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Volume 79, 1951
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Proceedings
of
The Royal Society of New Zealand

Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council,
Held on 11th May
, 1949.

The Annual Meeting of the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand was held on Wednesday, 11th May, 1949, in the Council Room, Victoria University College, Wellington.

Roll Call. The following were present:

  • The President, Dr. R. A. Falla, in the chair.

  • Government Representatives: Dr. G. Archey, Mr. B. C. Aston, Dr. W. R. B. Oliver.

  • Representing Auckland Institute: Mr. A. T. Pycroft.

  • Representing Wellington Branch: Dr. L. Bastings, Dr. J. T. Salmon.

  • Representing Canterbury Branch: Professor R. S. Allan, Dr. O. H. Frankel.

  • Representing Otago Branch: Miss Marion Fyfe, Dr. C. M. Focken.

  • Representing Hawke's Bay Branch: Mr. J. D. H. Buchanan.

  • Representing Nelson Institute: Dr. D. Miller.

  • Representing Southland Branch: Mr. R. W. Willett.

  • Co-opted Member: Dr. J. Marwick.

  • The Hon. Treasurer, Mr. S. Cory Wright, also attended.

Apologies. His Excellency the Governor-General, who was in residence in Auckland, was unable to be present.

The Hon. Minister of Scientific and Industrial Research, Mr. T. H. McCombs, regretted being unable to attend.

The Vice-President, Mr. F. R. Callaghan, was chairman of another meeting and regretted being unable to attend.

Dr. L. H. Briggs had not yet returned from overseas.

New Members. The President extended a warm welcome to Miss Marion Fyfe, Otago, the first woman to hold a seat on the Council; to Professor R. S. Allan, Canterbury; and to Dr. L. Bastings, Wellington.

The President also expressed the Council's regret at the resignation of Professor L. R. Richardson, Wellington, and of Professor G. J. Williams, Otago. He referred to the stimulus that Professor Richardson had given to meetings of the Council and to the Standing Committee.

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Deceased Members. The President referred to the great loss the Society had sustained through the death of Professor Henry Borrer Kirk and of Sir Thomas Easterfield, who had been past Presidents of the Society and for many years had been members of the Council. He referred also to the death of Mr. Edgar F. Stead, who had represented the Canterbury Branch on the Council.

The Council rose in tribute to their memory.

Deceased Honorary Members. The President announced the death of Dr. Otto Wilckens, formerly of the University of Bonn, and of Dr. L. Diels, of Berlin-Dahlem. Although the death of these two Honorary Members had occurred in 1945 and 1944 respectively, the news had only recently come to hand. More recently, June, 1948, Mr. E. C. Andrews, formerly Government Geologist of New South Wales and Secretary and one-time President of the Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science, had died.

A motion of sympathy with relatives of these three Honorary Members was recorded.

Congratulations. The congratulations of the Council were extended to Dr. H. H. Allan on his receiving the order of C.B.E. in the King's Birthday Honours and to Mr. B. C. Aston for a similar honour announced in the New Year's Honours List.

Presidential Remarks. Dr. Falla stated that his remarks from the chair would be brief. The Presidential Address under the new procedure would be given that night before the Wellington Branch of the Society.

The chief work of the past year had been the holding of the Seventh Pacific Science Congress in February. This had entailed an immense amount of organizing work, carried out with conspicuous success by Dr. Gilbert Archey, Secretary-General of the Congress and Chairman of the Auckland Committee, and by Professor Allan, Chairman of the Christchurch Committee, and by the Organizing Committee and the Hon. Treasurer, Mr. S. Cory Wright.

Thanks were due also to the Chairman and Secretaries of the Divisions, to the Host-guides, and to all who had participated in the work before and during the Congress. The acknowledged fact that the Congress was an outstanding success was perhaps highest reward for this work.

Hector Award. On the recommendation of the Hector Award Committee the Hector Medal and Prize was unanimously awarded to Professor R. A. Robinson, late of Auckland University College and now of Raffles College, Singapore, for his researches in physical chemistry.

Hector Prize. It was resolved, on the motion of Mr. Pycroft, that the amount of the Hector Prize be £50.

Fellowship Royal Society of N.Z. Dr. J. Marwick, convener of the Fellowship Selection Committee, reported that the Committee recommended Dr. R. O. Page, Mr. G. Simpson, Dr. J. T. Salmon, and Professor F. G. Soper for election to the Fellowship.

On the motion of Dr. Marwick, seconded by Dr. Archey, the Committee's recommendation was adopted.

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Committees. On the motion of Mr. Buchanan, seconded by Dr. Oliver, a hearty vote of thanks was accorded to the Hector Award Committee and to the Fellowship Selection Committee for their work.

Fellowship, 1950. On the motion of Dr. Frankel, seconded by Dr. Marwick, it was resolved that four Fellows be elected in 1950.

Honorary Members. It was resolved that three Honorary Members be elected to fill the vacancies caused by the deaths of Mr. E. C. Andrews, Dr. L. Diels, and Dr. O. Wilckens.

Report of the Standing Committee

Annual Report for the Year ended 31st March, 1949

Meetings. Six meetings of the Standing Committee were held during the year, the attendance being as follows: The President, Dr. R. A. Falla, Wellington, 6; the Vice-President, Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Wellington, 2; Mr. B. C. Aston, Wellington, 5; Dr. G. Archey, Auckland, 1; Dr. L. Bastings, Wellington, 1; Dr. J. Marwick, Wellington, 6; Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, Wellington and Christchurch, 2; Professor L. R. Richardson, Wellington, 4; Dr. J. T. Salmon, Wellington, 6; Mr. R. W. Willett, Wellington, 5; the Hon. Editor, Dr. J. Henderson, 3; and the Hon. Treasurer, Mr. S. Cory Wright, 3.

Obituary. Professor H. B. Kirk: At the Standing Committee meeting held on the 24th August, the President referred to the death of Professor H. B. Kirk, a past President of the Society and for many years a member of the Council. The following resolution was carried:

“That the Standing Committee of the Royal Society of New Zealand expresses its sense of loss sustained by the death of Professor Harry Borrer Kirk, and wishes to place on record its deep appreciation of his devoted service as a biologist of distinction, a profound thinker and sympathetic teacher, and a life-long contributor to and supporter of the Society. It records with special gratitude the unfailing kindliness and courtesy for which Professor Kirk will best be remembered by those who knew him.”

In response to a request, Professor W. P. Evans wrote the obituary notice and tribute to Professor Kirk's long life of service in the cause of science. This notice was published in Volume 77, Part 2.

Sir Thomas Easterfield: At the Standing Committee on the 29th March, the President referred to the recent death of Sir Thomas Easterfield, also a past President of the Society and a member of the Council. He referred to the services Sir Thomas had rendered to the Society and expressed the Society's sense of loss sustained.

Mr. Edgar F. Stead: At the same meeting the President paid a tribute to Mr. Edgar Stead, whose death had occurred in February. At the last Annual Meeting Mr. Stead had been elected a Fellow of the Society in recognition of his work and researches on birds, animals, and plant life.

Congratulations. The warm congratulations of the Society were extended to Dr. H. H. Allan, whose name was included in the King's Birthday Honours, and to Mr. B. C. Aston, who received the C.B.E. in the New Year Honours.

Council. In November, Professor L. R. Richardson intimated that as he had been elected President of the Wellington Branch he found it necessary to resign as its representative on the Council of the Royal Society. Dr. Falla expressed the Council's sincere regret that Professor Richardson found that he could not continue office on the Council. He referred to the great help and to the stimulus Professor Richardson had given during his term on the Council. Other members voiced their regret and a hearty vote of thanks was accorded to Professor Richardson.

Publications. Unfortunately, it is not possible to report any marked improvement during the year in the issue of the Society's Transactions. Only two quarterly parts have so far been issued, making the situation rather worse than it was at this time last year. Volume 77, Parts 1 and 2, have been distributed and the next Part, which it was decided to issue as Part 3–4, is in page proof. Normally, however, Volume 78, Part 4, would be almost ready, with Volume 79,

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Part 1, in the press. The Proceedings for 1948 are being printed, and sufficient copies will be held for inclusion in Volume 78, Part 1.

The position cannot be said to be satisfactory, but there are indications that there may be some improvement in the near future.

It is recognised that the printing of the 1947 N.Z. Science Congress volume has been one of the factors in the slow appearance of the quarterly parts, and with the completion of this volume as Part 5 of Volume 77, the printers will be able to concentrate on bringing the publication of the Transactions up to schedule.

Primarily, the delay has been caused by the almost universal conditions governing the printing trade, but authors of papers in some cases have aggravated the situation by dilatory return of proofs to the Editor. This was stressed by the Manager of the printing department of the Otago Daily Times Company, and the Standing Committee decided that the time had come to strengthen the Editor's hands and rule that unless galley proofs are returned within three weeks the paper will be held over until a later Part.

A rise in the cost of paper took effect from Part 1 of Volume 77.

Honorary Editor. Dr. Henderson had intimated to the last Annual Meeting that he found it necessary to resign the office of Honorary Editor and the matter of finding a successor to Dr. Henderson was left in the hands of the Standing Committee. In October the Otago Branch wrote suggesting that Miss Marion Fyfe would be prepared to act, and the Standing Committee welcomed the suggestion and appointed Miss Fyfe to succeed Dr. Henderson and to assume office with Volume 78.

The President, Dr. Falla, referred in appreciative terms to the great work done by Dr. Henderson during his term as Honorary Editor. His work had been heavier by the preparation of the Science Congress volume and more than usual worry had attached to the office because of the delay in printing during his term.

Dr. Henderson stated that he was prepared to see Volume 77 through the press. He considered that it would be a decided advantage to have the Editor resident in the same town as the printers.

The question of an honorarium for the office of Hon. Editor was referred to the Annual Meeting for consideration.

Library. The Library has proved invaluable to a steadily growing band of research staff and honours students and to members of the Society, staffs of scientific institutions and departments, while the demand from libraries under the inter-loan system has been exceptionally heavy throughout the year. It was necessary to obtain an additional cabinet for current incoming exchanges, and this has slightly eased the congestion.

The National Library School again sent one of its students to catalogue the periodicals as a project in the course of training. The whole of the Russian section was covered and a start made on the Spanish periodicals. It is hoped that next year other foreign exchanges will be continued by this means. Although this project is of short duration, library trainees can do more effective work in the time available than untrained assistants could do throughout the year. One of the Victoria University College Library assistants was employed for a short period during the vacation and the G. V. Hudson Entomological Library was catalogued and shelved.

On the recommendation of the Library Committee the Standing Committee approved of the following being added to the Exchange List:

  • Leeds Literary and Philosophical Society, University of Leeds.

  • Division of Mines, State of California.

  • Alan Hancock Foundation, Yale University.

  • Fundacao Getulia Vargas (Estudios Brasileiros Biologiae, Geol., etc.).

  • University de Santa Domingo, West Indies.

  • Academia Sinica, China.

  • National Institute of Sciences, India.

  • Lingua, Holland.

  • Institut Royale Colonial de Belge.

  • Societe des Oceanistes, Paris.

  • Federation des Societe des Sciences et Naturelles.

  • Universite Marie Curie Sklodowska, Lublin.

  • Nils Holmgren, Zootomiska Institutet, Sweden.

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Binding. The binder has a good deal of work in hand, but the volumes have not yet been returned.

Member Bodies. The following reports have been received from Member Bodies: Wellington Branch for the year ended 30th September, 1948; Canterbury Branch for the year ended 31st October, 1948; Otago Branch for the year ended 31st October, 1948; Nelson Institute for the year ended 31st December, 1948.

Fellowship. Fourteen nominations have been received for the four vacancies in the Fellowship. These were submitted to the Fellows for selection and the Fellowship Selection Committee will report to the Annual Meeting.

Hector Award. Owing to the absence overseas of Dr. G. H. Cunningham, the Hector Medal and Prize for 1948 have not yet been presented. Dr. Cunningham has now returned and arrangements are being made to have the presentation made at a meeting of the Auckland Institute in the near future.

Medals. A further supply of Hector Medals was received from Messrs. John Pinches Ltd. At the time of their arrival the Customs Department insisted on duty and sales tax being paid on them, but owing to subsequent representations made on the Society's behalf the amount of duty and sales tax has been refunded and an assurance given that in future the Society's medals will not be subject to duty and sales tax.

Hutton Grants. The amended regulations governing applications for Hutton grants are appreciated by prospective grantees.

Dr. Greta Cone's application referred from the Annual Meeting for further information was approved by the Standing Committee.

On the recommendation of the Hutton Research Grants Committee the following applications were approved during the year:

Mr. B. van't Woudt, £42, for books and apparatus and travelling expenses in a research on soil relationships of Pinus radiata in the State Forest Plantations on the acid pumice soils at the Kaingaroa Plains.

Mr. V. J. Cook, £30, for research on Cyperaceae.

Professor L. R. Richardson and Mr. H. Bary, £30, for the study by observational flights, of the blooming of Cyclotrichium in the Wellington Harbour.

Research Grant. Only one application was received for the amount of £75 available as a special grant for research, that of Mr. B. van't Woudt, who asked for maintenance grant while employed on the Pinus radiata research in the State Forest at Kaingaroa Plains. On the recommendation of the Research Grants Committee this application was granted.

Pacific Science Congress. Although the Standing Committee did not undertake directly any part of the active organization of the Seventh Pacific Science Congress throughout the year, it has been kept informed of all stages of arrangements.

Notice was given to the Society that U.N.E.S.C.O. was making 20,000 dollars available to enable delegates from war devastated countries to attend the Congress.

Notice was also given that the National Research Council of the Philippines intended to issue an invitation for the Eighth Pacific Science Congress, and the Society as the adhering body in the Pacific Science Association was notified of certain proposed amendments to the Constitution to be placed before the Pacific Science Council. A matter to come before the Annual Meeting for consideration is the proposal to appoint a permanent General Secretary and consequential amendments to the Constitution.

As host to the Congress, the Society was entitled to ten delegates, and the following were appointed to represent the Society as official delegates: Dr. R. S. Allan, Professor W. N. Benson, Professor G. S. Calvert, Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. F. J. Filmer, Professor B. J. Marples, Mr. H. C. McQueen, Mr. A. W. B. Powell, Mr. A. T. Pycroft, and Professor L. R. Richardson.

The Congress was an outstanding success in every way and the thanks of the Society will be extended at the Annual Meeting to all those who contributed to its success.

Fulbright Funds. Possibly, largely to the initiative taken by the Royal Society of New Zealand and by the constant representations made by it to the Prime Minister, the machinery governing the Fulbright Funds was finally set in motion, and in October the establishment in New Zealand of the Board of the U.S. Education Foundation was announced, Sir David Smith. Chancellor of the University of New Zealand, Major-general Sir Howard Kipp [ unclear: ] berger, Editor-

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in-chief of New Zealand War Histories, and Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Vice-President of the Society and Secretary of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research having been appointed Directors on the Board.

The first to be brought to New Zealand under Fulbright Funds is Dr. Olaus J. Murie, who after attending the Science Congress, proceeded to participate in the New Zealand and American Fiordland Expedition.

Dr. Earl Dennis, the United States and New Zealand Liaison Officer in connection with the administration of the Fulbright Funds, attended the Congress with a view to finding avenues of exchange between New Zealand and United States students and research workers by contact with as many United States professors and heads of representative institutions as possible.

U.N.E.S.C.O. The Society's nominations to the National Commission of U.N.E.S.C.O. made at the last Annual Meeting were forwarded, and at the Standing Committee meeting held on the 21st October it was reported that the following had been appointed members of the National Commission of U.N.E.S.C.O.: Dr. Gilbert Archey, Dr. J. C. Beaglehole, Mr. A. E. Campbell, Dr. R. A. Falla, Mr. D. Forsyth, Mrs. M. P. Gillies, Professor Ian Gordon, Mr. M. H. Holcroft, Miss Challis Hooper, Mr. A. F. McMurtrie, Mr. J. A. D. Nash, Mr. N. R. Seddon, Professor J. Shelley, Mr. H. C. D. Somerset, Miss E. E. Stephens, and Mr. D. Cairns, Secretary.

The U.N.E.S.C.O. literature and material coming to the Society's office has been referred to the Sub-committee set up, and Dr. Falla has brought relevant matters arising therefrom before the Standing Committee.

It was reported that a Conference on Science Abstracting organized by U.N.E.S.C.O. would be held in June in Paris, and Mr. D. Cairns was asked to represent the Society at the Conference. A sub-committee consisting of Dr. Bastings, Dr. Marwick, and Dr. H. B. Fell was set up to express the Society's views on the subjects outlined on the agenda for the Conference.

Study Groups: U.N.E.S.C.O. is endeavouring to institute study groups on the social implications of science. Information regarding this project is being circulated to members of the Council with the Annual Meeting papers.

Royal Society of New Zealand Act, 1933. As instructed by the last Annual Meeting, the Standing Committee endeavoured to have the R.S.N.Z. Act, 1933, amended. In June the Vice-President, Mr. F. R. Callaghan, as Secretary of the Scientific and Industrial Research Department, requested the drafting office to frame the necessary amendments which had been decided upon at the last Annual Meeting. Included in these was that of provision for the whole of the Society's grant being named in the Act instead of, as at present, only portion of it. At the same time it was asked that the grant be increased to £1,500.

Subsequently Treasury advised against an increase and stated that there appeared to be no necessity to amend the financial clause in the Act. Treasury suggested that the Society's income could be increased by making a larger levy on the Transactions taken by the Member Bodies. A sub-committee was set up to confer with Treasury and with the Hon. Minister regarding this matter. The draft of the other desired amendments to the Act has not yet been received from the drafting office.

Waipoua Forest. Member Bodies were given an opportunity to consider the report on Waipoua Forest presented to the last Annual Meeting by the Sub-committee set up by the Society. Comments of the Member Bodies were presented to the Standing Committee as they came to hand, and at a meeting on the 24th August the policy of National Parks was fully discussed. It was then pointed out that although the order of reference included National Parks and scenery preservation generally, the Sub-committee had confined its report to Waipoua Forest. It was decided to ask the Wild Life Committee of the Society to bring down a report on the status and policy of National Parks.

The comments of the Member Bodies on the Waipoua Forest report were sent to the Sub-committee, which stated that although the comments had been read with interest, it had nothing further to add to its report.

At a meeting of the Standing Committee held on the 29th March, following further discussion on the subject, it was resolved that the Royal Society convene a conference of all interested in the future policy in respect to Waipoua Forest, with a view to reaching a satisfactory decision acceptable to the different

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interests involved, but that action in this direction should be deferred until the petitions before Parliament have been disposed of.

Dominion Museum and National Art Gallery. Professor W. P. Evans and Dr. P. Marshall were appointed for a further term of office as representatives on the Board of Trustees of the National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum.

Loder Cup. On the recommendation of the Sub-committee consisting of Mr. B. C. Aston and Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, Mr. L. W. McCaskill was nominated for the 1948 Loder Cup. This award, however, was made by the Committee to Mr. A. D. Beddie.

The Director of the Division of Horticulture of the Department of Agriculture intimated that the Loder Cup Committee was being reorganized, and asked that the Royal Society of New Zealand should nominate a representative on the Committee. Dr. W. R. B. Oliver was nominated.

Wild Life Advisory Committee. The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research set up a Wild Life Advisory Committee on research concerning the conservation and regulation of wild life. Dr. R. A. Falla was nominated to represent the Society, and subsequently Dr. Falla was appointed Chairman of the Committee.

Rutherford Memorial Committee. Canterbury University College wrote asking the Society to nominate a representative on the Rutherford Memorial Committee which was being set up. Dr. L. Bastings was nominated to represent the Society.

Biological Journal. A grant of £5 was made to the Biological Society of Victoria University College to enable it to publish a plate in its journal, Tuatara. The plate is to accompany a paper written by Dr. H. H. Allan on “A Key to the Commoner Genera of Lichens of New Zealand.”

Carter Observatory Board. Dr. M. A. F. Barnett and Mr. C. G. G. Berry were nominated for a further term on the Carter Observatory Board.

On the motion of Mr. Willett the report was taken as read.

Matters arising therefrom:

R.S.N.Z. Act, 1933: The President read Treasury's letter in regard to the Society's request for an increase in its grant.

The letter stated that an increase in the levy on the Transactions taken by Member Bodies would add to the income of the Society and be a reasonable increase in view of the rise in the cost of printing. Treasury contended that the Government was in fact being asked to subsidise the Transactions to members.

After some discussion on this point, Dr. Salmon moved and Dr. Oliver seconded, that the levy be increased from 5s per copy to 10s per copy. As an amendment, Dr. Frankel moved and Dr. Miller seconded, that the levy be increased to 7s 6d per copy.

Dr. Archey opposed both the motion and the amendment and considered that the Society should represent the position to Treasury through the Hon. Minister. He stated that compared with Government grants given to scientific societies in other countries, the grant to the Royal Society of New Zealand was exceedingly small.

Dr. Marwick considered the Government should be glad to supplement the cost of printing a volume which was in use in so many Government departments.

The motion was withdrawn in favour of the amendment, which was carried. It was suggested that the arguments put forward should be used by the sub-committee in its interview with Treasury.

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Waipoua Forest. When the report on the Waipoua Forest was being discussed, Dr. Archey asked that the comments of the Member Bodies on the report should be read.

These were read to the meeting, and after further discussion, on the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Professor Allan, it was resolved:

“That the report of the sub-committee appointed by the Standing Committee be received and that the Council strongly recommends that until a thorough investigation into the silviculture and regeneration of Kauri in Waipoua has been carried out, the whole of the present Waipoua Kauri forest area be left intact and unmodified.”

On the motion of Dr. Oliver, seconded by Dr. Focken, it was resolved: “That in view of the motion just passed, the proposal to convene a conference be abandoned.”

On the motion of Dr. Falla, seconded by Dr. Archey, the Report of the Standing Committee was adopted.

Honorary Treasurer's Report. Mr. Cory Wright presented the annual report together with (a) Statement of Receipts and Payments, (b) Statements of Assets and Liabilities, (c) Revenue Account, (d) Trust Accounts.

Report of the Honorary Treasurer

In presenting the accounts for the year ending 31st March, 1949, I have to report that the Society's finances continue to be satisfactory and are much on the same basis as last year.

The Government grant of £1,250 has enabled the Society to meet the year's expenses with a small surplus, but still rising costs of printing, etc., indicate that this margin is not likely to continue for very long, and therefore I would recommend that consideration be given to the question of increasing our income. It was proposed last year that the original and supplementary grants totalling £1,250 from the Government should be amalgamated into one grant, and that the Government be approached to raise this to £1,500. An approach was made, but was referred back for further consideration because Treasury felt that a greater share of the expenses of the Royal Society should be paid by Member Bodies. Thus the matter is in abeyance pending some action by the Council, or a further appeal to the Government.

The balance at 31st March, 1949, of £3,637 14s 10d is higher, owing to the delay in completing and paying for printing of Transactions, which is still more in arrear than last year. This balance also includes, as usual, the funds to meet the current year's expenditure.

The Seventh Pacific Science Congress accounts have been kept as a separate Trust Account of the Royal Society, and are not included in the present statement because on 31st March the chief expenses of the Congress were still being liquidated and the balance date for the Congress has been put forward to 31st May. I therefore submit no accounts herewith for the Congress, but report for general information that of the £10,000 Government grant there will be about £2,000 balance left for printing of transactions after paying the general expenses of the Congress. The Congress also received from U.N.E.S.C.O. a grant of 20,000 dollars (about £5,000) for bringing delegates from war-devastated countries, and of this amount something over £1,000 will remain unexpended and will be at disposal of U.N.E.S.C.O.

I desire to pay a tribute to the good work of our Secretary, Miss Wood, who besides her duties as Secretary and Librarian of the Society continues to most efficiently perform the duties of Accountant.

S. Cory Wright

, Hon. Treasurer,

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Statement of Receipts and Payments for the Year Ended 31st March, 1949
Receipts Payments
£ s. d. £ s. d.
Balance at 31st March, 1948 3,148 17 10 Otago Daily Times, Printing Vol. 77 (1 and 2) 628 8 8
Annual Government Grant 1,250 0 0 Salaries 425 0 0
Levy, Volume 77 306 9 0 Research Grants 94 16 5
Sales of Publications 123 8 8 Hutton Research Grants 117 0 0
Travelling Expenses: Member Bodies' Share 28 15 11 Travelling Expenses 41 0 7
Research Grant: Refund 3 15 6 Library: Cabinet, shelving and register 85 14 6
Research Grant: Apparatus purchased 69 16 5 Library: Book purchased 3 3 0
Favourable Exchange 0 0 7 Library Assistance 2 0 0
Hector Fund: Duty on Medals refunded 16 12 11 Stationery 12 14 8
Hector Fund: Interest 51 13 8 Petty Cash 19 5 1
Hutton Fund: Interest 64 10 0 Hector Medals and Duty 50 14 2
Summer-time Fund: Interest 24 15 3 Subscription Int. Scient. Unions (two years) 80 0 0
Cockayne Memorial Fund: Interest 11 8 6 Cost of draft 0 16 0
Carter Library Legacy: Interest 6 6 10 Subscription American Polar Year 0 5 0
Plant Diseases Trust: Interest 17 19 1 Charges (Insurance, Telephone, Audit, Bank, etc.) 13 12 4
Hamilton Mem. Fund: Interest 2 6 0 Trust Accounts: Audit Fee 1 10 0
Endowment Fund: Interest 75 12 0 Grant for Plate for Tuatara Journal 5 0 0
Interest at Post Office Savings Bank 39 2 8 Transfers from Bank to Trust Accounts 12 17 6
Repayment from Trust A/cs. to General A/c. 123 19 3 Interest paid direct to Trust Accounts 133 17 4
Balance as under 3,637 14 10
£5,365 10 1 £5,365 10 1

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£ s. d.
Bank of New Zealand 1,712 1 3
Less unpresented Cheques 321 6 2
1,390 15 1
Post Office Savings Bank 2,238 1 0
Cash in hand 0 0 2
Petty Cash in hand 8 18 7
£3,637 14 10
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Statement of Assets and Liabilities at 31st March, 1949
Liabilities Assets
£ s. d. £ s. d.
Hector Memorial Fund Capital Account 1,184 18 1 Hector Fund: Inscribed Stock (face value £1,250) 1,184 18 1
Hector Memorial Fund Revenue Account 95 6 7 Hector Fund: P.O.S.B. Account 95 6 7
Hutton Memorial Fund Capital Account 1,506 8 6 Hutton Fund: Inscribed Stock (face value £1,570) 1,506 8 6
Hutton Memorial Fund Revenue Account 343 10 8 Hutton Fund: P.O.S.B. Account 343 10 8
Summer-Time Fund Capital Account 546 19 6 Summer-Time: Inscribed Stock (face value £510) 500 2 6
Summer-Time Fund Revenue Account 127 15 0 Summer-Time: P.O.S.B. Account 174 12 0
Plant Diseases Trust Capital Account 542 13 5 Plant Diseases: Inscribed Stock (face value £500) 500 0 0
Plant Diseases Trust Revenue Account 102 2 1 Plant Diseases: P.O.S.B. Account 144 15 6
Cockayne Memorial Fund Capital Account 249 12 0 Cockayne Fund: Inscribed Stock (face value £260) 249 12 0
Cockayne Memorial Fund Revenue Account 62 14 7 Cockayne Fund: P.O.S.B. Account 62 14 7
Carter Library Legacy Capital Account 162 19 0 Carter Legacy: Inscribed Stock (face value £160) 162 19 0
Carter Library Legacy Revenue Account 30 19 10 Carter Legacy: P.O.S.B. Account 30 19 10
Hamilton Memorial Fund Capital Account 78 6 8 Hamilton Fund: Inscribed Stock (face value £60) 60 0 0
Hamilton Memorial Fund Revenue Account 2 3 9 Hamilton Fund: P.O.S.B. Account 24 10 5
Hamilton Memorial Fund, 1947 Prize, Miss Batham 4 0 0 Endowment Fund: Inscribed Stock (face value £2,070) 2,054 2 5
Endowment Fund Capital Account 2,129 2 5 Endowment Fund: Part Gen. P.O.S.B. Account 392 12 10
Endowment Fund Revenue Account 317 12 10 Sundry Debtors 45 14 9
Research Grants Fund 146 11 6 Bank of New Zealand 1,390 15 1
Science Congress Volume 77 (5) 500 0 0 Post Office Savings Bank 1,845 8 2
N.Z. Science Congress Administration Fund 50 0 0 Petty Cash in hand 8 18 7
Library Binding Fund 100 0 0 Cash in hand 0 0 2
Publication Expenses Fund 283 12 7
Otago Daily Times Co. Ltd. 35 9 6
A. P. Mason in credit 0 6 1
Balance of Assets over Liabilities 2,174 17 1
£10,778 1 8 £10,778 1 8
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Property Assets
Estimated Value Insured Value
£ s. d. £ s. d.
Library and Stack Room, V.U.C. 11,592 12 0 4,500 0 0
Furniture 95 12 6 40 0 0
Stock in cellar, Parliament Buildings 500 0 0
Carter Library, Dominion Meseum (jointly owned with Museum) 500 0 0
£5,540 0 0

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Revenue Account for the Year Ended 31st March, 1949.
Annual Meeting, 1949
Expenditure Income
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Printing Transactions, Vol. 77 (1 and 2) 661 14 2 By Balance at 31/3/48 2,077 8 1
" Salaries 25 0 0 " Annual Government Grant 1,250 0 0
" Stationery 12 14 8 " Trust Funds Administration Expenses 5 2 6
" Library Equipment and Assistance 90 17 6 " Levy, Volume 77 295 6 9
" Petty Cash 19 5 1 " Sales of Publications 144 8 11
" Charges 19 12 9
" Travelling Expenses 12 4 8
" Special Research Grants:
1947–48 100 0 0
1948–49 50 0 0
" Library Binding Grants:
1947–48 50 0 0
1948–49 50 0 0
" Annual Grant, Science Congress Adm. Expenses 50 0 0
" Subscription, Int. Scientific Unions 56 0 4
" Balance 2,174 17 1
£3,772 6 3 £3,772 6 3
" Balance £2,174 17 1

S. Cory Wright, Hon. Treasurer.

– xii –

Trust Accounts for the Year Ended 31st March, 1949

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Hector Memorial Fund
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Hector Medals (12) 34 1 3 By Capital invested 1,184 18 1
" Duty on Medals 16 12 11 " Bal. Revenue 31/3/48 78 19 2
" Administration Exs. 1 5 0 " Interest 51 13 8
" Balance 1,280 4 8 " Duty on Medals refund 16 12 11
£1,332 3 10 £1,332 3 10
By Balance Capital A/c £1,184 18 1
" Balance Revenue A/c £95 6 7

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Hutton Memorial Fund
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Grants 117 0 0 By Capital invested 1,506 8 6
" Administration Exs. 1 5 0 " Bal. Revenue 31/3/48 397 5 8
" Balance 1,849 19 2 " Interest 64 10 0
£1,968 4 2 £1,968 4 2
By Balance Capital A/c £1,506 8 6
" Balance Revenue A/c £343 10 8

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

T. K. Sidey Summer-Time Fund
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 1 5 0 By Capital invested and P.O.S.B. 544 10 0
" Balance 674 14 6 " Bal. Revenue 31/3/48 106 14 3
" Interest
Revenue £22 5 9
Capital 2 9 6
24 15 3
£675 19 6 £675 19 6
By Balance Capital A/c £546 19 6
" Balance Revenue A/c £127 15 0

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Plant Diseases Trust
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 0 5 0 By Capital invested and P.O.S.B. 542 13 5
" Balance 644 15 6 " Bal. Revenue 31/3/48 84 8 0
" Interest 17 19 1
£645 0 6 £645 0 6
By Balance Capital A/c £542 13 5
" Balance Revenue A/c £102 2 1

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Cockayne Memorial Fund
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 0 5 0 By Capital Invested 249 12 0
" Balance 312 6 7 " Bal. Revenue 31/3/48 51 11 1
" Interest 11 8 6
£312 11 7 £312 11 7
By Balance Capital A/c. £249 12 0
" Balance Revenue A/c. £62 14 7
– xiii –

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Carter Library Legacy
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 0 12 6 By Capital Invested 162 19 0
" Balance 193 18 10 " Bal. Revenue 31/3/48 25 5 6
" Interest 6 6 10
£194 11 4 £194 11 4
By Balance Capital A/c. £162 19 0
" Balance Revenue A/c. £30 19 10

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Hamilton Memorial Fund
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 0 5 0 By Capital Inv. and P.O.S.B. 77 3 8
" Balance 84 10 5 " Bal. Revenue 31/3/48 5 5 9
" Interest—
½ to Capital 1 3 0
½ to Revenue 1 3 0
2 6 0
£84 15 5 £84 15 5
By Bal. Capital A/c. £78 6 8
" Bal. Revenue A/c. £2 3 9
" 1947 Prize (Miss Batham) held temporarily £4 0 0

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Endowment Fund
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 1 10 0 By Capital Inv. and P.O.S.B. 2,129 2 5
" Allocation to Publication Exs. 283 12 7 " Bal. Revenue 31/3/48 488 0 9
" Balance 2,446 15 3 " Interest 75 12 0
" Interest General A/c. 39 2 8
£2,731 17 10 £2,731 17 10
By Bal. Capital A/c. £2,129 2 5
" Bal. Revenue A/c. £317 12 10

The books had been audited, but the Controller-General's certificate had not yet been received.

The Pacific Science Congress balance sheet was not ready for presentation, but would be available after 31st May, 1949.

The Hon. Treasurer's report and balance sheet were adopted.

Hon. Editor's Report and Editorial. The report presented by Dr. J. Henderson, late Honorary Editor, was read and approved and a cordial vote of thanks was accorded to him for his services.

Report of the Honorary Editor

During the year ended March 31, 1949, Parts 1 and 2 of Volume 77 of the Transactions were issued. Part 3/4 is now in page form except for the last paper, of which the printer now has the corrected galleys.

The volume will contain 49 papers—Botany 17, Zoology 14, Palaeontology 2, Geology 7, Chemistry 7, and Miscellaneous 2. There are 78 plates and numerous text figures. All the papers were received a year or more ago.

– xiv –

Miss Fyfe has the Mss. of papers received since March 4, 1948.

The Special Volume of the N.Z. Science Congress of 1947, to be issued as Part 5 of Volume 77 of the Transactions, but bound and paged separately, is now all in type except the index. The last page proofs are now in authors' hands and the index is nearly ready to send to the printer. The volume will contain about 420 pages.

J. Henderson.


29th April, 1949

Miss M. Fyfe, newly appointed Hon. Editor, asked leave to bring some editorial matters before the Council, and on this being granted, she read the following report:

When I was appointed Editor I took over 28 manuscripts in various stages of preparation for the printer, and since then I have received six more. All these have been dealt with, and at the rate at which papers are being sent in it seems likely that there will be enough material for Parts I and II of Volume 78, which I hope to publish before the end of this year. Every endeavour is being made to bring the Transactions up to date as soon as possible.

From manuscripts which I have seen and from talks which I have had with the printer it appears very evident that the principal reason for the lag in publication was, and is, the slap-happy way in which authors send forward their manuscripts and plates. The way in which a paper and its plates are set out in a journal has a great influence on the reader, and the papers which I have seen do not by a long way approach the best overseas practice in this regard. Moreover, a great deal of unnecessary expense is incurred in printer's time when the printer is expected to set up plates, and additional expense is often asked for half-tone blocks when line drawings would be just as good, if not better.

Therefore I very earnestly commend these considerations to the Council and ask their approval of more stringent and modern rules for publication.

Our aim as a publishing body should be to produce a journal which is supported by really first-rate contributors, and one which is read with interest and respect by scientists all over the world. Whether we achieve this aim depends on at least two conditions: (a) the speed of publication, and (b) an improved format which will make our Transactions more distinguished and attractive in appearance. Methods for increasing the speed of publication have already been discussed. The problem of a more modern format was discussed at a meeting of the Otago Council on May 3, when it was unanimously agreed that a change of printing style was necessary.

I would be glad if this Council would approve of a change in the format of the Transactions.

Marion L. Fyfe

, Hon. Editor,
Transactions of the Royal Society.

On the motion of Dr. Arehey, seconded by Dr. Focken, Miss Fyfe was thanked for her report.

Notice to Contributors: Miss Fyfe then stated that the Notice to Contributors required to be amended and many points clarified; she read the amendments necessary and the notice recast to include the amendments. Two or three further amendments were suggested and finally, on the motion of Miss Fyfe, the Notice to Contributors as amended and recast was adopted.

Author's Copies. It was resolved that the twenty-five free copies of author's reprints be increased to fifty.

Format of Transactions: Miss Fyfe asked the Council's approval of a change in the format of the Transactions. She stated that the present style was out-dated for an up-to-date scientific journal, and she produced copies of some overseas journals to illustrate her contention.

On the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Mr. Buchanan, it was resolved: “That the suggestion as outlined by Miss Fyfe be approved in principle and referred to a sub-committee consisting of Miss Fyfe,

– xv –

Professor Allan, Dr. Focken, and Dr. Frankel for recommendation to the Standing Committee.”

Bound Volume: Dr. Salmon moved and Dr. Frankel seconded: “That the bound volume be discontinued.”

An amendment moved by Dr. Archey, seconded by Dr. Miller: “That the proposal to discontinue the bound volume be referred to Member Bodies for consideration, the Hon. Editor to submit cost of binding, etc.”

Advertisements: The Hon. Editor asked a question regarding the Council's policy of advertisements in the Transactions. On the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Dr. Salmon, the matter was referred to the Standing Committee.

Published Dates of Papers: Some discussion took place regarding the published dates of papers in the Transactions, and it was agreed that the present procedure of submitting papers through a Member Body is adequate and that the date on which the paper is received by the Editor be published.

On the motion of Professor Allan, seconded by Dr. Salmon, the Hon. Editor's report was adopted and Miss Fyfe was thanked for bringing these matters before the Council.

The President read a letter from Mr. W. H. Dawbin, an author in the Transactions, complimenting the Otago Daily Times on the excellence of their scientific proof readers.

Honorarium. On the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Dr. Marwick, the Council approved of the principle of an honorarium for the Hon. Editor, and that an honorarium of £50 be given to the present Hon. Editor.

Seventh Pacific Science Congress. The Secretary-General, Dr. G. Archey, presented the following report of the Organizing Committee to the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand:

The Committee reports under four headings:

(a)

Preparations for the Congress;

(b)

The period of the Congress;

(c)

Financial;

(d)

Post-Congress requirements.

(A) The Report which the Organizing Committee presented to the Pacific Science Council and the Preliminary Announcement, Circular of Information and General Programme, cover, in general, the preparatory period of the Committee's activities. A little further comment may be offered.

The prime factors of a Science Congress are scientists and scientific problems, and they are mutually dependent, because you will not get one without the other. The task of the Congress Committee was, therefore, to ensure a full and representative attendance, and to provide an adequate scientific programme. Accordingly, the first invitation sent to Representative Institutions in countries of the Pacific Science Association—sent early in January after the Organizing Committee's first meeting in mid-December, was immediately followed by suggestions for the programme and a request for comment thereon.

A printed Preliminary Announcement was circulated to Representative Institutions in March; it was also sent, with a formal invitation, to all Governments concerned by the Department of External Affairs.

Meanwhile, Divisional Chairmen and Secretaries were corresponding with their overseas colleagues on programme matters, and their proposals, together with suggestions received from the Secretary-General from Representative Institutions and from Chairmen of Standing Committees appointed by the Sixth Congress, were consolidated into a scientific programme of symposia and sectional discussions. This was sent out in cyclostyled form in July, and included in the printed Circular of Information issued on 1st August.

– xvi –

The correspondence that ensued from Representative Institutions, from other scientific institutions, and from individual scientists, gave confirmation of widespread interest in the Congress, but not, immediately, of certainty of participation. Lists of those known to be coming were circulated to all Congress workers for their information; by the end of September an adequate attendance was assured.

A conference of Divisional Chairmen and the Organizing Committee was held in November to discuss the scientific programme generally, and in particular to draw up a time table that would avoid major clashes of interest. The Organizing Committee held its sixth and last pre-Congress meeting at this time and confirmed administrative details for executive action.

Certain difficulties were experienced at this stage; inevitable difficulties arising from the short period available in which to organize and complete preparations. Two of these were late notification of papers for the programme and late advice as to the size of the delegations and of intending personal attendance.

The first difficulty was intensified by the long Christmas and New Year holidays we now enjoy, printers included, and in this connection the Committee has expressed its special thanks to Professor Allan and to Mr. Denis Glover of the Caxton Press for their united achievement in ensuring the punctual appearance of the General Programme. The second problem, accentuated by the uncertainty of air travel and of dates of arrival, was met by similar co-operation between the hotels and the accommodation committees.

These instances are mentioned not to emphasize difficulties, but as examples of the hard work and willing co-operation given by all who accepted responsibilities for Congress arrangements, and the Committee records its appreciation of the valuable help given by the Auckland and Christchurch Committees and their workers, by divisional programme organizers, by the heads of Government departments and their staffs, and by all who assisted in giving hospitality and entertainment to both overseas and New Zealand Congress members.

(B) The Congress itself followed substantially the printed programme. To aid discussion, cyclostyled abstracts were provided of all papers received in time, and to each Division a stenographer was allotted for office work, but chiefly to type or cyclostyle the record of day to day discussions as dictated by divisional recorders.

It was intended that the Auckland session record of discussions should be distributed at the opening of the Christchurch session, but delays in inter-island transport occurred and they were not available until the last two days of the session. The stock of abstracts was similarly delayed; those attending at Auckland had, of course, been able to secure their copies.

A press liaison room was established, the duties being largely undertaken by Mr. J. A. D. Nash; facilities were made available to the National Film Unit and the New Zealand Broadcasting Service, and space was allotted for scientific trade and Government exhibits. An Information Office from D.S.I.R. was extensively consulted.

The attendance at Auckland was—

Overseas Visitors 200
New Zealand Visitors to Auckland 200
Auckland enrolments 350
750

The attendance at Christchurch was 600 and included additional Christchurch enrolments. The attendance of overseas scientists was higher than at previous Pacific Science Congresses; and the New Zealand participation, both of scientists and laymen, was eminently satisfactory.

At Christchurch, in addition to the scientific sessions, most of the meetings of the Pacific Science Council were held; an important outcome was the decision to establish a permanent secretariat, and the invitation arising therefrom to the Royal Society of New Zealand to take the first steps in this venture. Of equal moment were the meetings in Christchurch of the Congress Committee for the Organization of Research, whose Research plan was adopted at the final meeting of the Pacific Science Congress and endorsed by the final plenary session. Another important meeting was that at which the scientific staff of the South Pacific Commission described the Commission's research proposals, which were closely followed and very fully discussed.

– xvii –

(C) Finance. There is a balance of approximately £2,900 in the Pacific Science Congress Account, while there is an amount of £1,995 in the U.N.E.S.C.O. Account after paying transport for seven delegates from war-devastated countries from a grant of 20,000 dollars given for this purpose by U.N.E.S.C.O.

(D) The immediate post-Congress duty of the Royal Society's Organizing Committee is to transmit the proceedings and resolutions to member countries, and to notify Chairmen of the Congress Standing Committees of their appointment.

The more continuing duty is to have the papers and abstracts presented at the sessions edited and to arrange for the printing and distribution of the Proceedings. The Committee has decided to print the Proceedings in single divisional or in appropriately grouped divisional volumes, and in order to facilitate wide availability, to offer single volumes, as well as sets, for sale. The cost will inevitably exceed the balance of funds in hand, and the Executive, after consultation with the Editorial and the Publications Committees, is to advise the Government of the amount required.

For the Organizing Committee,

Gilbert Archey

, Secretary-General.

Resolution arising from the above report carried at a meeting of the Organizing Committee held on 10th May, 1949:

“The Eighth Pacific Science Congress will be held in the Philippines. New Zealand's participation in past Congresses has been numerically weak both in personnel and in papers contributed. The Committee therefore recommends that to avoid repetition of the inadequate representation the Council of the Royal Society should on receipt of notification of the Eighth Congress appoint a committee to deal with all aspects of New Zealand's participation therein.”

On the motion of Dr. Salmon, seconded by Dr. Marwick, the report was adopted, and the President thanked Dr. Archey for submitting such a comprehensive account of the organization of the Congress.

In reply to a question regarding the distribution of the Proceedings of the Congress, Dr. Archey stated that copies would be given as follows: to Official Members, to overseas Governments, to Representative Institutions in those Governments, to Departments of State, to N.Z. University and the University Colleges, to Scientific Institutions.

On the motion of Mr. Pycroft, seconded by Professor Allan, it was resolved that the Annual Meeting records its appreciation of the work done by Dr. Archey, whose organization of the Congress was responsible for its success; he did a magnificent job and has earned our grateful thanks.

Carried by acclamation.

In reply, Dr. Archey stated that his position had been a happy one, for the became better acquainted with his colleagues throughout New Zealand, and this led to closer co-operation, and he had also had the pleasure of meeting overseas colleagues. Thanks were also due to the Organizing Committee with its President and the local committees.

On the motion of Dr. Falla, seconded by Dr. Marwick, warm thanks were extended to all who worked on behalf of the Congress Organizing Committee.

On the motion of Dr. Salmon, seconded by Mr. Willett, it was resolved that the Organizing Committee continue in office.

The meeting then adjourned for lunch, at which the visiting members entertained the local members.

Afternoon Roll Call. The following attended: Dr. Falla, Dr. Archey, Mr. Aston, Dr. Oliver, Mr. Pycroft, Dr. Bastings, Dr. Salmon,

– xviii –

Professor Allan, Dr. Frankel, Miss Fyfe, Dr. Focken, Mr. Buchanan, Dr. Miller Mr. Willett, Dr. Marwick, and the Hon. Treasurer, Mr. Cory Wright.

Hon. Librarian's Report

Report of Honorary Librarian

The addition of thirteen exchanges in the past year brings the total of exchanges to approximately six hundred.

Several feet of additional shelving have been added, and the file to hold current numbers of the journals has been increased by another 168 compartments. These changes have facilitated library work and relieved the congestion temporarily.

An assistant was employed for a short period to catalogue the G. V. Hudson bequest and during the course of the year Russian periodicals in our stacks were catalogued by a student from the National Library School for the Harris catalogue.

Loans, inter-library and personal, totalled 660, of which 149 were postal.

The original loan book, commencing in 1888, is now nearly filled. Since it contains many signatures of New Zealand scientists, it will be preserved.

L. R. Richardson

, Hon. Librarian.

On the motion of Dr. Oliver, the Report of the Hon. Librarian, Professor L. R. Richardson, was adopted.

Research Grantees Reports

Reports of Research Grantees

Briggs, Dr. L. H., who received £25 from the special grant of £100, has not yet returned from England, where he proposed to purchase material and equipment for chemical researches.

Parry, Miss G., who was granted £40 for research on Sea Anemones from the special grant of £100, reported on the 23rd December, 1948, that she had completed an extensive collecting excursion in the Auckland District, and she detailed the places visited and the species collected or inspected. She was leaving for England and hoped to have the work completed for a Review of New Zealand Anemones by the time she reached England. She intended to discuss certain problems with regard to the work with Professor Stephenson, of the University of Wales, and Professor Carlgren, of the University of Lund, before publishing the work. She asked if the Society would consider the publication of the whole survey as a separate Bulletin or provide some grant to cover the cost of a large paper containing many illustrations. The whole of the grant had been expended.

Hutton Grants

Battey, Mr. M. H., who was granted £30 from the Hutton Fund for an investigation of the igneous rocks and general geology of Cape Kerikeri district, North Auckland, reported that two visits of two or three weeks' duration have been made to the area and the whole of the coastline of the peninsula has been traversed, in so far as it is accessible by land, with the exception of three and a-quarter miles, and the greater part of the inland portion has been examined. A large suite of about 240 specimens has been collected for microscopic study and megascopic comparison. The sectioning of the rocks is proceeding, but the work is being delayed by the non-arrival of the petrographic microscope on order from England. All the specimens collected and the thin sections as they are made are being placed in the Auckland Museum. Expenses to date amount to £8 1s 8d.

McKenzie, Mr. D. W., who was granted £44 for aerial photography of Wellington, has reported that no commercial firm would undertake the type of work and detailed specification required and the work is now being done with aerial cameras in the possession of the Geography Department of Victoria University College. There have been only six occasions during the past nine months when the conditions were suitable, and on three of these flights were made and negatives taken which already have been of use. Some of these have been incorporated in a work on “The Geology of Wellington,” to be published by the Education Department. Other photographs are being used in a publication on the Sinclair Sheet of the 1:25,000 Survey of New Zealand, which will be available

– xix –

to schools from the Geography Department of Victoria University College towards the end of 1949. Total expenses to date are £18 1s 2d.

Te Punga, Mr. M. Very little has been done on the geological aspects of paleobotany and petrography for which Mr. Te Punga was granted £30 in 1946, because of the illness of the grantee during the latter part of the year.

Cone, Dr. Greta, who was granted £50 for research on Fungi, has utilised the grant in the purchase of books and in collecting trips round Levin, the Tararuas, the Orongorongo Water Reserve, Nelson, etc. A full report on the work will be submitted at a later date.

Richardson, Professor L. R., Bary, Mr. B., who were granted £30 from the Hutton Fund for observational flights to observe the blooming of Cyclotrichium in Wellington Harbour, reported on the 26th April that two flights were undertaken over Wellington Harbour and also over Cook Strait to check its distribution in open water and in parts of the Sounds. It was found that Cyclotrichium could be identified in all the Sounds, but not in Cook Strait, although blooms were found just to the south of French Pass, indicating that it occurs in open-sea conditions. General conclusions indicate that patent blooming is a phenomenon of semi-enclosed waters—that Cyclotrichium blooming in the harbour is carried through the harbour mouth and dispersed in Cook Strait. The incidence of phenomenon is such that the blooming of Cyclotrichium is to be regarded as a major seasonal event for our waters. There is one potential practical application in that it photographs from the air and is an excellent indicator of the movements of the superficial layers of water, sufficiently so that movement of water through the harbour mouth at Wellington was traced for seven miles along the coast. The two flights cost £27 8s 4d.

On the motion of Dr. Marwick, the reports presented by Hutton and other research grantees were adopted.

National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum

Report for the Year ended 31st March, 1949

The Board of Trustees met three times during the year.

The Art Gallery rooms were fully reconditioned during the year and the Gallery has since been reopened to the public.

The Museum rooms are still not fully reconditioned, but it should be possible to reopen them before long.

The expansion schemes outlined two years ago are still looked forward to, and are likely to remain so for some years to come.

The Board of Trustees is asking the Government for an increased grant so that the staffs may be brought up to the required efficiency.

P. Marshall,
W. P. Evans

,
Representatives on the Board of Trustees.

On the motion of Dr. Oliver, the report by Professor W. P. Evans and Dr. P. Marshall, representatives of the Council on the Board of Trustees of the National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum, was adopted.

Royal N.Z. Institute of Horticulture

Report of Representative

During the past year the following District Councils were established: Taihape, Waikato (at Hamilton), South Taranaki (at Hawera), Hawke's Bay (at Napier), and Lower Hutt and Eastern Bays (at Lower Hutt). The annual conference held at Auckland, 25th January, 1949, was opened by the Minister of Agriculture, Hon. E. L. L. Cullen. The Banks Lecture was delivered by Mr. J. A. McPherson, his subject being “Some Plant Introductions in the Auckland District.” The membership of the Institute in January, 1949, was over 2,000 (in September, 1946, it was 374).

The Auckland Council has been very active, in conjunction with other bodies, in endeavouring to preserve various important areas of native forest,

– xx –

including Waipoua, Kirk's Bush, and a pohutukawa forest at Ninety Mile Beach, and in pressing for a more extensive campaign against the European wasp.

W. R. B. Oliver

,
Representative of the R.S.N.Z. on the Council
of the R.N.Z. Institute of Horticulture
.

On the motion of Dr. Oliver, the report presented by him as representative of the Society on the Council of the Royal N.Z. Institute of Horticulture was adopted.

Great Barrier Reef Committee

Report of Representative

A meeting of the Committee was held at Brisbane on 10th September, 1948.

The business mainly concerned routine matters. Most discussion centred round a proposal to erect a Marine Biological Station on Heron Island, and a sub-committee was appointed to go into all the possibilities. Discussion also took place on tourists and the selling of shells. The balance in hand is £1,681 12s 7d, of which £1,300 is in bonds.

W. R. B. Oliver

,
Representative on the Committee.

On the motion of Dr. Oliver, his report as representative on the Great Barrier Reef Committee was adopted.

On the motion of Dr. Archey it was resolved: “That the Royal Society of New Zealand observes with much interest the proposal of the Great Barrier Reef Committee to establish a Marine Biological Station on Heron Island, and offers its best wishes for the success of this important undertaking.”

National Parks. Dr. Oliver presented the following report of the Wild Life Committee of the Society.

National Parks and Other Reserves for the Protection of the Plants
and Animals of New Zealand

Report by the Wild Life Committee

I. What should be protected:

1. The indigeneous plants and animals of New Zealand, other than those harmful to man. Among the latter are some predacious birds such as harriers, hawks and black-backed gulls, and one fruit-eating (also insect-eating) bird, the silver eye.

2. Examples of the plant formations of New Zealand. The present National Parks and bird sanctuaries cover, with one important exception, practically all the main plant formations. The exception is the kauri forest, of which no extensive area is included in any National Park. Forest and grassland protected for the purpose of preventing erosion serves the same purpose as National Parks in conserving plant formations.

3. Useful introduced animals. There are several kinds of imported seed-eating birds that should be protected until they become so numerous as to be harmful either to our crops or to native birds. Opossums and rabbits are at once harmful and useful. They need no protection other than to regulate the industries founded on them.

II. Plants and Animals at present protected by law:

1. “The Native Plants Protection Act, 1934,” provides for the protection of indigenous plants in public areas, not naming species. The Act does not apply to specimens collected for scientific or educational purposes. This Act is administered by the Lands and Survey Department.

2. “The Animals Protection and Game Act, 1921–22,” covers both imported and indigenous species. These are listed in three schedules (a) animals absolutely protected; (b) imported game; (d) native game (including the black swan). With regard to (b) and (c) the Act contains provisions enabling the Minister to declare open shooting seasons under licence for any or all of the species. The Act is administered by the Internal Affairs Department.

– xxi –

3. National Parks.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Acres
Tongariro National Park 150,000
Egmont National Park 79,000
Peel Forest National Park 1,305
Abel Tasman National Park 37,600
Arthur Pass National Park 146,400
Additional area 150,000
Tasman National Park 97,800
Hooker Glacier National Park 38,000
Sounds National Park 2,407,000
Southern Alps (not yet named) 94,060
Total 3,201,165

4. There are many sanctuaries for the protection of the indigenous flora and fauna. Some, for instance, Little Barrier, Kapiti, and Resolution are of first importance.

5. Scenic Reserves are small areas of bush, but often they contain botanical and geological features of particular interest. Scenic Reserves gazetted number 1,230 of a total acreage of 922,760.

6. Public Domains, not primarily intended for the protection of the native plants they contain, total 827, of a total area of 80,084 acres. They are areas, however, which serve for the conservation of native plants.

7. Many large areas of forest and mountain tops are included in the reserves of the State Forest Service, but forests are liable to be cut over for their timber, as was done in a considerable portion of the Waipoua Kauri Forest.

III. Administration:

1. Controlling authorities. Boards constituted by Act of Parliament, with Commissioners of Crown Lands as Chairmen: Tongariro, Egmont, Peel Forest, Abel Tasman, Arthur Pass.

Land and Survey Department: Hooker Glacier, Sounds, Tasman, and Southern Alps National Parks, Kapiti Island Bird Sanctuary, Scenic Reserves, Domains.

Internal Affairs Department: The controlling authority of all sanctuaries directly constituted under the Animals Protection and Game Act. It is not, however, the controlling authority of any area in respect of ownership except the sanctuary at Pouto Point.

Marine Department: This department controls the lighthouse reserves, into which no one is admitted except by permission of the Department. Several of these reserves are islands containing native plants and animals practically untouched by settlement. Among these are Poor Knights Island, Cuvier Island, Moko Hinau Group, Hen and Chickens, and The Brothers. Stephen Island, partly farmed, contains tuataras and sea birds. Farewell Spit, also partly farmed, is the breeding place of several species of gulls and terns.

Tourist Department: Little Barrier Island Bird Sanctuary, Resolution Island Bird Sanctuary.

2. Importation of plants is controlled by the Department of Agriculture, and of animals by the Internal Affairs Department.

Plants are examined on importation mainly for the purpose of detecting harmful insects and fungal diseases. Large numbers of plant species have come in by accidental means and have established themselves. Several kinds have been carried into forest areas and even to mountain tops by mammals and birds, thus altering the composition of the native vegetation.

Very few kinds of animals are imported for liberation. Usually only birds suitable for sport are allowed to be released. Mammals imported in the past have done an enormous amount of damage to the native forests. Deer, pigs, goats, chamois and opossums are the chief destructive mammals now well established in New Zealand forests and grasslands.

3. The control of harmful animals, other than rabbits, is undertaken by the Internal Affairs Department, which constantly has parties in the field, and in limited areas has exterminated the species concerned, for instance, goats on the Three Kings Islands and pigs on the Poor Knights. Royalties are paid for the killing of harriers, keas, little owls, hedgehogs, stoats, polecats, and ferrets.

The control of rabbits is in the hands of Rabbit Boards, the Department of Agriculture administering the Rabbit Nuisance Act.

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The taking of opossums is under control of the Internal Affairs Department. In the case of rabbits and opossums there is a conflict of interests, as both animals form the bases of industries.

Unprotected species of indigenous birds are the harrier, bush hawk, mutton bird, black-backed gull, skua, several species of shags, and the silver eye.

Most introduced species of birds are unprotected by law. Of those protected, the Australian magpie is in part harmful.

4. The taking of protected animals is controlled by the Internal Affairs Department. Permits are sparingly given for the taking of protected birds and mammals for scientific and educational purposes, chiefly for museums, universities and the Government.

The taking of seals is controlled by the Marine Department. Prior to 1946 no permits had been issued for twenty-two years, but in that year permits were granted, and, unfortunately, over 6,000 fur seals were killed, regardless of sex or age.

Permits to take tuataras are granted only for special reasons, such as scientific study. In the past a few have been taken, by permission, for overseas museums or zoological gardens.

IV. Recommendation for further action:

From the above brief statement of the present position of National Parks and similar reserves, and the protection otherwise afforded to the indigenous plants and animals of New Zealand, it would appear that some further action is desirable. The Committee accordingly makes the following recommendations for the consideration of the Royal Society.

1. In selecting new areas for protection, especially those of considerable size, particular consideration should be given to the types of plant formation they contain. It should be the aim, in a general way, to protect in several localities each different kind of forest, scrub, grassland, mountain vegetation and swamp. At present, probably the main types of forest are covered, though not in a sufficient number of localities. The existing areas of kauri forest are, however, small, owing to the amount of timber cutting that has been done in the past. Waipoua, the best remaining kauri forest, is controlled by the State Forest Service, a Department that at any time may decide to cut timber in it, as in fact it has already done over a considerable portion. The Committee has, therefore, no hesitation in recommending that the Waipoua Kauri Forest, with an adequate surrounding belt of other forest or scrub, be absolutely protected.

There are still many forested areas and some outlying islands unsuitable for settlement that could be set aside as sanctuaries for plants and animals. All the subantarctic islands that are not as yet protected should at the earliest date be constituted a National Park. The most outstanding example of an island that should be a National Park, though more on account of its geological than its botanical features, is White Island, in the Bay of Plenty.

There is indeed an urgent necessity for a check-up regarding the protection of the plant formations of New Zealand.

2. No further importations of birds or mammals for releasing should be made without the fullest scientific investigation. Past experience has shown that every species that has become established has done some harm, if only to displace native species, while it is practically impossible to exterminate any kind of bird, mammal or insect that has run wild. All liberated animals very soon reach the remotest parts of New Zealand.

3. The present efforts to control deer, pigs, goats, chamois and their like should be intensified. It is especially important to reduce to the smallest numbers or, if possible, exterminate wapiti, red deer, chamois and tahr, as these animals are extensively altering the forests and grasslands in the National Parks and thus defeating the objects for which these areas were set aside.

4. Finally, the Committee repeats the recommendation it made in 1945 that there be set up a National Wild Life Council to include a representative of each of the departments of Agriculture, Forestry, Public Works (soil conservation and rivers control), Marine, Tourist, Internal Affairs, Scientific and Industrial Research, Acclimatisation Societies, the Royal Society of New Zealand, the University of New Zealand, and the Chief Executive Officer of the Council.

That the Council have the responsibility of considering all problems of wild life control and the preservation and development of the natural resources of

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the Dominion and its Dependencies; of determining the problems requiring investigation, and preparing and administering a co-ordinated research plan; and of formulating a national natural resources and wild life control policy.

W. R. B. Oliver

,
Convener Wild Life Committee of the
Royal Society of New Zealand
.

In the discussion which followed, Dr. Archey moved: “That the report be sent to Departments concerned and that each section dealt with be sent to its appropriate Minister.”

This was carried.

Dr. Miller, in speaking to Section II, stated that lack of organization was responsible for the lack of control of the wasp and the white butterfly.

On the motion of Dr. Frankel, seconded by Dr. Archey, it was resolved that Section IV be emphasized in the report and represented to the Prime Minister.

It was finally resolved, on the motion of Dr. Oliver, that the report as amended be adopted.

Tongariro National Park Board

Report of Representative on the Board

The Board met in October, 1948, and a meeting of the Management was held in March.

Mr. T. Shout has been appointed Warden of the Tongariro National Park.

The appointment of a ranger and caretaker has been deferred until accommodation has been arranged.

Six new huts have been approved for erection in the Park as follows: Alpine Sports Club and Taihape Alpine Club; Hutt Valley Tramping Club, Tongariro Ski Club, Tararua Tramping Club, and Ruapehu Ski Club (second hut). The proposals for the huts and buildings are in future to be forwarded through the Federated Mountain Clubs with their approval.

The destruction of broom on the Park has been continued. The road to the Ohakune Hut has been improved. The erection of a memorial to Tukino Te Heu Heu is under consideration.

The late eruption of Mount Ngauruhoe has not done any damage to the Park.

P. Marshall

, Representative on the Board.

On the motion of Mr. Pycroft, the report of the representative on the Tongariro National Park Board, Dr. P. Marshall, was adopted.

A letter from the Auckland Branch of the Forest and Bird Protection Society regarding a motor road through the bush at Ohakune was referred to the Standing Committee.

Carter Observatory Board

Report of Representatives

Eight meetings of the Carter Observatory Board were held during the year, and the normal business conducted.

In December, 1948, Mr. M. F. Luckie, who has been Chairman of the Board since its inception in 1939, retired, and the vacancy was filled by Mr. F. W. Furkert, representing the City Council. Mr. E. P. Norman was elected Chairman and Professor D. C. H. Florance, Deputy Chairman.

During the year the Board considered carefully many items concerning the foundation and improvement of existing work at the Observatory.

Approval was given for commencing experimental work on photo-electric photometry of stars, and the possibility of expanding the present auroral programme with further Government aid was explored. Generally speaking, the work of the year should bear fruit in time to come.

The Board received a valuable gift in the form of the complete astronomical library of the late Mr. A. C. Gifford. This is to be used for the extension of

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general astronomical knowledge among the public. Also, the funds collected by Mr. Gifford under the title “Students of the Starry Skies” were transferred to the Board. This money will be used for purchasing small telescopes for distribution to science classes of secondary schools and thus fulfil many of the ideals entertained by Mr. Gifford. Five such instruments are now on order from England.

The educational work of the Observatory has been maintained. During the year, the total attendances of visitors amounted to 1707. In January, a special course of one week's duration for secondary school teachers was held. This was most successful teachers from all parts of the country attending.

The purchase of a 16 mm. Ampro Sound Projector has assisted demonstrations at the Observatory to a high degree.

Solar observations have been maintained as in previous years. Observations for relative sunspot numbers have been transmitted to the international headquarters at Zurich, and spectro-helioscope observations were sent to Muedon, commencing in January, 1949. During 1948, special observations were made as required at the request of the Greenwich Observatory, and reports of outstanding solar flares reported by cable.

Progress was made by the Dominion Physical Laboratory in the construction of a sun camera for attachment to the 9-inch telescope.

The provision of radio disturbance forecasts to the Post and Telegraph Department and the National Broadcasting Service have been maintained with the previous fair success.

Auroral work along the lines of previous years has been maintained, and as a prelude to a complete revision of all existing material from 1931 to date, the records have been subjected to a preliminary survey.

With the help of the Government in many ways, plans have been outlined for the commencement of parallactic auroral photography in the South Island in the latter half of 1949.

Miscellaneous work has been undertaken at the Observatory as required. Ephemerides of comets have been computed when necessary, and this and other relevant information distributed to approved amateur astronomers as occasion demanded.

The passage of time serves to accentuate that the Observatory is fulfilling a much-needed function, and that further development is vitally necessary for future progress.

C. G. G. Berry,
M. A. F. Barnett

,
Representatives on the Carter Observatory Board.

Dr. Focken moved the adoption of the report by the representatives on the Carter Observatory Board, Dr. M. A. F. Barnett and Mr. C. G. G. Berry. Carried.

Dr. Archey commended the report and the amount of work accomplished by the Carter Observatory during the year.

Permanent Secretariat: Pacific Science Association. Dr. Archey reported that the Pacific Science Council had decided that there should be set up a Permanent Secretariat and that the Royal Society had been asked to carry on until such time as financial means were found to enable an appointment to be made. It was resolved that the Society agrees to the recommendation, subject to there being no financial commitments.

N.Z. Science Congress, 1950. Professor Allan and Dr. Frankel extended an invitation on behalf of the Canterbury Branch to hold the next Science Congress in Christchurch.

Dr. Marwick moved that the Canterbury Branch be thanked and that the date of the Congress be fixed after consultation with the Canterbury Branch.

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U.N.E.S.C.O.: Group Discussions. Following a discussion on a circular letter from the National Commission of U.N.E.S.C.O. it was resolved, on the motion of Dr. Archey, that the National Commission of U.N.E.S.C.O. be advised that the Royal Society and its Branches will co-operate especially in respect to Sections C and D, namely, semi-popular levels and academic levels.

Election of Officers. The Nominations Committee reported that it had met and considered the nominations received from Member Bodies and it recommended that Dr. R. A. Falla be re-elected President and Mr. F. R. Callaghan Vice-President.

The following officers were elected: President, Dr. R. A. Falla; Vice-President, Mr. F. R. Callaghan; Hon. Treasurer, Mr. S. Cory Wright; Hon. Editor, Miss Marion Fyfe; Hon. Librarian, Professor L. R. Richardson; Co-opted Member, Dr. J. Marwick; Rep. Great Barrier Reef Committee, Dr. W. R. B. Oliver; Royal N.Z. Institute of Horticulture, Dr. W. R. B. Oliver.

Election of Committees

Hector Award Committee: Dr. H. D. Skinner, Mr. J. C. Andersen, with power to co-opt one other.

Hutton Award Committee: Dr. D. Miller, Dr. H. H. Allan, Professor W. N. Benson.

Fellowship Selection Committee: Mr. B. C. Aston, Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. L. H. Briggs, Dr. D. B. Macleod, Professor R. S. Allan.

Library Committee: Professor L. R. Richardson (Hon. Librarian), Professor C. A. Cotton, Professor W. P. Evans, Dr. H. H. Allan.

Wild Life Committee: Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, Dr. G. Archey, Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. H. H. Allan, Mr. L. E. Richdale, Mr. C. A. Fleming.

Nominations Committee: Mr. Pycroft, Professor R. S. Allan, Mr. J. D. H. Buchanan, Professor W. P. Evans, Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. H. D. Skinner.

Research Grants Committee: Dr. R. A. Falla (Convener), Dr. H. H. Allan, Dr. J. Marwick.

Votes of Thanks. Votes of thanks were passed to the Council of Victoria University College for the use of the Council Room, to the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research for the use of its Council Room, to the President, to the Hon. Treasurer, to the Secretary, and to the Press.

Annual Meeting. Arrangements were left in the hands of the Standing Committee.

Travelling Expenses. It was resolved that travelling expenses be paid.

Consultative Man-power Committee. On the motion of Professor Allan, it was resolved that matters brought forward by the Scientific Man-power Committee be referred to the Standing Committee.

Confirmed Standing Committee meeting, June 3, 1949.

R. A. Falla

, Chairman,

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Reports of Member Bodies
Wellington Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand

Annual Report for the Year ended 30th September, 1948

Membership. The membership of the Branch now stands at 360, made up of 286 full members and 74 associates.

General Meetings. October 22, 1947, Annual General Meeting, followed by screening of scientific films; April 28, 1948, Presidential Address, “How a Geologist Learns,” by Mr. M. Ongley; June 23, 1948, “Peace-time Applications of War-time Nuclear Developments,” by Mr. C. N. M. Watson-Munro; July 28, 1948, “Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation,” by Mr. W. L. Newnham; August 25, 1948. “Contemporary Social Change in the Cook Islands,” by Prof. E. Beaglehole; September 22, 1948, “The Hot Springs of New Zealand,” by Mr. J. Healy.

Presidential Address to the Royal Society of New Zealand, “Scientists and Conservation,” by Dr. R. A. Falla. This annual address, previously given each year before the Annual Meeting of the Royal Society of New Zealand, was this year given for the first time before a general meeting of the Branch.

Combined Meeting with the Wellington Branch of the New Zealand Institution of Engineers, April 1, 1948, “Some War Incidents of an Industrial Research Laboratory,” by Sir Clifford Paterson, O.B.E., F.R.S., D.Sc., Past President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers.

Astronomy Section. “The Solar Atmosphere,” by Dr. R. C. Allen; “The Interior of the Earth,” by Mr. W. M. Jones; “Astronomical Applications of Photo-electric Cells,” by Mr. K. D. Adams; “Auroral Work of the Carter Observatory,” by Mr. I. L. Thomsen.

Biology Section. “The Marine Provinces of New Zealand,” by Miss L. B. Moore; “Submarine Daylight and Photosynthesis of Marine Algae,” by Dr. Tore Levring; “Lakes,” by Mr. K. R. Allen; “Subantarctic Seals,” by Mr. J. H. Sorensen; “Evolution of Evolution,” by Prof. H. D. Gordon; “Illustration in Biological Research, with Special Reference to Photography,” by Dr. J. T. Salmon.

Geology Section. “Pacific Strandlines,” “Volcanic Eustatism, ‘Tectonic’ or ‘Structural’?”, “Shutter Ridges on the Line of the Wellington Fault,” and “Note on a New Californian Theory of Tectonic Earthquakes,” by Prof. C. A. Cotton; Symposium, “Exhibits and Reviews of Recent Interesting Papers,” “Applications of Geophysics to New Zealand Conditions,” by Mr. N. Modriniak and Dr. E. I. Robertson; “Miscellaneous Notes on Structure,” by Dr. A. R. Lillie.

Physics Section. “The Atomic Pile,” by Mr. C. N. M. Watson-Munro; “The Canterbury Project,” by Mr. R. Unwin; “Some Recent Developments in Geophysical Methods,” by Dr. E. I. Robertson; “Detection of Nuclear Particles by the Photographic Emulsion Method and its Application to Cosmic Rays,” by Mr. F. D. Manchester; “Radio Echoes from Meteorites,” by Mr. C. J. Banwell.

Social Science Section. “The Newspaper as a Social Service,” by Miss M. Godfrey; “A. N. Whitehead on Historical Foresight,” by Dr. E. G. Jacoby; “Some Superstitions—Their Development and Meaning,” by Mrs. I. Macaskill; “Child Guidance in New Zealand,” by Mr. J. G. Caughley; “Social Aspects of Medical Treatment,” by Dr. Charles Burns; “Employment Research in New Zealand,” by Mr. N. S. Woods.

Technology Section. “Lubrication,” by Mr. J. Stewart; “Possible Power Sources (Neither Atomic nor Fuel),” by Mr. R. McLennan; “The Design of Hydro-electric Power Stations: Civil Engineering and Scientific Implications,” by Mr. W. A. Bloodworth, B.E.; “Industrial Application of Rubber Latex,” by Mr. E. Freyberger; “The Place of Ceramics in Modern Life,” by Mr. W. Vose; “Light and Sight,” by Mr. S. C. MacDiarmid; “Contemporary Engineering in Sweden,” by Mr. C. E. Taylor.

Science Exhibition. This exhibition, which was held in the Wellington Town Hall from the 12th to the 14th April, was an outstanding success. Approximately 6,300 persons paid for admission, and in addition the exhibition was attended by about 3,000 school children in organized parties from the Wellington schools. A private view attended by His Excellency the Governor-General was held at 5 p.m. on Monday, the 12th April.

The Hudson Lecture. The Council has decided to establish an annual memorial lecture, to be known as the Hudson Lecture, which will be given in August each

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year by an outstanding New Zealand scientist. Although commemorating the late Mr. G. V. Hudson and his contributions to New Zealand science, the lecture is in no way limited in subject matter or scope and the Council hopes that it will become a scientific event of outstanding importance each year. An honorarium of ten guineas will be paid to the lecturer.

Representation on the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand. Professor L. R. Richardson and Dr. J. T. Salmon have represented the Branch.

Papers for Publication. “Notes on Synonymy among New Zealand Insects” and “A New Species of Acridiidae,” by Dr. J. T. Salmon.

Waipoua Forest. The Royal Society's Sub-committee Report on Waipoua Forest was referred to the member societies for comment. It has been discussed and reported on by the Committee of the Biology Section, and is under consideration by the Council.

Meeting Rooms. The fifty theatre seats ordered last year were installed in the Branch's room at the Dominion Museum in time for the 1948 session and have proved a valuable addition to our amenities.

Observatory. The Observatory is in a good state of repair and the instruments have been in constant use throughout the year.

Library. The Library Committee met early this year and advised the purchase of a number of new books which were agreed to by the Council. Periodicals are still slow in coming to hand and many are well behind in publication. Subscriptions have been started to the two new journals, Research and Human Relations. It has been decided to discontinue the subscription to Science News Letters when the current subscription runs out.

Publicity. A considerably improved coverage of the Branch's activities has been given by the local Press during the past year, and for this the Council would like to express its sincere thanks. An offer from the Council of the N.Z.A.S.W. to publish reports of lectures given before meetings of the Society in the New Zealand Science Review has been accepted and some reports have already appeared in the Review.

J. F. Filmer
H. C. McQueen

,
Vice-Presidents.

J. T. Salmon

, Secretary.

Auckland Institute and Museum

Annual Report for the Year Ended 31st March, 1949

Donations. Gifts during the year included a bequest of £1,000 by Mr. E. P. Mitchelson; a cinema-sound projector, the gift of Sir Frank Mappin; a grant of £450 authorised by the Minister of Education, the Hon. T. H. McCombs, for constructing a lecture and projection room for visting school classes; and a donation of £50 from the Auckland Electric Power Board.

Membership. During the year 64 new members have been enrolled, but we have lost from various causes 29 members. Our membership is now 830, of whom 232 are life members.

Honours. The Council cordially congratulates Dr. G. H. Cunningham, F.R.S.N.Z., on the award to him of the Hector Medal for his distinguished botanical investigations.

Science Congress. The Seventh Pacific Science Congress, held in February, was a momentous event in the history of science in New Zealand. The Institute shared with the Auckland University College the privilege of acting as host institution in Auckland; and the Auckland Committee, under the chairmanship of Dr. Archey, who was also Secretary-General of the Congress, included the Mayor, the Town Clerk, and the Presidents and members of both institutions.

An “At Home” given by the Mayor, a Garden Party given by Sir Frank and Lady Mappin, and a joint Institute and University College Reception in the War Memorial Museum, constituted the formal entertainment; members of both institutions contributed liberally to a fund for excursions, transportation and other hospitality.

An attractive handbook, “Auckland,” was sponsored by the City Council, the Harbour Board, the Transport Board, and the Electric Power Board, and many local organizations and citizens gave ready assistance.

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The Congress was attended by over 200 delegates from overseas and by over 500 from New Zealand. Many of the visiting scientists visited the Museum several times during their stay in the city and spoke highly of the building, the exhibits, and the efficiency of the staff.

Meetings. A lecture by Sir Ben Lockspeiser, Director-General of Scientific Research in the Ministry of Supply, was arranged in conjunction with the Auckland Branch of the Institution of Engineers. The other lectures were given by Mr. E. G. Turbott, M.Sc., “Birds of the Outlying Islands”; Mr. A. W. B. Powell, F.R.S.N.Z., “Land Snails and Earth History”; Dr. G. Blake Palmer, “Psychiatry and Social Problems” (annual British Medical Association lecture); Mr. J. D. Sargent, M.Sc., “Bacteria in Relation to Milk Quality.” Three ordinary meetings were held, papers being read by Miss Myra Carter, Miss V. Dellow, Miss A. Lush, Mr. W. Andrew, Mr. V. J. Cook, Mr. M. H. Battey, and Mr. S. M. Hovell.

Sunday Lectures. This year's Sunday afternoon lecture series comprised eight addresses given by Auckland scientists, including members of the Museum staff. Good attendances again testified to the appreciation the public have of these lectures. Contributors to the series were: Mr. Johannes C. Andersen, “Maori Place Names”; Mr. R. B. Sibson, “Bird Migration and New Zealand”; Mr. M. H. Battey, “Pacific Geology”; Professor V. J. Chapman, “Salt Marshes”; Mr. A. C. Hipwell, “Primitive Art”; Mr. R. S. Walsh, “The Inmates of the Hive”; Mr. J. Healy, “Recently Active Volcanoes in New Zealand”; Mr. R. C. Cooper, “Some New Zealand Alpine Plants.”

Astronomical Section. The Auckland Astronomical Society has had a considerable increase in members, the number now being 78. Eight meetings were held, with an average attendance of 38, the subjects including Sundials, Galaxies, Auroras and Earthquakes, the last being given by Dr. E. A. Hodgson, Assistant Dominion Astronomer of Canada, a visitor for the Pacific Science Congress.

Anthropology and Maori Race Section. The Anthropology Section has also increased its membership during the year from 53 to 84; it had an average attendance of 51 at eight lectures. The section has been fortunate in having had lectures from Professor Raymond Firth, Dr. Herbert Money and Mr. H. E. Maude during their recent visits to New Zealand.

Field Trips. Field trips included a short visit to Great Island, Three Kings group, through the generosity of Mr. A. J. Black, of Dunedin, who provided transport in his motor vessel, the Alert, and two visits to the extreme northern coast through the courtesy of Messrs. A Hancox, of Kaikohe, and R. A. Prouse, of Levin, both of whom provided motor transport.

Exhibitions. The thirteenth annual Cheeseman Memorial Show of Native Flowers was opened by Mrs. V. J. Chapman on Saturday, 25th September, and continued until the following Wednesday. Visitors to the show numbered 5,000, including primary and secondary school classes, and stage 1 botany classes from Auckland University College. The adult section of the show was smaller than in past years, but included exhibits arranged or sent by the Auckland Botanical Society, the Forest and Bird Protection Society, the Titirangi Beautifying Society, the Wellington Botanical Society, the Levin Native Flora Club, Massey College, Canterbury College and Otago University. Fifty friends and societies contributed material for the show and 500 children took part.

Education Service. The following is a summary of the number of children having attended one-hour lessons for the year ended 31st March, 1949:

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Primary Intermediate Secondary Special Total
31/3/48—End of Term 182 28 210
Term II, 1948 12,610 2,001 650 64 15,325
Term III, 1948 6,068 703 1,435 156 8,362
1/2/49–31/3/49 1,909 1,558 1,647 20 5,134
20,769 4,262 3,760 240 29,031

Material has been sent to 55 town schools and 137 country schools, and there are 141 schools requesting material which cannot be supplied owing to the lack of prepared displays. The Education Department made a grant of £150 for materials and transport of displays.

Schedules of the Cheeseman Memorial Prize Competition were printed in the Star and Herald during the first term and sent to all schools in the Auckland Province when schools re-opened. There were 48 entries and the standard of

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work is steadily rising. Schedules for the Cheeseman Memorial Spring Show of Native Flowers were sent to all schools in the Auckland Province, and great enthusiasm was shown, children and teachers coming from as far as Thames and Whangarei. There were 32 school entries in table exhibits and 457 individual entries.

Under the guidance of Miss M. L. Hurrey, Assistant Education Officer, a natural history club was formed when schools re-opened. The response of the children was so keen that 72 children joined, thus necessitating the splitting of the club into three groups—junior, intermediate and senior—each of which met once a month on Saturday mornings.

This year 50 Training College students have been posted to the Museum for teaching practice.

Library. During the year a record number of books and pamphlets have been added to the Library. Of the total number of 1,615, over 1,200 were purchased from the Edward Earle Vaile Trust Fund, 110 from the Mackechnie Fund, and nearly 300 were received by donation. The most important purchase was that of the private library of Mr. Johannes C. Andersen consisting of works chiefly relating to New Zealand.

Displays were arranged throughout the year. In August the Botanical Society held an afternoon at the Museum, and a special display of botanical works was arranged. Books loaned by the National Library Service were displayed at the Cheeseman Memorial Flower Show in September. In May the National Library Service sent on loan for some months over 200 American periodicals, and many of these were displayed. In connection with the Pacific Science Congress, a display case was set up illustrating the history of Pacific exploration.

Canterbury Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand

Annual Report for the Year Ended 31st October, 1948

Membership. The ordinary membership has decreased from 227 to 222; associate membership has decreased from 18 to 17.

Constitution. Early in 1948 the Council appointed a sub-committee, comprising Mr. G. Stokell, Mr. C. W. Collins and the Hon. Secretary, to draft a new Constitution. This, after being approved by the Council, was submitted to all members in September. The Constitution was passed unanimously without amendment at a special general meeting on October 6. It still remains for the Rules of the Society to be revised in accordance with the new Constitution.

Canterbury Museum. In April the Canterbury Museum passed from the control of the Canterbury University College Council to the Canterbury Museum Trust Board, representative of the whole province. Professor E. Percival took his seat on the new Board as the representative of this Society. Mr. R. S. Duff, who went to London University in 1947 on a British Council Scholarship, returned to Christchurch in September and took up his position as Director of the Canterbury Museum.

Seventh Pacific Science Congress. During the year, arrangements were finally made for the Seventh Pacific Science Congress to be held in New Zealand, from February 2 to 22, 1949. The Royal Society of New Zealand, supported by the Government, is responsible for the organization, and a full programme of sessions, tours and local excursions has been arranged. The second week of meetings will be held in Christchurch from February 15 to 22, and this Branch of the Society will be joint hosts with Canterbury University College.

Meetings. March 3, “Engineering and Abstract Science” (Presidential Address), Professor G. G. Calvert; April 7, “Soil Mechanics,” Mr. P. J. Alley; May 5, “Hay Fever and Associated States,” Dr. A. B. Pearson; June 2, “The New Mechanics,” Dr. F. C. Chalklin; July 7, “Fossil Penguins,” Professor B. J. Marples; August 4, “The Magnetic Survey of New Zealand, Its Aims and Methods,” Mr. H. F. Baird; September 1, “The Use of Models in Hydraulic Engineering,” Mr. P. M. Gilmour; September 15, “The Organic Factors in Personality,” Dr. Alan Crowther (additional general meeting arranged by the Social Science Section); October 6, “The Work of the Seventh Pacific Science Congress,” Dr. R. S. Allan; November 3, “A Worm's Eye Veiw of Radio Location,” Mr. C. E. Fenwick.

Papers. April 7, “Additions to the Rotatoria of New Zealanod, Part 3,” C. R. Russell; May 5, “An Eroded Coast Line,” Professor R. Speight; “A Freshwater Smelt from the Chatham Islands,” Mr. G. Stokell; July 14, “A New

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Explanation of the Thermo Mechanical Effects in Liquid Helium ii, and also of the Second Sound Wave,” Dr. D. B. Macleod; October 6, “Studies on a Freshwater Mussel of the Genus Diplodon,” Mr. R. L. C. Pilgrim.

On November 17, 1947, a special meeting of the Society was held, in conjunction with the Forest and Bird Protection Society and the Association of Friends of the Canterbury Museum, to hear an address entitled “Gateways to the Antarctic,” by Dr. Robert Cushman Murphy, of the American Museum of Natural History, New York.

On March 12, 1948, a special meeting of the Society was held, in conjunction with the Canterbury Branch of the New Zealand Institute of Engineers, to hear an address by Sir Clifford Paterson, F.R.S., Past President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers.

Riccarton Bush. The Society's representative on the reconstituted Board of Trustees of Riccarton Bush has presented to the Council the following annual report: “As the result of the passing of ‘The Riccarton Bush Amendment Act, 1947,’ the Board has been increased to include representatives of the Riccarton Borough Council and of Waimairi, Paparua, and Heathcote County Councils. The Board was given power by the Act to levy contributions on all the local bodies mentioned, together with the Christchurch City Council, and to purchase an area of some thirteen acres with the old Deans homestead which is to be included as part of the reserve.

“The newly constituted Board met on February 25, 1948, and entered into possession of the new area on March 30, 1948.

“Work on the new area has been confined to general maintenance and planting a small area with specimen trees donated by the Christchurch City Council. Plans are in hand for the preservation of the majority of the trees, many of which are of great historic and scientific value. The Christchurch Rotary Club has generously offered to restore to its original condition the 1843 homestead which has been removed to a new site.

“As regards Riccarton Bush proper, the increased revenue has enabled the employment of an assistant to the ranger. Together they have made a large-scale attack on the larger areas of weeds which had increased owing to the opening up of the bush after the snow damage of 1945. All weeds are now being removed by the roots and with the extra labour available future infestation should be kept down to a minimum. While blackberry, spindletree, elderberry and bittersweet are the worst weeds, a recent survey showed that in addition to these there are eighty-nine species of alien plants which have to be dealt with.

“Shelter on the southern boundary has been provided by the planting of a belt of Lombardy poplars donated by Lincoln College.”

Honorary Librarian's Report. The Society's Library continues to be steadily used by members, by the Canterbury University College community under the merger agreement, and by members of sister societies and others who borrow through the inter-loan scheme. At the same time, use by our members of the College Library is increasing, though less advantage than might have been expected is taken of special facilities, such as the postal service.

Field Club Section. The membership of the Club at present stands at 28. During the year seven excursions have been well attended by members and visitors. Two evening meetings were held in the Museum during July and August. Addresses were given by J. Veale, “Mosses and Ferns,” and G. Stokell, “Scientific Description of Fishes and How to Read the Age of Fishes from Scale-studies.”

Social Science Section. Four well-attended meetings of the section have been held during the year. Addresses were given by Mrs. Ann Rosenberg on “Psychiatric Social Work in Britain”; by Dr. Alan Crowther on “The Physical Factors in Personality”; by Mr. H. Critchfield on “Climate as a Factor in Man's Environment”; and at a joint meeting with the Biology Section, Professor E. Percival gave an illustrated address on “How Came the Erect Posture in Man?”

Biology Section. As it was the opinion of the Chairman of the Biology Section that this section fulfilled no useful purpose, the Council decided to dissolve it from November 30, 1948.

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Otago Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand

Annual Report for Session 1948

Membership. The total membership of the Branch is now 167, compared with 168 at the end of the 1947 session.

Representatives on Museum Committee. Mr. C. V. Dayus and Mr. George Simpson continued to act in this capacity.

Representatives on Council of Royal Society of New Zealand. Dr. C. M. Focken and Professor Gordon J. Williams.

Fellowship of the Royal Society of New Zealand. Dr. N. L. Edson, a member of the Branch and an Associate Professor in the University of Otago, was elected a Fellow at the Annual Meeting. Your Council feels that this honour is well merited by Dr. Edson, who has done extensive and important research in biochemistry.

Address by Dr. Robert Cushman Murphy. Dr. Murphy visited Dunedin after the close of the 1947 session, but the “Red” lecture theatre, Medical School, was engaged for November 19, 1947, and a large number of members was able to attend to hear this eminent authority lecture on Oceanic Birds, and to see some beautiful slides and two interesting films which he brought with him.

Auditorium. The Branch's Auditorium Fund, now amounts to £1,874 7s 1d. The Government is subsidising the cost of the Museum extension. The discussions revealed the fact that the existing plans and proposals for the Auditorium in the Museum extension were nothing like those envisaged by your Council, who feel that, in this connection, the original wishes of the anonymous donor of the greater part of the fund should be followed. Although it is realised that the Auditorium is primarily for Museum purposes, and that the major portion of its cost will be borne by the Museum Fund proper, there can be no doubt that the donor intended his gift to provide reasonable facilities within that Auditorium for the activities of the Royal Society. At various times during the year a delegation from your Council, consisting of the President, Hon. Treasurer, and Hon. Secretary, have met both the Museum Committee of Management and the Building Sub-committee of that body to discuss further the question of the Auditorium, and it seems probable that a satisfactory solution will eventually be worked out.

World Calendar. Your Council passed the following resolution: “That the Otago Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand is in full agreement with the movement of the World Calendar Association Incorporated to establish the World Calendar,” and forwarded it to the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand with a request that the question of the World Calendar be put on the agenda of the Annual Meeting for 1948. A copy of the resolution was sent to the World Calendar Association Incorporated.

Discussion at the Annual Meeting of the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand resulted in an intimation being sent to the World Calendar Association Incorporated, to the Prime Minister, and to the Leader of the Opposition that the Royal Society of New Zealand is in favour of calendar reform as proposed by the World Calendar Association.

Astronomical Section. This section has informed your Council that the local Telescope Makers' Club wishes to amalgamate with it, and that the section is in favour of such amalgamation. The proposal raises certain constitutional points and the whole matter is still under consideration.

General Meetings. April 20, Presidential Address (Dr. Basil Howard), “A Layman Looks at Science”; May 4, Dr. R. R. Nimmo, “Tube Alloys or the Atomic Bomb”; June 8, Mr. J. Rogers, M.Sc., A.N.Z.I.C., “Mineral Dressing: Some New Zealand Problems”; July 13, Professor Marples, “Penguins”; biographical sketch, Mr. W. V. Heazlewood, M.Sc., “Professor James Gow Black”; August 10, Mr. W. Vose, “The Role of Ceramics in Modern Life and Industry”; biographical sketch, Miss B. Brewin, M.Sc., “Professor Parker”; September 14, Dr. W. P. Morrell, “Gold” (joint meeting with Historical Section of the Branch); biographical sketch, Dr. H. D. Skinner, “John Buchanan, F.L.S.”; October 12, Professor R. M. Gabriel, “The ‘Numbers’ of Mathematics”; biographical sketch, Professor C. J. Williams, “Professor James Park.”

Original Papers. Miss Beryl I. Brewin, M.Sc., “Ascidians from Otago Coastal Waters”; Mr. K. W. Allison, B.Sc., “New Species of New Zealand Bryophytes”;

– xxxii –

Mr. A. C. Amies, M.Sc., F.G.S., “An Intrusion of Porphyrite near Waihao Forks,” with an appendix by Mr. D. S. Coombs, M.Sc., “Note on the Occurrence of Further Porphyritic Rocks in River Gravels of South Canterbury and North Otago”; Professor W. N. Benson and Dr. H. J. Finlay, “Micropalaeontology of a Concretion in a New Zealand Crab.”

Junior Lectures. The attendance this year has been rather disappointing, the average being only 48. It is hoped there will be an improvement next year. Organiser, Dr. Basil Howard.

Astronomical Section. The section has had a successful year. With regard to the Beverly-Begg Observatory, the season of public nights held each Saturday, beginning late in April and lasting until the end of September, was a successful one with only four occasions on which sky conditions were totally unfit for observation. Attendance figures this year showed a decline, 320 visitors patronising the Observatory, as against 370 for last year. The largest attendance on any evening was 40 on May 15.

Observations of occultations have been continued, although under some difficulty on occasions on account of the absence of the clock. However, a new clock is on order from England, and when it arrives this work, whose importance was stressed by Dr. Comrie on his recent visit, will be much facilitated. A useful acquisition during the year was a stop-watch purchased for the Observatory.

During the year the section has interested the Queenstown Progress League in the marking of the spot at Queenstown where an American expedition to Otago observed the transit of Venus on December 8, 1874. The section is prepared to provide a suitably inscribed plaque for fixing to a pedestal or stone let into the ground.

The Committee of the section recently met a delegation from the Telescope Makers' Club which desired to enter into an arrangement with the section for the joint use of a common lecture and work room. It was decided that a joint appeal be made to the Government for a grant to provide additional accommodation at the Observatory which could be used by both parties.

The section roll stands at 48 full members and 24 associate members.

Historical Section. At a meeting on August 4 it was decided to revive the Historical Section, Dr. W. P. Morrell being elected President, and about fifty indicating their intention of becoming members. Mr. W. J. Harris gave an address on that occasion on “Source Materials for the Historian in Otago,” and two further meetings were held, Dr. J. Rutherford reading a paper on “The Acquisition of British Sovereignty in New Zealand” and a panel discussion on “‘The Teaching of History in Secondary Schools” being held on October 9, in conjunction with the annual conference of Otago and Southland secondary teachers. The section also held a joint meeting with the Branch, when Dr. Morrell spoke on “The Otago Gold Rush in Perspective.”

Scientific Methodology Section. No meetings were held this year.

Microscopical Section. Owing chiefly to lack of office-bearers with sufficient spare time, this section remained in partial abeyance. The only meeting held was organised for the Junior Branch on the evening of July 16 in the new Medical School, Hanover Street.

Nelson Philosophical Society

Annual Report for Year Ended 30th September, 1948

Membership. The total membership of the Society for the year was 51.

Meetings. October 20, 1947, Sir Reginald Stradling, Vice-President of the Institution of Civil Engineers and Technical Adviser to the Ministry of Works, “Housing Research”; November 17, 1947, Mr. R. S. S. Meredith, “Water Power”; May 17, 1948, Mr. A. W. Parrott, “Observations on the Freshwater and Marine Fisheries of New Zealand”; June 21, 1948, Mr. C. I. Kidson, “Coal” (Presidential Address); July 19, 1948, Mr. E. W. F. B. L. Hendricks, “Indigenous Peoples of Indonesia”; August 16, 1948, Major G. M. Smart, “Impressions of Japan”; September 20, 1948, Mr. A. N. Field, “Post-War Economic Ideals versus Realities.”

C. I. Kidson

, Chairman.

B. H. Wood

, Hon. Secretary.

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Hawke's Bay Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand

Annual Report for the Year ended 31st December, 1948

Annual General Meeting. The annual general meeting of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Hawke's Bay Branch, was held in the Art Gallery, Napier, on March 29. The President, Dr. C. D. Costello, was in the chair. The speaker for the evening was Miss A. Woodhouse, who worked for many years in the Turnbull Library. She took as the subject for her address the early books on New Zealand, examples of these, from the Russell Duncan and McLean collections, being on view in the Museum.

Council Meetings. Early in the year it was decided to alternate meetings of Council in the two districts and to do the same with general meetings. As the membership is fairly evenly divided between Napier and Hastings, this will minimise the expense and inconvenience of travelling.

Membership. Present total, 126.

General Meetings. The annual meeting and three quarterly meetings were held in March, June and August and October respectively. Papers were read as follows: Dr. A. G. Clark, “Do Continents Move?”; Dr. R. A. Falla, “Subantarctic Sanctuaries”; Mr. Ewing, “The Weather”; and Mr. Aitken, “Interplanetary Travel.”

Broadcasts. Five broadcast talks were given from Station 2YZ: Mr. J. D. H. Buchanan, “Work of the Royal Society”; Rev. F. H. Robertson, “Gannets at Cape Kidnappers”; Mr. E. Phillips, “H.B. History”; Canon S. F. N. Waymouth, “Comets and Meteors”; Mr. H. A. McLean, “Water Supplies in Hawke's Bay.”

Science Exhibition. This exhibition, held in both Napier and Hastings, was a major effort and a gratifying success. It has been fully reported to members in the Bulletin. Well over 11,000 people attended in the two towns. Of the profit received, £50 was granted to the Hawke's Bay Art Society, which has applied it to the work of its Historical Department; £10 to the Hastings Museum Committee and certain books were purchased for the Library; the balance has been put to “Special Reserve.”

Projector Fund. The donors to this have now agreed that the money shall become a “Special Reserve.”

Library. This is now housed very well in the Reference Library in Napier. A few additions have been made and a number of books are on order.

Sections. These have shown very gratifying activity, though mainly in the Hastings District. Some movements are already afoot to organise them at the Napier end, but the difficulty there lies in the numbers already fully taken up with work in the Museum and kindred societies.

Representative on Council of Royal Society. Mr. J. D. H. Buchanan.

Papers. One by Dr. Levring has been submitted for publication.

Museums. The Society is represented on the Management Committee of the Hawke's Bay Art Gallery and Museum in Napier and on the Hastings Museum Committee. The Society is gradually increasing its efforts in this direction.

C. D. Costello

, President.

Southland Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand

Annual Report for the Year ended 31st March, 1949

Membership. The membership at the close of the year was 41.

Meetings. May 4, 1948, Annual Meeting and Film Evening; June 23, “Science as Applied to Horticulture,” A. A. Hume; July 28, “Some Solar System Sketches,” G. G. Couling; film, “Fifty Degrees South”; August 25, Presidential Address, “Coal Resources of New Zealand,” R. W. Willett; September 17, films of Three Kings and “Bird Life on Stewart Island,” G. M. Turner; September 22, “The ‘Numbers’ of Mathematics,” Professor R. M. Gabriel; October 27, “The Future of Atomic Energy,” Dr. R. R. Nimmo.

Balopticon. The Branch's own balopticon was received and cost £92 1s 7d; £18 1s has been received in donations from members, but further help is asked.

F. Malcolm Corkill

, President.

O. Sansom

, Hon. Secretary.

– xxxiv –

Presidential Address

New Zealand and International Relations
in Science

In the early days of a Society such as the Royal Society of New Zealand, or of any similar body elsewhere, the first concern was the organizing of meetings and exchange of views between the members of a small group having little contact with or concern for the activities of groups working along the same lines in other centres. But the colony was hardly seventeen years old when the local societies sought or agreed to affiliation as the New Zealand Institute; and in successive anniversary addresses its first President repeated the conviction that “Co-operation is the secret of success in all scientific pursuits.” Effective co-operation was not obtained, however, by the new body as at first constituted. It required another twenty years or so of critical insistence by the Institutes, or a few far-sighted people in them, before the central governing body was finally constituted as an elected rather than as an appointed one.

There has been a steady growth in the idea and practice of co-operation and to-day we are so accustomed to such meetings as our own triennial Science Congress and the biennial meetings of the Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science that it is difficult to realize how much doubt and opposition marked their beginnings. The British Association on which they were modelled faced widespread ridicule when it first met, while to-day it is recognized not only as a forum of science but as an indispensable liaison between scientists and the general public. The development of similar organization, which followed elsewhere was not a painless evolution; and we do well to remember with gratitude the vigour with which Dr. A. K. Newman (Journ. Science, June, 1882) presented the case for a New Zealand Association of Science. We have in effect to-day in our own Society Congresses exactly what he was advocating, but they did not commence until some years later.

What has happened, as a matter of history, has been that new needs in the development of science have called for new organizations. The growth of science in industry led to the formation of the Institute of Chemistry and similar bodies, concerned mainly with professional standards, but not neglecting the advancement of their particular sciences. In the twentieth century the development of technology and related research has given rise to yet another kind of organization, the various Associations of Scientific Workers. Concerned primarily with working conditions—in the widest sense of the term—these Associations in most countries have also been actively interested in the social relations of science. This outlook has led logically and rapidly to international activity crystallized in 1946 by the founding of the World Federation of Scientific Workers. Its constitution includes such aims as—

1.

To work for the fullest utilization of science in promoting peace and the welfare of mankind.

– xxxv –
2.

To encourage the international exchange of scientific knowledge and of scientific workers.

3.

To improve the professional, social, and economic status of scientific workers.

4.

To encourage scientific workers to take an active part in public affairs, and to make them more conscious of, and more responsive to, the progressive forces at work within Society.

Some of these objects are capable of varying interpretation, as delegates to a recent conference of the Federation held in Prague found out; but nothing is more certain than that a bold and sincere attempt to tackle and discuss them is the only alternative to chaotic tensions stemming from power politics of one sort or another, and frustrating science and every other manifestation of constructive human endeavour.

We find ourselves, then, in an age in which scientific co-operation, begun from mixed motives of scientific need and vague goodwill, must now be recognized as a vital element in progress and survival. It is only recently that New Zealand scientists and scientific institutions have begun to participate with effective strength. It is true that valuable contributions have been made to Congress programmes for many years, but actual delegates seldom have numbered more than one or two. With the A.N.Z.A.A.S. it has been physically easier to participate, and apart from the three successful meetings that have been held in this country, the size of New Zealand delegations to the meetings held in Australian cities has shown a gratifying growth.

However, I think that it is no exaggeration to say that the past year has been the most important one to date in bringing home to New Zealand scientists, and, one hopes, the New Zealand public at large, the significance and possibilities of international co-operation in Science; and I hope that you will regard this address as an appropriate time and place to indulge in a few observations in retrospect on the Seventh Pacific Science Congress. The decision to extend to the Pacific Science Association an invitation to hold the Seventh Congress in New Zealand was made, as you know, not without misgivings. I have made elsewhere to-day some acknowledgment of the services of the local officers and organizers; but I should like to record again in this address my belief that without the persuasive eloquence and prophetic conviction of Professor R. S. Allan the decision never would have been made in time; and to record further that without the ability and personal sacrifice of Dr. G. Archey the Congress itself would not have achieved the measure of success in organization of which so many of our recent guests have expressed their appreciation. It would be pleasant to enlarge on such impressions as the wide range covered in the programme; on the originality of many of the contributions and in some cases the novelty of their presentation; on the immense stimulus gained by discussion in and out of session; and on the hundred and one things planned or unpremeditated that go to make the stuff of Congresses. Such pipe-dreams and reminiscences are pleasant, and I am sure they are good for us. But our sterner and more constructive duty is to ask: “After the Congress—

– xxxvi –

what?” and, having decided what, to embark on the tasks ahead. To some extent they have been planned and the direction is clear. It was an outstanding feature of the Congress that the Divisional Research Planning Committees all worked hard throughout the period available and presented reports in which the problems were clearly formulated and methods of tackling them clearly defined. In the past, the only continuing activity between Congresses was that of the Standing Committees. They lacked liaison and the stimulus and executive help of a central bureau. This has now been provided for, and the new Standing Committees have the further advantage of wise and vigorous directives from the divisional discussions of the Seventh Congress. The list of projects and resolutions forms indeed a new charter—one that not only defines new problems and new aspects of old ones, but also one that recognizes the existence of other national and international organizations in the field and provides for close co-operation with them.

I should like to run through them all to illustrate this point, but there is not time to do so, and a selection must suffice. Last year I spoke on the scientific attitude to conservation problems. They have bulked largely in the recommendations of the biological science divisions, and these have been set out in a way which defines the following clear principles:

(a)

That conservation practices should be established on a scientific basis.

(b)

The recognition of informed public opinion as essential to sound conservation practice. This is accompanied by recommendation for educational programmes in conservation at all levels.

(c)

Support for such regional or world conventions as may be needed, and careful study of the objectives and organization of the International Union for the Protection of Nature.

(d)

That the high proportion of marine problems in the Pacific Area be recognized in conservation programmes. There is also a comprehensive list of rare or unique associations of plants and animals, and even of single species, for which urgent or immediate protective measures are urged.

The same realistic approach marks the rest of the recommendations in biology. Oceanography, an active section, also outlines its fundamental problems in both biological and physical fields, draws attention to the meagre and sporadic nature of surveys to date, and sets forth proposals for future guidance. One of these is the setting up of marine laboratories in geographically suitable areas—and the specific recommendations include New Zealand. Lack of local enterprise or development in this important field has never been more apparent than they were in the efforts of experienced overseas oceanographers to find their opposite numbers here, or any institution or department in which their technical problems could be discussed at a constructive level. There is no doubt that administrative action in this field is much handicapped by the lag in research.

– xxxvii –

It is probable that meteorologists, vulcanologists, stratigraphers, and perhaps seismologists found more flint for their steel and found New Zealand better prepared to move forward in a programme of co-operative research. In the Social Sciences, too, there were vigorous discussions at a level practical enough to invoke political repercussions. For New Zealand science generally it may be said that we have had a stocktaking of strength and weaknesses and a stimulus which should result in an advance that will justify the expenditure of public money, and of time and energy, involved in holding the Seventh Pacific Science Congress.

The other notable link forged during the year in our chain of attachment to the international solidarity of science is the setting up of a permanent New Zealand National Commission for U.N.E.S.C.O. Officially recognized as a National Co-operating Body for Science, the Royal Society of New Zealand has been kept informed of all developments in the Natural Sciences programme. It has exercised its privilege of submitting nominations for membership of the National Commission; and of its two nominees one was appointed by the Minister of Education directly, and the other following nomination by the National Commission itself. No member of the Commission is a direct representative of any organization. Their special duties insofar as they relate to Science consist of helping in the interpretation of remits received by the Commission from co-operating bodies in Science, and of the documentary output of the Natural Sciences section of U.N.E.S.C.O. So far the Commission has been mainly occupied with clarification of policy and some routine duties connected with delegations to conferences, but it is fully alive to the importance of its function as a channel of communication between U.N.E.S.C.O. and the people of New Zealand.

Of U.N.E.S.C.O. itself it can be said that the situation is encouraging. The vigorous pruning of its programme, of which the need was so apparent at the First and Second General Conferences, was effectively applied at the Third, held a few months ago in Beirut. Many vague and impracticable projects were dropped and others took effective shape in action. The Natural Sciences section and the Sub-committees maintained their reputation for clear definition and a knowledge of what they wanted, and the programme in this field has shown results. The policy has been adopted of direct action by U.N.E.S.C.O. in matters of relief and reconstruction of scientific enterprise in war-devastated countries, and of limited financial and stimulative aid to international projects already being planned or undertaken, and considered to be constructive. Thus we find outlined in the Report of the Director-General for 1948 how four field science co-operation offices have been maintained—in the Middle East, the Far East, Latin America, and South Asia, engaged in exchanging and disseminating scientific information between those regions and other countries. The International Institute of the Hylean Amazon, which was initiated by U.N.E.S.C.O., has been set up under a Protocol by which eight nations assume all financial responsibility after 1948. To this practical interest in problems of life in the torrid zones has been added the organization of a conference, held in Switzerland

– xxxviii –

last year, on High Altitude Research Stations. Under the heading of Pure Science are listed the grants-in-aid to the International Council of Scientific Unions and federated unions. Members will be aware that our own efforts to get representative attendance from less wealthy countries at the Pacific Science Congress were assisted by a grant of 20,000 dollars, sufficient to pay transportation expenses of nine delegates. Lastly, as a world centre for scientific liaison, U.N.E.S.C.O. received requests or suggestions on many matters more or less urgent. Two on which it has acted, and in which we have a direct interest, are the convening of conferences to be held on Scientific Abstracting and Indexing Services (June) and Technical Conference on the Protection of Nature (September). It is expected that New Zealand will be represented at both of these conferences. Adequate representation from a country of fewer than two million inhabitants at conferences held some twelve thousand miles away is going to be a recurrent and difficult matter to arrange, but the Royal Society has a duty to bring to the notice of the Government the importance of such conferences as those mentioned above, and the need for representation.

Yet another opportunity of participating in regional co-operative work is provided by the South Pacific Commission. Its work was explained at the recent Congress by Professor Baas-Beking, head of the Scientific Research Section; and it is to be hoped that New Zealand's contribution to its work will include activity in the natural sciences.

An important two-way channel of communication between New Zealand and the United States also has been established by the setting up of the Fulbright Foundation. Although the funds available under this are broadly defined as for educational purposes, the list just published of grants allotted in the first six months shows a gratifying proportion of students and workers in science. Only this week an expedition which has been operating since January in the Caswell Sound area of Fiordland is concluding its field work. New Zealand scientists and field staff have been engaging in biological survey of a little-known region under the scientific leadership of Dr. Olaus J. Murie, an American ecologist, who, as the first holder of a New Zealand Fulbright Fellowship, is undertaking a special study of the habits and status of the North American elk or wapiti in this part of Fiordland.

Although the list of promising developments is gratifying, I think it is fair to say that we are by no means yet adequately prepared to make the fullest possible contribution to international co-operative enterprise in science. A sound development at the national level is a prerequisite to any international team-work, and there are some weak spots in New Zealand science that need strengthening. This is a matter on which one can properly quote examples only from one's own field, and it is neither necessary nor appropriate to do it here, but in passing I suggest that each in his own field should be prepared to face the question of whether our own standards are yet good enough.

The Royal Society has, however, a duty to advise and urge its Government in respect to contributions which it feelds can and should be made to international questions by a scientific approach. One of these in which we should have an interest is the future of Antarctica.

– xxxix –

It is the only remaining large unoccupied area of the earth, and no one has shown any desire to live there. There has been active competition in the exploitation of its known natural resources, mainly marine; and arising partly from this and partly from motives of national prestige, much conflict of territorial claims, some of which have been, to say the least, undignified.

The only constructive suggestion to date has come from the United States, of whose State Department it must be said that its Antarctic policy has been consistent and indicative of careful study. The proposal was that seven of the Governments claiming Antarctic Territory should create a limited form of international regime, designed to settle the conflicting claims. To this Britain replied, accepting the proposal in principle, but the replies from New Zealand, France, Norway, Australia, Argentina, and Chile were classified as unfavourable. The Acting Prime Minister has since explained that New Zealand expressed willingness to enter into some such arrangement if such were acceptable to the other interested Powers, so that presumably the classification of the reply should have been “noncommittal” rather than “unfavourable.” There will be many who think that these claims can be settled ultimately only by some such method; but if agreement is going to be a matter of time there is no reason why an international agreement on scientific research plans in Antarctica should not be reached much earlier. Even joint expeditions are practicable, and in November this year a Norwegian-British-Swedish expedition will leave for two years in Queen Maud Land. There will be fourteen scientists and technicians, of whom the British members will be responsible for geological research, and the Norwegians and Swedes for the glaciological and meteorological investigations.

During the last three years there have been tentative suggestions for a New Zealand expedition and some hints of possible co-operation with other countries. That nothing has come of these is due in part to the absence of a research plan—some vagueness as to what we want to do. I should like to suggest that the Royal Society might give some attention to this need—perhaps a Polar Research Committee or a general research plan committee could prepare something that would be ready when the time came for decision on expeditions, as it is bound to do in the near future. If the Royal Society expects to be consulted in such matters, it is not enough to expect a request for opinion on the grounds of prestige alone. Our only claim to notice would be that we had given some careful thought to the matter and had at least the broad outlines of a practicable plan.

I am aware, as you will be, that a few aspects only of our international responsibilities have been touched upon in this address; but I hope that enough has been said to point the need for realization of our responsibilities and opportunities, and a strengthening of our New Zealand standards in all sciences, so that we may make a full contribution to that kind of scientific progress which unites instead of sundering the peoples of the earth.

R. A. Falla.

– xl –

Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council,
Held 17th May
, 1950.

The Annual Meeting of the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand was held on Wednesday, 17th May, 1950, in the Council Room, Victoria University College, Wellington.

Representation and Roll Call. The following responded to the roll call:—The President, Dr. R. A. Falla; representing the Government: Dr. G. Archey, Mr. B. C. Aston, Dr. W. R. B. Oliver; representing the Auckland Institute: Dr. L. H. Briggs, Mr. A. T. Pycroft; representing Wellington Branch: Dr. L. Bastings, Dr. J. T. Salmon; representing Canterbury Branch: Professor R. S. Allan, Dr. O. H. Frankel; representing Otago Branch: Dr. C. M. Focken, Mr. O. H. Keys; representing Hawke's Bay Branch: Mr. J. D. H. Buchanan; representing Nelson Institute: Dr. D. Miller; co-opted Member: Dr. J. Marwick; Hon. Treasurer: Mr. S. Cory Wright.

Apologies were received from the Hon. Minister for Scientific and Industrial Research, who wrote stating that owing to a meeting of the Executive Council he regretted that it was not possible for him to attend.

Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Vice-President, wrote apologising for absence as he was leaving for England on the 12th May for the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux Conference.

Mr. R. Willett, representative of the Soutland Branch, apologised for absence as he was attending a Coal Conference in Dunedin.

Honorary Patron. The President conveyed to the Council a personal message from his Excellency the Governor-General, the Honorary Patron of the Society. He said he had called on his Excellency, who regretted that a meeting of the Executive Council made it impossible to attend this meeting, and in previous years he was usually in residence in Auckland in May. Dr. Falla said his Excellency showed keen interest in the work of the Council and the Society as a whole, and he conveyed his warmest encouragement and good wishes.

New Members of the Council. The President welcomed to the Council Mr. O. H. Keys, who replaced Miss M. Fyfe as representative of the Otago Branch. The President also welcomed the Hon. Treasurer, Mr. S. Cory Wright, as a member of the Council consequent on the Royal Society of New Zealand Act, Amendments, 1949, being passed.

Obituary. The President referred to the loss the Society had sustained by the death of Professor R. Speight and of Professor A. J. Bartrum, and the Council stood in tribute to their memory.

Hector Award. The following report was received from Dr. H. D. Skinner, convener of the Hector Award Committee and adopted:—

“The Hector Award Committee consisting of Sir Peter Buck, Mr. Johannes Andersen and myself, nominates for the Hector Medal and Prize, Dr. Ernest Beaglehole, M.A. (N.Z.), Ph.D., Litt.D., F.R.S.N.Z., on account of his published researches in Polynesian ethnology.
– xli –

(Signed) H. D. Skinner

,
Convener Hector Award Committee.”

Amount of Hector Prize. On the motion of the Hon. Treasurer, it was resolved that the amount of £50 be the Hector Prize.

Hutton Award. The following report was received from Dr. D. Miller, convener of the Hutton Award Committee and adopted:—

“I herewith submit the finding of the Hutton Award Committee for 1950. The Committee comprised Drs. W. N. Benson, H. H. Allan and D. Miller.
“The unanimous recommendation of the Hutton Award Committee is in favour of Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, on account of both his zoological and botanical attainments.

D. Miller

,
Convener Hutton Award Committee.”

Notices of Motion. Two Notices of Motion, one regarding the title of the Wild Life Committee and the other regarding Presidential Addresses were handed in and deferred until later in the meeting.

Fellowship R.S.N.Z. On the recommendation of the Fellowship Selection Committee, Mr. B. C. Aston (Convener), Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. L. H. Briggs, Dr. D. B. Macleod and Professor R. S. Allan, the following were elected Fellows of the Society:—Professor J. C. Eccles, Professor P. W. Robertson, Dr. H. R. Whitehead, Dr. C. R. Laws.

Vacancies in Fellowship. On the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Dr. Briggs, it was resolved that two Fellows be elected in 1951.

Honorary Membership. An election for three honorary members was held, and resulted in Dr. H. E. Gregory, Dr. C. E. Tilley and Dr. Ernst Mayr being elected.

No vacancies in the Honorary Membership were declared.

Dr. Briggs suggested that more uniformity in the space given to setting out the qualifications of nominees for Hon. Membership was desirable. The President pointed out that the responsibility for providing adequate information regarding the qualifications of nominees lay with the nominating bodies, the Member Bodies.

Announcement of Awards. Dr. L. H. Briggs suggested that it would lend interest to the meeting at which the Presidential address is delivered if the announcements of the various awards and Fellowship election could be withheld from the press until the announcement is made publicly at the evening meeting. A good deal of discussion arose, and the suggestion did not meet with general approval.

Committees. On the motion of the President a cordial vote of thanks was accorded to the Hector, Hutton and the Fellowship Selection Committees for their work.

Report of the Standing Committee.

Annual Report for the Year Ended 31st March, 1950.

Meetings. Six meetings of the Standing Committee were held during the year, the attendance being as follows:—Dr. R. A. Falla, President, Wellington, 6; Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Vice-President, Wellington, 5; Mr. B. C. Aston, Wellington, 6; Dr. L. Bastings, Wellington, 6; Dr. J. Marwick, Wellington, 5; Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, Wellington, 5; Dr. J. T. Salmon, Wellington, 6; Mr. R. W. Willett, Wellington, 6; Dr. O. H. Frankel, Christchurch, 1; Mr. S. Cory Wright, Hon. Treasurer, Wellington, 3.

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Obituary. Professor R. Speight. News was received of the death of Professor R. Speight, and at the meeting of the Standing Committee held in September the President, Dr. Falla, referred to Professor Speight's reputation as a geologist, filling positions as Curator of the Canterbury Museum and Professor of Geology at Canterbury University College.

Professor Speight was President of the Society from 1933–1935, and as such in 1934 delivered the first Presidential Address to the Society after its change of title from New Zealand Institute to The Royal Society of New Zealand.

Professor R. S. Allan represented the Society at Professor Speight's funeral, and as a close associate of Professor Speight was asked to write an Obituary Notice for the Transactions.

Council. The Council remains the same as last year except that Mr. O. H. Keys replaces Miss M. Fyfe as a representative of the Otago Branch and that under the amended Act, the Hon. Treasurer, Mr. S. Cory Wright, holds a seat on the Council.

Honorary Editor. At a meeting of the Standing Committee held on the 15th September the resignation of Miss M. Fyfe as Honorary Editor was accepted with regret. Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, who had intimated that he would be prepared to act at least until the annual meeting in May, was appointed Honorary Editor.

Dr. J. Henderson, who held the position of Honorary Editor for some years, had expressed a wish to purchase a set of Maori Art. The Standing Committee decided to present him with a bound set in recognition of his services. The presentation was made by the President at a meeting of the Standing Committee in February.

Publication Matters. Volume 77, Part 3 was issued in May, 1949; Part 4 in September, 1949. The Science Congress (Volume 77, Part 5) was issued in November, 1949; and Volume 78, Part 1, was issued in February, 1950. This represents a total of 835 pages during the year, and is considerably in excess of recent annual printing output, so that there is room for optimism that the lag in the printing of the Transactions will soon be overtaken.

The Printers have pointed out that considerable blame for the delay must be shouldered by some of the authors themselves, and the imposing of the new rule making it imperative for galley proofs to be in the printers' hands three weeks after their issue should do much to minimise the delay.

The printers instanced cases during the printing of the Science Congress volume where galley proofs were over four months away from the printing office.

In July the Otago Daily Times Co. increased the cost of printing by a general 5s per page in text and plates and by 7s 3d per page for 8 point type.

The question of the continuance of bound volumes of Transactions was referred to Member Bodies, and the majority favoured the discontinuance of the bound volumes. A certain minority, however, protested, and in order to meet its wishes the printers were asked to quote for binding copies. They quoted 4s per copy for 400 copies. Members were advised of this concession, but the response was not sufficient to warrant further action and the Standing Committee decided to discontinue bound volumes as from 78.

This action reduced the price per text page to 25s 9d against the 27s quoted in July.

Advertising in Transactions. The question of the policy and expediency of advertising was referred to a sub-committee, which reported that enquiries had been made from possible advertisers, and it appeared that the Transactions, because of its limited circulation and its irregular dates of publication did not have an appeal as an advertising medium. The small amount of revenue that could be expected from this source could not justify the extra work involved in procuring advertisements.

The Sub-committee was thanked for its report, which was adopted.

Papers for Publication. The Wellington Branch desired an interpretation of the rules governing the publication of papers in the Transactions, and a subcommittee was set up to report as to whether the rules were adequate and whether any ambiguities existed. This report was submitted to members of the Council and to Member Bodies, some of whom required more time to consider it. After the Member Bodies have commented upon it, it is proposed to print it in the Transactions.

Science Congress Volume. The question of meeting the cost of the Science Congress Volume (£1,205) is one which has to be faced. The Department of

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Scientific and Industrial Research made a grant of £500 towards the cost of the volume. Owing to the delay of three years its publication price is subjected to the 1950 steep rise in printing costs.

The whole question of the publication of future Science Congress proceedings may have to be discussed at the annual meeting, as such an extra printing outlay every three years is quite beyond the Society's present resources.

Index to the Transactions. The decennial Index to the Transactions covering Volumes 64–75 is in process of preparation and a sub-committee consisting of Dr. Oliver (Botany), Mr. Willett (Geology) Dr. Salmon (Entomology) and Dr. Fell (Zoology) was set up to deal with the subject index.

Library. The Honorary Librarian, Professor L. R. Richardson, was given leave of absence on account of his visit overseas, and Dr. H. B. Fell was appointed Honorary Librarian during his absence.

The Library report gives details of the work during the year, but mention must be made here of the work done as a training project by two of the National Library School students in checking the holdings in the Library in the foreign languages sections. The students are graduates of the New Zealand University and were able to cover the German, French, Swedish, Dutch, Danish and Italian sections in the Library, and the results of their work will be incorporated in the Library Association's supplementary list of periodicals taken in New Zealand.

For the last three years trainees from the Library School have done a two months' project in the Society's Library and have completed listing the entire holdings. This work is invaluable not only for the Society's Library but to the whole of New Zealand through the inter-loan system.

However, this has not relieved the pressure of routine work in the Library, and the prospect of a part-time assistant in the Library at an early date is welcome.

Binding. The Society's binder completed the work he had had in hand for some time—namely, 52 volumes. The price has increased by approximately 5s per volume.

Member Bodies. The following reports and balance sheets for the year have been received:—

Wellington Branch for the year ended 30th September, 1949.
Canterbury Branch for the year ended 31st October, 1949.
Otago Branch for the year ended 31st October, 1949.
Nelson Philosophical Society for the year ended 31st December, 1949.

Fellowship. There are four vacancies in the Fellowship. The Member Bodies nominated fourteen for these vacancies, and the Fellows voted on these names, the results being sent to the Fellowship Selection Committee for recommendation to the annual meeting.

Hector Award. Owing to the absence overseas of Dr. G. H. Cunningham, the presentation of the 1948 Hector Medal and Prize was delayed until his return in 1949. The President, Dr. Falla, presented the medal to Dr. Cunningham at a public meeting of the Auckland Institute on the 13th June.

The 1949 Medal and Prize were awarded to Dr. R. A. Robinson, of Raffles College, Singapore, and the presentation was made at Singapore by the Chancellor of the University of Malaya on the Foundation Day ceremony of this new University. The Chancellor, Mr. Malcolm Macdonald, is Commissioner General of South-East Asia, and the occasion of the presentation received due publicity.

Hutton Grants. On the 15th September, on the recommendation of the Research Grants Committee, Mr. D. R. McQueen was granted £15 for research on the regeneration after fires in the Nothofagus forests of the Southern Tararuas.

Messrs. A. W. B. Powell and R. Cooper were granted £50 for an ecological survey of the Gouland Downs area of Western Nelson.

Mr. W. H. Dawbin was granted £40 to visit Norfolk Island to examine and make comparisons in the humpback whales, but subsequently he reported that the grant would not be necessary this year on account of the exceptionally poor whaling season at Norfolk Island.

Mr. L. E. Richdale applied for and was granted a transfer of his grant for research in the Solander Islands to albatross and penguin research on the Otago Peninsula.

One application for a grant was declined as it was for a project outside the scope for Hutton Grants.

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R.S.N.Z. Amendment Act. Further approaches were made to Treasury to increase the Society's grant, and have the full grant embodied in the Act but without success. However, the other desired amendments were incorporated in the Act, which now provides for two Vice-Presidents instead of one and for the Hon. Treasurer to be a member of the Council. It also provides that the retiring President shall continue to be a member of the Council for a term of one year. It further provides for two members to be elected to the Council by the Fellows of the Society in 1950 and every alternate year thereafter. The machinery for carrying out this latter amendment has to be set up and a sub-committee consisting of Dr. Marwick and Dr. Salmon was appointed to determine the best procedure for giving effect to this new clause.

The amendments will necessitate some supporting rules to be passed at the annual meeting, and the Amended Act and Rules will then be published in the Transactions and in booklet form.

New Zealand Science Congress. The next Science Congress which is to be held in Christchurch, was by resolution of the Council to be held in 1950. The Christchurch committee submitted alternative dates of August, 1950 or May, 1951, and it was felt that in view of the very recent Pacific Science Congress Christchurch session and the difficulty of accommodation during August in Christchurch, that May, 1951, was the better time. The A. and N.Z.A.A.S. Brisbane meeting is being held in May, 1951, but an endeavour is being made to avoid any clash of dates. Dr. Frankel attended the February meeting of the Standing Committee and reported on the progress of plans so far made amongst which a proposal to invite a distinguished visitor from overseas as the guest of the Congress if arrangements could be made to do so.

A first instalment of the grant for administration expenses was paid to the Christchurch Committee.

Pacific Science Congress. The Hon. Secretary, Dr. G. Archey, forwarded certain resolutions of the recent Pacific Science Congress for transmission to the proper quarters. The Standing Committee also considered the report on the Organisation of Research.

Permanent Secretariat. This has now been set up with headquarters in Honolulu, Mr. Loring G. Hudson, M.A., B.Sc., of Honolulu, being appointed Executive Secretary, and Miss Brenda Bishop, of Auckland, Assistant Secretary.

U.n.e.s.c.o.—Science Abstracting. As reported in the last annual report, a sub-committee had drawn up a comprehensive report on the matter of science abstracting for the Conference in Paris. Some dissatisfaction was expressed that through some misunderstanding this report was not placed on the agenda of the Conference.

Food and People. At the request of the National Commission for U.N.E.S.C.O. Member Bodies were asked to give prominence in the year's programmes to the Food and People project. The majority of Member Bodies have responded.

Appeal for Funds. Dr. Falla represented the Society at a meeting called by the National Commission to discuss ways and means of giving assistance in reconstruction in war-devastated countries. At this meeting a representative committee was set up to wait on the Minister of Education to ask him to launch an appeal for funds for the above purpose.

Computation Centre. U.N.E.S.C.O. submitted a proposal that an International Computation Centre be established. Dr. Bastings, to whom the matter was referred, reported that he could discover no function which such a centre might undertake which could not be fulfilled by computation centres already in existence or in process of being developed.

Wider information regarding the existing centres, however, and greater utilization of their facilities would be an advantage.

U.N.E.S.C.O. was advised accordingly.

Conferences. The New Zealand Association of Scientific Workers was supported by the Standing Committee in a protest to the National Commission at the calling of overseas conferences at short notice without agenda defining the terms of reference, thus giving sufficient time to obtain the full views of subscribing members.

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Book Coupon Scheme. U.N.E.S.C.O. submitted an international book coupon scheme designed to assist people in soft currency countries to obtain serious books in countries of hard currency. The Standing Committee agreed to support the scheme in principle, although it was not aware of any serious difficulties in obtaining supplies.

International Technical Conference on Protection of Nature. Several members, including the President, Dr. Falla, were invited to submit papers for presentation to the Conference at Lake Success in August/September.

Mr. J. D. Raeside was appointed to represent the Royal Society at this Conference, but he was also an official New Zealand delegate to the United Nations Conference on the Conservation and Utilization of resources at Lake Success on dates more or less synchronising with the other Conference so that his attendance was necessarily limited.

International Council of Scientific Unions. Mr. S. Cory Wright, who was visiting England, was appointed to represent the Society at the General Assembly of the International Scientific Unions held in September in Copenhagen.

Mr. Cory Wright briefly reported to the Standing Committee on the work of the General Assembly at which he had been appointed Chairman of the Finance Committee. Twenty-five countries were represented by 70 delegates.

Seventh International Botanical Congress. Dr. H. H. Allan was appointed to represent the Society at this Congress which is to be held in Stockholm this year.

Overseas Conferences. Preliminary announcements have been received regarding the International Entomological Congress, the International Geological Congress and the Third World Petroleum Congress, all to be held in 1951.

Sir Henry Dale, f.r.s. Advice was received from Dr. Marsden that Sir Henry Dale would be visiting New Zealand. Member Bodies were accordingly advised and opportunity was taken by all the centres to arrange lectures by this eminent scientist.

National Parks. At the June meeting of the Standing Committee discussion arose on Tongariro National Park and the control of National Parks in general and the need for a detailed constructive policy to be placed before administering authorities. With this end in view Dr. Marshall, the Society's representative on the Tongariro National Park Board, was invited to attend the next meeting and discuss with the Standing Committee the policy of the Tongariro National Park Board.

The outcome of this meeting was that a sub-committee was set up to consult with the Lands Department regarding measures which could result in a really effective National Park policy. The sub-committee subsequently reported that in an interview with the Lands Department Officers it was learned that a new Act was being drafted which would consolidate the various National Parks Acts now in existence. The Committee is to continue in office to watch proceedings for further report to the Society.

Maymorn Estate. The New Zealand Institute of Foresters asked for the support of the Society in pressing for the preservation of the Maymorn Estate.

A supporting letter was sent to the Hon. Commissioner for State Forests.

Museum Management Committee. Professor L. R. Richardson resigned from the Museum Management Committee owing to his absence overseas. The Standing Committee, however, granted him leave of absence, and Dr. H. B. Fell was appointed to act on the Committee during Professor Richardson's absence.

Loder Cup. The Society nominated Mr. A. Morris Jones for the Loder Cup award.

Advice has been received that Miss Nocline Baker, of Stewart Island, has been awarded the Loder Cup for 1949.

Stocks of Transactions. During the year approximately 120 volumes or parts of volumes of Transactions were received from the Auckland Institute from its surplus stocks for the purpose of completing sets for devastated libraries.

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W. R. Mechaelis Trust. The Otago University has accepted the administration of the W. R. Mechaelis Trust for the advancement of the sciences of Physics and Astronomy or Astrophysics in New Zealand. The gross annual income of the Trust is estimated at £190. The award is to be a biennial one alternately in physics and astronomy. A selection committee of three, appointed by the University of New Zealand, the Royal Society of New Zealand, and the New Zealand Astronomical Society is to make the awards.

Professor Florance was appointed to represent the Royal Society on the Selection Committee for the first award.

Handbook on Trichoptera of Australia and New Zealand. The Keeper of the British Museum asked the Royal Society if it would undertake to contribute to the publication of a Handbook on the Trichoptera of Australia and New Zealand. The matter was referred to the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research with the suggestion that it consult the Australian Council of Scientific and Industrial Research with a view to sharing the cost of publication.

Forest and Bird Society. This Society advocated co-ordination of effort in societies interested in the preservation of natural wild life in New Zealand.

It invited representatives of approximately 12 societies to attend a meeting and Dr. Falla was appointed representative of the Royal Society of New Zealand.

On the motion of Professor Allan, seconded by Dr. Frankel, the report of the Standing Committee was adopted.

Arising therefrom:—

Delay in Publications. Some discussion on the delay in publishing the Transactions took place. In reply to a question, Dr. Oliver, Hon. Editor, stated that Volume 78, Part 1 was issued, Parts 2 and 3 were being combined, and the galley proofs and some page proofs of this part have been received.

The papers for Part 4 have been sent to the printers, leaving only papers received since the beginning of 1950 in hand for Volume 79. The time lag seemed to be in the date of issue of advance copy and the receipt by members of their copies. Dr. Archey observed that the delay was now more apparent than real, and that the situation might be met by combining more parts. Dr. Salmon moved and Dr. Frankel seconded that Volumes 79 and 80 be issued as a combined volume. Dr. Oliver pointed out that this measure would result in confusion in reference and bibliography, and finally, on the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Mr. Buchanan, an amendement, “That the matter be referred to the Standing Committee for consideration,” was carried. A further motion, moved by Dr. Marwick, seconded by Mr. Keys, “That it be an instruction to the Standing Committee to avoid telescoping two volumes into one,” was carried.

Sub-committee's Report on Papers for Presentation in the Transactions. It was decided to refer the report of the Otago Branch, which had just been received, to the Sub-committee for consideration before its report is published in the Transactions.

Science Congress Volume. Dr. Frankel stated that the Canterbury Branch recommended that in future the size of the Science Congress Volume be greatly reduced, and that it should not be issued as a Part of the Transactions, but published separately as a Report of the Congress. After further discussion it was resolved, on the motion of Dr. Frankel, seconded by Professor Allan, “That the proceedings of the Royal Society Science Congresses be published as Reports of such Congress and not as Parts of the Transactions; that the Presidential Address and Section Chairman's addresses be printed in full, all

– xlvii –

other contribution in abstract form; and that the Report be distributed free to members of the Congress, at cost on request to members of the Society and to institutions and persons on the Exchange List, and to others at a small profit.

At a later stage, on the motion of Dr. Focken, seconded by Professor Allan, it was resolved that a levy of 2s 6d per volume be imposed on the copies of the 1947 Science Congress volume taken by Member Bodies.

Royal Society of New Zealand Act: Amendments, 1949. The President drew attention to the passing of the Royal Society Act Amendments, 1949. He stated that Treasury had declined to recommend that the clause covering the Society's annual grant should be amended to include the whole of the grant and that it declined to recommend an increase in the present grant.

On the motion of Dr. Salmon, seconded by Dr. Bastings, it was resolved, “That this Council re-affirms its opinion that an increase in the annual grant from the Government is a necessity, and directed the Standing Committee to make fresh approaches to Cabinet on this matter.”

Member Bodies. Mr. Keys mentioned that the Otago Branch was considering raising its annual subscription to meet increased calls on its finances and it was thought desirable that there should be uniformity if possible in this direction in Member Bodies. Representatives of Wellington and Hawke's Bay Branches mentioned that their subscriptions had already been increased, and Mr. Pycroft mentioned that Auckland Institute was considering action.

Dr. Archey suggested a conference of Presidents or Secretaries of Member Bodies as there were many points of interest common to all Member Bodies which could well be discussed.

On the motion of Mr. Keys, seconded by Dr. Archey, it was resolved: “That the Standing Committee be requested to give consideration to means whereby Member Bodies might unify or correlate their procedure regarding finance, life membership (including transfers) and organisation matters generally.”

Representation of Fellows on Council. On the motion of Dr. Focken, seconded by Mr. Pycroft, the report of the Sub-committee was received.

After some discussion, on the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Dr. Oliver, the following alternative method was adopted:—

Rules to Put Into Operation Clause 4 (f) of the R.S.N.Z. Act, Amendments, 1949:—

“Two members to be elected by the Fellows of the Society in the year 1950 and in every alternate year thereafter in the manner prescribed by rules made under this Act.”

Rules.

1.

In the year 1950 notice shall be posted to Fellows at their last notified address on or before 1st July intimating that written nominations for two Fellows proposed and seconded by Fellows and assented to by nominees shall close with the

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Secretary of the Royal Society of New Zealand on the 28th July, 1950.

2.

Voting papers containing the names of those so nominated shall be posted to Fellows on or before 14th August and shall be returned to the Secretary by 31st August, 1950.

3.

In 1952 and every alternate year thereafter, notice shall be posted to Fellows at their last notified address on or before 1st February intimating that written nominations proposed and seconded by Fellows and assented to by nominees shall close with the Secretary on 28th February.

4.

Voting papers containing the names of nominees shall be posted to Fellows on or before 10th March and shall close with the Secretary on the 31st March.

5.

All voting papers received shall be immediately forwarded to the Hon. Returning Officer, who shall notify the President as soon as possible of the result of the election.

6.

In the event of a tie the election shall be decided by lot determined by the Standing Committee.

The meeting adjourned for lunch at 12.30 p.m.

Afternoon Roll Call. Attendance was the same as for the morning session.

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[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Statement of Receipts and Payments for the Year Ended 31st March, 1950.
Receipts. Payments
£ s. d. £ s. d.
Balance at 31st March, 1949. 3,637 14 10 Otago Daily Times: Printing Vol. 77 (3 and 4) 616 5 0
Annual Government Grant 1,250 0 0 Salary 425 0 0
Sales of Publications 100 9 1 Research Grants 111 10 11
Travelling Expenses: Member Bodies' Share 24 0 4 Travelling Expenses 37 2 3
Levy on Volume 78 (in advance) 120 3 0 Library Binding 41 12 0
Refund Petty Cash from late Hon. Editor 0 6 0 Stationery 34 15 9
Hector Memorial Fund, Interest 52 9 8 Petty Cash 20 3 3
Hutton Memorial Fund, Interest 65 11 1 Hon. Editor's Expenses 6 17 3
T. K. Sidey Summer-time Fund, Interest 24 10 5 Charges (Telephone, Insurance, Bank, etc.) 15 18 8
Cockayne Memorial Fund, Interest 11 14 0 Subscription International Scientific Unions 40 8 2
Carter Library Legacy, Interest 6 8 2 Hutton Grants 64 18 4
Plant Diseases Trust, Interest 18 8 3 Hector Prizes (2) and Travelling Expenses 107 8 11
Hamilton Memorial Fund, Interest 2 7 0 Engraving Hector Medals (2) 1 16 6
Endowment Fund, Interest 75 12 0 1951 Science Congress: Instalment Christchurch Account 50 0 0
Interest on P.O.S.B. Account 42 10 0 Transfers from Bank N.Z. to Trust Accounts 13 5 0
Transfers from Trust Accounts to Bank N.Z. 146 4 3 Transfers from Bank N.Z. to Trust Accounts 13 5 0
Interest Paid Direct to Trust Accounts 136 6 7
Balance as Under 3,854 19 6
£5,578 8 1 £5,578 8 1

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Bank of New Zealand 1,557 15 3
P.O.S. Bank 2,280 11 0
Cash in Hand 5 17 11
Petty Cash in Hand 10 15 4
£3,854 19 6

(Signed) S. Cory Wright

, Honorary Treasurer.

– l –

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Statement of Assets and Liabilities at 31st March, 1950.
Liabilities. Assets.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
Hector Memorial Fund, Capital Account 1,184 18 1 Hector Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £1,250) 1,184 18 1
Hector Memorial Fund, Revenue Account 37 10 10 Hector Fund: P.O.S. Bank Account 37 10 10
Hutton Memorial Fund, Capital Account 1,506 8 6 Hutton Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £1,570) 1,506 8 6
Hutton Memorial Fund, Revenue Account 343 3 5 Hutton Fund: P.O.S. Bank Account 343 3 5
T. K. Sidey Summer-time Fund, Capital Account 549 8 6 Summer-time Fund: Ins. Stock (Face Value, £510) 500 2 6
T. K. Sidey, Summer-time Fund, Revenue Account 148 16 5 Summer-Time Fund: P.O.S. Bank Account 198 2 5
Plant Diseases Trust, Capital Account 542 13 5 Plant Diseases: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £500) 500 0 0
Plant Diseases Trust, Revenue Account 120 7 10 Plant Diseases: P.O.S. Bank Account 163 1 3
Cockayne Memorial Fund, Capital Account 249 12 0 Cockayne Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £260) 249 12 0
Cockayne Memorial Fund, Revenue Account 74 6 1 Cockayne Fund: P.O.S. Bank Account 74 6 1
Carter Library Legacy Capital Account 162 19 0 Carter Legacy: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £160) 162 19 0
Carter Library Legacy, Revenue Account 36 18 0 Carter Legacy: P.O.S. Bank Account 36 18 0
Hamilton Memorial Fund, Capital Account 79 10 2 Hamilton Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £60) 60 0 0
Hamilton Memorial Fund, Revenue Account 7 4 9 Hamilton Fund: P.O.S. Bank Account 26 14 11
Endowment Fund, Capital Account 2,129 2 5 Endowment Fund: Ins. Stock (Face Value, £2,070) 2,054 2 5
Endowment Fund, Revenue Account 434 9 10 Endowment Fund: P.O.S.B. Part General Account 509 9 10
Research Grant Fund 35 0 7 Sundry Debtors 75 10 10
N.Z. Science Congress Fund 50 0 0 Bank of New Zealand 1,557 15 3
Library Fund (Binding) 108 8 0 Post Office Savings Bank 1,771 1 2
Publication Expenses Fund 283 12 7 Petty Cash in Hand 10 15 4
Volume 78 Levy (in advance) 120 3 0 Cash in Hand 5 17 11
Accounts in Credit 3 8 1
Otago Daily Times (Science Congress Volume) 1,130 15 0
1947 Science Congress Volume Grant 500 0 0
Balance of Assets over Liabilities 1,189 13 3
£11,028 9 9 £11,028 9 9

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Property Assets–Estimated and Insured Value.
Estimated Value. Insured Value.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
Library and Stack Room Victoria University College 11,592 12 0 4,500 0 0
Furniture 95 12 6 40 0 0
Stock in Cellar, Parliament Bldgs. 500 0 0
Carter Library, Dominion Museum (jointly owned with Museum) 500 0 0
£5,540 0 0
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Revenue Account for the Year Ended 31st March, 1950.
Expenditure. Income.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Printing Transactions, Vol. 77, Parts 3, 4, 5 1,711 10 6 By Balance at 31st March, 1949 2,174 17 1
" Salary 425 0 0 " Annual Grant 1,250 0 0
" Stationery 34 15 9 " Trust Funds Administration Expenses 5 2 6
" Petty Cash 20 3 3 " Sales of Publications 127 3 2
" Binding Grant from General Account 50 0 0
" N.Z. Science Congress Grant, Christchurch 50 0 0
" Subscription International Scientific Unions 40 8 2
" Charges 22 9 11
" Travelling Expenses 13 1 11
" Balance 1,189 13 3
£3,557 2 9 £3,557 2 9
" By Balance £1,189 13 3
– lii –

Trust Accounts for the Year Ended 31st March, 1950.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Hector Memorial Fund.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Prizes 1948 and 1949 100 11 5 By Capital Invested 1,184 18 1
" Engraving Medals (2) 1 16 6 " Bal. Revenue A/c. 31/3/49 95 6 7
" Travelling Expenses: Presentation 6 17 6 " Interest 52 9 8
" Administration Exs. 1 0 0
" Balance 1,222 8 11
£1,332 14 4 £1,332 14 4
By Balance Capital A/c. £1,184 18 1
" Balance Revenue A/c. £37 10 10

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Hutton Memorial Fund.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Grants 64 18 4 By Capital Invested 1,506 8 6
" Administration Exs. 1 0 0 " Bal. Revenue A/c., 31/3/49 343 10 8
" Balance 1,849 11 11 " Interest 65 11 1
£1,915 10 3 £1,915 10 3
By Balance Capital A/c. £1,506 8 6
" Balance Revenue A/c. £343 3 5

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

T. K. Sidey Summer-time Fund.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 1 0 0 By Capital Invested and P.O.S.B. 546 19 6
" Balance 698 4 11 " Balance Rev. A/c., 31/3/49 127 15 0
" Interest to Rev. A/c. 22 1 5
" 1/10th Interest to Capital A/c. 2 9 0
24 10 5
£699 4 11 £699 4 11
By Balance Capital A/c. £549 8 6
" Balance Revenue A/c. £148 16 5

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Plant Diseases Trust.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 0 2 6 By Capital Invested P.O.S.B. 542 13 5
" Balance 663 1 3 " Bal. Revenue A/c., 31/3/49 102 2 1
" Interest 18 8 3
£663 3 9 £663 3 9
By Balance Capital A/c. £542 13 5
" Balance Revenue A/c. £120 7 10
– liii –

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Cockayne Memorial Fund.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 0 2 6 By Capital Invested 249 12 0
" Balance 323 18 1 " Balance Revenue A/c. 31/3/49 62 14 7
" Interest 11 14 0
£324 0 7 £324 0 7
By Balance Capital A/c. £249 12 0
" Balance Revenue A/c. £74 6 1

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Carter Library Legacy.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 0 10 0 By Capital Invested 162 19 0
" Balance 199 17 0 " Bal. Revenue A/c., 31/3/49 30 19 10
" Interest 6 8 2
£200 7 0 £200 7 0
By Balance Capital A/c. £162 19 0
" Balance Revenue A/c. £36 18 0

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Hamilton Memorial Fund.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 0 2 6 By Capital Invested and P.O.S.B. 78 6 8
" Balance 86 14 11 " Bal Revenue A/c., 31/3/49 6 3 9
" Int. Cap. 1 3 6
" Int. Rev. 1 3 6
2 7 0
£86 17 5 £86 17 5
By Balance Capital A/c. £79 10 2
" Balance Revenue A/c. £3 4 9
" 1947 Prizes (held temporarily) £4 0 0

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Endowment Fund.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 1 5 0 By Capital Inv. and in P.O. Savings Bank 2,129 2 5
" Balance 2,563 12 3 " Bal. Revenue A/c., 31/3/49 317 12 10
" Interest 75 12 0
" Interest on General Account 42 10 0
£2,564 17 3 £2,564 17 3
By Balance Capital A/c. £2,129 2 5
" Balance Revenue A/c. £434 9 10

On the motion of Mr. Cory Wright, seconded by Dr. Archey, the Hon. Treasurer's report and balance sheet were adopted. A question was asked regarding the growing balances in the Cockayne Memorial Fund and the Carter Library Legacy and the Standing Committee

– liv –

was asked to investigate the possibility of utilizing these funds. Some discussion on the Endowment Fund and its purpose arose, Mr. Aston maintaining that all interest not allocated at the annual meeting should be allocated.

On the motion of Dr. Archey it was resolved that all available revenue in the Endowment Fund be utilized for publication expenses.

Report of the Honorary Editor.

At the Standing Committee held on September 15th, 1949, I was appointed Honorary Editor in succession to Miss Marion Fyfe.

In October all manuscripts, proofs, correspondence, and stationery in Miss Fyfe's hands were forwarded to me. At that time Part 1 of Volume 78 of the Transactions was being set up by the printers and was duly published in February, 1950. It contained the report of the annual meeting of the Society held on May 25th, 1948, and 14 papers (zoology, 7; geology, 3; palaeontology, 1; and botany, 3.) Volume 78, Parts 2/3, containing 19 articles and a biography, are in galley form, some in page form, and the manuscript for Part 4 has been forwarded to the printers.

The Report of the Royal Society's Sixth Science Congress was published in November, 1949, as Volume 77, Part 5 of the Transactions. Although this part was numbered in the same series as the other parts of the volume the pagination of Part 4 is not followed so that in Volume 77 pages 1–412 are duplicated. Authors and bibliographers will therefore have to take care when quoting this volume, it being necessary in all cases to give the number of the part in connection with the page numbers.

There is a considerable lag between the date of issue printed on the parts of the Transactions and their receipt by members. Volume 78, Part 1, for instance, is dated February, 1950, and copies were sent to the editor and secretary at that time, but members generally did not receive their copies until April. In the case of the New Zealand Science Congress volume the date on the title-page is November, 1949, but my copy did not reach me until February, 1950. This is a serious matter for workers in science. The date of issue as printed on the title-page should, in my opinion, be in accordance with the actual time the parts are available to members and others.

The dating of separates “issued separately” is a practice that is not to be commended as, if the issue of separates does precede the publication of the part of the Transactions in which they appear, the separates are at the most available to only one person and his correspondents and are not available to the members of the Society and the public. It has happened that priority of publication of scientific names has been obtained by quoting the date “issued separately.” The present practice is to put after the words “issued separately” the date on the corresponding part of the Transactions. The words “issued separately” consequently have no meaning and, furthermore, are confusing. I have, therefore, beginning with Volume 78, Parts 2/3, omitted these words under the title of the paper and added the date to the reference at the foot of the first page of every paper.

At the last annual meeting of the Society the question of the general appearance of the Transactions was discussed and a sample of a suggested format was submitted by the then Honorary Editor, Miss Fyfe. This was in small quarto size, which is the same height as the Transaction but about £3/4-inch wider. This allows a 5-inch column of text and more space for illustrations. The effect is a more attractive publication. The small quarto size has been adopted by most, if not all, the Royal Societies and Museums in Australia and by many other institutions in various parts of the world, including the Dominion Museum. I recommend that a decision on this question be made at this meeting so that if quarto size be adopted the first matter to be put into print for Volume 80, namely, the report of this meeting, can be set up in 5-inch columns. Normally the manuscript would go to the printers about the end of the year, that is, some months before the next annual meeting.

The printers, the ‘Otago Daily Times Co. Ltd,’ have been prompt in typesetting manuscripts, distributing proofs, and publishing the bound parts. Their proof-reading of scientific papers has been of a very high standard so that authors have had a minimum of corrections to make.

– lv –

I think, therefore, that the Society's appreciation of the efficiency with which the publication of the Transactions has been carried out should be placed on record.

(Signed) W. R. B. Oliver

, Hon. Editor.

In presenting his annual report, the Honorary Editor, Dr. Oliver, stated that Miss Fyfe had recommended at the last annual meeting that the format of the Transactions be altered, and he would like to see this done.

It was stated that no report had been received from the Committee that had been set up by the last annual meeting to report on this matter.

On the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Dr. Frankel, it was resolved that the question of the format be referred to the Standing Committee with power to act.

On the motion of Dr. Oliver, seconded by Mr. Pycroft, the Hon. Editor's report was adopted.

At a later stage the President paid a tribute to Dr. Oliver for assuming the duties of Hon. Editor, and a hearty vote of thanks was carried by acclamation.

Report of Acting Honorary Librarian.

Some applications for exchange have been received during the year but have not yet been dealt with by the Library Committee. Indeed, from a glance at the congestion in the Society's Library it would appear to be doubtful if many new incoming exchanges can be accommodated. The shelves are full to overflowing at present, the acute position being brought about by the resumption of further exchanges for some time debarred by censorship control from sending their publications.

The holdings in the Library have now been completely listed.

For the past three years trainees of the National Library School have carried out a project in the Library. Two students have been assigned each year to do a two-months' project in practical work and in that time the entire holdings of the Library have been listed and they have now been incorporated by the National Library Service in a supplementary list to the Harris List of Periodicals compiled some years ago.

Through this list there have already been demands for publications which other libraries were unaware the Royal Society had in its Library, and the interloan work, which makes quite a demand on the Librarian's time, is likely to increase.

Approximately 600 volumes were issued on loan during the year, more than 200 of them to other libraries and institutions through the interloan system.

A part-time assistant, unfortunately inexperienced, but whose interest lies in library work, will be available for work after the term holidays.

4th May, 1950.

H. B. Fell

,
Acting Hon. Librarian.

The report of the Acting Hon. Librarian, Dr. H. B. Fell, was adopted, and mention was made of the valuable work done in the Library by trainees of the National Library School in recording the Society's Library holdings.

National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum Board of Trustees.

After being closed to the public for some years under war conditions the Art Gallery was formally reopened on April 12th, 1949, by the Right Hon. the Prime Minister, and the Museum on September 27th, 1949, by His Excellency the Governor General.

Both Art Gallery and Museum have been considerably improved during the process of reconditioning, and, at last, a long-needed porte-cochère at the east entrance is actually under construction.

– lvi –

Both Gallery and Museum still suffer from lack of regular transport by tram or bus and both suffer from the dirty and destructive habits of a few visitors, paintings being smeared and exhibits cut or stolen.

The special exhibitions in the Art Gallery have been very successful, and at the Museum, the Maori Hall has been rendered really instructive as well as attractive.

W. P. Evans
P. Marshall


Representatives on the Board of Trustees.

The report of the representatives of the Society on the Board of Trustees of the National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum, Professor W. P. Evans and Dr. P. Marshall, was adopted.

Reports of Research Grantees.

Briggs, Dr. L. H., who received £25 from the special grant of £100 in 1948 and £69 16s 5d from the sale of apparatus originally bought with a research grant reported on the 27th April that, owing to his absence overseas, no report was furnished for 1948–49 and this report, therefore, covers a two-year period. The research work being done is on Plant Products of New Zealand. The essential-oil still and fractionating column purchased from previous grants has been used for further investigations of essential oils of New Zealand trees. Microchemical apparatus bought from similar funds is in constant use for all phases of the work on plant products.

There was an unexpended balance of £1 6s 9d from the 1945 grant and this, together with the two amounts mentioned above, will be required for the payment of research apparatus already ordered. This has arrived in New Zealand but has not yet been delivered. It will include items of a general research nature such as a vacuum distillation apparatus, vacuum drier, shaking machine, etc., required for research purposes. Vouchers will be presented after arrival of the goods and payment of the accounts.

Ten papers have been published in the Journal of the Chemical Society on the work which has been done and reference made to the grants from the Royal Society of New Zealand for which, once again, Dr. Briggs expresses his sincere appreciation to the Society.

Hutton Grants.

Cone, Dr. Greta, who was granted £50 for research on Fungi, reported last year that she had fully expended the grant in the purchase of books and travelling expenses in collecting trips.

On the 1st May she reported that the books are still in use for her research and they are all inscribed with the Royal Society's name. She expresses her gratitude for the use of these books.

Mr. V. J. Cook, who, in March, 1949, was granted £30 for research on Cyperaceae, reported on 30th March, 1950, that expenses to the amount of £13 15s 4d were incurred in visiting mainly the West Coast area of the South Island during December and January. The chief purpose of the trip was to collect various specimens of Cyperaceae and to study a number of them in the field.

Marples, Professor B. J., who has been for some years doing research work on vertebrate palaeontology at Duntroon, reported on the 28th April that, at his request, the Society transferred the balance of a grant of £5 for work on the Little Owl towards the expenses of a projected visit to Green Island. As circumstances have prevented this visit he asks permission to use the £5 on his vertebrate palaeontological research in North Otago. He reports that he has a fossil whale partially excavated near Duntroon, several other specimens located which are worth examination, and there still remains a great deal of territory to be explored.

Moore, Miss L. B. reported on the 19th April that so far she has not expended any portion of her grant for purchasing books, but during the next six months she hopes to expend it in Great Britain on literature or some special investigation.

McQueen, D. R., was, on 15th September, granted £15 for research on the regeneration after fires of the Nothofagus forests of the Southern Tararuas,

– lvii –

On the 12th July he reported that work has been continued on the burnt-off forests in the cold temperate belt of the Southern Tararuas and the ? Ridge, and a fortnight was spent on Mt. Reeves in January.

The money has been expended in transport by rail, bus, and the use of a pack-horse.

Richdale, L. E. In June Mr. Richdale asked for and was granted a transfer of his grant of £30 for research in the Solander Islands to albatross and penguin research on the Otago Peninsula. He reported on the 21st April that the grant has enabled him to continue the research work on the Otago Peninsula that has been under way for 14 years. He had incurred expenditure of £17 14s 6d in travelling and for ringing material.

To Punga, M. T., who, in 1946, was granted £30 for work in connection with geololgical aspects of palaeo-botany and petrography, reported on the 25th April that owing to ill-health, he had been unable to undertake any research work during the past year. He hoped, however, to continue the work in the near future.

Van't Woudt, B. D., who, in November, 1948, was granted £42 for research on exotic conifer plantations at Kaingaroa, reported on the 12th April by way of an interim report of over 20 pages covering headings as follows:

1.

Introduction.

2.

Climatic.

3.

Geology.

4.

Natural Vegetation on the Plains

5.

Light relations

6.

Temperature relations.

7.

Water relations.

8.

Lysimater experiments.

9.

Soil relations.

10.

The position of Pinus Radiata.

11.

Soil improvement.

He proposes, with the aid of a University Research Fund Fellowship, to continue the research for his Ph.D.

The reports of the research grantees and Hutton research grantees were adopted.

Tongariro National Park Board

Report of Royal Society's Representative.

The Board has had two meetings during the year at which a great deal of routine business has been done. It must be remembered that the Park has a perimeter of some 65 miles. There is practically no recognizable boundary throughout this distance, and two-thirds of it traverses open grass country. In countless places it is traversed by streams which afford ideal camping sites and no permission has to be obtained to camp on the Park. There is only one official to control this Park which is a natural playground for the whole of the North Island. It is readily accessible on all sides, for a main highway runs close to its boundary.

The Council of the Royal Society must, therefore, understand that no definite patrolling or caretaking is in any way possible for the Board. It can only be stated in general terms that efforts are made to prevent further encroachment of exotic plants with considerable success. Most of the country is too elevated to allow of the free growth of the broom. A good deal of what there is has been grubbed up during the year. The heather on the lower levels of the Park on the northern sides still grows in quantity, but close observation makes one think that the high robust Danthonia and even Poa is, to a considerable extent, saving and even restoring the natural appearance of the Park's surface. Some eleven mountain and out-of-door clubs have applied for permission to erect huts and, after consultation with the federated mountain clubs, permission has been granted to some nine of these, subject to report from the warden, Mr. Shout. In general, the Board is satisfied with the conduct of the members of these clubs though it is hard to exact quite satisfactory results. On the North side there is a good road for motor vehicles to the region of the club houses. One result of this is that motor cars with tourists take a multitude of beer bottles of which many

– lviii –

are broken and the surrounding ground becomes littered with broken glass. The Board is endeavouring to stop this.

These remarks are made in order to emphasise the difficulties that are encountered by the Board over the very wide and varied area that it endeavours to control and administer.

17th April, 1950.

P. Marshall.

The report of the Tongariro National Park Board submitted by Dr. P. Marshall, the Society's representative on the Board, was adopted.

National Parks. There was some discussion in committee on the draft of the National Parks Bill which had been submitted by the Department of Lands and Survey to the sub-committee set up by the Standing Committee to consider the administration policy of National Parks.

On the motion of Dr. Oliver it was resolved that the suggestions made regarding the Bill be forwarded to the Lands Department.

Great Barrier Reef Committee.

Report of Representative.

Two meetings of the Committee were held in 1949.

The report of the Sub-committee on the proposal to establish a Marine Biological Station on Heron Island in the Capricorn Group was considered at the meeting of July 15th. The Sub-committee recommended that the Capricorn Group provided the most favourable area in which to establish the station. Official support for the project has been accorded by the A.N.Z.A.A.S., the Australian National Research Council, and the Seventh Pacific Science Congress. Approaches for official support have been made to the C.S.I.R. and letters written to the National University of Australia, the Royal Society, London, the B.A.A.S., and the Royal Geographical Society seeking their goodwill. The following funds are known to be available: Great Barrier Reef Committee, £500; Goddard Memorial Fund, £500; A.N.Z.A.A.S., £25; donation, £5. Approaches for financial support have been made to various organisations.

Considerable discussion followed the presentation of this report. Much of it centred round a suggestion by Mrs. Mackerras that the station be situated further north, but the proximity of Heron Island to Brisbane and the fact that it is a very good example of a coral reef decided the Committee to approve the Sub-committee's recommendation. It was pointed out that there were permanent residents on Heron Island who could look after the station and equipment when not in use. Dr. Dorothy Hill, when in England last year, found everywhere that the proposal to establish a marine biological station on the Great Barrier Reef was received with enthusiasm, and many offers to help from individuals and institutions had been made.

The financial statement showed a balance in had on December 9th, 1949, of £1,192 0s 11d, the reduction since the balance was last reported being due to the donation of £500 for the Heron Island Biological Station project.

W. R. B. Oliver.

On the motion of Dr. Oliver the report submitted by him on the Great Barrier Reef Committee was adopted.

Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture.

Report of Representative.

The Twenty-seventh Annual Conference was held at Nelson February 21st, 1950. The Conference of the New Zealand Institute of Parks Administration was held at the same place during the same week. The Banks lecture for 1950 was delivered by Dr. D. Miller, his subject being “Some Zoological aspects of the New Zealand Flora” in which he gave an account of the effect of insects and other animals on plant life. A lecture on “Soil Fertility” was given by Sir Theodore Rigg, and an illustrated talk by Mr. E. S. Gourlay on “The Wild Flowers of the Northern United States.

On the recommendation of the Dominion Council, which expressed concern regarding the financial position of the Institute, the following increased

– lix –

subscription rates were approved: Life members, £15 15s; Fellows, £1 10s; Members, £1; Firms and Associations, £1 10s; Juniors (under 18), 2s 6d.

Membership at January, 1950, 2,695. There were then 18 District Councils.

W. R. B. Oliver

On the motion of Dr. Oliver his report as representative on the Royal N.Z. Institute of Horticulture was adopted.

Carter Observatory Board.

Report of Representatives of the Royal Society of New Zealand for the Year
Ended, 31st March
, 1949.

Board. The constitution of the Board at the end of the year was as follows: Mr. R. G. Dick, Professor D. C. H. Florance, Mr. R. S. Hayes, Professor F. F. Miles, Mr. C. M. N. Watson-Munro (Government); Mr. E. P. Norman, Mr. L. T. Jacobsen (Wellington City Council), Dr. M. A. F. Barnett, Mr. C. G. G. Berry (Royal Society of New Zealand).

Mr. F. W. Furkert was a representative of the Wellington City Council for the year until his death on 26th September, 1949. He was replaced by Mr. Jacobsen.

Mr. E. P. Norman was elected Chairman and Professor D. C. H. Florance Vice-chairman of the Board.

Seven meetings of the Board were held during the year.

Educational Work. The Observatory was opened to the public regularly on Friday evenings and on a few special occasions. Public interest is being maintained, and there was a total record of 1939 attendances.

Five 3-inch telescopes were purchased from a fund collected by the late Mr. A. C. Gifford for the purpose of lending them to secondary schools.

The Board has also made the Lecture Room at the Observatory available for the use of local astronomical societies.

Solar Work. Projection drawings of the sun have been continued as in the past. Since November, 1949, a new eyepiece purchased a few years ago and a new projection board manufactured locally have been brought into use. With this combination solar disc drawings, 25cm. in diameter are made. Detailed investigations of heliographic measurement methods has shown that positions to within one degree are reliable, and that if required five times this accuracy could be produced.

Many trials with an attachment for solar photography made by the Dominion Physical Laboratory have been carried out. These show that successful routine sunspot photographs are possible, but at present a regular programme has not been commenced.

A programme of regular spectrohelioscope observations was instituted on all fine working days, and the total observing time was 127 hours. Solar flares were seen on 46 occasions, but only four of these reached full importance.

Besides sending solar information to interested authorities in New Zealand sunspot observations have been forwarded to Zurich Observatory, and Spectrohelioscope observations to Meudon Observatory and the Royal Greenwich Observatory for use in international records.

It has been intimated to the Observatory that it may be called upon to supply more information in the future for international solar work.

Radio Disturbance Forecasts. These have been supplied, as in previous years, to the Post and Telegraph Department and the National Broadcasting Service. By request, forecasts were also commenced for Overseas Telecommunications Commission (Australia), Sydney.

Auroral Work. By a grant made by the Radio Research Committee, and considerable general assistance from the Meteorological Service, increased activity occurred in this field. In general, the number of reporting units has been increased, and the quality of reporting improved. The auroral cameras were overhauled and have now been installed at the aerodromes at Taieri and Invercargill. Much work has been done in rechecking past records for future reference.

An auroroal assistant was appointed in September.

– lx –

Reports have continued from the party on Campbell Island and the Australian Antarctic Expedition on Heard and Macquarie Islands.

Photo-Electric Photometry. Experiments were conducted by an honours student for his thesis to determine the possibility of using the 9-inch telescope for photo-electric photometry of stars.

The results indicated that a useful field of work may be possible after a few refinements have been made.

General. Thirteen successful plates were obtained of the partial solar eclipse of 1949, October 22, and await reduction.

Micrometer observations of the diameter of Venus were commenced.

Astronomical computations for various equiries were carried out.

M. A. F. Barnett
C. G. G. Berry

The report of the representatives on the Carter Observatory Board was adopted.

Report on the Activities of the Interim Secretariat of the Pacific Science
Council to the Royal Society of New Zealand
.

At the third meeting of the Pacific Science Council during the Seventh Congress it was agreed that, in order to further the establishment of a permanent Secretariat of the Council, the Royal Society of New Zealand should be asked to undertake the implementation of the resolutions of the Seventh Pacific Science Congress, and that a Committee (the Secretariat Establishment Committee) be appointed to keep in touch with the Royal Society of New Zealand's Secretariat activities and at an appropriate time to appoint a paid secretary to carry these activities forward to the Eighth Congress.

In May, 1940, the Royal Society of New Zealand's Congress Organising Committee recommended that the Royal Society should agree to the Pacific Science Council's request and that the writer be asked to undertake the Secretariat duties in addition to his continuing duties as Secretary-general of the Seventh Congress. This proposal was adopted at the Annual Meeting of the Royal Society of New Zealand in May, 1949.

The problem of finance for office running- expenses and salary for an Assistant Secretary was solved by the generous agreement of the Director-General of U.N.E.S.C.O. to allow the Royal Society's Congress Organising Committee to devote the balance of the U.N.E.S.C.O. Congress Visitor's Grant towards the establishment of the permanent Secretariat of the Pacific Science Council. This prompt and substantial gesture of goodwill towards the Secretariat was greatly appreciated.

As had been contemplated by the Pacific Science Council, the first duty of the Secretariat was to distribute copies of the resolutions and research recommendations of the Seventh Congress to the Representative Institutions of the Pacific Science Association, with a covering letter drawing attention to those recommendations and resolutions which particularly concerned a given Institution. Through the courtesy of the New Zealand Department of External Affairs the recommendations and resolutions were forwarded to the governments of the member-countries of the Pacific Science Association.

Following notification of the appointment by the President of the Seventh Congress of Chairmen of Standing Committees, the Secretariat opened up correspondence with Standing Committee Chairmen.

From the reports received from Representative Instititutions bearing on the resolutions and recommendations, and from information supplied by the Standing Committee Chairmen on members appointed and outline programmes adopted, Information Bulletins were compiled and distributed to Representative Institutions, to members of the Pacific Science Council, to Standing Committee Chairmen, and to some scientific publications.

Recommendations and resolutions of the Congress had also been communicated to international scientific organisations, and where the recommendations had called for co-operative work on Pacific problems the Secretariat opened up correspondence with certain of these international organisations to determine where useful co-operation could be achieved. Such of the information received as was of general interest to Representative Institutions was incorporated

– lxi –

in the Information Bulletins; to give more detailed and specific information to Standing Committee Chairmen a system of Standing Committee memoranda was started. The Information Bulletins and sometimes the Standing Committee memoranda were distributed to the international organisations which would find them of interest.

Copies of the minutes of the Pacific Science Council meetings during the Seventh Congress were distributed to members and to Representative Institutions. Recommendations in the minutes concerning internal administrative arrangements were taken up by correspondence and preliminary reports sent to members of the Council. It was decided to leave further action on these until the Secretariat should be established.

As envisaged by the Council, the Interim Secretariat kept in constant touch with the Secretariat Establishment Committees (Finance and Appointment) and in due course received their decision that sufficient funds were available to establish the Secretariat for an experimental period of two years, and the decision of the Appointment Committee as to the officers to be appointed. The Interim Secretariat communicated the decision of the Appointment Committee to the persons selected and received their acceptance, whereby the Secretariat is established. The Executive Secretary is Mr. Loring G. Hudson, of Honolulu, and the Assistant Secretary is Miss Brenda Bishop, of Auckland, New Zealand, and the office of the Secretariat is in the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu.

In conclusion, I would like to say how much the work of the Interim Secretariat was assisted by the ready interest with which our plans were received and the thoughtful consideration given to all our requests and suggestions, and to express my appreciation for this co-operation to the Representative Institutions, the international scientific organisations, and the Standing Committee Chairmen with whom I corresponded on Secretariat affairs.

Gilbert Archey,
IIon. Secretary Interim Secretariat of
the Pacific Science Council
.

Auckland Institute and Museum,
Auckland, S.E.l, New Zealand.

The report of the Interim Secretariat was presented by Dr. Archey who stated that the Permanent Secretariat had now been established in Honolulu, with Mr. Loring Hudson, secretary, and Miss Brenda Bishop, assistant secretary.

The Proceedings were being printed by the Government Printer, the first volume being in galley proof form. Details were given by Professor Allan of the material for the other volumes.

In reply to a question, Dr. Marwick, Chairman of the Publications Business Committee, stated that the proposed volumes would cost approximately £6,000.

Secretary-General: Eulogistic references were made to Dr. Archey, Secretary-General of the Congress, and the tremendous work he had carried out, and on the motion of Professor Allan, seconded by Mr. Pycroft, it was resolved that the Council place on record its highest appreciation of the work of the Secretary-General of the Congress, Dr. G. Archey. The success of the Congress, due in large part to his exceptional administrative ability, had brought great credit to New Zealand.

Other members paid a tribute to his work, and finally the President conveyed to Dr. Archey the resolution of the Council and its sincere thanks for his work.

Dr. Archey, in reply, thanked the Council for its resolution, stating that it had been a worth-while experience which had brought him into close contact with fellow-workers in and beyond New Zealand.

– lxii –

He referred to the great help and co-operation he had received from the Persident, Dr. Falla, and Professor Allan, Chairman of the Christchurch Committee, and he paid a tribute to the secretarial assistance of Miss Bishop, Mrs. Driver, and Miss Wood.

New Zealand Science Congress. Dr. Frankel reported that the dates set down for the Congress were the 15th–21st May, 1951, the annual meeting of the Council to be held on Tuesday, 22nd May.

The membership fee had been fixed at £1. It had been decided to invite Dr. Julian Huxley to be the official guest of the Congress.

Adult Education. Dr. Archey presented the report of the Special Committee on adult education in science, which he slightly amended, This was seconded by Mr. Keys, and adopted. Professor Allan moved, Mr. Pycroft seconded, that the report be sent to Dr. Hulme, convener of the Adult Education Board of the New Zealand University.

Notices of Motion.

Title of Wild Life Committee: On the motion of Mr. Pycroft seconded by Dr. Oliver, it was resolved that the name of the Wild Life Control Committee be changed to Conservation Committee.

Presidential Addresses: It was moved by Dr. Frankel and seconded by Dr. Salmon: “That Presidents be invited to deliver the Presidential Addresses to Member Bodies in rotation.”

In discussing this motion the opinion was expressed that it was a good thing to rotate as it would stimulate the Branches, but the decision to hold the annual meetings in rotation in other centers involved additional financial liability in travelling expenses, etc. Dr. Miller and Mr. Buchanan stated that for the first time a President of the Royal Society had delivered addresses in Nelson and Hawke's Bay, and Dr. Falla's action was greatly appreciated.

On the motion of Professor Allan, seconded by Dr. Briggs, it was resolved that the matter was worthy of consideration and was referred to the Standing Committee and the Member Bodies.

Secretary's Salary. The Standing Committee was given authority to make necessary adjustments in the secretary's salary.

Nominations Committee. It was reported that the Nominations Committee had met and considered the nominations which had been received from Member Bodies for the offices of President and Vice-Presidents, and it recommended that Mr. F. R. Callaghan be elected President and Dr. R. A. Falla and Dr. J. Marwick, Vice-Presidents.

The Nominations Committee report was adopted.

On the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Mr. Pycroft, it was resolved that the Member Bodies may make additional and confidential nominations to the Nominations Committee. Dr. Briggs suggested that provision should be made for two classes of Vice-President, one that the immediate past President fill that office and two additional Vice-Presidents to be elected.

Election of Officers.

President: Mr. F. R. Callaghan.

Vice-Presidents: Dr. R. A. Falla and Dr. J. Marwick.

Hon. Editor: Dr. W. R. B. Oliver.

– lxiii –

Hon. Treasurer: Mr. S. Cory Wright.

Hon. Librarian: Professor L. R. Richardson.

Representative Royal N.Z. Institute of Horticulture: Dr. W. R. B. Oliver.

Representative Great Barrier Reef Committee: Dr. W. R. B. Oliver.

Election of Committees.

Hector Award Committee: Professor C. A. Cotton (convener), Professor W. N. Benson, Dr. J. Marwick.

Hamilton Award Committee: Dr. G. Archey, Dr. C. M. Focken.

T. K. Sidey Summer-time Award Committee: Professor D. C. H. Florance (convener), Professor F. C. Chalklin, Dr. M. A. F. Barnett.

Fellowship Selection Committee: Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. L. H. Briggs, Dr. D. B. Macleod, Professor R. S. Allan, Dr. D. Miller.

Library Committee: The Hon. Librarian, Professor C. A. Cotton, Dr. J. Marwick, Dr. J. T. Salmon.

Conservation Committee: Dr. W. R. B. Oliver (convener), Dr. G. Archey, Dr. R. A. Falla, Mr. L. E. Richdale, Mr. C. A. Fleming, Dr. J. T. Salmon.

Research Grants Committee: Dr. R. A. Falla (convener), Dr. J. Marwick, Dr. D. Miller.

Nominations Committee: Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Dr. R. A. Falla, Professor R. S. Allan, Dr. C. M. Focken, Mr. J. D. H. Buchanan, Dr. D. Miller.

Votes of Thanks. On the motion of the President, the Council of Victoria University and the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research were thanked for the use of their Council rooms for meetings.

A vote of thanks was accorded to the Press, to the Secretary, and to the Hon. Treasurer.

In moving a vote of thanks to the retiring President, Dr. Falla, Professor Allan and Dr. Archey stated that the Society's thanks and its appreciation of Dr. Falla's work as President should be placed on record. Owing to circumstances his term of office was longer than usual and was especially arduous due to the fact that during that term it fell to his lot to be President of the Seventh Pacific Science Congress, and in that office he had brought distinction not only to himself but to the Royal Society of New Zealand. His term covered an important period in the progress of the Royal Society.

Other members spoke in appreciative terms of Dr. Falla's Presidency, and the motion was carried with acclamation.

Annual Meeting, 1951. The date suggested by the Science Congress Committee was the 22nd May, and the Standing Committee was left to confirm that date and make arrangements.

Vulcanological Films. Mr. Cory Wright stated that he had seen Dr. Gregory in Honolulu, who had stated that some good vulcanological films could be made available to the Society or its Branches.

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Evening Meeting. Dr. Falla delivered his Presidential Address entitled “The Functions of the Royal Society” at a meeting of the Wellington Branch held in the Dominion Museum on the same evening when Dr. Bastings, President of the Branch, presided. The meeting was well attended.

At the conclusion Dr. Frankel moved a most cordial vote of thanks to Dr. Falla for his interesting and stimulating address.

On the motion of Dr. Salmon it was resolved that the President be asked to allow his address to be published in the Transactions.

Confirmed.

R. A. Falla

,
Chairman.
2nd June, 1950.

Reports of Member Bodies.
Wellington Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual Report for the Year Ended 30th September, 1949.

Membership. The total membership now stands at 304 members and 80 associates, an increase in the total membership of 20 over the last year.

Syllabus. The following addresses were given before the Branch's general meeting during the session just closed:—27th October, 1948, Annual General Meeting; 20th December, 1948, In conjunction with the Wellington Branches of the Royal Aeronautical Society, the New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, the New Zealand Association of Scientific Workers and the New Zealand Institution of Engineers: “Scientific Co-operation in the English-speaking World,” by Sir Henry Tizard, K.C.B., F.R.S.; 27th April, 1949, “The Education of Scientists,” by Hon. Sir David Smith; 25th May, 1949, “New Zealand and International Science,” by Dr. R. A. Falla, being the Presidential Address to the Royal Society of New Zealand; 22nd June, 1949, “Scraps from the Society's Earlier Days,” by Dr. W. P. Evans; 27th July, 1949, “Evolution of the Individual,” by Prof. L. R. Richardson, being the Presidential Address to the Branch; 24th August, 1949, “The Place of Science,” by Dr. Gilbert Archey, Director, Auckland Museum, being the first Hudson Lecture; 28th September, 1949, “Aviation Medicine in the Royal Air Force,” by Group Captain P. B. Lee Potter, M.D., D.P.H., D.T.M. & H.

Addresses given before Sections were as follows:—

Astronomy and Geophysics Section. “Weather, Waves and Microseisms,” by Mr. W. M. Jones; “Aerial Photography,” by Mr. G. T. Railton; “Recent Overseas Work on Solar Prominences,” by Mr. I. L. Thomsen; “Radio Waves from Outside the Earth,” by Mr. C. J. Banwell.

Biology Section. “The Management of Wild Life,” a symposium contributed to by Dr. K. A. Wodzicki, Mr. G. F. Yerex, Dr. R. A. Falla, and Mr. D. F. Hobbs; “Genetics,” by Dr. R. A. Silow; “Some Problems of Fisheries Management,” by Mr. K. R. Allen; “Trailing of the Alaska-Yukon Caribou,” by Dr. O. J. Murie; “The New Zealand-American Fiordland Expedition,” by Mr. A. L. Poole; “Wallabies in New Zealand,” by Mr. R. Kean; “Vegetation of Some Auckland Sand Dunes,” by Miss A. Lush; “Octopuses and Their Allies,” by Mr. R. K. Dell.

Geology Section. “A Geologist Abroad,” by Mr. M. Ongley; “Rivers, Geology, and Soils of the Wairarapa,” by Messrs. T. H. F. Nivens, R. A. Cooper, and H. S. Gibbs; “Ash Showers of the North Island,” by Mr. N. H. Taylor; “Structural History of Western Southland,” by Mr. A. C. Beck; “Axes of Active Warping in Hawke's Bay,” and “Remarks on the Lyttelton Harbour Problem,” by Prof. C. A. Cotton.

Physics Section. “A Discussion of Some Recent Important Advances in Physics,” by Mr. N. V. Ryder; “Meteorological and Physical Aspects of

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Radiation Frosts,” by Messrs. R. F. Bensemann, J. W. Hutchings, and M. E. Probine; “Medical Aspects of Radiation Physics,” by Mr. G. E. Roth; “Methods and Problems; “Medical Aspects of Radiation Physics,” by Mr. G. E. Roth; “Methods and Problems of Physical Oceanography,” by Mr. W. M. Jones; “The Designs of Optical Systems,” by Mr. N. J. Rumsey.

In addition the section held a screening of films on “Solar Eruptions and Ionospheric Disturbances,” described by Mr. C. J. Banwell, and a demonstration of the electron microscope at the Dominion Physical Laboratory, Lower Hutt.

Social Science Section. “Housing Policy and the State: Some Social Considerations,” by Mr. Charles Cameron; “A Discussion on the Experiences of Recent Science Congress”; “Projected Work in Rural Sociology,” by Mr. D. A. Viggers; “Sociological Problems of the Chatham Islanders,” by Mr. Frank Simpson; “The Machiavellian Tradition in Politics,” by Prof. R. S. Parker; “Trends in Social Policy,” by Prof. D. C. Marsh.

Technology Section. “New Trends in Electronics,” by Mr. I. K. Walker; “Measurement of Wind,” by Mr. R. A. Ewing; “The Pattern of Research in America,” by Mr. G. Maskill Smith; “Silicones,” by Mr. C. E. Fuller; “Sea Weeds in the World's Industries,” by Miss L. B. Moore; “The Future of Jet Propulsion,” by Group Captain G. E. Watt, C.B.E.; “Time and Motion Study in Industry,” by Mr. K. Schwarz.

Hudson Lecture. The Council invited Dr. Gilbert Archey, Director of the Auckland Institute and Museum, to deliver the first Hudson Lecture. Dr. Archey presented an outstanding philosophical address on “The Place of Sciences.”

Representation on the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand. On his election to the Presidency of the Branch, Professor Richardson resigned his position as Branch Representative on the Royal Society Council. Dr. L. Bastings was appointed in his place, and he and Dr. J. T. Salmon have continued to represent the Branch in this capacity.

Papers for Publication. The following papers were submitted through the Branch during the year:—“Studies of New Zealand Freshwater Ciliates,” by Mr. Brian Bary; “Studies of New Zealand Nothofagus,” by Mr. A. L. Poole; “Ctenophores from the Waters of Cook Strait and Wellington Harbour,” by Miss P. M. Ralph.

Waipoua Forest. The report of the Biology Section on this matter was adopted as the basis of the Branch's reply to the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand.

Seventh Pacific Science Congress. Many members of the Branch attended and took an active part in this Congress both in Auckland and Christchurch. Dr. J. F. Filmer and Mr. H. C. McQueen officially represented the Branch at the Auckland and Christchurch sessions respectively. The President, Prof. L. R. Richardson, was Organising Chairman, and the Branch's Secretary, Dr. J. T. Salmon, was General Secretary of the Zoology Division of the Congress. Dr. P. Marshall was Chairman of the Standing Committee on Volcanology, and Prof. C. A. Cotton and Mr. M. Te Punga were Organising Chairman and Secretary, respectively, of the Geology Division. Dr. M. A. F. Barnett and Mr. J. W. Hutchings, acted as Organising Chairman and Secretary to the Division of Meteorology, Dr. W. R. B. Oliver as Organising Chairman for the Botany Division, and Dr. W. M. Hamilton as Secretary to the Division on Soil Researches, Forestry and Agriculture.

Auckland Institute and Museum.
Annual Report for the Year Ended 31st March, 1950.

Membership. At the close of the year ending 31st March, 1950, the membership of the Auckland Institute and Museum stands at 632 members, of whom 236 are life members.

Bequests and Donations. The bequest of Miss M. A. N. Russell of seven acres of native bush at Titirangi as a reserve is cordially acknowledged. The bush is in excellent condition and will undoubtedly afford a valuable source of botanical study. The late Mr. A. G. Lunn, a former President of the Institute, has bequeathed a legacy of £25 and a selection of books from his library. The Auckland Electric Power Board has again donated £50

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to the Museum funds. The bequest of the residue of his estate by the late Mr. A. V. Hanson has already resulted in the addition of £1,970 to the funds, and the Council is now realising the remainder which is likely to produce a further £100.

No report would be complete without reference to the very great benefits which are accruing from the generous foundation provided by Mr. Edward Earle Vaile. Over £2,000 was expended from the income of this fund in the acquisition of important historical specimens, and books (including the library of Mr. Johannes C. Andersen) during the year.

War Memorial Appeal. Your Council is represented on the War Memorial Appeal Committee, which has now approximately £100,000 in hand and seeks a further £150,000 which, with the Government subsidy, will provide the required sum of £500,000.

Institute Meetings. Eight Monday evening lectures were given during the year: Mr. Harold Mattingly, M.A., F.S.A., “Everyday Life in Ancient Rome”; Colonel K. Howard, Film shown of the New Zealand-American Fiordland Expedition; Mr. M. H. Battey, M.Sc., “The Recent Eruption of Ngauruhoe”; Mr. C. N. Watson-Muuro, O.B.E., M.Sc., “Whither Atomic Power?”; Dr. E. J. Godley, M.Sc., “Human Genetics”; Dr. R. P. Anschutz, M.A., “Some Modern Political Theories”; Dr. Wilton E. Henley, “On Being Tired”; Dr. Olaus J. Murie, “Trailing the Alaska-Yukon Caribou.”

Papers were contributed by Mr. John Morton:, Mr. R. V. Mirams, Mr. E. G. Turbott, Mr. A. W. B. Powell, Professor Ph. H. Kuenen, Mr. R. C. Cooper, Mr. E. J. Searle and Professor V. J. Chapman.

The Sunday afternoon lectures at the Museum were again well attended. Mr. Johanes G. Andersen, “Captain Cook in Dusky Bay”; Professor K. B. Cumberland, “New Zealand's Pacific Island Neighbourhood”; Dr. T. E. Woodward, “Insect Life Histories”; Mr. A. W. Smith, “The Southern Rocky Mountains: The Roof of the United States of America”; Miss J. Dingley, “Plant Immigrants”; Mr. R. B. Sibson, “Wanderings in Southern France”; Dr. W. Cottier, “Insect Invaders”; Mr. L. M. Lennard, “The History of the Waitakers Ranges”; Dr. Gilbert Archey, “Native Art in Oceania.”

Anthropology Section. In the Anthropology Section an important present-day topic, “Trusteeship in the Pacific,” was presented in an interesting panel discussion by the Rev. R. Godfrey, Dr. V. W. T. McGusty, and Professor W. T. G. Airey. This discussion and a meeting to hear Dr. W. Wallace Atwood, a prominent American geographer attending the Science Congress, were in conjunction with the Geographical Society.

Astronomical Station. The Auckland Astronomical Society has now increased its membership to 100. There were nine well-attended meetings with an average attendance of 40, the subjects including “Meteors in Upper Atmosphere,” “The 3-inch Refractor,” and “Graphical Methods in Astronomy,” A film evening, contributions from the Junior Section, and an exhibition and social evening completed the programme. The lecturers were Messrs. R. A. McIntosh, L. N. H. Beaumont, and A. P. McKerras.

Pacific Science Congress. Certain duties accruing from the Seventh Pacific Science Congress have been accepted by members of the staff. Mr. Powell has edited for publication in the Congress Proceedings the papers and abstracts for the Division of Oceanography; Mr. Turbott is doing the same service for the voluminous Zoology Division material; Mr. Fisher, Mr. Battey, and Mr. Cooper checked and put into order the papers submitted in the divisions of Anthropology, Geology, and Botany respectively.

The Pacific Science Council, the Congress decided to establish a permanent Secretariat, requested the Royal Society to institute an interim Secretariat to implement the resolutions and recommendations of the Congress and to initiate other secretariat activities, and the writer undertook the duties of honorary secretary. Miss Brenda Bishop, Secretarial Assistant for the Congress, continued as Assistant Secretary, and has recently been appointed to the same position in the permanent Secretariat in Honolulu.

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Records of Auokland Museum. With this year's issue of the “Records,” the third volume of the Museum scientific journal was completed. Papers were contributed by Mr. H. Barraclough Fell, Mr. A. W. B. Powell, Mr. E. G. Turbott, Mr. R. C. Cooper, and Mr. M. H. Battey.

Education Service. The following is a summary of the number of children having attended one-hour lessons for the year ended 31st March, 1950:—Primary, 17,822; Intermediate, 3,786; Secondary, 4,288; Special Groups and Students 2,702; Total, 28,598.

The preparation of loan material has continued in co-operation with Mr. and Mrs. Turbott, Mr. Battey, and Mr. Cooper. New school cases, bird boxes, loose material boxes, and displays have been made, giving a total stock of 88 school cases, 90 bird boxes, 23 displays, and 8 loose material boxes. Some 460 loans were made to 218 schools; 60 in the city, and 158 in the province.

Librarian. During the year 1,438 books have been added to the Library. Of these, 1,067 were purchased from the Edward Earle Vaile Trust Fund. This fund has made it possible to acquire a number of rare and important works on the Pacific, consisting mainly of accounts of voyages of exploration and of scientific expeditions.

Canterbury Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual Report for the Year 1949.

Membership. The ordinary membership has increased from 222 to 240; 25 new members have been elected, two have died, and eight have resigned. Transfers between branches account for the balance. Associate membership has declined from 17 to 13, but four associates were elected to full membership.

Obituary. The Society records with deep regret the death during the year of two outstanding members.

Edgar Fraser Stead, F.R.S.N.Z., who died on 7th February, 1949, had been a member since 1904. He served on the Council for many years, was President in 1933, represented our Branch during the nineteen-thirties on the Royal Society Council, contributed to the Natural History of Canterbury and was a frequent speaker at our meetings.

Robert Speight, M.A., M.Sc. F.G.S., F.R.S.N.Z., whose death occurred on 8th September, 1949, was Curator of the Canterbury Museum from 1914 to 1936, and until 1930, Professor of Geology at Canterbury University College. He joined this Branch in 1890, being Secretary 1894–96 and 1908–11, and President in 1906 and 1928. For many years he was one of our representatives on the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand, of which he was President in 1933–35.

Seventh Pacific Science Congress. The chief event of 1949 has been the holding of the Seventh Pacific Science Congress of the Pacific Science Association. The Organising Committee appointed by the Royal Society of New Zealand to make arrangements for the Congress was assisted by a Christchurch Committee on which this Branch was strongly represented.

Programme. Twelve meetings were held during the year, three of these being special general meetings. The following address were given:—March 2nd, “Health and Disease from the Viewpoint of the Psychiatrist,” Dr. M. Bevan Brown; April 6th, “A Summary of the Excavations at the Moa Swamp, Pyramid Valley,” Mr. R. S. Duff; May 4th, “Science in the Post-War World” (Presidential Address), Professor R. S. Allan; July 6th, “The Polyzoa,” Dr. G. H. Uttley; September 7th, “Photomicroscopy in Theory and Practice and its Aid to Science,” Mr. C. R. Russell; October 5th, “Operational Research,” Dr. H. R. Hulme; November 2nd, “Underground Water in Canterbury,” Mr. B. W. Collins; March 10th, “The Evolution and Domestication of the Cotton Plant,” Dr. R. A. Silow; August 10th, “The Lyttelton Harbour Problem” (A combined meeting with the Christchurch Branch of the New Zealand Geographical Society), Dr. C. A. Cotton; October 20th, “The Museum and the Community” (A combined meeting with the Friends of the Museum), Dr. Gilbert Archey.

Riccarton Bush. The Society's representative on the Board of Trustees of Riccarton Bush reports as follows:

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The outstanding feature in Riccarton Bush proper this year was the fruiting of the New Zealand passion-flower Tetrapathaea tetranda. It is seven years since there was a similar display of the handsome fruits. Consequent on the onslaught made on exotic plants last year, weeds have ceased to be a serious problem. The major factor threatening the welfare of the bush is the long period of dry weather.

In spite of the great preponderance of introduced birds in the bush, smaller native species such as warblers, fantails, and silver eyes may usually be found. A pair of this paid a short visit, and a kaka remained for a fortnight in September until harried by magpies. German owls and magpies in the bush must be looked on as pests and destroyed.

Approximately five acres of bush on the old Deans estate will shortly be added to the bush and fenced to make one block of the bush proper. This area was badly overgrown with blackberry, elderberry, ash, sycamore, and spindle trees, and parts of it had been used as a rubbish dump. A major clearance has been carried out during the year, the Board's staff being assisted on several Saturdays by members of the Christchurch section of the New Zealand Forest and Bird Protection Society. It is hoped that all foreign growth will be removed by the end of the year and that replanting will commence in the autumn of 1950.

Report of the Representative of the Branch on the Canterbury Museum Trust
Board for
1949.

In preparation for the modernising and enlargement of the Museum as a Centennial Memorial of the foundation of Canterbury, a competition among architects was launched for the production of a suitable plan, and has met with considerable response.

Early in the year intensive and ordered study of the Pyramid Valley Swamp, near Waikari, was undertaken. Excavations lasted several weeks, and numerous and various skeletons were obtained as well as much further knowledge of the history of the swamp. A publication on this work has been issued by the Friends of the Museum.

After the regretted death of Mr. E. F. Stead, his very valuable collection of eggs and bird skins was handed to the Museum and has been suitably situated for examination.

Social Science Section. On May 11th the Rev. Benjamin Butcher spoke on “Among New Guinea Head Hunters,” and illustrated his talk by means of a large collection of slides. Mr. R. H. Thurlow Thompson gave an able and entertaining survey of the development of the popular opinion poll on June 16th, while Mr. C. R. Straubel spoke on “Who Were the Canterbury Pilgrims?” on August 17th. The final meeting was held on October 19th, when Mr. G. Miller delivered an address on “The Economic Origin of New Zealand's Democratic Institutions.”

Field Club Section. On 14th June, 1949, the Section Committee arranged a programme of evening lectures on Natural History topics, and field trips to various localities, where material discussed at lectures could be collected or studied on the spot. This programme has been carried out as planned, and has proved so popular with members that two further evening meetings and another field trip were arranged to complete the year's activities.

Otago Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual Report for Session 1949.

Membership. The total Branch membership is now 165. Membership over the past 10 years is given below for the sake of comparison:

Year: 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949
Membership: 178 173 160 150 153 158 164 168 167 165

Representatives on the Museum Committee. For another Session Messrs. George Simpson and C. V. Dayus have continued to give their services in this capacity.

Representatives on the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand. Miss Marion Fyfe and Dr. C. M. Focken.

Fellowship of the Royal Society of New Zealand. Of the four Fellows elected this year, two are members of this branch, Mr. George Simpson and

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Professor F. G. Soper. The congratulations of the Branch go to these two gentlemen whose signal work in the cause of science have earned them this recognition.

Pre-Sessional Meetings. The opportunity of hearing lectures by distinguished visitors to this country was taken in three pre-sessional meetings held in March. Dr. R. A. Silow, plant geneticist, Dr. Anton Bruun, zoologist, and Mr. Harold Mattingly, formerly Assistant Keeper of Coins and Medals at the British Museum, all delivered addresses of great interest; members of the Branch enjoyed meeting and talking to these gentlemen.

Main Branch Meetings. March 14, Dr. R. A. Silow, “The Evolution and Domestication of a Crop Plant”; March 22, Dr. Anton Brunn, “Danish Marine Expedition, with an Account of Animals of the Ocean Deeps”; March 25, Mr. Harold Mattingly, M.A., “Some Aspects of Life in Ancient Rome” (Joint Meeting with Historical Section); April 12, Presidential Address (Dr. Basil Howard), “X Marks the Spot”; May 3, Dr. C. M. Focken, Dr. N. L. Edson, Mr. T. H. Kennedy, M.Sc. Mr. H. Muir, B.Met.E.: A Symposium, “Tagged Atoms (Radio-Isotopes)” (Joint Meeting with Otago Branch, New Zealand Institute of Chemistry); June 14, Dr. G. H. Satchell, “The Biology of Sewage Purification”; July 12, Mr. R. Greenwood, M.A., F.R.G.S., “Our Topsy-Turvy World”; August 16, “Stewart Island Expedition” (Dr. Howard, Dr. Williams, and Mr. W. Martin); September 26, Dr. H. Bernadelli, “Mix-up in Society”; October 11, Dr. C. E. Tilley, F.R.S., President of the Geological Society of London, “Recent Advances in the Geology of the Scottish Highlands”; November 11, Annual General Meeting followed by G. N. Davies, D.D.S., “A Report on the Dental State of Native Fijians.”

Junior Lectures. Five lectures during the winter term. Average attendance 42. There is some doubt whether these should be continued. Two schools have asked that there be a further trial for one year. June 10, Prof. B. J. Marples, M.A., M.Sc, “Spiders”; June 24, Mr. A. D. Campbell, M.Sc., “Dyes and Dyeing”; July 8, Dr. H. Bernadelli, “Mix-up in Society”; July 22, Microscope Demonstrations by the Microscope Section of the Branch; August 5, Mr. B. J. Garnier, M.A., “Your Eyes and How to Use Them.”

Historical Section. After being inactive since 1940 the Section was revived at a meeting called on August 4, 1948, by a group of the University staff. Four meetings were held during the year, including a joint meeting with the Otago Branch of the Royal Society addressed by Dr. Morrell, a lecture by Professor J. Rutherford of Auckland University College, and a discussion on history teaching in conjunction with the annual conference of Otago and Southland Secondary School teachers. At the end of the year the membership of the Section had reached 40, including 11 full members of the Royal Society and 10 student members.

The programme for the 1949 session comprised 8 meetings, including a joint meeting with the Otago Branch of the New Zealand Geographical Society, with which the Section also exchanged invitations to further meetings. Thirty-four new members joined, including 23 student members, making a total of 74 for the financial year 1948–49, but, owing largely to the annual turnover of senior students, attendances have merely been maintained at about the 50 mark.

Nelson Philosophical Society.
Annual Report for 1948–1949 Session.

Membership. The total membership of the Society for the year was 49, including 34 full and 15 associate members, compared with 36 and 15 respectively for 1948.

Meetings. Seven meetings were held during the 1948–49 Session, particulars of the addresses being as follows: 18th October, 1948, Annual meeting with showing of films, “Cook Strait Submarine Cable” and “T.V.A.”; 9th May, 1949, Sir Theodore Rigg, Presidential address, “Plant Nutrition”; 20th June, 1949, Sir Walter Scott, “Peoples of Czecho-Slovakia and Hungary”; 18th July, 1949, Dr. K. Curtis, “Tasmania”; 15th August, 1949, Mr. R. T. J. Blick, M.Sc, “Colour Photography”; 19th September, 1949, Mr. M. Bannister, B.Sc., “Forest Tree Improvement”; Miss J. Watson, M.Sc. “Zinc Deficiency”; Miss E. B. Kidson, M.Sc., “Hard Core of Tomatoes”; 5th October, 1949, Dr. R. A. Falla, President Royal Society of New Zealand, “The Royal Society of New Zealand in Relation to World Science.”

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Obituary. The Society records with regret the passing the year of Sir Thomas Easterfield. The following resolution was recorded in the minutes:—

“This meeting of the Nelson Philosophical Society places on record its high appreciation of the many valuable contributions to the advancement of science in New Zealand made by the late Sir Thomas Easterfield. In particular, it records the great interest taken by him in the work of the Nelson Philosophical Society and the valuable help which he gave as President and member over a period of 29 years.

Hawke's Bay Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual Report for Year Ended 31st December, 1949.

Meetings. 1949 was again a very active year for the Society. Council met five times, and at the Annual General Meeting Miss Woodhouse lectured on New Zealand books. At the two Quarterly Meetings Dr. Brown addressed members and friends on the Fiordland Expedition in August, and Dr. Falla spoke on the discovery of the Notornis in October.

Administration. The arrangements by which Council meets alternately in Napier and Hastings have been found to work satisfactorily for both Napier and Hastings members.

Membership. The total membership of the Branch is 136, of whom four are Life Members; 1948 membership, 126; died or left, 8; new members, 18.

Bulletin. Two bulletins appeared during the year, one containing Miss Woodhouse's talk on New Zealand Books given at the last Annual General Meeting in 1949, and the other containing Dr. Brown's lecture on the Fiordland Expedition.

Library. A meeting was held with representatives of the Art Society and the Public Library to discuss the question of duplicating the purchase of books, and it was decided that books on active Science should be the responsibility of the Royal Society, the Public Librarian making recommendations as she thought fit.

Incorporation. It has been decided during the year that the Society should become incorporated and the matter is now completed. The future name of the Society will be “The Hawke's Bay Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Incorporated.” The new rules have been drafted and have been approved by the Registrar.

Sections. Sections have been very active during the year. There are now six sections which have all held regular meetings during the year for members only, and on the visit of well-known personalities the meetings have been thrown open to all members and friends. Dr. Falla lectured to members and guests of the Ornithological Section at the Spring Quarterly meeting; Dr. Owen Thomas lectured on Phase Contrast Microscopy; and the Geographical Section undertook extensive field work in connection with the Land Utilization Survey.

Southland Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual Report for the Year Ended 31st March, 1950.

Membership. During the period six new members were elected, one resigned, and one transferred to Canterbury Branch.

The membership at the end of the year was: Life Members, 4; Members, 42; Total, 46.

Meetings. Eight meetings were held, the average attendance being about 20 members and visitors.

The subjects and the speakers were: 27th April, 1949, Annual Meeting—Address by the President, Mr. F. M. Corkhill, on “Sand Dunes”; 6th May, 1949, Film evening—Captain G. M. Turner showed his films of “Bird Life on the Farne Islands,” “Gardens of Stewart Island,” “Seals on Bench Island,” and “Bird Life on Stewart Island”; 25th May, 1949, “Mycorrhiza,” Dr. G. T. S. Baylis; 22nd June, 1949, “Science Protects the Citizen,” Mr. O. H. Keys; 27th July, 1949, “National Parks and Nature Reserves from an Ecological Standpoint,” Mr. J. T. Holloway; 25th August, 1949, Film evening—Mr. J. H. Sorensen showed his films of wild life in the Southern Islands; 28th September, 1949, “Bivalve Molluscs,” Miss Beryl I. Brewin; 26th October, 1949, “The Geology of Stewart Island,” Dr. G. J. Williams.

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Presidential Address

The Proper Functions of the Royal Society

When the holder of this office of President has served for a year or more he begins to feel that he should not vacate the office without saying something about the Society itself. Normally, he would do this in the course of a brief address to the Annual Meeting, but the recent innovation whereby the address is delivered to a more widely representative gathering of members under the auspices of the Wellington Branch has made it necessary to develop some general topic as well. On the earlier occasions on which I have had the honour to address you, the topics dealt with were:

(1)

A Scientific Attitude to Conversation.

(2)

Our International Responsibilities in Science.

This year I wish to relate my remarks more closely to the internal affairs of our Society, and have chosen as a title: “The Proper Functions of the Royal Society.” “Proper” is used in the sense of “appropriate to”, and not in any reproving or corrective sense. Indeed, the remarks can only reflect some of my personal views, and they are offered as a small contribution to collective wisdom, not presuming to be a directive. The Royal Society of New Zealand is primarily concerned with the advancement of Science. In fulfilling that responsibility it has passed through the same stages as a parent or guardian in the upbringing of children. The early stage is encouragement and nurture, the second is guidance and wisdom in passing on the fruits of experience. As a matter of history, our predecessor, the New Zealand Institute, was founded to establish scientific practices that were nonexistent in a new colony. The country needed a Geological Survey, a meteorological service, a museum service, an analyst; and it was the job of the Board or the Manager to recommend and find the equipment and personnel necessary. To-day, these services expand without the aid of the Royal Society. The resources of government are such that new specialized scientific agencies also can be set up as the need for them becomes apparent. But I suggest that even here, though the responsibility of the Society may have narrowed, it has not entirely disappeared.

State Departments and even Boards are not set up to initiate or explore. They arise from demands formulated within the community in response to some recognized needs. Not infrequently it is a pressing problem confronting some industry—three fairly recent bodies of such origin are the Wheat Research Institute and the Committee concerned with tobacco and leather. In these and such cases organized bodies within the community are able to foresee results and present a case the merits of which can be readily understood. Where the vigilance of the Royal Society is required is more in the direction of formulating a convincing case for the prosecution of research in fields where results may be of such long-term fruition that they seem to be nobody's business, or at least not urgent. One such field in which the Society has maintained a lively interest is the

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co-ordination of conservation agencies and more fact-finding. Since I last addressed you from this platform just two years ago on the subject of conservation, other interested bodies within the community have given the matter continued attention; and there is convened for to-morrow by the Forest and Bird Society a conference on co-ordination at which the Royal Society will be represented. There also has been set up a valuable addition to existing fact-finding agencies in the Animal Ecology Section of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. Until Effective co-ordination in conservation is achieved, however, and until there has been established the means for some zoological survey comparable with that now accepted as essential in geology, soil science, and botany, the Royal Society will need to exercise more than a mere watching brief.

The chief stumbling-block to advancement, as I have just said, is that initiative and experimental contribution cannot come easily from departments with policy pre-defined and budgets already committed. Another current example of the difficulty is one that I mentioned in my address last year, namely, New Zealand's needs and potential contribution in oceanography as it is developing to-day. Since then a limited opportunity has been offered by the presence in New Zealand waters of a naval survey vessel. By courtesy of the Royal New Zealand Navy and the commanding officer, some facilities have been offered for oceanographical studies and recording. To take advantage of this a small Committee consisting of representatives of two sections of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, of the Marine Department the Dominion Museum, and of Victoria University College has been set up. It is a good committee and a good opportunity, but is almost certain to be limited by the fact that each representative will be able only to indicate what his department hopes to get from the project, and none will be free to offer much in the way of equipment or comprehensive work programme because the scheme as a whole is still nobody's business. Now, in this and similar cases where is the much-needed vision and co-ordination to come from? Some day it may come from the kind of National Research Council envisaged by Sir Reginald Stradling in the constructive report on Building and Civil Engineering Research which he presented two years ago to the Government (Bull. 97, D.S.I.R.). It probably is not necessary to remind you that the appendix to that report, dealing with the financial control of research, is a bold and constructive plan to simplify and strengthen the organization of research.

National Research Council
S.I.R. Council Medical Research Council Agricultural Research Council University Research Council
(Sociological Research Council)

It is not here suggested that the Royal Society as at present constituted could play any direct part in such reorganization, although a series of unsolicited and thoughtful articles in a Wellington newspaper some months ago did suggest that the Royal Society might have an active part to play in the co-ordination of research if the principles of the Stradling report were ever adopted. At the moment,

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keeping our feet on the ground and remembering our dependence on charity even for a roof over our heads, it may be enough to suggest that our corporate philosophy might so shape itself that we would be prepared for such changes. Research plans play too small a part in our deliberations. Our list of committees provide for machinery decisions, and some participation in other organizations but is otherwise almost static. To provide for progress (although not necessarily thus to ensure it) we need more committees comparable with the various standing committees set up at the Pacific Science Congress.

As matters stand, it must be admitted that the main constructive function which the Royal Society performs for New Zealand science is the publication of its Transactions, and I should like to emphasise the importance of this contribution and make some protest at the disabilities under which it is maintained. Firstly, as to its importance: It is often said that the Transactions, once the only medium for publication of scientific papers in New Zealand, is now only one of many, and that specialized journals gradually have reduced the field that the Transactions needs to cover. While that is perfectly true, it is also necessary to point out that the Transactions maintain in theory and usually in practice a tradition which is not always followed by specialist journals and departmental bulletins. It can too easily happen that a short circuit between author and editor avoids critical and refining processes which can improve the contribution and perhaps save labour, paper, printers' ink, and readers' time. If in Royal Society publication we follow traditional procedure faithfully, a paper is first read and, presumably, discussed at a meeting of a member body. It is then sent to the Editor, who arranges for suitable refereeing and then recommends it to the Standing Committee. The procedure has been criticised, and, in practice, has not always been followed, but I think that its general application has done much to establish the high reputation which the Transactions early gained, and still retains, abroad.

And that brings us to ask the question: “Is the service performed by the Transactions adequately understood and recognized?” Almost certainly not. As every member of the Standing Committee knows, the utmost economy is observed in preparation and editing of papers, processes expensive to authors and editors, but making no charge on the grant. In spite of further economy in format and printing, costs have risen to the point where a grant which still is below the pre-war figure is no longer adequate. It has been suggested by those who keep a watchful eye on Government expenditure that the deficit should be met by increasing the levy to members, a valid point, but only partly so in the case of a journal which is primarily not for restricted circulation within a paying membership, but for wide dissemination of our scientific results abroad.

In all that has been said above we have been dealing with the more official aspects of the functions of the Royal Society. But of equal if not greater importance are the functions of the member bodies. It is in the affiliation of voluntary member bodies large and small, and with varying proportions of professional scientists, amateurs, and merely interested people in their membership, that the Royal Society of New Zealand differs from its counterparts else-

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where. In some of its Branches it still continues to foster amateur clubs of observers and learners from Nature—a function which can also contribute to the advancement of Science. We do well to remind ourselves of the role of the amateur in scientific work in a country yet relatively unexplored. These are the competent amateurs who have laid the foundation of much that is firm structure to-day. There are such names in every branch of natural science. In the history of botanical investigation one thinks of Leonard Cockayne and a number of others who made a great contribution in that science. There was Alexander McKay, field assistant and labourer, who made a substantial contribution as a geologist. Ornithology owes much to the leisure-time devotion of men like Walter Buller, H. Guthrie-Smith, and Edgar Stead. This list could be considerably extended to include such names as Haast and Hutton, although in these cases professional scientific posts were held. It is instructive also to consider the role in discovery and interpretation played by non-scientists who in some cases have made no claim even to be amateurs. In my own field of experience in the last few years I can think of at least three projects which have developed significantly but would have lain dormant without such initiation. Those of you who have read of the results of excavations at Pyramid Valley in North Canterbury, recently summarized by Mr. R. S. Duff in a booklet, will agree that the deposit of bones and associated remains in that small swamp may well be one of the most significant in the long history of field work concerned with Moa remains. It might have remained hidden unknown indefinitely had the late David Hope not recognized the probable significance of a single bone unearthed when a dead horse was being buried and communicated his ideas about it to the Canterbury Museum. In the field of Archaeology the pioneer work of Dr. H. D. Skinner and others of the Otago School has reached a spectacular climax in the work lately carried out by Mr. Duff at the Wairau Bar. The deposit in this small area has made it possible to define much that was obscure about the Moa-hunter period of Maori culture, and both the work and its results mark an important advance in ethnology. This site might well have suffered the fate of many others, namely, to have been scattered and picked over unintelligently by casual fossickers and curio hunters. More likely, it would have remained unknown. The discovery and first careful excavations were made by James Eyles, who at the time was a boy of sixteen years of age. Our most recent event in Ornithology has been the re-discovery of Notornis as a living bird in a practically unknown valley west of Lake Te Anau. This quite remarkable occurrence has attracted notice far beyond the bounds of our own country; and it is surely a cause for remark that the achievement stands to the credit of an amateur observer, Dr. G. B. Orbell, who has persisted with imagination and initiative for a number of years in his quest for the lost bird.

In that way we are in the fortunate position of having a certain amount of pioneering still to do in almost every field of natural science, and there is everything to gain and nothing to lose by encouraging such spirit of inquiry and awareness wherever it may be latent.

Another function which is exercised here and there, but often under fire, is the popularization of Science. Its justification, if it needs one,

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is that the system of living and community organization which we call democratic requires that people shall progressively gain an understanding of the processes by which they allow their affairs to be guided. It is surely essential that they should understand the scientific method that is responsible for the material structure of human environment to-day. Lately, this matter has been the subject of a thoughtful report by Dr. Gilbert Archey on the place of science in the adult educational organization for which the State is increasingly making itself responsible. I shall not extend the length of this address by quoting it here, but I would strongly recommend it as a supplementary reading. Science in formal education also has been rightly regarded as a field in which the Society should take an interest. It has performed this function in the past and results have followed. It may still have to retain an interest, if not now in securing more science, at least in seeing that there is better science in education.

The foundations of our Royal Society were well laid and with foresight. We shall do well if we maintain the vigour and spirit of service that has carried it through so many years, and at the same time seek always for new ways in which, under changing conditions, we may best assist the advancement of science.