The Bryophytes of Stewart Island.—Part I.
[Read before the Botanical Section of the Sixth Science Congress of the Royal Society of New Zealand. May 23, 1947; issued separately February, 1949.]
Stewart Island, 42 miles in greatest length and 26 miles in greatest width, with an area of approximately 640 square miles, is the third largest island forming the mainland of New Zealand. Apart from the township of Oban and its neighbourhood, Stewart Island is uninhabited. Roads, save in the Oban area, are non-existent, and most distant places are difficult of access save by fishing boats, and these are not licensed to carry passengers. Nevertheless, through the investigations of D. Petrie, G. M. Thomson, T. Kirk, L. Cockayne and others, the vascular flora is fairly well known; but apart from the Pteridophyta, the cryptogamic flora has remained very largely a sealed book. Forty years ago, Cockayne, in his Report on a Botanical Survey of Stewart Island referred to “the extreme wealth of mosses and liverworts,” and to the existence on the island of “more than a hundred bryophytes conspicuous through their abundance or size”; yet a century after Dr. Lyall's pioneer collecting, the cryptogamic flora remained very largely an untouched field for botanical research.
The present paper is presented as a contribution towards making known the species-content and ecology of the bryophytes and is the result of work carried out by the writer during the past three summers in the northern half of the island, i.e., the area north of Table Hill on the central plateau. The writer had previously examined the area round Port Pegasus in the south, but only general notes on the bryophytes were taken on that occasion.
No suggestion is made that the area dealt with has been thoroughly examined. In this difficult branch of field botany, a lifetime would scarcely suffice to accomplish the task, but about 200 mosses and liverworts are here recorded for the first time as being indigenous to Stewart Island, and some account is given of their habitat groupings. It is hoped as opportunity offers to continue the research.
The Climate of Stewart Island.
In his Report on the Botany of Stewart Island, Dr. L. Cockayne discusses the climate of Stewart Island and its influence on the vegetation, hence briefest mention is here necessary.
The climate of the north and east is on the whole milder, sunnier, and less windy than that of the west, centre, and south, where it is of subantarctic type with frequent gales, cloudy skies, and heavy rainfall doubtless reaching 150 in. per annum on occasions,
though no statistics are available. Summer temperatures rarely exceed 75° Fah., while in winter, frosts, even on the central tableland, probably exceed 15° only on rare occasions.
In the area covered by the present investigation, frosts are rare save at the higher altitudes, and snow seldom falls save on Mount Anglem and on the Thomson Range. The rainfall near Oban seldom exceeds 70 in. per annum and is frequently much less, but the number of rainy days is considerable (average = 227 3 per annum) and drought is unknown. Winds, though fairly constant, are rarely of gale force save at high levels. Mists shroud the mountain tops very frequently and often for days at a time. The shade intensity in the forest interior is very considerable even on sunny days.
The mildness of the climate of the north and east is reflected in the sub-tropical “rimu-kamahi” rain-forest with its wealth of lianes, tree-ferns, foliaceous lichens, and bryophytes. This is in sharp contrast to the “yellow pine” forests, manuka belts, and extensive moorlands that characterize the centre, south, and west, where ferns are fewer, epiphytic cryptogams more conspicuous, and hepatics more numerous than mosses, though both tend to form large, spongy cushions both on the ground and on the stems and trunks of shrubs and trees.
The soils of Stewart Island are of two main types, the first a heavy clay derived from the underlying granitic rock, and the second a peat developed on the moorlands and river flats. In general, the forests occupy the clay soils, though yellow pine thrives on the swampy soils with a peaty veneer. On the whole, the soils are of rather poor quality.
History of Bryological Research on Stewart Island.
On April 17, 1850, H.M.S. Archeron, a paddle-sloop of eight guns in command of Captain John L. Stokes, in the course of a nautical survey of the New Zealand coastline, anchored at Port William on the north coast of Stewart Island. During its stay there of ten days, Dr. David Lyall, the senior doctor on board, made the first collection of plants indigenous to Stewart Island, including a small number of bryophytes. In the following five weeks and during January of 1851, the Acheron visited Port Adventure, Lords River, Port Pegasus, Mason Bay, Ulva, and Glory Cove in Paterson Inlet; but, though it is known that Dr. Lyall went ashore at Port Adventure “in search of new birds, plants, shells, and seaweeds,” all plants gathered are either reported to have come from Port William or merely from Stewart's Island. These plant collections were forwarded to Kew for identification, description, and record.
In his Flora Novae Zelandiae and later in the Handbook of the New Zealand Flora, Hooker recorded 15 mosses and 16 hepatics specifically, and 26 mosses and 7 hepatics by inference as indigenous to Stewart Island, which he variously terms Stewart's Island or Southern Island; but, strangely, Port William is erroneously referred by him to the Middle Island—better known to-day as South Island.
Between 1882 and 1892 Thomas Kirk paid four visits to Stewart Island, mainly to study the vascular flora, but incidentally he collected several of the mosses. In the early nineties, two keen students of New Zealand mosses each paid a couple of visits to the island in order to study and collect the mosses. These were Robert Brown, of Christchurch, and William Bell, of Dunedin; but the only published records of their discoveries were Brown's description of 15 supposedly new species, and references by Beckett, Brotherus, Dixon, and Malta to a combined total of about a dozen mosses collected by Bell. The only really new species obtained by Brown was Trematodon mackayi, while the new genus Bellia, named in Bell's honour, was created for the reception of Bellia nervosa, first gathered near Oban in Stewart Island.
In 1907 and in 1908, Dr. L. Cockayne in the course of a vegetation survey of Stewart Island forwarded for determination to W. F. Brotherus and F. Stephani respectively a small collection of 34 mosses and 35 hepatics. The identifications appear in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 42, pp. 320–324, with a note that “this list must be looked upon as merely a small contribution towards the knowledge of these interesting plants.” Amendments to the identifications are recorded by me in this paper.
Both in his published Report (1909) and in the Vegetation of New Zealand (1928), Cockayne makes frequent references to the bryophytes of Stewart Island and records many valuable ecological observations concerning them, but when all previous records are combined, the known bryophytic flora of Stewart Island comprised 76 mosses and 63 hepatics. Indeed, those specifically recorded total 50 and 56 respectively. As a result of the writer's investigations the number now known has been raised to: Mosses 182, Hepatics 136.
The writer has visited Stewart Island on numerous occasions and has traversed its surface from Mount Anglem in the north to the Frazer Peaks and Port Pegasus in the south, but attention has been centred in the bryophytes only during the past three summers. The difficulty of gaining access to many parts, particularly in the south and west, has already been alluded to, and the present research has in consequence had to be restricted to the area north of Table Hill. All identifications of the hepatics have either been made by Mrs. E. A. Hodgson, and all moss identifications have been made or verified by Mr. G. O. K. Sainsbury. Field notes are my own, for the accuracy of which I alone am responsible.
Some General Observations on the Bryophytes of Stewart Island.
The climatic conditions are such that from sea-level to approximately 1,500 ft. altitude the surface of Stewart Island is clothed with dense forest or scrub, with the exception of the river valleys of the Freshwater and Rakiahua Rivers, the Mason Bay Flats in the west, and the Toi-toi Flats in the south-east. The open tops of the mountains are either rocky or covered with moorland. Throughout this area mosses and hepatics are prolific and frequently physiognomic, especially in the south of the island, where conspicuous moss and liverwort cushions of large size frequently cover the
ground or encircle the stems and trunks of trees. Similar cushions are conspicuous in the upper forest zone and in the manuka belts.
The presence on the island of thousands of deer over a period of many years has resulted in great changes in the forest interior; for whereas it was formerly impossible to see more than a few yards ahead owing to the density of fern and shrub and lianes, it is to-day possible in the same areas to see a hundred yards or more. Asplenium bulbiferum, Leptopteris superba, and other ferns are to-day rare in localities where formerly they were common or even dominant, and seedlings on the forest floor are rarely numerous. Nevertheless, it is difficult as yet to detect any marked or probable changes in the bryophyte flora of the areas visited. Though more than a third of New Zealand's indigenous mosses have now been detected in Stewart Island, the writer is convinced that the total will ultimately be found to be considerably higher. A considerable increase in the hepatic flora may also be expected when the southern portion of the island is investigated.
The progressive increase in rainfall and decrease in the annual hours of sunshine from the north-east to the south and west is reflected in a decrease in the fern flora and in a progressive increase in the hepatic content of the bryophytic flora as well as by an increasing tendency for both mosses and hepatics as well as phanerogams to adopt the cushion form. Whereas in the Half Moon Bay area the trees do not carry a conspicuous epiphytic flora or at most a thin cover of filmy-ferns, mosses, hepatics, and crustose lichens, in much of the Port Pegasus area, every tree and shrub is heavily clothed with cushions of moss or hepatic and with conspicuous foliose lichens. How far the species-content differs in the two areas remains to be determined, but it can be stated that some species do become increasingly common or scarce as progress is made from north to south.
Cockayne, referring to the moss and liverwort cushions, named but two, viz., Dicranoloma billardieri and Plagiochila gigantea (or P. ramosissima?). However, the cushion-forming habit is adopted by many species under the climatic stimulus of strong winds, dull skies, brief hours of sunshine, and heavy rainfall. Thus near the summit of Pryse Peak, on the south side of Paterson Inlet, the following plants formed individual or composite cushions of large size:
Mosses: Dicranoloma billardieri, D. plurisetum, D. robustum (uncommon), and Ptychomnion aciculare.
Hepatics: Bazzania involuta, Bazzania sp., Acromastigum anisostomum, Chiloscyphus billardieri, C. beckettianus (?), C. decipiens, Lophocolea australis, Plagiochila gigantea, P. ramosissima, P. lyallii, Riccardia sp., Schistochila glaucescens, S. pinnatifolia.
On these cushions which cover the forest floor, the roots and lower portions of the trees, and fallen logs and tree-ferns, seedlings of most of the surrounding trees and shrubs take root and develop. Usnea and the drooping elfin mosses (Weymouthia cochlearifolium var. billardieri and W. mollis) which form such an arresting feature of subalpine forests on the mainland and, indeed, of many lowland
forests also, are nowhere conspicuous in the areas examined, though both are usually present. The presence near the summit of Table Hill in soil pockets on the rocks of Dendroligotrichum dendroides, Plagiochila ramosissima, and Holomitrium perichaetiale which normally are forest-frequenting species is noteworthy, as here there is no forest or scrub. The paucity of sunshine and low light intensity in this fog-invested area is doubtless a factor leading to this result. Macromitrium longirostré occurs both on maritime and subalpine rocks.
Certain mosses believed rare on the mainland are surprisingly common on Stewart Island. Thus Macromitrium caducipilum and Isopterygium limatum are two of the commonest epiphytes. Both I have recently found to be not uncommon in forests near Bluff and Invercargill, but elsewhere in New Zealand they are met with very infrequently. Tetraphidopsis pusilla is an endemic moss which I found much more commonly on Stewart Island than in any other area save near Stratford in the North Island. On coastal banks Eriopus apiculatus was frequently noted by me, yet elsewhere in New Zealand it is of rare occurrence save possibly on the Otago coastline. Blindia tenuifolia, once deemed rare on the mainland, is quite abundant on all mountains investigated in Stewart Island (e.g., Mount Anglem, Thomson Range, Table Hill, Mount Rakiahua).
On the other hand, certain mosses described by Hooker as “common throughout the islands” (e.g., Echinodium hispidum and Distichophyllum microcarpum) have not been seen at all by me in the areas visited and can scarcely be considered common.
Cockayne has pointed out that Tmesipteris tannensis, normally an epiphyte, frequently grows on the ground in Stewart Island. This observation applies equally to such mosses as Holomitrium perichaetiale, Isopterygium limatum, Rhizogonium novae-hollandiae, Stereodon chrysogaster, and even to Hymenodon piliferus, once noted on the detritus at the base of a tree-fern, and Weymouthia cochlearifolia twice observed on the rocky banks of forest streams. The moss Schlotheimia campbelliana hitherto known only from the Campbell Islands grows plentifully on Stewart Island.
Sphagnae are abundant on the moors, in manuka thickets, in wet spots in the forest, on swampy areas, and even on sand-dunes near Mason Bay, and comprise four main species and a variable collection of forms belonging to the cuspidata group, which Mr. Sainsbury recommends be listed as Sphagnum cuspidatum until this perplexing genus undergoes modern revision. Several species of Campylopus (C. clavatus, C. bicolor, C. introflexus, C. appressifolius) are the most frequent associates.
(a) Rocky bed of forest streams. Mosses normally submerged or growing in places where they must frequently be submerged are not numerous. To the first category belong Thamnium pandum and Fissidens rigidulus, both abundant, and Blindiopsis immersa twice noted and in both instances in fast-flowing streams. At Staircase Falls, at the head of Glory Cove in Paterson Inlet, this moss covers eight or nine square yards of flat rock at the foot of the fall, while at the
Mountain Hut on Table Hill it grows in small tufts in the stream close to the hut, where it was discovered by Miss Sheila Traill, a member of the party. Bryophytes on the rocky face of the Staircase Falls and subject to continual or to frequent immersion were Jamiesoniella sonderi, Lepidozia spinosissima, Jungermannia rotata, and a species of Riccardia as yet undetermined. Others in the spray zone were Rhizogonium mnioides, Lepidozia sp. nov., L. tenax, and Plagiochila fasciculata, and some Breutelia pendula. Plagiochila gigantea commonly grows on the rocky bed of the stream in positions where the base of the plant is normally submerged.
In many places the moss Sematophyllum tenuirostre occupies the flat tops of rocks liable to frequent immersion but normally above the water and in places receiving direct sunlight.
On rocks emergent from the water, but submerged in flood periods, the following mosses are common and widespread—Camptochaete gracilis, Eriopus cristatus, Pterygophyllum quadrifarium, Breutelia pendula, Hypnodendron arcuatum, Thuidium laeviusculum, Cyathophorum bulbosum and its variety minus. This is a common station also for the following hepatics—Lophocolea planiuscula, Megaceros giganteus, Monoclea forsteri, Plagiochila gigantea, P. stephensoniana, P. lyallii, and P. ramosissima.
Rocks in the stream-bed liable to rare immersion only have as a rule a selection of the following in addition to those enumerated above: Stereodon cupressiforme and its var. filiforme, Distichophyllum pulchellum, D. microphyllum, Eriodon cylindrotheca, Eurhynchium austrinum, Eriopus apiculatus, Dicranoloma billardieri, D. plurisetum, Acrocladium auriculatum, Hypopterygium setigerum, H. novaeseelandiae, Mniodendron comosum, Rhacopilum strumiferum, Rhizogonium mnioides, and Sciadocladus menziesii.
Hepatics include all those enumerated above, with the following as frequent additions—Chiloscyphus billardieri, Hymenophytum phyllanthus, H. leptodon, and H. flabellatum, Lepidozia tenax and several other species, Lepidolaena taylori, Riccardia eriocaula, Schistochila glaucescens, S. appendiculata, S. lehmanniana, Trichocolea lanata, T. tomentella, and Tylimanthus saccatus. The species of Hymenophytum were noted much more frequently in the areas of lowest rainfall and greatest duration of sunshine.
(b) Banks of forest streams. There are few of the above species which do not also grow on the banks of forest streams, but Eriopus cristatus abounds only in shady places, Pterygophyllum quadrifarium and Hypnodendron arcuatum are more common on banks than on stones, and the tiny but rare Fissidens dealbatus is unusually common in several restricted areas (e.g., Port William). Hymenophytum leptopodum is noted here more commonly than elsewhere, and Isotachis montana in areas exposed to bright light. Isotachis gigantea is common by subalpine streams on Table Hill.
(c) Forest floor. Normally the forest floor is populated by a cryptogamic carpet of filmy ferns, mosses, liverworts and lichens forming the lowest layer, tufted ferns like Blechnum discolor or
Leptopteris superba growing here and there through it, and a few creeping herbs growing amongst it (i.e., Enargea parviflora, Nertera depressa, Uncinia sp., etc.). The usual lichens are species of Nephroma and Sticta, and Sphaerophorus tener; and the filmy-ferns are as a rule Hymenophyllum demissum and H. bivalve. Of the liverworts the most conspicuous are the various species of Schistochila with their fronds of whitish- or yellowish-green, the darker-leaved Plagiochilas, and extensive mats of Chiloscyphus billardieri; whilst everywhere are to be seen extensive mats of Dicranoloma billardieri and Mniodendron comosum. Of the numerous other species that may be sought on the forest floor, Sphagnum antarcticum, Dicranoloma dicarpum, D. plurisetum are the only local mosses that are almost restricted to this substratum. The Sphagnum, with Hypnodendron arcuatum and Hypopterygium novae-seelandiae, frequent spots where water tends to lie after rain, while Acanthocladium extenuatum, Arocladium auriculatum, Dicranoloma integrifolium, D. pungentella and Thuidium furfurosum are frequenters of the drier forest margin or well-lighted places. Eurhynchium praelongum occurs at Half-moon Bay.
Other very common species are Dicranoloma menziesii and its variety rigidum with every possible intermediate form (doubtless hybrids), Leucobryum candidum, Leptotheca gaudichaudii, Lembophyllum clandestinum, Rhizogonium bifarium, and Orthodontium sulcatum, the last three in particular being very partial to humic soils, though more commonly noted elsewhere on logs or trees. Cyathophorum bulbosum, Thuidium furfurosum, T. laeviusculum, Stereodon cupressiforme, Rhacopilum strumiferum, and Hypopterygium novae-seelandiae are more commonly observed on stones and roots than on the actual earthen floor of the forest.
In the dampest stations the usual hepatics are various species of Schistochila (S. glaucescens and S. appendiculata are the commonest species in northern Stewart Island), Trichocolea lanata and T. tomentella, Tylimanthus saccatus, Riccardia pinguis (?), Chiloscyphus billardieri, C. decipiens, and a species of Bazzania. In somewhat drier stations some of the following hepatics are sure to be present: Bazzania adnexa, B. novae-hollandiae, Megaceros giganteus, Mastigobryum mooreanum, Lepidozia patentissima, L. concinna, L. pendulina, Hymenophytum phyllanthus, H. flabellata, and occasionally Chandonanthus squarrosus. The tendency for many of the above to develop a cushion form under wetter and duller conditions has already been referred to.
(d) Logs, prostrate tree-ferns, and tree stumps. The number of mosses or hepatics restricted to a single substratum in Stewart Island is not great; but, nevertheless, there are very many species both of hepatics and mosses which are not found at all or at most infrequently on logs or tree-stumps. The usual log-frequenting species will be found amongst the following: Lembophyllum clandestinum, Rhizogonium bifarium, R. distichum, R. novae-hollandiae, Rhynchostegium tenuifolium, Eurhynchium muriculatum, Sematophyllum amoenum, S. leucocytus, Tortella knightii, Rhacopilum strumiferum, Bryum truncorum, and Pterygophyllum dentatum. Others equally common on logs and on the ground include Cyathophorum bulbosum
and its variety minus, Dicranoloma menziesii, D. billardieri, D. platycaulon, Mniodendron comosum, Leptotheca gaudichaudii, Orthodontium sulcatum, Sciadocladus menziesii, Thuidium laeviusculum, Eriopus cristatus, and Ptychomnion aciculare. Occasional species include Stereodon cupressiforme, Hypopterygium concinnum, Weymouthia cochlearifolia and even Fissidens asplenioides.
Log-dwelling hepatics are very numerous, and some of the following are almost certain to be observed in any forest area: Riccardia marginata, R. aequitexta, R. cochleata, R. pinguis, R. eriocaulis, Acromastigum colensoanum, Bazzania adnexa, B. involuta, B. tayloriana, Plagiochila lyallii, P. conjugata, Hymenophytum phyllanthus, H. leptodon, H. flabellatum, Lepidozia bisetula, L. praenitens, L. tetradactyla, Lembidium tenax, Chiloscyphus billardieri, C. bidentatus, Lophocolea novae-zelandiae, Megaceros gigantea, Schistochila glaucescens, S. balfouriana, Tylimanthus saccatus, Porella amoena, Trichocolea lanata, and T. tomentella. Lepidozia albula is very common on logs in subalpine forest on Table Hill.
(e) Tree-ferns. The caudices of Hemitelia smithii and of Dicksonia squarrosa have their own special epiphytes, but in addition many other plants find frequent lodgment on this substratum. Here alone we find the ferns Trichomanes venosum or Hymenophyllum ferrugineum, or the moss Hymenodon piliferus. Here too is the most usual station for Rhizogonium pennatum and in Stewart Island for Schistochila ciliata, and S. unguicularis among the bryophytes, for Hymenophyllum rarum among the filmy-ferns, for Lycopodium billardieri among lycopods, and for Tmesipteris tannensis. Other epiphytes commonly listed by me were Dicranoloma menziesii and var. rigidum, Hypopterygium concinnum, Rhizogonium novae-hollandiae and the following hepaticae: Plagiochila lyallii, P. arbuscula, Hymenophytum phyllanthus, Metzgeria hamata, Lophocolea planiuscula, Riccardia alterniloba, and less commonly Schistochila nobilis (unusual station), S. balfouriana, and Lophocolea trialata.
(f) Bark of forest trees. A few mosses, like species of Ulota, are rarely found save on twigs and thin branches; others like Trachyloma planifolia or Hypopterygium concinnum are found most commonly on the lower portion of vertical lianes or thin-stemmed trees and shrubs, while Camptochaete arbuscula, Dicranoloma menziesii, Dicranum trichopodum, Leucobryum candidum, or Thuidium furfurosum when growing as epiphytes are usually restricted to the lower portion of the trunks of the larger trees. At a higher level we find such mosses as the various species of Macromitrium. Schlotheimia campbelliana, Cladomnion ericoides, Cyrtopus setosus, Weymouthia spp., Stereodon chrysogaster, Orthorrhynchium elegans, Isopterygium limatum, and Dicnemon calycinum, a moss which elsewhere in New Zealand is commonest on the upper limbs of forest trees. At corresponding levels on lianes and also on the sloping branches of Aristotelia serrata, Carpodetus serratus, Schefflera digitata, and other small trees from five to ten feet from the ground we may observe Calyptopogon mnioides, Neckera hymenodonta, Cryphaea tenella, Tetraphidopsis pusilla, and Bellia nervosa.
On branches rather than on the main trunk, we find Eurhynchium muriculatum, Rhynchostegium tenuifolium, Thuidium furfurosun, Lembophyllum clandestinum, and Ptychomnion aciculare. On the forest margin at the Rakiahua River flats, growing on the limbs of Plagianthus betulinus, we find Holomitrium perichaetiale, Zygodon intermedius, Z. hookeri, Orthotrichum tasmanicum, Cryphaea dilatata and Calyptopogon mnioides. Only on tree trunks exposed to direct sunlight will Leptostomum macrocarpum be found; Isopterygium limatum is found most frequently on rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum) and Cyrtopus setosus, associated very commonly with Orthor-rhynchium elegans, on miro (Podocarpus ferrugineus). Of the Orthotrichaceae, Macromitrium caducipilum is apparently the commonest epiphyte, with M. erosulum and M. gracile var. retusum next in abundance. Epiphytic hepatics are less numerous in the northern half of Stewart Island than are mosses, a position that is reversed in the south. In well-lighted stations on the forest margin or on the upper limbs of forest trees Frullanias abound, whereas within the forest the usual hepatics were species of Plagiochila (P. arbuscula commonest, P. lyallii, P. conjugata, and more rarely P. fasciculata) and of Lepidozia (L. taylori, L. concinna, L. laevifolia, L. pendulina, L. tetradactyla, etc.
Among the numerous other epiphytic hepatics may be found quite commonly Chiloscyphus billardieri, C. echinellus, C. menziesii, C. normalis, Lophocolea trialata, L. subporosa ?, L. heterophylloides, Lepicolea scolopendra, Porella amoena, and at the higher levels Acro-mastigum anisostomum.
(B). Rocks in the Open.
(a) Lowland Rocks. Mosses practically restricted to this sub-stratum are few in number in Stewart Island — Rhacomitrium crispulum and its variety rupestre (not observed by me), Grimmia trichophylla, and Zygodon menziesii—but many others not so restricted occur. Of these, Sematophyllum tenuirostre is almost limited to rocks emergent from the water in a stream-bed and in good light. Barbula australasiae is a plant of rocky banks and stone walls, while Campylopus introflexus, C. clavatus, or C. appressifolius are amongst the commonest rupestral mosses. Breutelia pendula is abundant on perpetually moist rocks, and Polytrichum juniperinum and Poly trichadelphus magellanicus abound on distintegrating rock on the sides of banks and cuttings. In dry stations one finds Ceratodon purpureus and Funaria hygrometrica and on damp, somewhat shaded rock faces Fissidens asplenioides and Catagonium politum, often with the hepatic Metzgeria hamata. Maritime rocks are the optimum station for Macromitrium longirostre. Hepatics are rare on lowland rocks exposed to full sunlight save near running water from which species of Riccardia and Ghioscyphus with others are rarely absent.
(b) Subalpine rocks. Rocks exposed at altitudes above the upper forest margin have a much more numerous list of associated bryophytes, of which 50% are hepatics, a reflex of the prevailing moistness
of the atmosphere and freedom from drought. The following is a list of bryophytes collected on and near the summit of Mount Anglem (3,200ft.).
Mosses: Andreaea acutifolia, Breutelia elongata, B. pendula, Acrocladium auriculatum, Camptochaete gracilis, Campylopus clavatus, C. introflexus, Dicranoloma billardieri, D. robustum var. setosum, D. integrifolium, Holomitrium perichaetiale, Rhacocarpus australis, Rhacomitrium lanuginosum var. pruinosum, Stereodon cupressiforme, Thuidium furfurosum.
Hepatics: Chandonanthus squarrosus, Chiloscyphus menziesii, Goebeliella urnigera, Gymnomitrium stygium, Herberta alpina, Jamiesoniella colorata, J. sonderi, Isotachis montana, Lepicolea scolo-pendra, Lepidolaena clavigera, Plagiochila circinalis, P. conjugata, P. sp., Radula uvifera, Riccardia sp.
On Table Hill, the subalpine rocks have a similar flora save that Andreaea acuminata replaces A. acutifolia, while Camptochaete gracilis and Thuidium furfurosum were not observed. On the other hand, the following, not seen on Mount Anglem, were gathered: Dicranoloma grossialare, Sematophyllum tenuirostre, and Dendro-ligotrichum dendroides, this last in rock crevices near the summit and far removed from any forest cover. With it grew Plagiochila ramosissima, a hepatic also normally growing in forest. On wet rocks emergent from bog Isotachis montana and I. gigantea were taken, the latter also in Sphagnum bog and on rocks margining a subalpine stream.
(C) Flat Ground in the Open.
Well-drained land sown in exotic grasses occupies a very small area in Stewart Island, but the following mosses were observed to have invaded it: Acrocladium auriculatum, Brachythecium rutabulum, Dicranoloma billardieri, Polytrichum juniperinum, Stereodon cupressiforme, and Thuidium furfurosum. In wetter spots Breutelia pendula, Sphagnum cymbifolium, and S. cuspidata are often present. On recently burnt areas Funaria hygrometrica and Ceratodon purpureus and, less frequently, Bryum truncorum, B. caespiticium, Marchantia tabularis (?) occur. Marchantia foliacea was observed only in roadside culverts.
(D) Banks of Clay or Sand.
The rapid weathering of freshly exposed granitic rock in roadside cuttings or on maritime banks produces a clay which is soon peopled with seedling forest trees, ferns, lichens, and bryophytes. Of the mosses, much the most characteristic is Polytrichadelphus magellanicus, which here, as on the mainland, is almost invariably associated with one or more species of Campylopus—in. this case C. clavatus as a rule. Two other common mainland associates, viz. Pogonatum subulatum and Polytrichum juniperinum, are rather rare in Stewart Island. Ditrichum flexifolium and less frequently D. punctulatum are two clay-bank mosses found most commonly in recesses in the
bank, or on the underside of projecting ledges. Where the bank is peaty, Orthodontium sulcatum is more common than I have seen it elsewhere in New Zealand; where it is kept perpetually moist by seepage, Breutelia pendula, Hypopterygium novae-seelandiae, Philonotis tenuis, or less frequently Webera tasmanica may be expected. Damp banks, especially those with a southern aspect or not exposed greatly to direct sunshine, may have a complete cover of hepatics and be tinged either green or more commonly red. Two common associations leading to this result are Jungermannia inundata and Cephaloziella. sp. (e.g. near Golden Bay wharf) and Isotachis montana and Balantiopsis diplophyllum (frequent near Oban).
Other hepatics occurring in this station include Jamesoniella sonderi, Metzgeria hamata, Chiloscyphus echinellus, and even in damp places Monoclea forsteri or Marchantia, cephaloscypha ?, but many others not catalogued might be added.
Sandy banks near the seashore have quite a distinct florula from the clay banks, hepatics being few, and mosses usually from the following list: Eriopus apiculatus (common), Weisia viridula, Barbula australasiae, Tortella calycina, Brachythecium rutabulum, Thuidium furfurosum, Polytrichum juniperinum, Ceratodon purpureus, or Acrocladium auriculatum. Cockayne records Rhacomitrium lanuginosum var. pruinosum from the sand-dunes near Mason Bay. Bryum caespiticium occurs on sand, but flat soil rather than sandy banks. Mr. Cedric Smith has recently obtained Pottia heimii on a sandy bank on Bravo Island in Paterson's Inlet.
Mosses are numerous as individuals rather than in number of species in the areas examined. The most extensive swamps are those bordering the Freshwater and Rakiahua Rivers and those of the Mason Bay and Toi-toi Flats, but these often merge into bog. Indeed, the distinction between swamp and bog in Stewart Island is frequently very small. The usual mosses of swampy areas are species of Sphagnum (S. cuspidatum, S. cymbifolium, and S. magellanicum being perhaps the commonest), Polytrichum commune, Drepanocladus fluitans, Breutelia pendula, and Webera spp. Cockayne records Lepidozia capilligera and Isotachis intortifolia as two hepatics of the swamp, and it was on a swampy soil near Mason Bay where Robt. Brown discovered Trematodon mackayi, not since observed by other collectors or students. Species of Campylopus and Tayloria belong to bog rather than swamp when found on wet land.
The areas examined comprised the summit bogs of Mt. Anglem, Table Hill, and Mt. Rakiahua (visited in 1928 when interest was centred more in the phanerogamic flora). All three have a similar florula, both phanerogamic and cryptogamic. The mosses listed by me on the summit moorland of Mt. Anglem, comprised the following:— Sphagnum cuspidatum (in a wide sense), S. novo-zelandicum, Breutelia elongata, B. pendula, Blindia tenuifolia, Dicranoloma robustum
var. pungens, D. robustum var. setosum, D. integrifolium, Rhacocarpus australis, Rhacomitrium lanuginosum var. pruinosum, Polytrichum alpinum, Campylopus clavatus, C. introflexus, and Acrocldium auriculatum.
Associated hepatics were—Jamesoniella colorata, J. sonderi, Gymnomitrium stygium, Lepidolaena clavigera, Chiloscyphus menziesii, and Cuspidatula monodon, all of which grow also on sub-alpine rocks. Lichens were not uncommon and included Cladonia aggregata, C. fimbriaria, and C. retipora, the last in small amount. Sphaerophora tener was abundant, but other lichens have not yet been determined.
Table Hill bogs have much Sphagnum, in small patches only as a rule, and including S. antarcticum, S. novo-zelandicum, S. magellanicum, and a variety of forms grouped by Mr. Sainsbury under S. cuspidatum pending a much-needed revision of this genus. One patch of Sphagnum has built up what appears to be a very local and restricted area of “high moor,” which locally is known as the Swan's Nest. In the centre of this mound Blindia tenuifolia was remarkably luxuriant, with stems close on 1 ft. long. Dicranoloma integrifolium and Holomitrium perichaetiale, here associated with it, were equally luxuriant, as was the hepatic well-named Isotachis gigantea. Dicranoloma pungentella and D. billardieri are locally plentiful, Bryum laevigatum occurs, Campylopus clavatus is abundant, and C. introflexus, also common, has the terminal arista scarcely bent. C. bicolor, usually very dark in colour, is not very common, and C. kirkii was not observed, but the relations of these two mosses require critical study.
Rhacocarpus australis and Rhacomitrium lanuginosum var. pruinosum are everywhere common at the higher levels. Breutelia elongata was less common than on Mt. Anglem. The presence of Holomitrium perichaetiale in Sphagnum bog both on Mt. Anglem and on Table Hill and its remarkable luxuriance were notable in a moss more usually epiphytic. A beautiful plush-green Campylopus was abundant on Table Hill from 1,500 to 1,600 feet altitude, which may be a form of C. clavatus.
Notes On Individual Species.
1. Andreaea acutifolia. Mr. Sainsbury points out that if this determination is correct, the plants are exceedingly robust.
2. Blindia tenuifolia. Hitherto this moss has been regarded as comparatively rare in New Zealand, but on the mountains of Stewart Island it is very common (Mt. Anglem, Table Hill, Rakiahua, Thomson Range, etc.). On Table Hill it is exceptionally tall and robust, but Mr. Sainsbury reports similarly robust plants from Sulphur Springs, on Mt. Ruapehu.
3. Blindiopsis immersa. This aquatic moss has been found previously only twice, once at Arthur's Pass and once in the West Otago Sounds. The writer discovered it at Staircase Falls and also collected it on Table Hill, where it was detected by Miss Sheila Traill. The
presence of capsules in good condition enabled Mr. Sainsbury to confirm the generic status of the moss and the gymnostomous character of the capsules. It grows in stations where it must be almost perpetually submerged.
4. Isopterygium limatum. Hitherto regarded as a rare South Island moss, this proves to be one of the commonest epiphytes in Stewart Island. The writer has it from Arthur's Pass, from Woodside Creek in Marlborough, from Dunedin, from Invercargill, and from Bluff, where it grows on rocks and on rimu. It commonly grows as semi-detached brackets or cushions, and once was rooted in soil at the base of a rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum). It fruits copiously.
5. Macromitrium caducipilum. This moss has a distribution similar to that of Isopterygium limatum, being abundant on Stewart Island, at Bluff and Invercargill. Simpson and Thomson gathered it near Milton, and I have it from Dunedin, north of which its occurrence seems to be rare. I have gathered it at Titahi Bay near Wellington on coastal rocks.
6. Neckera brownii. This species was found on a single tree near the whaling station in Paterson Inlet, but it occurs plentifully in the Waihopai Scenic Reserve at Invercargill. I have it also from Otago Peninsula. Banks Peninsula and two North Island stations complete the list of its known occurrances.
7. Sciadocladus menziesii. So luxuriantly does this moss grow that at Glory Cove plants were gathered with as many as eight successive whorls of innovations. Whether these are produced annually is uncertain but probable. Not more than four whorls were noted on the related moss Mniodendron comosum.
8. Weisia viridula. Referring to this moss under the name W. controversa, Robt. Brown said, “It is very doubtful if it has a habitat in the South or Stewart Island.” It has, however, now been observed in Westland, in Canterbury, in Southland, and in Stewart Island.
9. Plagiochila ansata. A hepatic, so identified from Port William by Hooker, is suspected by Mrs. Hodgson (1944, p. 291) of being Jamesoniella colorata. The fact that this latter species alone of the two was gathered by me at Port William supports this view.
10. Lepidozia patentissima. Hepatics collected by me matching that identified by Stephani in Cockayne's collection are said by Mrs. Hodgson to differ from Taylor's type and to belong to an undescribed species.
11. Daltonia novae-zelandiae is a rather rare moss in New Zealand. In Stewart Island it is epiphytic on the deciduous bark of Fuchsia excorticata. Mr. Sainsbury considers it possibly conspecific with D. angustifolia Dz. and Mb.
12. Schlotheimia campbelliana. This moss previously believed to be confined to Campbell Island is common on Stewart Island, where aparently it replaces S. brownii of the main islands.
Revised Determinations of Recorded Species.
[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]
|Author.||Citation.||Previous Determination.||Revised Determination.|
|Beckett, T. Naylor||Trans, N.Z. Inst., vol. xxvi, 281||Dicnemon obsoletinerve||Dicranoloma fasciatum|
|xxvii, 404.||Funaria sphaerocarpa||Funaria hygrometrica|
|xxxi, 427.||Dicranum polysetum||Dicranoloma dicarpum|
|xxv, 294.||Hypnum kirkii||Sematophyllum contiguum|
|Brown, Robt.||xxvii, 414.||Grimmia novae-zelandiae||Grimmia trichophylla|
|xxix, 460.||Dicranum colinum||Blindia tenuifolia|
|xxix, 467.||Campylopus cockaynei||Campylopus sp.|
|xxix, 467.||Campylopus traillii||Campylopus clavatus|
|xxix, 474.||Campylopus arcuatus||Campylopus clavatus|
|xxix, 467.||Campylopus arenarius||Campylopus clavatus|
|xxix, 468.||Campylopus walkeri||Campylopus appressifolius|
|xxix, 473–4||Campylopus elliptotheoium||Campylopus appressifolius|
|xxix, 468.||Campylopus bicolor||Campylopus kirkii|
|xxxi, 456.||Bryum binnsii||Webera tasmanica|
|xxxi, 457.||Pohlia tenuifolia||Webera tenuifolia|
|xxxi, 460.||Tortula walkeri||Tortella calycina|
|xxxii, 149.||Stirtonia mackayi||Trematodon mackayi|
|xxxi, 460.||Bryum traillii||Bryum laevigatum|
[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]
|Cockayne, L. (Determinations by W. F. Brotherus.)||Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xlii, 323.||Barbula calycina||Tortella calycina|
|324.||Tayloria octoblepharis||Tayloria purpurascens|
|323.||Lembophyllum cochlearifolium||Weymouthia cochlearifolia|
|323.||Campylopus torquatus||Campylopus clavatus|
|323.||Ditrichum affine||Ditrichum flexifolium|
|324.||Macromitrium sp.||Macromitrium gracile|
|324.||Lembophyllum vagum||Lembophyllum clandestinum|
|324.||Leucobryum brachyphyllum||Sematophyllum leucocytus|
|324.||Rhaphidostegium cerviculatum||Leucobryum candidum|
|324.||Rhaphidostegium leucocythos||Sematophyllum leucocytus|
|324.||Rhaphidostegium leptorrhynchium||Sematophyllum amoenum|
|324.||Lopidium pallens||Hypopterygium concinnum|
List of Bryophytes Indigenous to Stewart Island.
[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]
|List of Species.||Leg. D. Lyall
Det. W. Mitten
|Leg. L. Cockayne
Det. F. Stephani
Det. E. A. Hodgson
|Leg. W. Martin
Det. E. A. Hodgson
|1.||Acromastigum anisostomum (L. et L.) Evans||X|
|2.||Acromastigum colensoanum (Mitt.) Evans||X|
|3.||Anastrophyllum schismoidea (Mont.) Steph.||X||X|
|4.||Balantiopsis diplophyllum (Tayl.) Mitt.||X|
|5.||Balantiopsis tumida. Berg.||X|
|6.||Bazzania adnexa (L. et L.)||X|
|7.||" involuta (Lindb.)||X|
|8.||" monilinerve (Nees)||X|
|9.||" novae-zelandiae (Mitt.)||X|
|11.||" taylorianum (Mitt.)||X|
|13.||Cephaloziella exiliflora Tayl. (?)||X|
|14.||Chandonanthus squarrosus (Hook.) Mitt.||X||X||X|
|15.||Chilosoyphus beokettianus Steph. (?)||X|
|16.||" billardieri (Schwaegr.) Nees.||X||X|
|17.||" bidentatus Steph.||X|
|18.||" coalitus Nees.||X|
|19.||" cuneistipulus Steph.||X|
|20.||" cymbaliferus (Tayl.) H. F. and T.||X|
|21.||" decipiens Gottsche||X||X|
|22.||" echinellus (Ldbg. et G.) Mitt.||X||X|
|23.||" fissistipus (Tayl.) G. L. et N.||X|
|24.||" lawus Mitt.||X|
|25.||" lyallii Mitt.||X|
|26.||" menziesii Mitt.||X||X|
|27.||" normalis (Steph.) Hodgson||X|
|28.||" oblongifolius (Tayl.) G. L. et N.||X||X|
|29.||Cuspidatula monodon (Tayl.) Steph.||X||X||X|
|30.||Frullania congesta H. f. et T.||X|
|31.||" deplanata Mitt.||X|
|32.||" falciloba (Tayl.) Syn. Hep.||X||X|
|33.||" hampeana Nees||X|
|34.||" kirkii St. (?)||X|
|35.||" lyallii Mitt.||X|
|36.||" patula Mitt.||X|
|37.||" ptychantha Mont.||X|
|38.||" pycnantha H. f. and T.||X|
|39.||" rostrata H. f. and T.||X|
|40.||" spinifera H. f. and T.||X|
|41.||" squarrosula H. f. and T.||X|
|42.||Goebeliella cornigera (Mitt.)||X|
|43.||Gymnomitrium stygium H. f. et T.||X|
|44.||Herberta alpina Steph.||X|
|45.||Hymenophytum flabellatum (Mont.) Steph.||X||X|
|46.||" leptodon (H. f. et T.) Steph.||X|
|47.||" phyllanthus (Hook.) Steph.||X||X||X|
|48.||Isotachis gigantea Steph.||X|
|49.||" intortifolia H f. et T.||X|
|50.||" montana Col||X|
|51.||Jamesoniella colorata (Lehm.) Spruce||X||X|
|52.||" pseudo-occlusa Hodgs.||X|
|53.||" sonderi (G) Steph.||X||X|
|54.||Jamesoniella tasmanica (Tayl.) Steph.||X||X|
|55.||Jungermannia inundata H. f. et T.||X||X|
|56.||" rotata (T)||X|
|57.||Lembidium tenax (Ldbg.) Steph.||X|
|58.||Lepidolaena clavigera (Hook.) Dum.||X|
|59.||" magellanica (Lam.) Schffn.||X|
|60.||" palpebrifolia (Hook.) (?)||X|
|61.||" taylori (G.) Steph. (true species ?)||X||X|
|62.||" sp. nov.||X|
|63.||Lepidozia albula (Tayl.) Syn. Hep.||X|
|64.||" bisetula Herz.||X|
|65.||" capilligera Lindb.||X||X|
|66.||" centipes Tayl.||X|
|67.||" concinna Col.||X|
|68.||" hipperioides Syn. Hep.||X|
|69.||" laevifolia Tayl. (Syn. Hep.)||X|
|70.||" patentissima (Tayl.) Syn. Hep. (?)||X||X|
|71.||" praeniens L. et L.||X|
|73.||" spinosissima Mitt.||X|
|74.||" tenax Lindb.||X|
|75.||" tetradactyla (Tayl.) Syn. Hep.||X|
|77.||Lophocolea australis Mitt.||X|
|78.||" heterophylloides Nees (?)||X|
|79.||" leucophylla Tayl.||X|
|80.||" muricata Nees||X|
|81.||" novae-zelandiae (L. et L.) Nees||X|
|82.||" planiuscula H. f. and T.||X|
|83.||" subporosa Mitt. (?)||X|
|84.||" trialata G.||X|
|85.||Lepicolea scolopendra (Hook.)||X|
|86.||Marchantia oephaloscypha Steph.||X||X|
|87.||" foliacea Mitt.||X|
|88.||" tabularis Nees||X||X|
|89.||Mastigobryum mooreanum Steph.||X||X|
|90.||" novae-hollandiae Nees||X||X|
|91.||Metzgeria hamata Lindb.||X|
|92.||" furcata Nees||X|
|93.||Monoclea forsteri Hook.||X||X|
|94.||Plagiochila annotina (Menz.) Lindb.||X||X||X||X|
|95.||" ansata (Tayl.) H. f. and T. (?)||X|
|96.||" arbuscula (Brid.) L. et L.||X||X|
|97.||" ciroinalis (Lehm.) Lindenb.||X|
|98.||" conjugata (Hook.) Dum.||X||X|
|99.||" deltoidea Lindenb.||X||X|
|100.||" fasciculata Lindenb.||X|
|101.||" gigantea (Hook.) Dum.||X||X|
|102.||" gregaria (Tayl.) G. L. et N.||X||X||X|
|103.||" lyallii Mitt.||X||X||X|
|104.||" pleurota H. f. and T.||X||X|
|105.||" ramosissima (Hook.) Lindenb.||X||X||X|
|106.||" sinclarii Mitt.||X||X|
|107.||" stephensoniana Mitt.||X||X|
|109.||Porella amoena (Col.) Martin||X|
|110.||" stangeri (G.)||X|
|111.||Radula physoloba Mont.||X|
|112.||" sainsburiana Hodgs. and Allison||X|
|113.||" uvifera (Tayl.) G. L. et N.||X|
|114.||Riccardia alterniloba H. f. and T.||X|
|115.||" cochleata Mitt.||X|
|116.||" equitexta (Steph.) Martin||X||X|
|117.||" eriocaula (Hook.) Mitt.||X||X|
|118.||" marginata (Col.)||X||X|
|119.||" pinguis (Dum.)||X|
|121.||Schistochila appendiculata (Hook.) Dum.||X||X|
|122.||" balfouriana (Tayl.) Steph.||X||X|
|123.||" ciliata (Mitt.) Steph.||X||X||X|
|124.||" glaucescens (Hook.) Steph.||X||X||X|
|125.||" kirkiana Steph.||X|
|126.||Schistochila lehmanniana (Lind.) Steph.||X|
|127.||" nobilis (Hook.) Dum.||X||X||X|
|128.||" pinnatifolia (Hook.) Steph.||X||X||X|
|129.||" repleta (Tayl.) Steph.||X||X||X|
|130.||" unguicularis (Tayl.) Steph.||X||X|
|131.||Symphyogyna crassicosta Steph.||X||X|
|132.||" hymenophyllum Mont.||X|
|133.||" subsimplex Mitt.||X|
|134.||Trichocolea australis Nees.||X|
|135.||" lanata Nees.||X||X||X|
|136.||" tomentella Nees.||X||X||X|
|137.||Tylimanthus saccatus (Hook.) Mitt.||X||X||X|
Note.—Some of Dr. L. Cockayne's hepatics were probably collected in the southern part of Stewart Island.
|List of Species and Varieties.||Lyall||Beckett||Brown||Kirk, Bell, or Malta.||Cockayne||Dixon||Sainsbury||Martin|
|1.||Acanthocladium extenuatum (Brid.) Mitt.||X|
|2.||Acrocladium auriculatum (Mont.) Mitt.||X||X|
|3.||Andreaea acuminata Mitt.||X|
|4.||" acutifolia H. f. and W.||X|
|5.||" rupestris (Hedw.)||X|
|6.||Barbula australasiae (Hook. and Grev.) Brid.||X|
|7.||Bartramia papillata H. f. and W.||X|
|8.||Bellia nervosa (H. f. and W.) Broth.||X||X||X||X|
|9.||Blindia tenuifolia (H. f. and W.) Mitt.||X||X||X||X|
|10.||Blindiopsis immersa Bartr. et Dix.||X|
|11.||Brachythecium rutabulum B. and S.||X|
|12.||" salebrosum B. and S.||X|
|13.||Breutelia elongata (H. f. and W.) Mitt.||X|
|14.||" pendula (Hook.) Mitt.||X||X|
|15.||Bryum argenteum Hedw.||X|
|16.||" caespiticium Hedw.||X|
|17.||" chrysoneuron C. M.||X|
|18.||" curvicollum Mitt.||X|
|19.||" dichotomum Hedw.||X|
|20.||" laevigatum H. f. and W.||X||X||X|
|21.||" truncorum Brid.||X|
|22.||Calyptopogon mnioides (Schwaegr.) Broth.||X|
|23.||Camptochaete arbuscula (Hook.) Jaeg.||X||X|
|24.||" gracilis (H. f. and W.) Par.||X|
|25.||Campylium relaxum (H. f. and W.) Broth.||X|
|26.||Campylopus appressifolius Mitt.||X|
|27.||" bicolor (Hornsch.) Hook. f.||X||X||X|
|28.||" clavatus (R. Br.) H. f. and W.||X||X||X||X|
|29.||" introflexus (Hedw.) Mitt.||X||X||X|
|30.||" kirkii Mitt.||X||X||X|
|31.||Catagonium politum (H. f. and W.) Dus.||X|
|32.||Ceratodon purpureus Brid.||X||X|
|33.||Cladomnion ericoides (Hook.) H. f. and W.||X|
|34.||Cryphaea dilatata H. f. and W.||X|
|35.||" tenella (Schwagr.) Hornsch.||X|
|36.||Cyrtopus setosus (Hedw.) Hook. f.||X||X|
|37.||Cyathophorum bulbosum (Hedw.) C. M.||X||X||X|
|38.||" " var. minus H. f. and W.||X|
|39.||Dendroligotrichum dendroides (Hedw.) Broth.||X|
|40.||Dicnemon calycinum (Hook.) Schwaegr.||X|
|41.||Dicranella cardotii (R. Br. ter.) Dixon||X|
|42.||" jamesonii (Tayl.) Broth.||X|
|43.||Dicranoloma billardieri (Schwaegr.) Par.||X||X||X|
|44.||" cylindropyxis (C. M.) Dix.||X|
|45.||" dicarpum (Hornsch.) Par.||B||X|
|46.||" fasciatum (Hedw.) Par.||B|
|47.||" integerrimum (Broth. and Geh.) Par.||X||X|
|48.||" integrifolium Dix.||X|
|49.||" menziesii (H. f. and W.) Par.||X||K||X||X|
|50.||" " var. rigidum (H. f. and W.) Par.||X|
|51.||" platycaulon Dix.||X||X||X|
|52.||" plurisetum (C. M.) Dix.||X||X|
|53.||" pungentella (C. M.) Par.||X|
|54.||" robustum (H. f. and W.) Par.||X||X|
|55.||" " var. setosum (H. f. & W.) Sainsb.||X||X||X|
|56.||" " var. pungens (H. f. & W.) Sainsb.||X|
|57.||Dicranum trichopodum Mitt. apud Hook. f.||X|
|58.||Distichophyllum microcarpum (Hedw.) Mitt.||X|
|59.||" pulchellum (H. f. and W.) Mitt.||X||X|
|60.||" rotundifolium (H. f. and W.) Broth.||X||X|
|61.||Ditrichum flexifolium (Hook.) Hpe.||X||X|
|62.||" punctulatum Mitt.||X|
|63.||Drepanocladus fluitans (Hedw.) Warnst.||X|
|64.||Echinodium hispidum (H. f. and W.) Jaeg.||X||X|
|65.||Eriodon cylindrotheca (Dix.) Dix. et Sainsb.||X|
|66.||Eriopus apiculatus (H. f. and W.) Mitt.||X|
|67.||" cristatus (Hedw.) Jaeg.||X||K||X||X|
|68.||Eurhynchium austrinum (H. f. and W.) Jaeg.||X|
|69.||" muriculatum (H. f. and W.) Jaeg.||X|
|70.||Eurhynchium praelongum Hobk.||X|
|71.||Fissidens asplenioides (Swartz.) Hedw.||X|
|72.||" leptocladus C. M.||X|
|73.||" rigidulus H. f. and W.||X|
|74.||Funaria hygrometrica Hedw.||X||X||B||X|
|75.||Gigaspermum repens (Hook.) Lindb.||X|
|76.||Goniobryum subbasilare (Hook.) Lindb.||X|
|77.||Grimmia trichophylla Grev.||?||X|
|78.||Holomitrium perichaetiale (Hook.) Brid.||X|
|79.||Hymenodon piliferus H. f. and W.||X||X|
|80.||Hypnodendron arcuatum (Hedw.) Mitt.||X||X|
|81.||Hypopterygium concinnum (Hook.) Brid.||X||X|
|82.||" novae-seelandiae C. M.||X||X||X|
|83.||" setigerum (P. Beauv.) H. f. and W.||X||X|
|84.||Isopterygium limatum (H. f. and W.) Broth.||X||X|
|85.||Lembophyllum clandestinum (H. f. & W.) Lindb.||X||X||X|
|86.||Leptostomum inclinans R. Br.||X||X|
|87.||" macrocarpum (Hedw.) R. Br.||X||X|
|88.||Leucobryum candidum (Brid.) H. f. and W.||X||X||X|
|89.||Macromitrium caducipilum Lindb.||X|
|90.||" erosulum Mitt.||X|
|91.||" gracile (Hook.) Schwaegr.||X|
|92.||" " var. proboscideum Dix.||·||X|
|93.||" " var. retusum (H. f. & W.) Sainsb.||X|
|94.||" longipes (Hook.) Schwaegr.||X|
|95.||" longirostre (Hook.) Schwaegr.||X|
|96.||" prorepens (Hook.) Schwaegr.||X|
|97.||Mniodendron comosum (La Bill.) Lindb.||X||X||X|
|98.||Neckera brownii Dixon||X|
|99.||" hymenodonta C. M.||X||B||X|
|100.||Orthodontium sulcatum H. f. and W.||X||X|
|101.||Orthotrichum calvum H. f. and W.||X|
|102.||" tasmanicum H. f. and W.||X|
|103.||Orthorrhynchium elegans (H. f. & W.) Reichdt.||X|
|104.||Philonotis tenuis (Tayl.) Jaeg.||X|
|105.||Pogonatum subulatum (Menz.) Brid.||X|
|106.||Polytrichum alpinum Hedw.||X|
|107.||" commune Hedw.||X|
|108.||" juniperinum Willd.||X||X|
|109.||Polytrichadelphus magellanicus (Hedw.) Mitt.||X||X|
|110.||Pterygophyllum dentatum (H. f. and W.) Mitt.||X||X|
|111.||" quadrifarium (Hook.) Brid.||X||X|
|112.||Ptychomnion aciculare (Brid.) Mitt.||X||X||X|
|113.||Rhacocarpus australis (Hpe.) Brid.||X|
|114.||Rhacomitrium crispulum H. f. and W.||X||X|
|115.||" " var. rupestre (H. f. and W.) Dix.||X|
|116.||" lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid.||·|
|" " var. pruinosum (C. M.) H. f. & W.||X||X|
|117.||" ptychophyllum Mitt.||X|
|118.||Rhacopilum strumiferum C. M.||X||X|
|119.||Rhizogonium bifarium (Hook.) Schimp||X|
|120.||" distichum (Sw.) Brid.||X||X|
|121.||" mnioides (Hook.) Schimp.||X|
|122.||" novae-hollandiae Brid.||X||X|
|123.||" pennatum H. f. and W.||X·||X|
|124.||" " var. aristatum (Hpe.) Dix.||X||X|
|125.||Rhynchostegium laxatum (Mitt.) Par.||·||X|
|126.||Rhynchostegium tenuifolium (Hedw.) Jaeg.||X|
|127.||Schlotheimia campbelliana C. M.||X|
|128.||Sciadocladus menziesii (Hook.) Lindb.||X||X||X|
|129.||Seligeria diminuta (R. Br. ter.) Dix.|
|130.||Sematophyllum amoenum (Hedw.) Dix.||X||X||X||X|
|131.||" contiguum (H. f. and W.) Dix.||X||K||X|
|132.||" leucocytos (C. M.) Jaeg.||X||X|
|133.||" macrosporum Dix. et Sainsb.||X|
|134.||" tenuirostre (Hook.) Dix.||X|
|135.||Sphagnum antarcticum Mitt.||X|
|136.||" cuspidatum Ehrh.||X|
|137.||" cymbifolium Dill.||X|
|138.||" magellanicum Brid.||X|
|139.||" novo-zelandicum Mitt.||X|
|140.||Stereodon chrysogaster (C. M.) Mitt.||X||X|
|141.||" cupressiforme (Hedw.)||X||X|
|142.||" " var. filiformis Brid.||X|
|143.||Tayloria octoblepharis (Hook.) Mitt.||X||X|
|144.||" purpurascens (H. f. and W.) Broth.||X||X|
|145.||Tetraphidopsis pusilla (H. f. and W.) Dix.||X|
|146.||Thamnium pandum (H. f. and W.) Jaeg.||X||X|
|147.||Thuidium furfurosum (H. f. and W.) Jaeg.||X|
|148.||" laeviusculum (Mitt.) Jaeg.||X|
|149.||" sparsum (H. f. and W.) Jaeg.||X|
|150.||Tortella calycina (Schwaegr.) Dix.||X|
|151.||" knightii (Mitt.) Broth.||X|
|152.||Tortula flavinervis Dix.||X|
|153.||" muralis Hedw.||X|
|154.||Trachyloma planifolia (Hedw.) Brid.||X|
|155.||Trematodon mackayi (R. Br. ter.) Broth.||X||X||·|
|156.||" suberectus Mitt.||·*|
|157.||Ulota viridis Vent.||X|
|158.||Webera albicans Schp.||X||·|
|160.||" nutans (Hedw.) Schwaegr.||X||X|
|161.||" tasmanica (Broth.) C. M.||X||X||X|
|162.||" tenuifolia (H. f. and W.) Jaeg.||X||·|
|163.||Weisia viridula Hedw.||X|
|164.||Weymouthia cochlearifolia (Schwaegr.) Dix.||X||X||X|
|165.||" " var. billardieri (Hpe.) Dixon||X||X|
|166.||" mollis (Hedw.) Broth.||X||X|
|167.||Zygodon hookeri Hpe.||·|
|168.||" intermedius B. and S.||M||X|
|169.||" menziesii (Schwaegr.) W. Arn.||M||X|
|170.||" " var. angustifolius Malta.||X|
|171.||" minutus Hpe. and C. M.||X||B||·|
Note 1.—The following mosses from Stewart Island have been determined since the above list was compiled: Daltonia novae-zelandiae, Dicranella clathrata, Dicranoloma grossialare, Eurhynchium asperipes, Fissidens dealbatus, Hypopterygium filiculaeforme, Leptotheca guadichaudii, Macromitrium eucalyptorum, Philonotis australis, Plagiothecium denticulatum, Pottia heimii.
Note 2.—Mosses recorded inferentially by Hooker by “common throughout the islands” are credited to Stewart Island. Only one has not been verified by subsequent collectors, viz, Tayloria octoblepharis, Cockayne's plant so named by Brotherus being T. purpurescens.
[Footnote] * Dominion Museum.
I have once again to acknowledge the help and encouragement given me by Mr. G. O. K. Sainsbury, whose unrivalled knowledge of the New Zealand Moss Flora has been ungrudgingly placed at my disposal. All mosses have been submitted to him for determination or confirmation, and to his assistance much of the value of the paper is due. Mrs. E. A. Hodgson has rendered similar service with the hepatics and has unsparingly determined all species collected.
I desire also to acknowledge with gratitude the valuable assistance rendered by Mr. Roy Traill, who either arranged or provided transport to the more distant places visited, and from whose company and intimate knowledge of the tracks and forest flora I profited not a little.
Beckett, T. W. Naylor, 1892. Description of New Species of Musci. Trans. N.Z.I., xxv, 289–297.
—— 1893. On Four New Species of New Zealand Musci. Ibid., xxvi, 274–277.
" 1893. On Some Little-known New Zealand Mosses. Ibid., xxvi, 77–288.
" 1894. On New Zealand Mosses. Ibid., xxvii, 403–5.
Brown, Robt., 1895. Notes on New Zealand Mosses: Genus Grimmia. Ibid., xxviii, 409–421.
—— 1896. New Zealand Musci: Notes on Genus Dicranum. Ibid., xxix, 451–465.
—— 1896. Notes on New Zealand Musci and Description of New Species. Ibid., xxix, 465–477.
Cockayne, L., 1909. Report on a Botanical Survey of Stewart Island. Dept. of Lands, N.Z. Government, Wellington.
—— 1909. List of Lichens and Bryophytes collected in Stewart Island. Trans. N.Z.I., xlii, 320–324.
—— 1928. Vegetation of New Zealand, in Engler and Drude, Die Vegetation der Erde, 14. Second edition, Leipzig.
Dixon, H. N., 1913–28. Studies in the Bryology of New Zealand. Bulletin N.Z. Institute, No. 3, Parts 1–6.
Hodgson, E. Amy, 1942. A Review of the N.Z. Species of Schistochila. Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 71, 181–194.
—— 1944. A Review of the N.Z. Species of Chiloscyphus. Ibid., 73, 27–52.
—— 1944. A Review of the N.Z. Species of Plagiochila. Ibid., 73, 270–296.
—— 1946. New Zealand Hepaticae: the Family Jungermanniaceae. Ibid., 76, 68–86.
Howard, Basil, 1940. Rakiahua. A. H. and A. W. Reed, Dunedin and Wellington.
Hooker, J. D., 1853–5. Flora Novae-Zelandiae. London.
—— 1867. Handbook of the New Zealand Flora, Pt. 2. London.
Kirk, T., 1884. On the Flowering Plants of Stewart Island. Trans. N.Z.I., xvii, 213–228.
Malta, N., 1923. A Survey of the Australasian Species of Zygodon. Acta. Univers. Latv., vi, 281.
Martin, W., 1946. The Moss Flora of the Arthur Pass National Park. Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 76, Pt. 1, 37–57.
—— 1946. Geographic Range and Internal Distribution of the Mosses Indigenous to New Zealand. Ibid., 76, Pt. 2, 162–184.
Sainsbury, G. O. K., 1945. New and Critical Species of N.Z. Mosses. Ibid., 75, Pt. 2, 169–186.