sc., “Petrofabric Analyses of Two Quartz-mica-piedmontite Schists from North-West Otago”; W. A. Thomson, “A Bi-generic Hybrid: Loranthus micranthus × Tupeia antarctica.”

Junior Branch: The attendance at Junior Branch meetings has dropped this year, the average being about sixty. It is difficult to suggest reasons for this falling off of interest, because the lectures offered were of the usual high standard. It is hoped that next year will bring a return of the earlier interest

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and enthusiasm. Organisers: Dr. Basil Howard and Mr. D. N. F. Dunbar. 7th June, Miss B. Brewin, M.Sc., “Food for the Fishes”; 21st June, D. N. F. Dunbar, “Radar”; 5th July, G. J. Williams, Ph.D. (Lond.), M.Sc., B.E., D.I.C., “Prospecting in the Crown Colonies”; 19th July, Microscope Section of the Royal Society—Microscope Demonstration; 2nd August, M. J. McDowell, “Experiments in Physical Chemistry”; 16th August, V. E. Galway, Mus.D. (Melb.), “Shakespeare and Music.”

The Astronomical Section reports a successful season. Membership, 60 full members, 16 associate members. Visitors to the Beverley-Begg Observatory numbered 400. Annual statement shows a credit balance of £111 14s 3d.

The Microscopical Section reports a successful session. Five lectures were delivered during the year. Annual statement shows credit balance of £28 4s 2d.

The Scientific Methodology Section reports loss of two key members. Four meetings were held. Credit balance, 19s.

The Historical Section: No meetings were held. It is intended to resume public meetings in the 1947 session.

H. D. Skinner

For President.

Hawke's Bay Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual. Report For The Year 1946.

The Council presents the seventy-third Annual Report, being that for the year ended 31st December, 1946.

Meetings: The following meetings were held during the year:—27th March, Annual General Meeting, paper by the President on “The Recent Eruption of Mount Ruapehu”; 23rd July, Quarterly General Meeting, paper by Mr. P. van Asch on “Aerial Mapping”; 12th August, Public Meeting in Hastings, paper by Count Wodzicki on “The Kidnappers Gannetry” (resolved to form an Ornithological Section); 3rd October, Quarterly General Meeting, paper by Mr. Fabian on “The Work of the Pathfinder Squadron of the R.A.F.”; 21st and 22nd October, documentary film evenings in Hastings and Napier.

Council: The Council met on five occasions.

Sections: There are three active sections, Astronomical, Ornithological, and Photographic, all of which have held regular monthly meetings.

Library: The cataloguing of the Library was undertaken by Dr. C. D. Costello, and the major part of the work has been completed. He had the assistance of the Honorary Secretary, several members of the Council, and three assistants who were not members of the Society. In recognition of their willing service to the Society, the Council recommends that these three be elected Honorary Members of the. Society for the current year (Miss Urquhart, Mrs. Macdonald, and Mr. Edwards). A number of new volumes have been purchased, and a second copy of Nature has been ordered for circulation among the Hastings members.

Projector: Donations to the Projector Account totalled £45 5s 6d. The Council decided, in view of the lack of effective support, that it was not justified in proceeding with the purchase of a projector at a cost of £200. Arrangements have been made for the use, in the meantime, of the Hereworth School projector.

Honorary Secretary: During the year Mr. J. S. Peel found that he could not carry on the secretaryship, owing to pressure of professional work. His resignation was accepted with regret, and Mr. H. P. Hole, of Napier, was appointed by the Council.

Resignation: Mr. I. J. Pohlen, a past President, resigned from the Council owing to ill-health. The Council appointed Mr. N. L. Elder in his place.

Honorary Member: The Council has unanimously decided to propose Mr. C. F. H. Pollock for election to honorary membership in recognition of his long and loyal service to the Society.

Bulletin: Only one number of the Bulletin, No. 3, has been issued during the year. The Society's financial position has not been strong enough to justify the expense of further issues.

Rules: The Council decided that a revision of the rules was expedient, and they have been rewritten to cover the new activities of the Society.

Membership: The roll of members now stands at 111, an increase of 21 on last year.

Hawke's Bay Arts Society: The thanks of the Society are due to the Hawke's Bay Arts Society for their willing co-operation, especially in making their premises available to this Society for meetings.

For the Council,

J. D. H. Buchanan


– xxxix –

Nelson Philosophical Society.
Annual Report for Year ended 30th September, 1946.

Membership: The total membership for the year was 63, including 38 full and 21 associate members, as compared with 40 and 15 respectively for 1945.

Meetings: Five monthly meetings were held during the year, the August meeting being not held on account of the nearness of the meeting date to that of the Cawthron lecture. Particulars of the addresses are as follows:—15th April, Mr. E. B. Mackenzie, B.E., A.M.I.E.E. (Presidential address), “The Electrical Engineer: His Problems in War and Peace”; 20th May, Mr. L. J. Dumbleton, B.Sc. (For.), “Some Aspects of Malaria in the” South Pacific; 17th June, Mr. K. O'Halloran, M.A., “Modern Developments in Education”; 15th July, Mr. B. H. Wood, B.Sc., B.Com., A.M.I.E.E., “Employer-Employee Relations in a State Department”; 16th September, Mr. Roger Duff, M.A., “Maoris of the Moa-Hunter Period.”

Attendance: There were attendances varying from 20 to 50 and averaging 32.

Finances: Subscriptions were raised to 10s for a full member and 5s for an associate member. The benefit of this step has been reflected in the financial position of the Society, which discloses an excess of income over expenditure amounting to £3 13s 6d for the year, as compared with a debit balance of £4 6s 3d at the beginning of the financial year.

Mr. R. K. Logan: After having been Secretary for a year, Mr. R. K. Logan was obliged to relinquish the position by reason of his departure to England in order to further his experience as an industrial chemist.

Supper: An innovation was introduced in the form of the provision of supper. The Society's thanks are due to Misses Turner and Kennedy and Colonel Brerton, of the Institute Staff, for organising the supper and tastefully decorating the room for the July and September meetings.

E. B. Mackenzie

, President.

B. H. Wood

, Secretary.

Southland Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual Report for the Year 1946.

Membership: The year opened with the membership at 40. During the year 7 new members were admitted, while 4 resigned, so that the total number on the register now stands at 43—a gain of 3 for the year. Of our membership, 39 are ordinary members, 1 an honorary member, and 3 are life members.

Congratulations: Dr. G. H. Uttley, a foundation member of this Branch and its first President, was included in the New Year Honours list, being the recipient of a C.M.G.; to him we extend our very heartiest congratulations.

Financial: The year's working shows a loss of £6 16s 10d, and while this is in no way satisfactory, it is not so serious as it may look, as it is brought about entirely by the non-payment of members' subscriptions. Of the total membership of 43, only 21 paid their subscriptions. Two paid two years, one in advance. Again we would urge all members to pay their subscriptions early, and so make it easier for their Council to plan the future activities of the Branch.

Attendances: Attendance at meetings has been well maintained during the season, each meeting being a success from that point of view. It makes it so much easier for lecturers when the audience is large, and we trust that the attendance will be maintained during the coming season.

Lectures: The following lectures were given during the year:—9th May, Miss C. McHaffie (Presidential address), “Atmosphere and Radar”; 26th June, Dr. E. Gregory, “The World's Food Situation”; 24th July, Mr. A. H. Payne, “Volcanoes Past and Present”: 25th September, Professor B. J. Marples, “A Zoologist in Samoa”; 24th October, Dr. Basil Howard, “Foveaux Strait.” The November meeting was abandoned as no lecturer was available.

Our members greatly appreciate the time these people give to the Branch, and we trust that they enjoy being with us as much as we enjoy hearing them.

Conclusion: Retiring Officers and Council members thank all who supported them during the past season, and hope that the same support will be accorded to the new officers in the session about to commence.

Once again we ask all members to pay their subscriptions promptly, and also ask that endeavors be made to increase the membership. The larger our membership, the greater our activities can become, and although we have reason to be pleased with our progress in the past, we could with large membership be enabled to do better in the future.