New Species and Genera of Marine Mollusca from the Southland Fiords.
In February, 1946, an expedition conducted by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research visited the Southland Fiords in the ketch New Golden Hind. In the course of the expedition, Messrs. H. W. Wellman, New Zealand Geological Survey, and A. S. C. Wright. Soil Survey Bureau, with the assistance of other members, obtained over 80 bottom samples from depths up to 73 fathoms, using a small Petersen grab (kindly supplied by the Marine Department Fisheries Laboratory), operated by hand from the ship's dinghy. The rich faunas of small mollusca in the samples included a number of new forms which are the subject of this paper. Comments on some little-known previously described species are incorporated. A full fauna) list, together with discussion of the nature of the molluscan fauna of Fiordland, will be published elsewhere with other scientific results of the New Golden Hind Expedition. It is appropriate to record here the thoroughness and industry with which the bottom-sampling was carried out, often in difficult conditions, with the assistance of all members of the expedition and of the crew of the New Golden Hind, particularly Mr. R. W. Willett, leader of the scientific party, and Captain A. Cole, master of the vessel. The types of new forms are in the Geological Survey collection.
In 1946 the New Golden Hind visited only the area between Preservation Inlet and Doubtful Sound. Fortunately, a rich dredging from the entrance to George Sound, in 34 fathoms, was made in 1935 from the New Zealand Government steamer Matai on behalf of Dr. P. Marshall, who kindly presented the material to the Geological Survey in 1945. The new mollusca from the George Sound dredging are also described in this paper.
Genus Austrotindaria nov.
Type Austrotindaria wrighti n.sp.
Shell small, translucent, ovoid, without rostrum, with weak concentric sculpture. Hinge-plate strong, separated into anterior and posterior parts by an appreciable edentulous gap. No chondrophore. Ligament narrow, oblique, opisthodetic.
The genus Tindaria Bellardi 1875 (type T. arrata Bell., Pliocene, Italy) has been used by Dall for a number of deep-water Atlantic species with continuous hinge-plate, no chondrophore, and elongate, Treble, mostly posterior ligament. Protonucula. Cotton (1930, Rec. S. Aust. Mus., Vol 4, no. 2, p. 223) is apparently an Australian relative
of Tindaria. Dall described his section Neilonella, 1881 (of Leda, later of Tindaria) as like Tindaria Bellardi, but with the base of the ligament “dividing the hinge line, while its upper surface extends about equally before and behind the beaks” (i.e., amphidetic) (Dall, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 7, Vol. 7, p. 254, 1886). Later (1898, Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., Vol. 3, pt. 4, p. 582) he listed Neilonella as a section of Tindaria noting as the critical difference from Tindariopsis (Verrill and Bush, 1897, a rostrate, genus) the gap in the line of teeth, “through which the resilium, though above the tooth line, can be seen from below.”
Austrotindaria agrees with Neilonella in its interrupted hinge line, but the ligament does not extend in front of the beaks; there are additional differences in outline, particularly in the arched (not concave) dorsal margins, and in sculpture.
The only Australasian forms demanding comparison are Protonucula Cotton, which has an uninterrupted hinge line, and the New Zealand Miocene-to-early-Pliocene species of Minormalletia. These are larger shells, with a straighter hinge line which is more delicate and bears many more teeth than Austrotindaria, with a much narrower gap between anterior and posterior teeth.
Austrotindaria wrighti n.sp. (Plate 4, figs. 1, 3.)
Shell small, white and translucent, ovate, inflated, narrowly rounded behind, more broadly rounded in front; dorsal margins gently arched, ventral margin broadly and asymmetrically rounded, so that the lowest point is at the posterior third. Beaks in front of middle. No indication of rostrum. Surface shining, sculptured by somewhat irregular shallow concentric striae. Hinge-plate strong, wide at either end, interrupted below the beaks by a gap occupied by the narrow base of the ligament. No chondrophore. Nine anterior teeth obtusely chevron-shaped, decreasing rapidly in size towards the beaks, 12 posterior teeth similarly decreasing. Ligament narrow, virtually opisthodetic, commencing below the beak, above the gap between the teeth, and running back about a third the length of the posterior dorsal margin. There is no denned lunule or escutcheon.
Length, 3·6; height, 2 7; inflation (1 valve), 1 mm. (holotype, right valve).
Locality: New Golden Hind Bottom Station 39, Northport, entrance to Edwardson Sound in 58 fathoms, two right valves; Station 52, boat passage east of Pigeon Island, 22 fathoms, one left valve. Named in recognition of the contributions of Mr. A. S. C. Wright, Soil Survey Bureau, to the work of bottom sampling.
Genus Lissarca E. A. Smith, 1877.
Type (by monotypy) L. rubrofusca E. A. Smith.
Powell (1933, Rec. Auck. Inst. Mus., Vol 1, p. 191) allocated to Austrosarepta Hedley his Lissarca harrisonae and L. pileopsis noting that Austrosarepta has a broad triangular resilium and a vertically striated ligamental area. Lissarca has a narrow oblique resilium and no striated area. Lissarca is retained in the Recent faunal list (Powell, Shellfish of N.Z., 3946) for the three named Subantarctic species, for
stewartiana Powell (shell-sand, Mason's Bay) and doubtfully for frapezina Bernard (Stewart Island, 35 fathoms). Finlay (1926, Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. 57, p. 449) had claimed that Suter's identifications of the last species refer to a Lissarca; actually, both the description in the Manual (p. 860) and the figure of the hinge in the Atlas (Pl. 51, fig. 17a) clearly portray an Austrosarepta, and reference to Bernard's original description and figure (J. de Conch., 45, 1897, pp. 17–18; fig. 3 in text and Pl. 1, fig. 7) show that the type of frapezina is certainly an Austrosarepta agreeing very closely with A. pileopsis (Powell) over which it has, of course, priority. Suter's figures are poor copies of Bernard's with the image reversed and with the addition of external radials which are not present on the original.
Apart from the Subantarctic species, Lissarca may include stewartiana Powell and the following new species.
Lissarca stationis n.sp. (Plate 5, figs. 1, 2.)
Shell small, fairly solid, ovate; beaks low, at anterior fifth; prodissoconch defined by a low rounded ridge, dying out on the disc; dorsal margin almost straight under beaks, running back into an expanded posterior wing; anterior margin broadly rounded, ventral margin straight mesially, at an acute angle to the line of the hinge. Surface minutely granular, with well-marked, incised, concentric growth pauses and fine, subobsolete, irregular radial rugae, best developed on the posterior dorsal wing. Hinge fairly solid; dorsal margin of hinge-plate straight, interrupted by narrow oblique resilium; two strong anterior and posterior teeth, separated by deep sockets; anterior tooth separated from anterior dorsal margin by a lamella running forward to join the margin at front of hinge-plate (the last feature possibly pathological). Margins crenulate in front and behind, but elsewhere smooth. Colour warm buff.
Length, 1 6; height, 1 3; inflation (one valve), 0 4 mm. (holotype, left valve).
Locality: New Golden Hind Station 81, 47 fathoms, Anchorage Arm, Daggs Sound, in muddy carbonaceous grit.
Differs from the stewartiana in more solid shell, rougher exterior and hinge, and from other New Zealand species in lacking ventral marginal crenulation and in its small number of hinge teeth.
Marwick (1928, Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. 58, p. 444) proposed the above new family for Perrerina on the basis of its unique hinge and because of the conchological discrepancies between that genus and the Crassatellitidae. Later, Powell (1933, Proc. Malac. Soc. (Lond.), Vol. 20, p. 233) added Legrandina, previously located in the Leptonidae, noting its close affinity to Perrierina. In describing Perrierina, Bernard (Bull. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Paris, No. 7, p. 312, 1897) observed the close agreement between the arrangement of cardinal teeth in Perrierina and Cyamiomactra and inferred their affinity, although the latter genus lacks the lateral “taxodont” lamellae of the former. When the Australian species attributed to Cyamiomactra are considered, as well as the genotype, the relationship of this genus to the Perrierinidae appears even closer: C. mactroides, for instance,
with its radial striation, but without the lateral lamellae of Perrierina, approaches Perrierina matai n.sp., in which the taxodont lamellae are poorly developed. Cyamiomactra is currently included in the Crassatellitidae with Cuna, but differs from that family as much as does Perrierina. I suggest therefore that Cyamiomactra be located in the Perrierinidae, as a genus in which the lateral lamellae on the dorsal margins have been lost, or never developed.
Genus Perrierina Bernard, 1897.
Type (by monotypy): P. taxodonta, Bernard.
Perrierina taxodonta Bernard. (Plate 5, fig. 4.)
Bernard described this species from 35 fathoms, Stewart Island; his description does not include a figure of the complete shell, so that the presence of up to four species of the genus together in one area (Fiordland) makes it desirable to determine taxodonta. In the absence of exact topotypes and until the type can be examined, the shell occurring in Foveaux Strait, 13 fathoms, is figured as Bernard's species; it tallies very well with this description and figures of the hinge. Otago Heads and Fiordland specimens, which vary a little in shape, may be included in taxodonta in the meantime. Bernard's description could not apply to the new species here described, which raise the number of Recent species to 7, viz.:
P. taxodonta Bernard. Stewart Id. (type); Foveaux Strait, Otago Heads, Fiordland; Subantarctic (?).
P. insulana Powell. Chatham Islands.
P. mestayerae Powell. Snares, 50 fathoms.
P. substriata Powell. Off Three Kings Islands.
P. perstriata Fleming n.sp. Fiordland.
P. georgiana Fleming n.sp. Fiordland.
P. matai Fleming n.sp. Fiordland.
Fossil species are restricted to the Pliocene:
P. bensoni King. Mid-Pliocene. Wairarapa.
P. sola Laws. Lower Pliocene, Kaawa Creek.
P. ovata Marwick. Mid Pliocene, Chatham Islands.
P. n.sp. Laws. Lower Pliocene, Kaawa Creek.
Perrierina perstriata n.sp. (Pl. 5, fig. 6.)
Shell small, white, shining, porcellanous, ovate, equivalve, somewhat inequilateral, the beaks just in front of the middle, approximate, low, with well-defined raised prodissoconch. Dorsal margin broadly arched, descending regularly to a broadly rounded posterior and to a more narrowly rounded anterior margin; ventral margin broadly rounded, slightly flattened posteriorly. Surface polished, with very fine growth striae, and ill-defined radial striae (about 40–45 in number) which are emphasized by the internal radial structure of the shell, showing through more opaquely. Hinge-plate narrow, left valve with strong bifid central cardinal with the anterior limb strongest, and projecting beyond the hinge-plate, not reaching the dorsal margin of the hinge, and separated from the anterior cardinal by deep socket; anterior cardinal long, lamellar, oblique, joined to hinge plate along its upper margin; posterior cardinal, short, conical, parallel to posterior limb of central tooth; ligamental groove deep,
oblique. Right valve with large bifid anterior cardinal continuous dorsally with a posteriorly directed cardinal. Lateral “taxodont” lamellae in both valves, 3–4 in front, and 4 behind; the first two behind the ligament in the left valve are strong and tooth-like and define a socket to receive a single corresponding tooth in the right. Interior smooth but crenulated marginally, the crenulations strongest anteroventrally.
Length, 2·6; height, 2·1; inflation (one valve), 0 8 mm. (left valve, holotype).
Locality: New Golden Hind Bottom Station 67, 15–25 fathoms, Gilbert Islands, Breaksea Sound, rock with patches of shell grit (holotype). Station 65, 41 fathoms, half-mile off end of Breaksea Island.
Differs considerably in outline, hinge, and number of radials from substriata Powell, the only other species with noticeable radials.
Perrierina georgiana n.sp. (Pl. 5, fig. 3.)
Shell very small, equivalve, strongly inequilateral, inflated, ovoid-rectangular; beaks low, with raised prodissoconch. Dorsal margin strongly arched, descending abruptly in front, raised posteriorly, passing into broadly rounded posterior margin; front truncated almost at right angles to ventral margin. Surface smooth, shining, with wide-spaced well-marked growth pauses. Faint radials in the shell structure are visible under special lighting, running from beaks to posteroventral margin. Hinge relatively strong, typical of genus, left valve with a secondary minute dorsal cusp on the anterior cardinal and a very weak posterior cardinal; ligament pit short, with a well-defined tooth behind it. Right valve with, two strong, blunt, diverging cardinals, united above, both faintly grooved. Lateral lamellae poorly developed, in some specimens absent in front. 3–4 behind. Colour, buff, prodissoconch and beaks white.
Length, 1 4; height, 1·3; inflation (both valves), 1 mm. (holotype).
Locality: Entrance to George Sound in 34 fathoms, shell sand with corals and bryozoa. (Collected from N.Z. Government steamer Matai, presented by Dr. P. Marshall; holotype and paratypes); New Golden Hind Station 65, off Breaksea Island, in 41 fathoms; Station 2, Narrows, Long Sound, Preservation Inlet, 19–24 fathoms.
Perrierina matai n.sp. (Pl. 5, fig. 5.)
Shell minute, subspherical, white, equilateral and equivalve, beaks inflated but low, prodissoconch ill defined, almost central. Dorsal margin arched, ventral margin regularly rounded, posterior margin more narrowly rounded than anterior. Surface shining, with fine growth lines and rarer pauses, with the internal radial structure of shell showing as opaque white radials, some 30 odd in number, obscure on either side. Hinge strong. Right valve with two cardinals not quite united dorsally, the anterior attached to the anterior dorsal margin, raised and swollen, the other directed obliquely back, obtusely conical, overhanging a restricted ligament pit. Anterior dorsal margin with a socket for reception of left anterior cardinal, lightly grooved beyond posterodorsal margin with three rounded lamellae. Left valve
with bifid central tooth not reaching dorsal margin, a short posterior cardinal parallel to posterior limb of central, but reaching dorsal margin, and a long lamellar anterior cardinal attached and parallel to the dorsal margin which is otherwise free of teeth; posterodorsal margin with three lamellae, pallial line entire, muscles scars typical.
Length, 1 5; height, 1·3; inflation, 0·9 mm. (holotype, both valves).
Locality: Entrance to George Sound, in 34 fathoms, collected from N.Z. Government steamer Matai for Dr. P. Marshall, who kindly made the material available. This species has perhaps some affinity with Legrandina harrisonae Powell (Stewart Island), which also lacks anterior taxodont lamellae, but differs in hinge, lacking the left posterior cardinal.
Genus Chlamys Bolten.
Chlamys suprasilis crepusculi n.subsp. (Pl. 7, figs. 1, 2, 3.)
Shell of moderate size, fairly solid, very compressed, equivalve, with unequal ears. Sculpture on right valve; strong radial ribs, slightly scabrous in front and behind, arranged in pairs. In the holotype there is an anterior rib, then ten pairs of ribs, grouped so that the width of the inter-space between each of a pair of ribs is considerably less than (usually under half) the width of the inter-space between adjacent pairs of ribs. The fourth to seventh pairs of ribs (from front) lose their paired form by the flattening-out marginally of the inter-space. Fairly strong (but not lamellate) concentric growth lines are crossed by divaricate “Camptonectes” striation. In left valve eleven widely spaced narrow primary ribs; the broad inter-spaces over three times the width of the rib, with strong Camptonectes sculpture, and with a secondary rib, locally and poorly developed in one paratype, but subequal to the primaries in the other, matching the obsolescent interspaces between the paired ribs of the right valve. Anterior ears about thriee the length of posterior which bear three beaded radiating ribs; anterior ears with five wide-spaced beaded ribs in left valve, six broad, close-set, scaly ribs in right, separated from anterior margin by broad fasciole, sculptured by coarse sinuous growth folds. Ctenolium with four free teeth. Ligamental pit broad, triangular, fairly deep, hinge margin striated. Colour of holotype is reddish, of paratypes, purplish brown, and dull yellow with white interrupted concentric markings.
Height, 14; width, 12; thickness (right valve), 1 8 mm. (holotype).
Locality: New Golden Hind Bottom Station 45, Facile Harbour, Dusky Sound, in 12 fathoms; muddy shell sand (three valves).
This species is a deep water local race of C. suprasilis Fin. having the fasciole of that sublittoral species and lacking the concentric intercostal lamellae of radiata (Hutton) and its allies, even though it has the compressed form of radiata.
Genus Kidderia Dall, 1876.
Type (by original designation) K. minuta Dall.
Kidderia aupouria fiordlandica n.subsp. (Pl. 6, fig. 6.)
Shell small, thin, inequilateral, moderately inflated; beaks about anterior fifth, with large pink, well-defined prodissoconch. Dorsal margin broadly arched, ascending behind into a broadly rounded posterior margin, but descending in front into a narrow rounded anterior margin. Hinge with a knob-like cardinal in left valve, separated by a socket from a slender lamellar tooth on the anterior hinge plate; right valve with a bluntly conical cardinal and a broad grooved triangular anterior tooth attached to the anterior hinge plate; posterior part of hinge plate broader in right than in left valve. Surface smooth with irregular growth pauses; colour, buff, prodissoconch dark pink; irregular russet markings on some paratypes.
Length, 2·3; height, 1·5; inflation, 1·5 mm. (both valves, holotype).
Locality: Entrance to George Sound, in 34 fathoms (N.Z. Government steamer Malai, per Dr. P. Marshall), type and many paratypes.
Closest to K. aupouria Powell, and here considered its southern representative, but larger, higher, with larger prodissoconch.
Kidderia marshalli n.sp. (Pl. 6, figs. 1, 2.)
Shell large for genus, thin, inequilateral, elongately ovoid, inflated, beaks surmounted by prodissoconch with raised edges Dorsal margin very gently arched, passing into a narrowly rounded anterior and a broadly rounded posterior margin, ventral margin lowest at posterior two-fifths, ascending in front, slightly indented below the beaks. Hinge line delicate, with two fairly strong divergent cardinals below the prodissoconch. Surface with somewhat irregular growth folds; colour white.
Length, 4·5; height, 2·7; inflation (left valve), 1·3 mm. (holotype, unique).
Locality: Entrance to George Sound, in 34 fathoms (N.Z. Government steamer Matai, 11th September, 1935, per Dr. P. Marshall).
I have pleasure in dedicating this elegant shell to Dr. P. Marshall, through whose generosity the George Sound dredging, together with other bottom samples collected for him from the Matai, have been available for description.
Genus Condylocardia Bernard, 1896.
Condylocardia pectinata chathamensis Powell.
A single valve from entrance to George Sound, in 34 fathoms, belongs to this species and forms an interesting if not unsuspected link between the Tasmanian nominate form and the Chatham Island lace. The George Sound specimen cannot be separated from Chatham Island topotypes.
Genus Lasaea Brown, 1827.
Lasaea rossiana tutanekai n.subsp. (Pl. 6, fig. 5.)
Shell large for genus, ovoid, but variable, beaks low, solid, varying from white to pink, with a erass gerontic hinge like rossiana (as figured by Hedley, Aust. Ant. Exp., Ser. C, Vol. 4, pt. 1. Pl. 4, figs. 42–44). Compared with topotypes, the mainland race is larger, differs
in colour, and tends to be more regularly oval. Surface with growth striae, no conspicuous punctation.
Length, 3·6; height, 2·9; inflation, 1·0 mm. (holotype, right valve).
Locality: New Golden Hind Station 80, Dagg's Sound, inside rock bar, in 58 fathoms. Dark green-grey mud with many small shells; also several other Fiordland dredgings, in from 15 to 58 fathoms. It seems likely, from the known habitat of Lasaea, that such shells in bottom deposits have rafted in from a littoral station.
Note: The allies of this subspecies are L. rossiana rossiana* Fin (type from Macquarie Island, and recorded from other Subantarctic Islands) and L. rossiana vexata Fin. From rossiana, (of which topotypes have been seen) the Fiordland shells differ in their generally more regularly ovoid shape, larger size, and in range of colour. Finlay's vexata was described from Chatham Islands as differing from rossiana in the less continuous line of the dorsal margin, in colour (white), and in sculpture, “having fine wrinkles and punctures besides the concentric striae,” the last feature being diagnostic. Finlay remarked that the specimens of vexata “are evidently the same as those Suter identified as L. scalaris Phil.”… “from Taumaki and Stewart Islands.” However, the Fiordland shells lack the diagnostic surface of vexata and seem to have lower, broader beaks (often reduced still further by corrosion). Dr. Finlay has examined the shells and states that vexata has much more conspicuous punctation than is present on the surface of tutanekai and examination of the types of vexata (Finlay collection, Auckland Museum) fully substantiates this separation.
Genus Mysella Angas 1877.M
Type (by monotypy) Mysella anomala Angas.
Mysella henryi n.sp. (Pl. 6, fig. 4.)
Shell of moderate size, fairly thin, compressed, ovoid. Beaks opisthogyrous, low, rounded, a little behind middle; prodissoconch marked by strong growth pause. Outline oval, with the beaks rising as an obtuse angle above the dorsal margin. Hinge with shallow triangular chondrophore with typical anterior oblique elongate triangular cardinal in right valve separated by a socket from anterior dorsal margin, but no posterior tooth; left valve with no conspicuous teeth, but vestigial low ridges on the hinge line. Colour white, surface with numerous concentric growth striae, the interspaces becoming fold-like towards dorsal margins, particularly behind.
Length, 3·8; height, 3; inflation, 0·8 mm. (holotype, right valve).
Locality: New Golden Hind Bottom Station 34, one-quarter mile north-east of Anchorage, Northport, Chalky Sound, 4–8 fathoms in muddy shell sand.
This species is close to M. larochei Powell (North Auckland) differing in outline and particularly in the obsolete hinge. Named
[Footnote] * When trinomials are used for geographic subspecies, it is customary to list the nominate race trinomially. This has not been the practice in Neozelanic conchology, but it is desirable to distinguish between the whole species (simple binomial), including all its races, and the nominate subspecies (trinomial), a smaller taxonomic unit of equal rank to other subspecies.
after the late R. Henry, first caretaker of the Resolution Island sanctuary, who made collections of mollusca from the Sounds for Henry Suter.
Genus Tellinella Moerch, 1853.
Tellinella charlottae (Smith).
A single individual from Station 80, Dagg's Sound, in 58 fathoms, was alive when collected. It is doubtfully distinguishable from T. eugonia Suter (Wanganui, Pliocene) and is probably the form which is the basis of some of Suter's Recent records of that species. However, an older name to be considered is Tellina charlottae Smith, described from Queen Charlotte Sound in 10 fathoms (Challenger Reports, 13, 1885, p. 100, Pl. 4, fig. 1) and not since recognized, apart from Finlay's misidentification when he named it type of Maoritellina (see Marwick, N.Z.G.S. Pal. Bull. 13, p. 74). Smith's description is of a shell so like the Dagg's Sound specimen that the identification is made pending examination of the type. Smith's figure is probably deficient, for it does not show the lateral teeth mentioned in his description and show no rostral twist. There is little doubt that charlottae is at least congeneric with eugonia which Marwick (loc. cit.) has compared with the type of Tellinella Mörch. This conclusion opens the question of the generic location of huttoni Smith and its allies, previously located in Maoritellina, but that question cannot be dealt with here.
Genus Hunkydora nov.
Type Thracia transenna Suter (Man. N.Z. Moll., 1913, p. 1023)
(Recent, New Zealand).
Shell of moderate size, similar to Myadora in general shape and structure, differing in hinge and pallial line and in the coarseness of the Myadorid tesselate (squamous) texture. The left valve is gently convex, not flat, and bears, beneath the edentulous hinge, a characteristic blade-shaped resilifer, directed obliquely back; Myadora has a triangular resilifer. Pallial sinus much broader, deeper and much more open than in Myadora. Pandora has a similar sickle-shaped resilifer, although impressed, not raised; but there are, of course, other differences of family rank between that genus and Myadora.
Suter, in naming his Thracia transenna, omitted to describe the characteristic chondrophore, which, with the shell texture, indicate, affinity with Myadora rather than with the Thraciidae. Specimens in the New Golden Hind samples were originally set aside as new, but examination of Suter's type series leaves no doubt of their identity. Suter compared transenna with Thracia lincolnensis Vercoe, but the resemblance does not extend beyond general outline.
Shell of moderate size, ovate trigonal, strongly inequivalve, almost equilateral, squarely truncate behind. Anterodorsal margin broadly rounded, posterodorsal margin straight, anterior margin more narrowly rounded, ventral margin gently curved. Beaks opisthogyrous, low, Left valve half as inflated as right, with ill-defined radial fold
Figs. 1, 3.—Austrotindaria wrights n.gen., n.sp. Holotype 3.6 × 2.7 mm.
Figs. 2, 4.—Austroneaera n.sp., 35 fathoms, Dusky Sound.
Figs. 5, 6, 9.—Austroneaera wellmam, n.sp. Holotype. 7.2 × 5 × 3.8 mm.
Fig. 7.—Myadora antipodum Smith. Hinge of left valve.
Fig. 8.—Hunkydora transenna (Suter), n.gen. Hinge of left valve.
Figs. 1, 2.—Lissaca stationis n.sp. Holotype. 1.6 × 1.3 mm.
Fig. 3.—Perrierina georgiana n.sp. Holotype. 1.4 × 1.3 mm.
Fig. 4.—Perrierina tarodonta Bernard. Foveaux Strait, 13 fathoms.
Figs. 5.—Perrierina matai n.sp. Holotype, lower figure (1.5 × 1.3 mm.) and paratypes.
Fig. 6.—Perrierina perstriata n.sp. Holotype, left valve (2.6 × 2.1 mm.) and paratype.
Figs. 1, 2.—Kidderia marshalli n.sp. Holotype. 4.5 × 2.7 mm.
Fig. 3.—Seissurella stellae n.sp. Holotype. 1.2 × 0.7 mm.
Fig. 4.—Mycella henryi n.sp. Holotype, right valve (3.8 × 3 mm.) and paratype.
Fig. 5.—Lasaea rossiana tutanekai n.subsp. Holotype, right valve (3.6 × 2.9 mm.) and paratype.
Fig. 6.—Kidderia fiordlandica n.sp. Holotype. 2.3 × 1,5 mm.
Fig. 1—Chalmys suprashilis crepusculi n.subsp Holotype 14 × 12 mm.
Figs. 2, 3—C suprasilis crepusculi n.subsp. Paratypes.
Figs. 4, 5—Cuspidaria willetti n.sp. Holotype. 20 × 9·6 mm.
Figs. 6, 8—Hunhydora transenna (Suter) n.gen Onepuhi, Phocene (Castlecliffian).
Figs. 7, 9—Hunkydora transenna (Suter) 12 fathoms, Facile Harbour.
Fig. 10—Far powelli n.sp. Paratype. 17 × 8.7 mm.
Fig. 11—Fax pouelli n.sp. Holotype. 15.5 × 10.8 mm.
Fig. 12—Micrelenchus sanguineus bakeri n.subsp. Holotype, 7 × 5.5 mm.
Fig. 13—Micrelenchus sanguincus sanguineus (Grav) Tahunanui, Nelson.
Fig. 14, 15—Tugali suteri sutherlandi n.subsp. Holotype
Fig. 16—Micrelenchus micans Suter. Wet Jacket Arm, 10–13 fathoms.
Fig. 1.—Schizotrochus regius (Mestayer) 58 fathoms, Daggs Sound.
Fig. 2.—Nobolira hinemoa n.sp. Holotype, 2.2 × 1 mm.
Fig. 3.—Schizotrochus mantelli (Woodward) 58 fathoms, Daggs Sound.
Fig. 4.—Scissurella stellae n.sp. Holotype. Diametei. 1.2 mm.
Fig. 5.—Cusonella accelerans n.sp. Hototype. 0.53 X. 0.8 mm.
Fig. 6.—Lodderena nana pooli n.sub.sp. Hotolype. 0.64 × 0.8 mm.
Fig. 7.—Fenestrosyrinr nerilis recens n.subsp. Holotype, 4.2 × 2.2 mm.
Fig. 8.—Zelaritas flordlandica n.sp. Holotype. 2.9 × 1.7 mm.
Fig. 9.—Baryspira southlandica n.sp. Holotype. 6.3 × 3.8 mm.
Fig. 10.—Liratilia conquisita nestoris n.subsp. Holotype. 6.5 × 2.6 mm.
Fig. 11.—Stilla flordlandica n.sp. Holotype. 1.8 × 1.0 mm.
from beak to ventral corner of posterior truncation. Dorsal margins abruptly incurved. Sculpture of highly irregular concentric folds, low and poorly marked on left valve, stronger on the right valve, but showing irregular interpolation and divarication of the folds. Interspaces variable in width, but generally narrower than folds Folds superposed upon a sculpture of irregular anastomosing radial grooves, crossed by more regular concentric grooves and so dividing the surface into a mosaic of innumerable low papillae, giving a striking squamous texture to the shell. Interior pearly, with irregular gentle folds, with a very faint Myadorid ray from beak to posterior end of sinus. Anterior adductor scar elongate pyriform, posterior rounded-trigonal, impressed; pallial sinus broadly rounded, parallel-sided, directed obliquely downward and backward, reaching back over a third the length of the shell. Hinge margin narrow and rounded in left valve, grooved on each side in right valve. Gap for resilium between beaks narrowly triangular; resilifer in left valve sickle-shaped, directed obliquely backward; in right vave ill defined, a smear of callus inside the beak. No lithodesma seen, but noted by Suter.
Length, 15; height, 9·5; inflation, 5 mm. (left valve).
Length, 30; height, 19·5; inflation, 3 mm. (left valve, Onepuhi, Castlecliffian).
Localities: Port Pegasus, 12 fathoms (type); Cuvier Id., 38 fathoms (Suter); New Golden Hind Bottom Station 45, Facile Harbour, Dusky Sound, in 12 fathoms, muddy shell sand; Station 67, Gilbert Islands, Breaksea Sound, 15–25 fathoms, on rock with patches of shell grit; Station 47, between Parrot Island and Five Fingers Peninsula, Dusky Sound, in 42 fathoms; half mile up north bank of Rangitikei River from Onepuhi Bridge in Castlecliffian (Upper Pliocene) shellbeds; horizon CU3. (Collected Mr. M. T. Te Punga, 1943.)
The above description is based on Fiordland material, and was written before Suter's types were available. The Pliocene specimen differs a little in shape and minor details and may be separable. Younger stages of the left valve show greater relative height than the adult. The tesselate texture is approached by Myadora antipodum in which it is stronger than in other New Zealand species of Myadora.
Genus Cuspidaria Nardo, 1840.
Cuspidaria willetti n.sp. (Pl. 7, figs. 4, 5.)
Shell of moderate size, similar in general form to C. trailli Hutton. Outline of disc more elongate, anterior margin more narrowly rounded; rostrum longer, narrower and more circular in cross section, its dorsal margin strongly concave. Sculpture similar to trailli, but differing on the rostrum, in lacking the strong divergent radials of that species. Rostrum sculptured by strong irregular growth lines and defined by two radial angulations, one limiting the escutcheon, and the other running from beaks to the posteroventral point of the rostrum. Escutcheon well developed in both valves, broad and deep with growth lines only: in trailli the escutcheon is seldom
if ever so strong and may not be present. Hinge not seen.
Length, 20; height. 9·6; inflation (both valves), 7 mm. (holotype).
Locality: New Golden Hind Bottom Station 25, Northport Anchorage, Chalky Sound, 14 fathoms, in grey sandy mud. A single perfect specimen.
Named after Mr. R. W. Willett, leader of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Expedition to the fiords of Western Southland. C. trailli was dredged at Facile Harbour, Dusky Sound. and was recorded from Dusky Sound by Suter. C. fairchildi is represented by a fragmentary valve from 58 fathoms, Dagg's Sound.
Genus Austroneaera Powell.
Powell, 1937, Discovery Reports, Vol. 15, p. 174.
Type (original designation): A. brevirostris Powell.
In the New Golden Hind dredgings two Cuspidariid shells turned up which seemed generically distinct on account of differences in shape and hinge, one having a shelly lithodesma, the other, apparently, an uncalcified cartilage. The latter appeared congeneric with Powell's Austroneaera, but the other, on account of its shape and sculpture, was set aside as new. Subsequently, in material dredged by Bollons from 85 fathoms off the Poor Knights Islands, a number of shells were found which agree fairly well with Powell's figure of A. finlayi, described from 60 fathoms off the same islands, but which approach the distinctive Fiordland shell in shape. One valve even has a lithodesma. Two genera seem to be present in Fiordland, and possibly they are both present in North Auckland, but more material is required to settle this question, and in the meantime the species are retained in Austroneaera.
Austroneaera wellmani n.sp. (Pl. 4, figs. 5, 6, 9.)
Shell of moderate size for the family, white, thin, inflated, ovate, equivalve; beaks elevated, incurved, opisthogyrous. Dorsal margin gently arched, concave towards the rostrum, descending into a broadly rounded anterior margin; ventral margin gently convex, gently incurved behind to delimit the short broad rostrum. Escutcheon well developed in left valve, less so in right. Surface smooth and shining, with faint growth lines except posteriorly, where concentric lamellae are developed, coarser and more regular posterodorsally and posteroventrally, but finer and anastomosing in between where irregular periostracum is present; irregular radial sculpture crosses the posteroventral lamellation, forming low cusps at the intersection with the lamellae. Rostrum with periostracum towards tip. Hinge line slender, with well-defined anterior and posterior elevated lamellate lateral teeth in right valve, separated by a broad fossette; in the left valve the hinge-plate is slender and edentulous except for a low lamellar tooth in front of the beak. The lithodesma is a gently curved, flattened rod, attached by cartilage to the hinge line and fossette immediately in front of the beaks.
Length, 7·2; height, 5; inflation (both valves), 3·8 mm. (holotype).
Localities: New Golden Hind Bottom Station 44, Cascade Cove, Dusky Sound, in 18 fathoms, in very carbonaceous mud (holotype); Bottom Station 34, quarter mile N.E. of anchorage, Northport, Chalky
Sound, 4 to 8 fathoms, in muddy shell sand (paratype, left valve); Bottom Station 52, cast of Pigeon Island, Dusky Sound, 22 fathoms (immature left-valve). The specimen from the last locality is almost smooth, lacking both anterior lamellation and radials.
The species is named after Mr. H. W. Wellman, New Zealand Geological Survey, through whose enthusiasm the bottom samples were obtained.
Austroneaera sp. (Plate 4, figs. 2, 4.)
A single specimen attributed to Austroneaera is a fragmentary individual, alive when collected, from Bottom Station 49, north-east of Parrot Island, Dusky Sound, 35 fathoms in muddy shell grit. This represents a considerable extension to the range of the genus which was described from deep water of the Three Kings and Poor Knights Islands. From the two named species, the Dusky Sound shell appears to differ in its greater size (length greater than 7 mm.) and in having more knob-like erect laterals in the right valve; the anterior tooth is particularly strong. The fossette is occupied by an oblique strong cartilage in the left valve, but there is no sign of a shelly lithodesma, though the fragmentary valves were attached when the specimen was collected.
Genus Schizotrochus Monterosato, 1884. Schizotrochus regius (Mestayer). (Pl. 8, fig. 1.)
Scissurella regia Mest., 1916, Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. 48, p. 124, Pl. 12, figs. 3, a, b. c.
Schizotrochus mantelli (Woodward); Finlay, 1926, Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. 57, p. 339 (not of Woodward, 1850).
Mestayer described this species from “15'S. of Big King, 98 fathoms” and differentiated it from S. mantelli Woodward by its more depressed shape and different sculpture. Finlay (1926, Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. 57, p. 339) pointed out that this comparison was based on Suter's crude figure in the Manual “Atlas,” and claimed that Pilsbry's figure (Man. Conch., Vol. 12, Pl. 57, fig. 12) was of a shell very like regia which he synonymised, influenced by the “scarcity of species of Schizotrochus (only one species being usually present in a faunal area, and that species having generally a wide range) and the fact that both these forms were described from the North Island.” Since then Powell has described two additional species of Schizotrochus from North Auckland, so that the generalization quoted does not apply to New Zealand. Two species turned up in some of the New Golden Hind bottom samples. One agrees closely with Woodward's description and figure of mantelli and the other is identical with the type of regia and with topotypes listed as mantelli by Powell (Discovery Reports, 15, p. 159, 1937). Comparison with all available information on mantelli induces me to re-establish Miss Mestayer's species on the basis of the same characters she mentioned: depressed form, extremely fine radial sculpture, giving a silky texture, with no evidence of discrepancy above and below the narrow anal fasciole. In addition, there is a marked difference in the inner lip, which is reflexed on to the parietal wall and is not continuous as a columella into the umbilicus.
Localities: New Golden Hind Station 80, Dagg's Sound, inside a rock bar, 58 fathoms (figured specimen); Station 81, Anchorage Arm, Dagg's Sound, 17 fathoms; Station 2, Narrows, Long Sound, Preservation Inlet, 39 fathoms; Station 39, Edwardson Sound, entrance to Northport, 58 fathoms; Station 75, east channel between John's Islands, Breaksea Sound, 32 fathoms.
Schizotrochus mantelli (Woodward). (Plate 8, fig. 3.)
Shell of moderate size for genus, turbinate, umbilicate. Whorls 3 ½, keeled, with a broad, gently sloping shoulder, and fasciole bounded by raised shell lamellae. On spire whorls the periphery is almost halfway between sutures. Inner lip characteristic, a limb passing vertically into the umbilicus as a columella, separated by an indistinct groove from the smear of parietal callus. Sculpture of fine spiral threads, about 15 above the fasciole, and 25 below on the body whorl, crossed by stronger radials, decussating the surface. Radials markedly discrepant, about 50 above the periphery on the last whorl, but about twice that number on the base; some radials stop short of the umbilicus.
Height, 2·6; diameter, 3 mm. (figured specimen).
Localities: New Golden Hind Station 80, Dagg's Sound, inside a rock bar in 58 fathoms (figured); Station 2, Narrows, Long Sound, Preservation Inlet, in 19–22 fathoms.
Pilsbry (Man. Conch., 12, p. 54, Pl. 57, fig. 12) quotes Woodward's description of Scissurella mantelli and offers a copy of the original figure; these are the available sources of information on a species which was based on a single specimen from “New Zealand” and has not been since recognised, apart from the confusion with regia noted under that species heading. The Fiordland shell here described and figured is not greatly different from mantelli as judged from the figure; it may have a narrower anal fasciole, and the discrepancy between the axial sculpture on shoulder and base may be greater than in the type of mantelli (which, however, certainly has discrepant sculpture). Comparison of specimens would be necessary to establish these differences. The figure of mantelli shows a columella descending from the umbilicus as in the present examples. All told, it seems best to use mantelli to cover the form here figured.
Genus Scissurella d'Orbigny.
Similar to S. fairchildi Powell and to S. prendevillei Powell, but more compressed dorsoventrally, resulting in a difference in form and aperture, and with different sculpture. Spire depressed, not visible above shoulder. Fifteen oblique strong axials on the body whorl; above the fascicle, fine arcuate axials develop on the last half whorl; they do not reach the fasciole. Umbilicus wide, with about three spiral threads, weaker spiral threads on the base of body whorl, but none immediately below fasciole, nor on shoulder. Fasciole bordered by raised edges, extending back half a whorl, represented by a descending groove back to the penultimate whorl where the basal axials extend on to the shoulder. Peristome complete, parietal wall almost straight. Columella flexed, continuous with the peristome, but separated
from it by a shallow groove extending downward from the umbilicus.
Height, 0 7; diameter, 1 2 mm. (holotype).
Locality: New Golden Hind Bottom Station 41, Northport, Chalky Sound in 7 fathoms (type); Station 34, Northport, 4–8 fathoms; Station 53, boat passage east of Pigeon Island, Dusky Sound, 2–5 fathoms.
Genus Tugali Gray.
Tugali suteri sutherlandi n.subsp. (Pl. 7, figs. 14, 15.)
A southern representative of the suteri-bascauda group, differing from both in being more regularly oval in outline, with less straight sides, and in sculpture. As in those forms the anterior sinus-rib breaks into two riblets persistent to the margin. There are about 65 radial riblets with a distinct tendency for alternation in strength, the weaker intermediate riblets arising later than the primaries. T. s. suteri usually has about 46 riblets, and topotypes of bascauda have up to 60, but they never alternate so regularly in strength. The concentric lamellae of the new race are weaker, causing beads where they cross the radials but not strong enough in the interspaces to form netted sculpture. Profile similar to suteri.
Length, 15 6; width, 10 8; height, 5·8 mm. (holotype).
Length, 16 2; width, 10 3; height, 6 mm. (topotype of suteri).
Length, 11 7; width, 7·5; height, 4·4 mm. (topotype of bascauda).
Locality: New Golden Hind Station 63, one and a-half chains east of south point of Breaksea Island, Breaksea Sound, 22 fathoms, in coarse shell sand.
Named in memory of the late Stuart Sutherland, a pioneer naturalist of the Southland Fiords during his life at Puysegur Point Lighthouse.
Genus Micrelenchus Finlay, 1926.
Type (original designation) Trochus sanguineus Gray.
Micrelenchus micans (Suter). (Pl. 7, fig. 16.)
Gibbula micans, Suter, 1897, Proc. Mal. Soc. (Land.), Vol. 2, 279, text fig.
A figure is offered of what is a virtual topotype of Suter's species which has apparently not been recognised by later workers. Suter's type came from “near Resolution Island,” and the figured specimen is from New Golden Hind Station 57, channel inside Oke Island, Wet Jacket Arm, Dusky Sound, in 10–13 fathoms, a few miles from Resolution Island. Other specimens of micans come from Dagg's Sound (58 fathoms).
The species is related to the sanguineus assemblage, differing in its sharply angled periphery and very fine spiral sculpture, there being 13 to 15 flat spirals, separated by linear interspaces, on the penultimate whorl, and 16 to 17 on the base. Colour pattern varies, but is usually to some extent tesselated and splashed in contrasting shades.
Micrelenchus sanguineus bakeri n.subsp. (Pl. 7, fig. 12.)
Gray (in Dieffenbach's New Zealand, 2, p. 238) described sanguineus from “New Zealand” with “Dr. Stanger” named as collector. Shells from Tahunanui, Nelson, kindly made available by
Mr. A. W. B. Powell, are taken as typical sanguineus (Pl. 7, fig. 13), although the colour pattern in most of them consists of continuous pink spirals, not broken into spots as Gray originally described. Cook Strait is the most likely provenance of specimens collected during the early years of the New Zealand Company, but since the type is probably extant, this inference cannot be taken as fixing the type locality. The Forsterian subspecies here described differs not only from Cook Strait specimens, but from Gray's description of sanguineus.
M. sanguineus bakeri differs from Cook Strait examples of M. sanguineus in its more turreted outline due to the greater peripheral angulation, and to the presence of a sloping shoulder on the whorls. Sculpture of even, smooth, flat-topped spiral cords, not moniliform, with interspaces a little over half their width. On the penultimate there are 7 to 9 spirals, and on the base of the body whorl about 10 more spirals below the periphery. Aperture and column as in the nominate race. Colour variable; buff with rose spirals, continuous or interrupted; buff with dark purplish spirals; cream with purplish-brown spirals interrupted to form irregular zig-zag or branching splashes of cream from suture to suture.
Height, 7; diameter, 5·5 mm. (holotype).
Localities: New Golden Hind Station 34, Northport, quarter mile north-east of anchorage in 4 to 8 fathoms, Chalky Sound (type and paratypes); Mill Bay, Kaihiki Arm, Paterson Inlet, Stewart Island, in 8 fathoms (specimens in Auckland Museum, listed as sanguineus by Powell, Rec. Auck. Inst. Mus., Vol. 2, 1939).
The subspecies is named in recognition of the work of Mr. W. H. V. Baker, New Zealand Geological Survey, in sorting much of the Golden Hind material, as a preliminary to listing.
Genus Cirsonella Angas, 1877.
Cirsonella accelerans n.sp. (Pl. 8, fig. 5.)
Shell minute, umbilicate, depressed, radially ribbed, protoconch dome-shaped, followed by one and a half post-nuclear whorls. Spire low, only about a sixth height of aperture. Radial threads appear irregularly on the penultimate whorl; low and ill-defined at first, 21 on the first three-quarters of the body whorl, but becoming closer spaced towards the aperture, so that there are 13 on the last quarter whorl. The radials are strongest on the periphery, weak on the flattened shoulder and on the base. Two weak, spiral carinae separate the periphery from the shoulder on the one hand and the base on the other, and the radials develop slight expansion where they cross them. Aperture circular with thickened continuous peristome. Umbilicus wide and deep.
Height, 0·53 mm.; diameter, 0·8 mm. (holotype).
Locality: New Golden Hind Station 41, 7 fathoms, Northport Anchorage, Chalky Sound (holotype and paratypes); Station 2, 19–24 fathoms, Narrows, Long Sound, Preservation Inlet.
This species, with its dominant axials and weak spiral keels, is aberrant, but seems congenerie with Cursonella variccoslata Powell from North Auckland.
Genus Lodderena Iredale, 1924.
Type (by original designation) Liotia minima Ten-Woods.
Lodderena nana pooki n.subsp. (Pl. 8, fig. 6.)
Close to L. nana Powell, described from Mangonui Heads, North Auckland, and considered the southern geographic representative race of that species. From L. nana nana, the Fiordland shell differs in its more depressed form, and in the greater suppression of the axial sculpture which (in the nominate race) forms crenulations at the suture and beading on the keels. A weak fourth spiral appears on the body whorl between the central and umbilical keels, and becomes stronger towards the aperture, but all four spirals are obsolete on the last quarter whorl where strong irregular axial ribs with linear interspaces are the only sculpture.
Height, 0·64; diameter, 0·8 mm. (holotype).
Locality: New Golden Hind Station 2, Narrows, Long Sound, Preservation Inlet, 19–24 fathoms.
Named after Mr. T. Pook, engineer of the New Golden Hind.
Study of this group is handicapped without anatomical information. In New Zealand, Suter listed, under Cocculina, four species, and Finlay provided two genera for their reception. Tectisumen Finlay, based on elypidellaeformis Suter, embraces also compressa Suter, several West Tasman forms and subcompressa and finlayi, both of Powell, from North Auckland. Notocrater Finlay, type C. craticulata Suter, was used by Finlay to cover Cocculina tasmanica (Pilsbry) and meridionalis Hedley, and Finlay lumped with the genotype Suter's New Zealand records of Pilsbry's species.
Notocrater craticulata is a very distinctive form with the surface decussated by slanting radials and concentric grooves; none of the Australian species seem congenerie, certainly not meridionalis and lasmanica which have a sculpture of weak radial ribs and coarse concentric threads. Cocculina puslulala Woodring (Miocene of Bowden, Jamaica) agrees in sculpture with craticulata and is perhaps closer than the separation in time and space would suggest. The affinities of tasmanica and meridionalis are with Cocculina leptalea Verrill and beannii Dall rather than with the genotypes of Notocrater and Cocculina, but erection of further genera is undesirable without comparative material or anatomical information.
Contrary to Finlay's opinion (Trans. N.Z. Inst., 57, p. 374, 1926) Suter was dealing with two distinct shells which he listed as C. craticulata, Suter and C. lasmanica Pils., and still another species is present in his collection, without specific identification, from Milford Sound. Shells of the latter species are not uncommon in the Fiordland bottom samples and seem to be related to tasmanica. To emphasise the generic distinction of craliculala (while leaving the field open for reallocation by a reviewer with better extralimital material), I describe this form under Cocculina, noting, however, that there is conchological discrepaney with the genotype, rathbuni Dall.
Genus Cocculina Dall, 1881.
Type (by subsequent designation, Dall, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Vol. 43, no. 6, p. 341, 1908): C. rathbuni, Dall, 1881.
Woodring (Carnegie Inst. Wash., Pub. 385, p. 448) quotes the type designations as of Suter (1913), ignoring Dall's prior indication cited above.
Cocculina cervae n.sp. (Text fig. 1, a–d.)
Shell small, fairly solid, conical, elevated, slightly asymmetrical; outline oval, profile convex in front, sometimes stepped, concave and steep behind; apex at posterior third or fourth, coiled backwards and downwards. Protoconch globular, smooth, inrolled, not deciduous in any specimen seen, turned slightly to the left. Sculpture of concentric grooves and ridges, somewhat irregular, representing growth lines which are gently convex on either side, but concave in front. Radial sculpture weak, not present on all specimens, consisting of faint narrow ridges, crossing the concentric sculpture. Muscle scar faint, high up, horseshoe shaped, open in front.
Length, 4; width, 2·7; height, 1·8 mm. (holotype).
Localities: New Golden Hind Bottom Station 75, east channel between Johns Islands, Breaksea Sound, 38 fathoms, muddy shell sand (holotype); Station 80, Dagg's Sound, 58 fathoms; Station 58, basin inside Oke Island, Dusky Sound, 29 fathoms; Station 39, Edwardson Sound, 58 fathoms; Station 83, opposite Groznoz Bay, Doubtful Sound, 38 fathoms, etc.
Differs from C. tasmanica (Pilsbry) and C. meridionalis Hedley in the persistent nucleus and more central apex resulting in a gentler anterior slope. Hedley (Mem. Aust. Mus., 4 (6), p. 331, 1903) does not mention radial sculpture in his description of meridionalis. The specific name is chosen to commemorate the New Golden Hind expedition to Fiordland.
Genus Zelaxitas Finlay, 1926.
The (by original designation) Laevilitoriua cystophora Finlay. Zelaxitas fiordlandica n.sp. (Pl. 8, fig. 8.)
Shell small, shining. Spire tall for genus, higher than aperture. Four convex whorls, with impressed sutures. Outer lip thin, some-what flanged below, passing into a thin callus over the columella, smeared thinly across the parietal wall. Colour pale buff with a purplish tinge on the spire. Sculpture of irregular growth striae coarser on the base where they enter the weak umbilical cleink.
Height, 2·9; diameter, 1·7 mm. (holotype).
Localities: New Golden Hind Station 80, Dagg's Sound, inside a rock bar, in 58 fathoms; entrance to George Sound, in 34 fathoms.
This is perhaps closest to Z. rissoaformis Powell, but is more pupate in form. It is not a geographic race of Powell's species which occurs with fiordlandica in George Sound.
Genus Nobolira Finlay, 1926.
Type (by original designation) Lironoba polyvincta Finlay. Nobolira hinemoa n.sp. (Pl. 8, fig. 2.)
A Nobolira similar to A. manawatawhia Powell (Recent, off Three Kings Islands) differing in consistently smaller size and in the narrowness and height of the raised keels. The spiral keels are similar in number to those of manawatawhia, i.e., there is a weaker subsutural
keel, two narrow subequal keels on spire whorls, but there are five basal spirals compared with four in the northern form. The shoulder, between the suture and the upper of the peripheral keels, is noticably flatter than in manawatawhia and this, combined with the higher keels, gives a stepped outline. Colour, purplish brown.
Height, 2·2 mm.; diameter, 1 mm. (holotype).
Locality: New Golden Hind Bottom Station 80, Dagg's Sound, in 58 fathoms (holotype and paratypes).
This is the first record of the genus from southern New Zealand.
Genus Fax Iredale, 1925.
Type (by original designation) Phos tabidus Hedley). Fax powelli n.sp. (Pl 7, figs. 10, 11.)
This is a representative, in south-western New Zealand, of the North Auckland Fax mirabilis Powell and may best be described by comparison with that species, and the Tasmanian tenuicostatus (Tenison-Woods). Suter's record of tenuicostatus from Milford Sound is based on the new species.
Shell of moderate size, fairly solid. Spire tall, just over half the height of the aperture in the type, a little higher in the paratype. Whorls 4 ½ to 5 ½, surmounted by a glossy dome-topped protoconch of 2 ½ whorls, strongly marked off from the first adult sculpture. Sculpture: about 17 axial folds on early spire whorls, increasing to 20 on the body whorl, beginning at the suture which undulates over them, running back across the slightly concave shoulder, strongest at the periphery, but continuous on to the base; the interspaces are somewhat wider than the folds. Spiral sculpture of incised striae defining threads which undulate with the suture on the shoulder and cross the axials. On the holotype, there are 8 spirals above the periphery and an equal number below on spire whorls, and on the body whorl, about 10 fine spirals on the shoulder, and about 16 from the periphery to the fasciole, the basal ones developing one or two secondary spirals between them. On the figured paratype the shoulder is similar, but the body-whorl spirals are weaker. Fasciole prominent, bounded by a narrow raised keel above, and sculptured by longitudinal striations crossed by growth lines. Aperture constricted above by the concave shoulder; outer lip unthickened, without ornament (notched owing to an injury in the paratype). Inner lip with moderate callus separated from parietal wall by a narrow chink. Colour purplish brown, without pattern.
From the unique type of mirabilis this species can be distinguished by its generally squatter shape, larger more erect protoconch, greater number of axial folds more persistent on the base, stronger basal spiral cords, and darker colour without pattern. The Tasmanian tenuicostatus is still more erect, has finer spiral sculpture and a spotted colour pattern.
I have pleasure in naming this species after Mr. A. W. B. Powell, Auckland War Memorial Museum, who described the first New Zealand species of Fax and whose interest has substantially contributed to this paper.
Height, 15 5; diameter, 8mm. (holotype).
Height, 17; diameter, 8·7 mm. (paratype).
Localities: New Golden Hind Station 80, Dagg's Sound, inside a rock bar, in 58 fathoms (holotype); Station 23, head of Long Sound, Preservation Inlet, in 11 fathoms (figured paratype).
Genus Liratilia Finlay, 1926.
Type (by original designation) Daphnella conquisita Suter. Liratilia conquisita nestoris n.subsp. (Pl. 8, fig. 10.)
Close to the genotype, L. conquisita (Suter), a northern New Zealand species, differing in the relative strength of the spiral cords. On spire whorls there are three strong, spiral cords giving a tricarinate profile, a much weaker spiral on the steeply sloping shoulder, and a very weak spiral immediately above the suture, barely recognisable until the ante-penultimate. On the body whorl, the shoulder cord remains weak, but the sutural cord has become strong, and is followed, on the base, by six spaced cords, which merge into finer cords upon the fasciole. (Topotypes of conquisita have five almost equally strong cords on spire whorls, the lowest well above the suture, and a sixth appearing at the suture.) Interspaces over twice width of cords and sculptured by fine axial lamellae. On the body whorl the spirals are faintly nodular. Colour light buff, with indistinct radial bands of darker tint.
Height, 6·5; diameter, 2 6mm. (holotype).
Locality New Golden Hind Station 47, between Parrot Island and Five Fingers Peninsula, Dusky Sound, in 42 fathoms.
Genus Baryspira Fischer, 1883.
Type Ancillaria australis Sowerby.
Baryspira southlandica n.sp. (Pl. 8, fig. 9.)
There are few records of Baryspira from southern New Zealand, and this form cannot be reconciled with described species. The closest ally is B. crystallina Brookes, from Russell, North Auckland, but the present shell is smaller, squatter, with a blunter protoconch, a relatively wider anterior notch, and with a different disposition of callus. Further, crystallina is always white in colour, whereas southlandica is pinkish buff, except for the protoconch, sutural callus bands, fasciole and pillar, which are white. As in crystallina, there are two narrow incised spiral grooves on the upper base, followed by a lower, wider groove from the anterior notch, bounded above and below by low, raised cords of the fasciole. Pillar separated from the fasciole by a shallower excavation than in crystallina and sculptured by 4 shallow oblique grooves. Callus lightly smeared over middle of inner lip, running upwards and somewhat backwards to the suture above; in crystallina of comparable size the callus margin, concave anteriorly, runs forwards to the suture above. Young australis of the same size as southlandica differ considerably in shape, have a shallower notch, and the callus is. convex anteriorly, strongly retracted to the suture; older specimens, (much larger) develop a concave callus margin, as do mature depressa of smaller size
Height, 6 3; diameter, 3 8mm. (holotype).
Localities: Entrance to George Sound, in 34 fathoms (holotype); New Golden Hind Station 54, entrance to Cormorant Cove, Dusky Sound, in 14 fathoms.
Genus Fenestrosyrinx Finlay, 1926.
Type (by original designation) Turris nexilis bicarinatus Suter. Fenestrosyrinx nexilis recens n.subsp. (Pl. 8, fig. 7.)
Since F. nexilis (Hutton) and its “subspecies” bicarinata (Suter) occur together in the Pliocene, they cannot be considered either “vertical” (time) or “horizontal” (geographic) races of the same species. The Recent representative of nexilis here described also lives alongside allies of bicarinata without any integradation, and it seems certain that the two lineages have been independent since the Pliocene and deserve specific rank. The Recent form of nexilis can, however, be considered a “vertical” subspecies.
From the Pliocene nominate form, recens differs in lacking fine spiral lirae on the shoulder, and the fine spiral usually present between the peripheral and sutural cords on the body whorl of nexilis; otherwise similar.
Height, 4·2; diameter, 2·2 mm. (holotype).
Localities: New Golden Hind Station 52, boat passage, east of Pigeon Island, Dusky Sound, in 22 fathoms (holotype); Station 55. one mile north-east of Whidbey Point, Dusky Sound, in 31 fathoms; Station 39, Edwardson Sound, entrance to Northport, in 58 fathoms.
Genus Stilla Finlay, 1926.
Type (by original designation) Mangilia flexicostata Suter. Stilla fiordlandica n.sp. (Pl. 8, fig. 11.)
Closest to paucicostata Powell. Differs in having a flatter shoulder, 15 (not 13) axial ribs on the body whorl, and persisting on to the base, and in the spiral cords, which are five in number, the highest (faint) on the periphery, the fourth proceeding from the suture, and the lowest high on the base. From flexicostata Suter, the present species differs in shape, fewness of ribs and in its spiral sculpture.
Height, 1 8; diameter, 1 0 mm. (holotype).
Locality: New Golden Hind Station 2, Narrows, Long Sound, Preservation Inlet, 19–24 fathoms (holotype); Station 80, Dagg's Sound, behind rock bar, in 58 fathoms (paratype).
The clathrate sculpture approaches Nepotilla, but in that genus spiral keels dominate over the axials.
Genus Austrodiaphana Pilsbry.
1803, Man. Conch., 15, p. 267.
Type (by original designation) Aplustrum brazieri Angas.
Recent, New South Wales.
Austrodiaphana colei n.sp. Text Fig. 1 e.
Shell small, thin, opaque, squat, globose. Spire depressed, protoconch (damaged in type) barely rising above shoulder of body whorl. Whorls, 3 ½ strongly shouldered; suture deeply channelled. Body whorl nearly as high as shell, flatly shouldered above, gently
convex from shoulder to base. Aperture high, narrow above, expanded below. Outer lip thin, slightly inflexed behind. Columella short, somewhat thickened, truncate below, separated from base by deep, wide, crescentic umbilicus. Sculpture: somewhat irregular growth lines, crossing fainter spiral lirae, defining obscure spiral zones of alternating light and darker pigmentation. Colour, pale buff, darker within the aperture, where, in certain lights, the colour banding is more conspicuous than on the exterior. There is no epidermis on the available specimens.
Height, 4; diameter, 2·2mm. (holotype).
Localities: New Golden Hind Station 54, opposite the entrance to Cormorant Cove, Dusky Sound, in 14 fathoms (holotype); Station 80, Dagg's Sound, inside a rock bar, in 58 fathoms (paratype).
This adds a family and genus to the New Zealand fauna; Mr. A. W. B. Powell tells me that he has further undescribed New Zealand species. From the Australian and Tasmanian genotype (of which only figures and descriptions have been seen), colei differs in its squatter shape, lacking concavity of outline below the shoulder, and in its less regular axial sculpture. The species is dedicated to Captain A. Cole, master of the New Golden Hind.