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Volume 77, 1948-49
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Abstracts and Titles.

Most of the papers given at the Seventh Annual Conference of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production have been mimeographed and those interested may obtain copies from the Secretary, P.O. Box 866, Wellington.

Memorial Address—Mr. A. H. Cockayne.
By E. Bruce Levy, Grasslands Division.

Pasture in Relation to Animal Production.
By C. P. McMeekan, Animal Research Station, Ruakura.

Some Aspects of Pasture Growth and Management.
By P. D. Sears, Grasslands Division.

The paper discussed pastures from the following aspects: (a) use of suitable species, (b) cyclic nature of pasture growth and soil fertility, (e) effects of animal grazing, and (d) adjustment of feed supply to animals' requirements. Data were presented from trials in progress at the Grasslands Division's stations.

Labour in Relation to Grassland Dairying.
By R. A. Candy, Ngarua.

Some Hazards of Grazing in New Zealand.
By J. F. Filmer, Animal Research Division.

Sheep Management Problems in Poverty Bay.
By S. McGuinness, Gisborne.

Hill Country Problems.
By P. W. Smallfield, Fields Division.

Fertiliser Pasture Considerations and Management in Relation to Fat Lamb Production.

Grazing trials of: (i) A simple ryegrass-white clover pasture under five manuring treatments; and (ii) Five different ryegrass-white clover pastures, including high-production pedigree strains uniformly top-dressed, have been carried out using ewes and lambs. The layout of the plots, each of one acre, was on the basis of randomised blocks, each treatment being replicated five times in the case of (i) and four times in the case of (ii). Grazing management aimed at keeping pastures young and tender at all times and at allowing experimental animals always to graze to full appetite. Over seven years marked differences in carrying capacity have been observed, but in so far as thrift and productivity of the sheep were concerned no differences could be measured. Sheep production has been of a high order.

The Future of Fertilisers.
By J. C. Andrews, Challenge Phosphate Company, Auckland.

Extension Services and the Farmer.
By C. W. Burnard, N.Z. Dairy Exporter.

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Plane of Nutrition in Relation to Reproductive Efficiency of Animals.
By L. R. Wallace, Animal Research Station, Ruakura.
Nutritive Status of New Zealand Pasture.
By R. J. Lancaster, Animal Research Station, Ruakura. This paper will appear in the N.Z. Journal of Science and Technology.
Soil Type in Relation to Production in the Whangarei County.
By W. M. Hamilton, S.I.R. Department.
Parasitism as a Factor in Pasture Farming.

The most important parasites in New Zealand livestock are the nematode worms infesting the stomach and intestines of herbivores. The manner in which the parasites bring about their harmful effects on the host is, in many cases, not known. The present knowledge and theories were summarised.

The ecology of free-living stages on the pasture were discussed in relation to the epidemiology of parasitic disease.

Control measures were outlined for New Zealand conditions, with emphasis on prevention by pasture-management procedures, such as pasture rotation and spelling, stock rotation, mixed grazing and the avoidance of overstocking and overcrowding.

Some animals require curative or prophylactic treatment, but many, in practice, receive unnecessary and wasteful treatment.

The role of good nutrition in maintaining, in the host, a state of resistance and tolerance was stressed.

Grazing Behaviour of Dairy Cows in New Zealand.

Six sets of monozygotic twin heifers (first-calvers) were observed for six 24-hour periods at monthly intervals through the main lactation season with following results:

The cows spent, on an average, 28% (range 26–32%) of their time grazing, 30% (range 24–35%) standing or walking not grazing, and 42% (range 39–45%) lying down. They walked on an average 3,073 yards (range 2,535–3,471 yards). Fifty-eight per cent. of the grazing took place between 7 a.m.–3 p.m., and 42% between 5 p.m. and 4.45 a.m.

Hot weather (maximum 77° F.) depressed somewhat the overall grazing time, but did not influence the ratio of day to night grazing.

Only 3% of all defecations and 5% of all urinations were voided in the milking-shed yard.

The “within set of twins” intra-class correlation was .9038 for grazing time, .1604 for the time of standing or walking not grazing, and .1886 for time spent lying down.

The correlation between the theoretical TDN requirement and grazing time of the 12 cows was .17.

Detailed observations were made on two sets of twins for one 24-hour period with following results:—

Average number of bites of grass per day, 23,500 with a rate of 51 per minute of effective grazing time. Average number of boluses, 358 with an average of 48 bites per bolus. The two sets of twins showed wide variations in these respects.