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Volume 77, 1948-49
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Abstracts and Titles

Psychology Sub-Section

Trusteeship and Self Government in New Zealand Pacific Dependencies.
By Ernest Beaglehole, Victoria College.

This paper has been published in the Journal of the Polynesian Society.

The Organization of Scientific Research in the United States and Canada.

The paper gave an outline of the Research Establishments in both the United States and Canada, of the Federal Governments, Universities, Private Research Institutes and Industry. Reference was made to their establishment and organization and, in general terms, to their research programmes.

The Ainu People of Northern Japan.
By I. L. G. Sutherland, Canterbury College.

A visit recently paid to the Ainu people of Hokkaido, northern Japan, at the invitation of the American occupying authorities was described. Japanese university professors gave much assistance in making contacts in the Ainu villages. The object of the visit was to observe as much as possible of the present condition of the Ainu people. They are the aboriginal people of what is now Japan and their origin and racial affinities are still undetermined. Their physical make-up and their culture have aroused special interest among anthropologists.

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They once occupied the whole of what is now Japan, possessing a neolithic culture based on hunting and fishing. Through many centuries they were conquered, assimilated, and driven north by the ancestors of Japanese. They are now confined to Hokkaido, the Kuriles and the southern portion of Saghalin. At its best, the Japanese treatment of the Ainu appears to have been unsympathetic, at its worst brutal. Protective legislation passed in the Meiji era was not properly carried out by officials. The Ainu have progressively lost their land and their fishing sites. They have always been looked on and treated as inferior by the Japanese, with a few individual exceptions. Most of the Ainu culture has now disappeared, the bear ceremony being an important exception. Japanizing has been proceeding in Hokkaido for some seventy years and is now extensive. The Ainu language is now scarcely used. The present Ainu population is stated by the Ainus themselves to be 17,000. It is impossible to determine the percentage of pure Ainus in this population. Recent estimates range from three to twenty per cent. The majority possess a standard of living considerably below that of the average Japanese. They are farmers, farm labourers, fishermen, and casual workers. Housing is poor. Very few have education beyond the primary level; some have no education. Tubercular and venereal diseases are common, also trachoma.

Interesting information was obtained concerning the formation in 1946 of the Hokkaido Ainu Association, the purpose of which is to plan “elevation, development, welfare and regeneration of Ainu.” A translated copy of a petition presented to the Japanese government by the Association in 1946 contains much interesting material regarding the present state of the Ainu. The petition asks in the main for more and better land, more education and for medical services. The Ainu Association presents some interesting parallels with the Young Maori Party, though the condition of the Ainu has deteriorated much more. The Association is impressive evidence of the persistence of racial and group feelings and of the strong motives underlying nativistic movements. The reception of a non-Japanese visitor by the Ainu was most friendly.

The Importance of Social Studies in Our Secondary Schools.

A brief account of some of the reasons which make the inclusion of Social Studies in the curriculum desirable: of the change in attitude and the new methods demanded in the teaching of Social Studies: and of the benefits which, in the speaker's opinion and from her experience, can be derived from these studies.

Science for Living.

The lecturer discussed the re-orientation of science teaching in post-primary schools in the light of the far-reaching changes in our social fabric for which science is directly responsible. Films were used to illustrate science and our living environment; science for industry; science and the home.

A Psychologist's Experiences in Personnel Selection with the British Army.

1.

Selection for R.A.F. bomber and fighter crews at Cambridge University.

2.

Work with psychiatric and maladjusted persons in Sinai.

3.

Selection Board procedure with War Office Selection Boards for Officer Cadets—M.E.F., C.M.F., B.L.A.

4.

Other types of Boards-Regular Officer Commission and 194E (Adverse Reports), Indian Army.

5.

Personnel selection work in New Zealand Army.

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Psychoanalysis and Other Forms of Psychotherapy in New Zealand.

The resistance Psychoanalysis met with fifty years ago has greatly diminished: psychoanalytic training centres established in most countries. A three years' practical course enables the specialist, who is outside a certain group or school, but trained in the methods devised by Freud, Jung, Adler, Stekel, as well as in Schultz concentration-relaxation and hypnosis, to adapt the method to each individual case.

Basic Concepts in the Study of Personality.

There are certain basic factors in personality, or basic inevitabilities of being human, which are stable focus points about which conflict may develop, so making accommodation to changed circumstances difficult. The most outstanding are the need for security, beginning with the helplessness of the human infant; the separateness of each individual and the need for adequacy; appetites and needs related to bodily metabolism and functioning; sexual status, male or female; death and injury; and lastly, physiological characteristics. As a result of incompatible approach and avoidance reactions centering on one or several of these basic inevitabilities, conflict and tension may develop. Animal experiments in psychopathology give evidence of such a dynamic sequence of events as also applies to human beings. The outcome of conflict in the human individual varies widely. For some it is worked out in dreams, work or play. Play often become sublimation, which term is used when conflict finds some compromise or partial solution, not consciously sought, based on the use of ability or talent. So long as sublimation works, the individual does not become greatly incapacitated socially, even though somewhat restricted. Placing limits on social participation is another compromise solution to conflict, and one frequently found in sexual maladjustments. Finally, and most incapacitating, are the unadjustive reactions and symptoms with behaviour which ranges from passive withdrawal from the scene of conflict to active protest against it, and which is regressive, escapist and symbolic.

Labour Relations in Sweden.

Short historic outline: employers and workers organise on a national scale: conclusion of a general peace treaty (the Saltsjobaden Agreement). Functions of Labour Court and Labour Market Board. Discussion regarding industrial democracy leads to agreement on setting up of production committees.

The Will to Work: Some Reflections on the Psychology of Industrial Incentives.

Full employment and social security have largely removed the fear of unemployment and poverty, and have thrown upon industry the task of finding new incentives. The paper endeavoured to outline the psychological and social ramifications of the problem of industrial incentives.

The Dairy Products Works Council—An Experiment in Co-operative Management.

Reasons for the formation of the Council and the first constitution thereof. Fundamental principles; early difficulties and gradual growth; accounts and explanations by management—how detailed should these be? Methods of election; results gained; present problems; value and scope of Works Council.

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Training Within Industry for Supervisors.

A first-hand account of one method of “on the job” training as developed in the U.S.A. and England. Standardized programmes combine the best existing practices to meet training needs in varied work situations. The evolution and application of these programmes.

Language and Remembering.

A discussion of the importance of verbal symbolisation in relation to the remembering processes. The introspecting subject must translate processes into words and this involves distortion in most cases. With regard to unconscious mental processes, this translation is more involved—processes must be converted into mental terms and then verbalised for communication.

The Value of Statistics in Determining the Incidence of Juvenile Delinquency in New Zealand.
By J. Ferguson.

This paper appeared on pp. 62–5 of the New Zealand Science Review, vol. 6, 1948.

Speech Therapy Sub-Section.

Speech Therapy in New Zealand.

Speech therapy in New Zealand forms part of the education system. Clinics are attached to schools instead of hospitals as in Britain and America and are readily accepted by the children as part of their school life.

Until about 1920, cases of speech defects, stammering, cleft palate cases and returned service men in need of help, were treated at the Sumner School for the Deaf. In 1920 and subsequently Special Classes for Speech were established in Wellington, Auckland and Dunedin by Mr. J. Stevens, Principal of the Deaf School.

About 1932 or 1933 control of these classes was taken over by the Education Department and the present-day clinic took shape. Teachers were given special training for speech work as required at Dunedin and Christchurch. Since 1942 Christchurch has been the training centre for New Zealand. Clinics are now established from Whangarei to Invercargill and therapists are working full time at speech therapy.

Types of cases are grouped as follows: Delayed speech, stammerers, cleft palates, lisping, hard of hearing, nasal speech, spastic paralysis and aphasic cases. The age range is from pre-school to secondary-school children.

The therapist must be equipped to meet all emergencies and to give careful consideration to the needs of the speech-defective child, whose first requirements are happiness and reassurance. The child or adult who cannot make himself understood suffers acute anxiety and an intense feeling of frustration.

Method of treatment: Speech therapy implies treatment of the whole personality of the child or adult. This may include complete re-education of the speech, faculty and must also include social and personal adjustment—treatment of the person not the symptom.

Play methods for children are used where suitable so that corrective work is indirect, to guard against making the young child speech conscious and therefore over-anxious. Social activities, puppetry and painting for free expression can all be used to give emotional release and satisfaction, from the outset the therapist endeavours to give the speech-defective child a new outlook on life. Gradually he finds that daily doses of success and achievement are restoring his courage and confidence. Soon he is tackling with joy and interest difficulties which before he had found insurmountable.

Happiness, satisfaction, and security all combine to give him a better personality adjustment, helping him towards a new integration.

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Speech Therapy in Australia.

The first important step in establishing speech therapy in Australia was in 1931, when the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children in Sydney opened a Speech Clinic under the direction of Sir Robert Wade and Miss Elinor Wray. The growth of this clinic and the part it has played as a centre for the training of students has been one of the most important influences in the development of speech therapy in Australia.

In 1932 the Australian Council for Educational Research published Defects of Speech in School Children, by H. T. Parker, the result of an investigation carried out in Tasmanian State Schools and in Melbourne; in 1933 Mrs. T. Cherry conducted a Speech Clinic for children at the Legacy Club, for about eighteen months.

In 1934 the University of Adalaide nominated Miss Olive Abotomey for a free passage to Great Britain (awarded by the Australian and New Zealand Passenger Conference) to study phonetics and speech therapy; and in 1935 the Adelaide Children's Hospital appointed Mr. and Mrs. J. Anderson as honorary speech therapists.

In 1939 Miss Elinor Wray and a Medical Advisory Committee under the auspices of the New South Wales Hospitals Commission, inaugurated the first training course for speech therapists in Australia at the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, and in 1939 the Education Department of South Australia appointed Miss Olive Abotomey to organise a Speech Therapy Clinic in the Medical Branch of the Department.

The closing years of the war saw further advances. In 1944 an Australian Association of Speech Therapists was formed by Miss Wray and other speech therapists in New South Wales, to maintain a high professional standard. Its membership now includes speech therapists practising in four states. In 1945, in Victoria, the Provisional Council of Speech Therapy appointed Miss Margaret Badcock to organise a course of training and to supervise the Speech Therapy Clinic at the Melbourne Children's Hospital.

In South Australia in 1944 the British Medical Association invited the Speech Therapist of the Education Department to address a meeting at the Royal Adelaide Hospital on “Speech Therapy.” Two parliamentary inquiries were appointed, in Education in 1945, and in Medicine in 1946, and the Speech Therapist of the Education Department was called to give evidence relating to speech therapy in Australia.

In 1946 the Twenty-fifth Meeting of the Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science was held in Adelaide and a Speech Sciences Unit was formed by members of the University of Adelaide and the Education Department of South Australia. The programme of this unit represented the main scientific studies involved in the study of speech and its disorders. One of the most valuable results of this Speech Sciences Unit was the link between Australia and other countries, especially Great Britain and New Zealand.

In Australia the most important influences in the development of speech therapy have come from Great Britain, formerly through the British Society of Speech Therapists and, since its formation in 1944, through the College of Speech Therapists, which is the sole body responsible for the training and professional activities of speech therapists in Great Britain. Australians will recall with pride that Mr. Lionel Logue, C.V.O., F.C.S.T., formerly of Adelaide, was a foundation member of both these societies and that his work in speech therapy in London has been recognised by His Majesty the King.

In Australia there are at present six members of the College of Speech Therapists, and the development of speech therapy in at least three states has been directly due to the efforts of members of the College. The training courses, in Sydney and Melbourne, are based on the syllabus of the College and it is expected that all future developments will follow closely the pattern set by the College of Speech Therapists.

N.B.—Since this paper was written there have been the following new developments: In Perth, the formation of a Provisional Advisory Committee of

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Speech Therapy; the formation of the South Australian Council of Speech Science and Speech Therapy; the Perth meeting of the Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science, which included a programme of Speech Sciences (under Section F); the first Annual Conference of Senior Speech Therapists in Australia, and a move by the Australian Association of Speech Therapists to establish an Australian Council of Speech Therapy.

Speech Therapy in Relation to Congenital Defects of the Palate.

A dissertation upon the effects on speech produced by defects in the palate. Illustrated by cinematograph and speech records. Speech therapy of these conditions, optimum age and mode of treatment.

Medical Psychology and its Relationship to Mental Hygiene and to Speech Therapy.
By Dr. M. Bevan-Brown. Christchurch.

This paper is to be published, in enlarged form, by the Psychological Society as a pamphlet.

Defect of the Speech Function in Childhood.
By Dr. I. M. Allen.

This paper has already appeared in the Medical Journal.

Recent Developments in Speech Therapy in Great Britain and the U.S.A.

Speech therapy is a young science. In Britain the first clinic was opened at St. Thomas's Hospital in 1913. Other London hospitals soon followed suit, but the real stimulus to the expansion of the work came from the necessity of treating the speech casualties of the 1914–18 war. Teachers of elocution and voice production were the first speech therapists. Eventually two professional associations were formed—the Society of Speech Therapists and the Association of Speech Therapists. Students who had completed a course of training approved by these bodies were admitted to membership or associateship of the respective society. In 1943 these independent organizations amalgamated to form the College of Speech Therapists, which is now the sole controlling organization and examining body in Britain. A national standard of training and qualification for speech therapists has been instituted by the College. The course leading to the examination for the diploma of Licentiate of the College of Speech Therapists covers a period of three years. Persons holding this qualification may register as medical auxiliaries and in fact are required to do so before holding professional appointments.

The American Speech Correction Association performs a similar function in the U.S.A. to the College of Speech Therapists in Britain. There is one important difference. The licentiate diploma of the College of Speech Therapists is now the only recognized qualification in Britain, whereas in America each university grants its own degrees in speech correction. Certain minimum standards of training and qualification are, however, required for membership of the A.S.C.A., and as this is virtually the trade union of speech therapy in America, most practising speech therapists wish to belong to it. This ensures a certain uniformity in degree syllabuses. In most States an M.A. or Ph.D. in speech is considered an essential qualification for sole-charge or senior positions. The American training is thus longer and in general has a broader scope than the British.

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Therapists in both Britain and the U.S. may work in school clinics, hospital clinics or in private practice. Speech therapy for children follows the same lines overseas as in New Zealand and hence needs no description. Adult work, however, is almost unknown in this country. A feature of wartime and post-war work, in Britain especially, is the treatment of the enormous numbers of aphasias resulting from brain injuries. This comparatively new therapeutic technique has given most promising results. Treatment is based on the re-establishment of lost or impaired associations and much depends on the skill and ingenuity of the therapist and the perseverance of the patient.

Patients suffering from voice disorders form another major group among both civilians and servicemen. Among the latter, direct injuries to the larynx are common and among civilians causes vary from pathologies such as tuberculosis, cancer, vocal nodules and paralysis of the vocal cords resulting from lesions of the laryngeal nerves, to functional aphonias of psychological origin. One of the more spectacular types of vocal re-education is the development of oesophageal voice in laryngectomised patients. The crico-pharyngeus muscle of the oesophagus is trained to produce a vibration, thus acting as substitute for the vocal cords. Voice produced in this way is not entirely natural, but speech is easily intelligible and adequate for all practical purposes. (A recording of the speech of a laryngetomised patient who had mastered the technique of oesophageal voice was played at this point.) In the treatment of aphonias and dysphonias of psychological origin the best results are obtained by the collaboration of psychiatrist and speech therapist.

In Britain the treatment of stammering is based on the principles of relaxation and readjustment of the personality. In America treatment techniques vary considerably from state to state and many theories of causation are promulgated. In America as in Britain the most reliable authorities regard stammering as a psychoneurosis and treat it accordingly. It is generally admitted, however, that no theory of stammering may yet be regarded as the final word on this subject.

One of the latest developments in the work of speech therapy in Britain is the provision of residential treatment for selected children. No permanent residence of this kind was observed in America, but the same idea is embodied in the holiday camps for speech defective children which are organized by the speech-therapy departments of many universities during the long vacation. These camps give intensive treatment under residential conditions.

The Maori Language.

A plea for the inclusion of the Maori language in the school curriculum; the teaching of the language, or special aspects of it, in the Teachers' Training College and its significance: Maori in the universities; the Maori alphabet; pronunciation of Maori words; accent.