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Volume 79, 1951
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Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council,
Held on 11th May
, 1949.

The Annual Meeting of the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand was held on Wednesday, 11th May, 1949, in the Council Room, Victoria University College, Wellington.

Roll Call. The following were present:

  • The President, Dr. R. A. Falla, in the chair.

  • Government Representatives: Dr. G. Archey, Mr. B. C. Aston, Dr. W. R. B. Oliver.

  • Representing Auckland Institute: Mr. A. T. Pycroft.

  • Representing Wellington Branch: Dr. L. Bastings, Dr. J. T. Salmon.

  • Representing Canterbury Branch: Professor R. S. Allan, Dr. O. H. Frankel.

  • Representing Otago Branch: Miss Marion Fyfe, Dr. C. M. Focken.

  • Representing Hawke's Bay Branch: Mr. J. D. H. Buchanan.

  • Representing Nelson Institute: Dr. D. Miller.

  • Representing Southland Branch: Mr. R. W. Willett.

  • Co-opted Member: Dr. J. Marwick.

  • The Hon. Treasurer, Mr. S. Cory Wright, also attended.

Apologies. His Excellency the Governor-General, who was in residence in Auckland, was unable to be present.

The Hon. Minister of Scientific and Industrial Research, Mr. T. H. McCombs, regretted being unable to attend.

The Vice-President, Mr. F. R. Callaghan, was chairman of another meeting and regretted being unable to attend.

Dr. L. H. Briggs had not yet returned from overseas.

New Members. The President extended a warm welcome to Miss Marion Fyfe, Otago, the first woman to hold a seat on the Council; to Professor R. S. Allan, Canterbury; and to Dr. L. Bastings, Wellington.

The President also expressed the Council's regret at the resignation of Professor L. R. Richardson, Wellington, and of Professor G. J. Williams, Otago. He referred to the stimulus that Professor Richardson had given to meetings of the Council and to the Standing Committee.

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Deceased Members. The President referred to the great loss the Society had sustained through the death of Professor Henry Borrer Kirk and of Sir Thomas Easterfield, who had been past Presidents of the Society and for many years had been members of the Council. He referred also to the death of Mr. Edgar F. Stead, who had represented the Canterbury Branch on the Council.

The Council rose in tribute to their memory.

Deceased Honorary Members. The President announced the death of Dr. Otto Wilckens, formerly of the University of Bonn, and of Dr. L. Diels, of Berlin-Dahlem. Although the death of these two Honorary Members had occurred in 1945 and 1944 respectively, the news had only recently come to hand. More recently, June, 1948, Mr. E. C. Andrews, formerly Government Geologist of New South Wales and Secretary and one-time President of the Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science, had died.

A motion of sympathy with relatives of these three Honorary Members was recorded.

Congratulations. The congratulations of the Council were extended to Dr. H. H. Allan on his receiving the order of C.B.E. in the King's Birthday Honours and to Mr. B. C. Aston for a similar honour announced in the New Year's Honours List.

Presidential Remarks. Dr. Falla stated that his remarks from the chair would be brief. The Presidential Address under the new procedure would be given that night before the Wellington Branch of the Society.

The chief work of the past year had been the holding of the Seventh Pacific Science Congress in February. This had entailed an immense amount of organizing work, carried out with conspicuous success by Dr. Gilbert Archey, Secretary-General of the Congress and Chairman of the Auckland Committee, and by Professor Allan, Chairman of the Christchurch Committee, and by the Organizing Committee and the Hon. Treasurer, Mr. S. Cory Wright.

Thanks were due also to the Chairman and Secretaries of the Divisions, to the Host-guides, and to all who had participated in the work before and during the Congress. The acknowledged fact that the Congress was an outstanding success was perhaps highest reward for this work.

Hector Award. On the recommendation of the Hector Award Committee the Hector Medal and Prize was unanimously awarded to Professor R. A. Robinson, late of Auckland University College and now of Raffles College, Singapore, for his researches in physical chemistry.

Hector Prize. It was resolved, on the motion of Mr. Pycroft, that the amount of the Hector Prize be £50.

Fellowship Royal Society of N.Z. Dr. J. Marwick, convener of the Fellowship Selection Committee, reported that the Committee recommended Dr. R. O. Page, Mr. G. Simpson, Dr. J. T. Salmon, and Professor F. G. Soper for election to the Fellowship.

On the motion of Dr. Marwick, seconded by Dr. Archey, the Committee's recommendation was adopted.

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Committees. On the motion of Mr. Buchanan, seconded by Dr. Oliver, a hearty vote of thanks was accorded to the Hector Award Committee and to the Fellowship Selection Committee for their work.

Fellowship, 1950. On the motion of Dr. Frankel, seconded by Dr. Marwick, it was resolved that four Fellows be elected in 1950.

Honorary Members. It was resolved that three Honorary Members be elected to fill the vacancies caused by the deaths of Mr. E. C. Andrews, Dr. L. Diels, and Dr. O. Wilckens.

Report of the Standing Committee

Annual Report for the Year ended 31st March, 1949

Meetings. Six meetings of the Standing Committee were held during the year, the attendance being as follows: The President, Dr. R. A. Falla, Wellington, 6; the Vice-President, Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Wellington, 2; Mr. B. C. Aston, Wellington, 5; Dr. G. Archey, Auckland, 1; Dr. L. Bastings, Wellington, 1; Dr. J. Marwick, Wellington, 6; Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, Wellington and Christchurch, 2; Professor L. R. Richardson, Wellington, 4; Dr. J. T. Salmon, Wellington, 6; Mr. R. W. Willett, Wellington, 5; the Hon. Editor, Dr. J. Henderson, 3; and the Hon. Treasurer, Mr. S. Cory Wright, 3.

Obituary. Professor H. B. Kirk: At the Standing Committee meeting held on the 24th August, the President referred to the death of Professor H. B. Kirk, a past President of the Society and for many years a member of the Council. The following resolution was carried:

“That the Standing Committee of the Royal Society of New Zealand expresses its sense of loss sustained by the death of Professor Harry Borrer Kirk, and wishes to place on record its deep appreciation of his devoted service as a biologist of distinction, a profound thinker and sympathetic teacher, and a life-long contributor to and supporter of the Society. It records with special gratitude the unfailing kindliness and courtesy for which Professor Kirk will best be remembered by those who knew him.”

In response to a request, Professor W. P. Evans wrote the obituary notice and tribute to Professor Kirk's long life of service in the cause of science. This notice was published in Volume 77, Part 2.

Sir Thomas Easterfield: At the Standing Committee on the 29th March, the President referred to the recent death of Sir Thomas Easterfield, also a past President of the Society and a member of the Council. He referred to the services Sir Thomas had rendered to the Society and expressed the Society's sense of loss sustained.

Mr. Edgar F. Stead: At the same meeting the President paid a tribute to Mr. Edgar Stead, whose death had occurred in February. At the last Annual Meeting Mr. Stead had been elected a Fellow of the Society in recognition of his work and researches on birds, animals, and plant life.

Congratulations. The warm congratulations of the Society were extended to Dr. H. H. Allan, whose name was included in the King's Birthday Honours, and to Mr. B. C. Aston, who received the C.B.E. in the New Year Honours.

Council. In November, Professor L. R. Richardson intimated that as he had been elected President of the Wellington Branch he found it necessary to resign as its representative on the Council of the Royal Society. Dr. Falla expressed the Council's sincere regret that Professor Richardson found that he could not continue office on the Council. He referred to the great help and to the stimulus Professor Richardson had given during his term on the Council. Other members voiced their regret and a hearty vote of thanks was accorded to Professor Richardson.

Publications. Unfortunately, it is not possible to report any marked improvement during the year in the issue of the Society's Transactions. Only two quarterly parts have so far been issued, making the situation rather worse than it was at this time last year. Volume 77, Parts 1 and 2, have been distributed and the next Part, which it was decided to issue as Part 3–4, is in page proof. Normally, however, Volume 78, Part 4, would be almost ready, with Volume 79,

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Part 1, in the press. The Proceedings for 1948 are being printed, and sufficient copies will be held for inclusion in Volume 78, Part 1.

The position cannot be said to be satisfactory, but there are indications that there may be some improvement in the near future.

It is recognised that the printing of the 1947 N.Z. Science Congress volume has been one of the factors in the slow appearance of the quarterly parts, and with the completion of this volume as Part 5 of Volume 77, the printers will be able to concentrate on bringing the publication of the Transactions up to schedule.

Primarily, the delay has been caused by the almost universal conditions governing the printing trade, but authors of papers in some cases have aggravated the situation by dilatory return of proofs to the Editor. This was stressed by the Manager of the printing department of the Otago Daily Times Company, and the Standing Committee decided that the time had come to strengthen the Editor's hands and rule that unless galley proofs are returned within three weeks the paper will be held over until a later Part.

A rise in the cost of paper took effect from Part 1 of Volume 77.

Honorary Editor. Dr. Henderson had intimated to the last Annual Meeting that he found it necessary to resign the office of Honorary Editor and the matter of finding a successor to Dr. Henderson was left in the hands of the Standing Committee. In October the Otago Branch wrote suggesting that Miss Marion Fyfe would be prepared to act, and the Standing Committee welcomed the suggestion and appointed Miss Fyfe to succeed Dr. Henderson and to assume office with Volume 78.

The President, Dr. Falla, referred in appreciative terms to the great work done by Dr. Henderson during his term as Honorary Editor. His work had been heavier by the preparation of the Science Congress volume and more than usual worry had attached to the office because of the delay in printing during his term.

Dr. Henderson stated that he was prepared to see Volume 77 through the press. He considered that it would be a decided advantage to have the Editor resident in the same town as the printers.

The question of an honorarium for the office of Hon. Editor was referred to the Annual Meeting for consideration.

Library. The Library has proved invaluable to a steadily growing band of research staff and honours students and to members of the Society, staffs of scientific institutions and departments, while the demand from libraries under the inter-loan system has been exceptionally heavy throughout the year. It was necessary to obtain an additional cabinet for current incoming exchanges, and this has slightly eased the congestion.

The National Library School again sent one of its students to catalogue the periodicals as a project in the course of training. The whole of the Russian section was covered and a start made on the Spanish periodicals. It is hoped that next year other foreign exchanges will be continued by this means. Although this project is of short duration, library trainees can do more effective work in the time available than untrained assistants could do throughout the year. One of the Victoria University College Library assistants was employed for a short period during the vacation and the G. V. Hudson Entomological Library was catalogued and shelved.

On the recommendation of the Library Committee the Standing Committee approved of the following being added to the Exchange List:

  • Leeds Literary and Philosophical Society, University of Leeds.

  • Division of Mines, State of California.

  • Alan Hancock Foundation, Yale University.

  • Fundacao Getulia Vargas (Estudios Brasileiros Biologiae, Geol., etc.).

  • University de Santa Domingo, West Indies.

  • Academia Sinica, China.

  • National Institute of Sciences, India.

  • Lingua, Holland.

  • Institut Royale Colonial de Belge.

  • Societe des Oceanistes, Paris.

  • Federation des Societe des Sciences et Naturelles.

  • Universite Marie Curie Sklodowska, Lublin.

  • Nils Holmgren, Zootomiska Institutet, Sweden.

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Binding. The binder has a good deal of work in hand, but the volumes have not yet been returned.

Member Bodies. The following reports have been received from Member Bodies: Wellington Branch for the year ended 30th September, 1948; Canterbury Branch for the year ended 31st October, 1948; Otago Branch for the year ended 31st October, 1948; Nelson Institute for the year ended 31st December, 1948.

Fellowship. Fourteen nominations have been received for the four vacancies in the Fellowship. These were submitted to the Fellows for selection and the Fellowship Selection Committee will report to the Annual Meeting.

Hector Award. Owing to the absence overseas of Dr. G. H. Cunningham, the Hector Medal and Prize for 1948 have not yet been presented. Dr. Cunningham has now returned and arrangements are being made to have the presentation made at a meeting of the Auckland Institute in the near future.

Medals. A further supply of Hector Medals was received from Messrs. John Pinches Ltd. At the time of their arrival the Customs Department insisted on duty and sales tax being paid on them, but owing to subsequent representations made on the Society's behalf the amount of duty and sales tax has been refunded and an assurance given that in future the Society's medals will not be subject to duty and sales tax.

Hutton Grants. The amended regulations governing applications for Hutton grants are appreciated by prospective grantees.

Dr. Greta Cone's application referred from the Annual Meeting for further information was approved by the Standing Committee.

On the recommendation of the Hutton Research Grants Committee the following applications were approved during the year:

Mr. B. van't Woudt, £42, for books and apparatus and travelling expenses in a research on soil relationships of Pinus radiata in the State Forest Plantations on the acid pumice soils at the Kaingaroa Plains.

Mr. V. J. Cook, £30, for research on Cyperaceae.

Professor L. R. Richardson and Mr. H. Bary, £30, for the study by observational flights, of the blooming of Cyclotrichium in the Wellington Harbour.

Research Grant. Only one application was received for the amount of £75 available as a special grant for research, that of Mr. B. van't Woudt, who asked for maintenance grant while employed on the Pinus radiata research in the State Forest at Kaingaroa Plains. On the recommendation of the Research Grants Committee this application was granted.

Pacific Science Congress. Although the Standing Committee did not undertake directly any part of the active organization of the Seventh Pacific Science Congress throughout the year, it has been kept informed of all stages of arrangements.

Notice was given to the Society that U.N.E.S.C.O. was making 20,000 dollars available to enable delegates from war devastated countries to attend the Congress.

Notice was also given that the National Research Council of the Philippines intended to issue an invitation for the Eighth Pacific Science Congress, and the Society as the adhering body in the Pacific Science Association was notified of certain proposed amendments to the Constitution to be placed before the Pacific Science Council. A matter to come before the Annual Meeting for consideration is the proposal to appoint a permanent General Secretary and consequential amendments to the Constitution.

As host to the Congress, the Society was entitled to ten delegates, and the following were appointed to represent the Society as official delegates: Dr. R. S. Allan, Professor W. N. Benson, Professor G. S. Calvert, Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. F. J. Filmer, Professor B. J. Marples, Mr. H. C. McQueen, Mr. A. W. B. Powell, Mr. A. T. Pycroft, and Professor L. R. Richardson.

The Congress was an outstanding success in every way and the thanks of the Society will be extended at the Annual Meeting to all those who contributed to its success.

Fulbright Funds. Possibly, largely to the initiative taken by the Royal Society of New Zealand and by the constant representations made by it to the Prime Minister, the machinery governing the Fulbright Funds was finally set in motion, and in October the establishment in New Zealand of the Board of the U.S. Education Foundation was announced, Sir David Smith. Chancellor of the University of New Zealand, Major-general Sir Howard Kipp [ unclear: ] berger, Editor-

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in-chief of New Zealand War Histories, and Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Vice-President of the Society and Secretary of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research having been appointed Directors on the Board.

The first to be brought to New Zealand under Fulbright Funds is Dr. Olaus J. Murie, who after attending the Science Congress, proceeded to participate in the New Zealand and American Fiordland Expedition.

Dr. Earl Dennis, the United States and New Zealand Liaison Officer in connection with the administration of the Fulbright Funds, attended the Congress with a view to finding avenues of exchange between New Zealand and United States students and research workers by contact with as many United States professors and heads of representative institutions as possible.

U.N.E.S.C.O. The Society's nominations to the National Commission of U.N.E.S.C.O. made at the last Annual Meeting were forwarded, and at the Standing Committee meeting held on the 21st October it was reported that the following had been appointed members of the National Commission of U.N.E.S.C.O.: Dr. Gilbert Archey, Dr. J. C. Beaglehole, Mr. A. E. Campbell, Dr. R. A. Falla, Mr. D. Forsyth, Mrs. M. P. Gillies, Professor Ian Gordon, Mr. M. H. Holcroft, Miss Challis Hooper, Mr. A. F. McMurtrie, Mr. J. A. D. Nash, Mr. N. R. Seddon, Professor J. Shelley, Mr. H. C. D. Somerset, Miss E. E. Stephens, and Mr. D. Cairns, Secretary.

The U.N.E.S.C.O. literature and material coming to the Society's office has been referred to the Sub-committee set up, and Dr. Falla has brought relevant matters arising therefrom before the Standing Committee.

It was reported that a Conference on Science Abstracting organized by U.N.E.S.C.O. would be held in June in Paris, and Mr. D. Cairns was asked to represent the Society at the Conference. A sub-committee consisting of Dr. Bastings, Dr. Marwick, and Dr. H. B. Fell was set up to express the Society's views on the subjects outlined on the agenda for the Conference.

Study Groups: U.N.E.S.C.O. is endeavouring to institute study groups on the social implications of science. Information regarding this project is being circulated to members of the Council with the Annual Meeting papers.

Royal Society of New Zealand Act, 1933. As instructed by the last Annual Meeting, the Standing Committee endeavoured to have the R.S.N.Z. Act, 1933, amended. In June the Vice-President, Mr. F. R. Callaghan, as Secretary of the Scientific and Industrial Research Department, requested the drafting office to frame the necessary amendments which had been decided upon at the last Annual Meeting. Included in these was that of provision for the whole of the Society's grant being named in the Act instead of, as at present, only portion of it. At the same time it was asked that the grant be increased to £1,500.

Subsequently Treasury advised against an increase and stated that there appeared to be no necessity to amend the financial clause in the Act. Treasury suggested that the Society's income could be increased by making a larger levy on the Transactions taken by the Member Bodies. A sub-committee was set up to confer with Treasury and with the Hon. Minister regarding this matter. The draft of the other desired amendments to the Act has not yet been received from the drafting office.

Waipoua Forest. Member Bodies were given an opportunity to consider the report on Waipoua Forest presented to the last Annual Meeting by the Sub-committee set up by the Society. Comments of the Member Bodies were presented to the Standing Committee as they came to hand, and at a meeting on the 24th August the policy of National Parks was fully discussed. It was then pointed out that although the order of reference included National Parks and scenery preservation generally, the Sub-committee had confined its report to Waipoua Forest. It was decided to ask the Wild Life Committee of the Society to bring down a report on the status and policy of National Parks.

The comments of the Member Bodies on the Waipoua Forest report were sent to the Sub-committee, which stated that although the comments had been read with interest, it had nothing further to add to its report.

At a meeting of the Standing Committee held on the 29th March, following further discussion on the subject, it was resolved that the Royal Society convene a conference of all interested in the future policy in respect to Waipoua Forest, with a view to reaching a satisfactory decision acceptable to the different

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interests involved, but that action in this direction should be deferred until the petitions before Parliament have been disposed of.

Dominion Museum and National Art Gallery. Professor W. P. Evans and Dr. P. Marshall were appointed for a further term of office as representatives on the Board of Trustees of the National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum.

Loder Cup. On the recommendation of the Sub-committee consisting of Mr. B. C. Aston and Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, Mr. L. W. McCaskill was nominated for the 1948 Loder Cup. This award, however, was made by the Committee to Mr. A. D. Beddie.

The Director of the Division of Horticulture of the Department of Agriculture intimated that the Loder Cup Committee was being reorganized, and asked that the Royal Society of New Zealand should nominate a representative on the Committee. Dr. W. R. B. Oliver was nominated.

Wild Life Advisory Committee. The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research set up a Wild Life Advisory Committee on research concerning the conservation and regulation of wild life. Dr. R. A. Falla was nominated to represent the Society, and subsequently Dr. Falla was appointed Chairman of the Committee.

Rutherford Memorial Committee. Canterbury University College wrote asking the Society to nominate a representative on the Rutherford Memorial Committee which was being set up. Dr. L. Bastings was nominated to represent the Society.

Biological Journal. A grant of £5 was made to the Biological Society of Victoria University College to enable it to publish a plate in its journal, Tuatara. The plate is to accompany a paper written by Dr. H. H. Allan on “A Key to the Commoner Genera of Lichens of New Zealand.”

Carter Observatory Board. Dr. M. A. F. Barnett and Mr. C. G. G. Berry were nominated for a further term on the Carter Observatory Board.

On the motion of Mr. Willett the report was taken as read.

Matters arising therefrom:

R.S.N.Z. Act, 1933: The President read Treasury's letter in regard to the Society's request for an increase in its grant.

The letter stated that an increase in the levy on the Transactions taken by Member Bodies would add to the income of the Society and be a reasonable increase in view of the rise in the cost of printing. Treasury contended that the Government was in fact being asked to subsidise the Transactions to members.

After some discussion on this point, Dr. Salmon moved and Dr. Oliver seconded, that the levy be increased from 5s per copy to 10s per copy. As an amendment, Dr. Frankel moved and Dr. Miller seconded, that the levy be increased to 7s 6d per copy.

Dr. Archey opposed both the motion and the amendment and considered that the Society should represent the position to Treasury through the Hon. Minister. He stated that compared with Government grants given to scientific societies in other countries, the grant to the Royal Society of New Zealand was exceedingly small.

Dr. Marwick considered the Government should be glad to supplement the cost of printing a volume which was in use in so many Government departments.

The motion was withdrawn in favour of the amendment, which was carried. It was suggested that the arguments put forward should be used by the sub-committee in its interview with Treasury.

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Waipoua Forest. When the report on the Waipoua Forest was being discussed, Dr. Archey asked that the comments of the Member Bodies on the report should be read.

These were read to the meeting, and after further discussion, on the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Professor Allan, it was resolved:

“That the report of the sub-committee appointed by the Standing Committee be received and that the Council strongly recommends that until a thorough investigation into the silviculture and regeneration of Kauri in Waipoua has been carried out, the whole of the present Waipoua Kauri forest area be left intact and unmodified.”

On the motion of Dr. Oliver, seconded by Dr. Focken, it was resolved: “That in view of the motion just passed, the proposal to convene a conference be abandoned.”

On the motion of Dr. Falla, seconded by Dr. Archey, the Report of the Standing Committee was adopted.

Honorary Treasurer's Report. Mr. Cory Wright presented the annual report together with (a) Statement of Receipts and Payments, (b) Statements of Assets and Liabilities, (c) Revenue Account, (d) Trust Accounts.

Report of the Honorary Treasurer

In presenting the accounts for the year ending 31st March, 1949, I have to report that the Society's finances continue to be satisfactory and are much on the same basis as last year.

The Government grant of £1,250 has enabled the Society to meet the year's expenses with a small surplus, but still rising costs of printing, etc., indicate that this margin is not likely to continue for very long, and therefore I would recommend that consideration be given to the question of increasing our income. It was proposed last year that the original and supplementary grants totalling £1,250 from the Government should be amalgamated into one grant, and that the Government be approached to raise this to £1,500. An approach was made, but was referred back for further consideration because Treasury felt that a greater share of the expenses of the Royal Society should be paid by Member Bodies. Thus the matter is in abeyance pending some action by the Council, or a further appeal to the Government.

The balance at 31st March, 1949, of £3,637 14s 10d is higher, owing to the delay in completing and paying for printing of Transactions, which is still more in arrear than last year. This balance also includes, as usual, the funds to meet the current year's expenditure.

The Seventh Pacific Science Congress accounts have been kept as a separate Trust Account of the Royal Society, and are not included in the present statement because on 31st March the chief expenses of the Congress were still being liquidated and the balance date for the Congress has been put forward to 31st May. I therefore submit no accounts herewith for the Congress, but report for general information that of the £10,000 Government grant there will be about £2,000 balance left for printing of transactions after paying the general expenses of the Congress. The Congress also received from U.N.E.S.C.O. a grant of 20,000 dollars (about £5,000) for bringing delegates from war-devastated countries, and of this amount something over £1,000 will remain unexpended and will be at disposal of U.N.E.S.C.O.

I desire to pay a tribute to the good work of our Secretary, Miss Wood, who besides her duties as Secretary and Librarian of the Society continues to most efficiently perform the duties of Accountant.

S. Cory Wright

, Hon. Treasurer,

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Statement of Receipts and Payments for the Year Ended 31st March, 1949
Receipts Payments
£ s. d. £ s. d.
Balance at 31st March, 1948 3,148 17 10 Otago Daily Times, Printing Vol. 77 (1 and 2) 628 8 8
Annual Government Grant 1,250 0 0 Salaries 425 0 0
Levy, Volume 77 306 9 0 Research Grants 94 16 5
Sales of Publications 123 8 8 Hutton Research Grants 117 0 0
Travelling Expenses: Member Bodies' Share 28 15 11 Travelling Expenses 41 0 7
Research Grant: Refund 3 15 6 Library: Cabinet, shelving and register 85 14 6
Research Grant: Apparatus purchased 69 16 5 Library: Book purchased 3 3 0
Favourable Exchange 0 0 7 Library Assistance 2 0 0
Hector Fund: Duty on Medals refunded 16 12 11 Stationery 12 14 8
Hector Fund: Interest 51 13 8 Petty Cash 19 5 1
Hutton Fund: Interest 64 10 0 Hector Medals and Duty 50 14 2
Summer-time Fund: Interest 24 15 3 Subscription Int. Scient. Unions (two years) 80 0 0
Cockayne Memorial Fund: Interest 11 8 6 Cost of draft 0 16 0
Carter Library Legacy: Interest 6 6 10 Subscription American Polar Year 0 5 0
Plant Diseases Trust: Interest 17 19 1 Charges (Insurance, Telephone, Audit, Bank, etc.) 13 12 4
Hamilton Mem. Fund: Interest 2 6 0 Trust Accounts: Audit Fee 1 10 0
Endowment Fund: Interest 75 12 0 Grant for Plate for Tuatara Journal 5 0 0
Interest at Post Office Savings Bank 39 2 8 Transfers from Bank to Trust Accounts 12 17 6
Repayment from Trust A/cs. to General A/c. 123 19 3 Interest paid direct to Trust Accounts 133 17 4
Balance as under 3,637 14 10
£5,365 10 1 £5,365 10 1

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£ s. d.
Bank of New Zealand 1,712 1 3
Less unpresented Cheques 321 6 2
1,390 15 1
Post Office Savings Bank 2,238 1 0
Cash in hand 0 0 2
Petty Cash in hand 8 18 7
£3,637 14 10
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Statement of Assets and Liabilities at 31st March, 1949
Liabilities Assets
£ s. d. £ s. d.
Hector Memorial Fund Capital Account 1,184 18 1 Hector Fund: Inscribed Stock (face value £1,250) 1,184 18 1
Hector Memorial Fund Revenue Account 95 6 7 Hector Fund: P.O.S.B. Account 95 6 7
Hutton Memorial Fund Capital Account 1,506 8 6 Hutton Fund: Inscribed Stock (face value £1,570) 1,506 8 6
Hutton Memorial Fund Revenue Account 343 10 8 Hutton Fund: P.O.S.B. Account 343 10 8
Summer-Time Fund Capital Account 546 19 6 Summer-Time: Inscribed Stock (face value £510) 500 2 6
Summer-Time Fund Revenue Account 127 15 0 Summer-Time: P.O.S.B. Account 174 12 0
Plant Diseases Trust Capital Account 542 13 5 Plant Diseases: Inscribed Stock (face value £500) 500 0 0
Plant Diseases Trust Revenue Account 102 2 1 Plant Diseases: P.O.S.B. Account 144 15 6
Cockayne Memorial Fund Capital Account 249 12 0 Cockayne Fund: Inscribed Stock (face value £260) 249 12 0
Cockayne Memorial Fund Revenue Account 62 14 7 Cockayne Fund: P.O.S.B. Account 62 14 7
Carter Library Legacy Capital Account 162 19 0 Carter Legacy: Inscribed Stock (face value £160) 162 19 0
Carter Library Legacy Revenue Account 30 19 10 Carter Legacy: P.O.S.B. Account 30 19 10
Hamilton Memorial Fund Capital Account 78 6 8 Hamilton Fund: Inscribed Stock (face value £60) 60 0 0
Hamilton Memorial Fund Revenue Account 2 3 9 Hamilton Fund: P.O.S.B. Account 24 10 5
Hamilton Memorial Fund, 1947 Prize, Miss Batham 4 0 0 Endowment Fund: Inscribed Stock (face value £2,070) 2,054 2 5
Endowment Fund Capital Account 2,129 2 5 Endowment Fund: Part Gen. P.O.S.B. Account 392 12 10
Endowment Fund Revenue Account 317 12 10 Sundry Debtors 45 14 9
Research Grants Fund 146 11 6 Bank of New Zealand 1,390 15 1
Science Congress Volume 77 (5) 500 0 0 Post Office Savings Bank 1,845 8 2
N.Z. Science Congress Administration Fund 50 0 0 Petty Cash in hand 8 18 7
Library Binding Fund 100 0 0 Cash in hand 0 0 2
Publication Expenses Fund 283 12 7
Otago Daily Times Co. Ltd. 35 9 6
A. P. Mason in credit 0 6 1
Balance of Assets over Liabilities 2,174 17 1
£10,778 1 8 £10,778 1 8
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Property Assets
Estimated Value Insured Value
£ s. d. £ s. d.
Library and Stack Room, V.U.C. 11,592 12 0 4,500 0 0
Furniture 95 12 6 40 0 0
Stock in cellar, Parliament Buildings 500 0 0
Carter Library, Dominion Meseum (jointly owned with Museum) 500 0 0
£5,540 0 0

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Revenue Account for the Year Ended 31st March, 1949.
Annual Meeting, 1949
Expenditure Income
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Printing Transactions, Vol. 77 (1 and 2) 661 14 2 By Balance at 31/3/48 2,077 8 1
" Salaries 25 0 0 " Annual Government Grant 1,250 0 0
" Stationery 12 14 8 " Trust Funds Administration Expenses 5 2 6
" Library Equipment and Assistance 90 17 6 " Levy, Volume 77 295 6 9
" Petty Cash 19 5 1 " Sales of Publications 144 8 11
" Charges 19 12 9
" Travelling Expenses 12 4 8
" Special Research Grants:
1947–48 100 0 0
1948–49 50 0 0
" Library Binding Grants:
1947–48 50 0 0
1948–49 50 0 0
" Annual Grant, Science Congress Adm. Expenses 50 0 0
" Subscription, Int. Scientific Unions 56 0 4
" Balance 2,174 17 1
£3,772 6 3 £3,772 6 3
" Balance £2,174 17 1

S. Cory Wright, Hon. Treasurer.

– xii –

Trust Accounts for the Year Ended 31st March, 1949

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Hector Memorial Fund
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Hector Medals (12) 34 1 3 By Capital invested 1,184 18 1
" Duty on Medals 16 12 11 " Bal. Revenue 31/3/48 78 19 2
" Administration Exs. 1 5 0 " Interest 51 13 8
" Balance 1,280 4 8 " Duty on Medals refund 16 12 11
£1,332 3 10 £1,332 3 10
By Balance Capital A/c £1,184 18 1
" Balance Revenue A/c £95 6 7

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Hutton Memorial Fund
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Grants 117 0 0 By Capital invested 1,506 8 6
" Administration Exs. 1 5 0 " Bal. Revenue 31/3/48 397 5 8
" Balance 1,849 19 2 " Interest 64 10 0
£1,968 4 2 £1,968 4 2
By Balance Capital A/c £1,506 8 6
" Balance Revenue A/c £343 10 8

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

T. K. Sidey Summer-Time Fund
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 1 5 0 By Capital invested and P.O.S.B. 544 10 0
" Balance 674 14 6 " Bal. Revenue 31/3/48 106 14 3
" Interest
Revenue £22 5 9
Capital 2 9 6
24 15 3
£675 19 6 £675 19 6
By Balance Capital A/c £546 19 6
" Balance Revenue A/c £127 15 0

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Plant Diseases Trust
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 0 5 0 By Capital invested and P.O.S.B. 542 13 5
" Balance 644 15 6 " Bal. Revenue 31/3/48 84 8 0
" Interest 17 19 1
£645 0 6 £645 0 6
By Balance Capital A/c £542 13 5
" Balance Revenue A/c £102 2 1

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Cockayne Memorial Fund
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 0 5 0 By Capital Invested 249 12 0
" Balance 312 6 7 " Bal. Revenue 31/3/48 51 11 1
" Interest 11 8 6
£312 11 7 £312 11 7
By Balance Capital A/c. £249 12 0
" Balance Revenue A/c. £62 14 7
– xiii –

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Carter Library Legacy
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 0 12 6 By Capital Invested 162 19 0
" Balance 193 18 10 " Bal. Revenue 31/3/48 25 5 6
" Interest 6 6 10
£194 11 4 £194 11 4
By Balance Capital A/c. £162 19 0
" Balance Revenue A/c. £30 19 10

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Hamilton Memorial Fund
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 0 5 0 By Capital Inv. and P.O.S.B. 77 3 8
" Balance 84 10 5 " Bal. Revenue 31/3/48 5 5 9
" Interest—
½ to Capital 1 3 0
½ to Revenue 1 3 0
2 6 0
£84 15 5 £84 15 5
By Bal. Capital A/c. £78 6 8
" Bal. Revenue A/c. £2 3 9
" 1947 Prize (Miss Batham) held temporarily £4 0 0

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Endowment Fund
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 1 10 0 By Capital Inv. and P.O.S.B. 2,129 2 5
" Allocation to Publication Exs. 283 12 7 " Bal. Revenue 31/3/48 488 0 9
" Balance 2,446 15 3 " Interest 75 12 0
" Interest General A/c. 39 2 8
£2,731 17 10 £2,731 17 10
By Bal. Capital A/c. £2,129 2 5
" Bal. Revenue A/c. £317 12 10

The books had been audited, but the Controller-General's certificate had not yet been received.

The Pacific Science Congress balance sheet was not ready for presentation, but would be available after 31st May, 1949.

The Hon. Treasurer's report and balance sheet were adopted.

Hon. Editor's Report and Editorial. The report presented by Dr. J. Henderson, late Honorary Editor, was read and approved and a cordial vote of thanks was accorded to him for his services.

Report of the Honorary Editor

During the year ended March 31, 1949, Parts 1 and 2 of Volume 77 of the Transactions were issued. Part 3/4 is now in page form except for the last paper, of which the printer now has the corrected galleys.

The volume will contain 49 papers—Botany 17, Zoology 14, Palaeontology 2, Geology 7, Chemistry 7, and Miscellaneous 2. There are 78 plates and numerous text figures. All the papers were received a year or more ago.

– xiv –

Miss Fyfe has the Mss. of papers received since March 4, 1948.

The Special Volume of the N.Z. Science Congress of 1947, to be issued as Part 5 of Volume 77 of the Transactions, but bound and paged separately, is now all in type except the index. The last page proofs are now in authors' hands and the index is nearly ready to send to the printer. The volume will contain about 420 pages.

J. Henderson.

29th April, 1949

Miss M. Fyfe, newly appointed Hon. Editor, asked leave to bring some editorial matters before the Council, and on this being granted, she read the following report:

When I was appointed Editor I took over 28 manuscripts in various stages of preparation for the printer, and since then I have received six more. All these have been dealt with, and at the rate at which papers are being sent in it seems likely that there will be enough material for Parts I and II of Volume 78, which I hope to publish before the end of this year. Every endeavour is being made to bring the Transactions up to date as soon as possible.

From manuscripts which I have seen and from talks which I have had with the printer it appears very evident that the principal reason for the lag in publication was, and is, the slap-happy way in which authors send forward their manuscripts and plates. The way in which a paper and its plates are set out in a journal has a great influence on the reader, and the papers which I have seen do not by a long way approach the best overseas practice in this regard. Moreover, a great deal of unnecessary expense is incurred in printer's time when the printer is expected to set up plates, and additional expense is often asked for half-tone blocks when line drawings would be just as good, if not better.

Therefore I very earnestly commend these considerations to the Council and ask their approval of more stringent and modern rules for publication.

Our aim as a publishing body should be to produce a journal which is supported by really first-rate contributors, and one which is read with interest and respect by scientists all over the world. Whether we achieve this aim depends on at least two conditions: (a) the speed of publication, and (b) an improved format which will make our Transactions more distinguished and attractive in appearance. Methods for increasing the speed of publication have already been discussed. The problem of a more modern format was discussed at a meeting of the Otago Council on May 3, when it was unanimously agreed that a change of printing style was necessary.

I would be glad if this Council would approve of a change in the format of the Transactions.

Marion L. Fyfe

, Hon. Editor,
Transactions of the Royal Society.

On the motion of Dr. Arehey, seconded by Dr. Focken, Miss Fyfe was thanked for her report.

Notice to Contributors: Miss Fyfe then stated that the Notice to Contributors required to be amended and many points clarified; she read the amendments necessary and the notice recast to include the amendments. Two or three further amendments were suggested and finally, on the motion of Miss Fyfe, the Notice to Contributors as amended and recast was adopted.

Author's Copies. It was resolved that the twenty-five free copies of author's reprints be increased to fifty.

Format of Transactions: Miss Fyfe asked the Council's approval of a change in the format of the Transactions. She stated that the present style was out-dated for an up-to-date scientific journal, and she produced copies of some overseas journals to illustrate her contention.

On the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Mr. Buchanan, it was resolved: “That the suggestion as outlined by Miss Fyfe be approved in principle and referred to a sub-committee consisting of Miss Fyfe,

– xv –

Professor Allan, Dr. Focken, and Dr. Frankel for recommendation to the Standing Committee.”

Bound Volume: Dr. Salmon moved and Dr. Frankel seconded: “That the bound volume be discontinued.”

An amendment moved by Dr. Archey, seconded by Dr. Miller: “That the proposal to discontinue the bound volume be referred to Member Bodies for consideration, the Hon. Editor to submit cost of binding, etc.”

Advertisements: The Hon. Editor asked a question regarding the Council's policy of advertisements in the Transactions. On the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Dr. Salmon, the matter was referred to the Standing Committee.

Published Dates of Papers: Some discussion took place regarding the published dates of papers in the Transactions, and it was agreed that the present procedure of submitting papers through a Member Body is adequate and that the date on which the paper is received by the Editor be published.

On the motion of Professor Allan, seconded by Dr. Salmon, the Hon. Editor's report was adopted and Miss Fyfe was thanked for bringing these matters before the Council.

The President read a letter from Mr. W. H. Dawbin, an author in the Transactions, complimenting the Otago Daily Times on the excellence of their scientific proof readers.

Honorarium. On the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Dr. Marwick, the Council approved of the principle of an honorarium for the Hon. Editor, and that an honorarium of £50 be given to the present Hon. Editor.

Seventh Pacific Science Congress. The Secretary-General, Dr. G. Archey, presented the following report of the Organizing Committee to the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand:

The Committee reports under four headings:


Preparations for the Congress;


The period of the Congress;




Post-Congress requirements.

(A) The Report which the Organizing Committee presented to the Pacific Science Council and the Preliminary Announcement, Circular of Information and General Programme, cover, in general, the preparatory period of the Committee's activities. A little further comment may be offered.

The prime factors of a Science Congress are scientists and scientific problems, and they are mutually dependent, because you will not get one without the other. The task of the Congress Committee was, therefore, to ensure a full and representative attendance, and to provide an adequate scientific programme. Accordingly, the first invitation sent to Representative Institutions in countries of the Pacific Science Association—sent early in January after the Organizing Committee's first meeting in mid-December, was immediately followed by suggestions for the programme and a request for comment thereon.

A printed Preliminary Announcement was circulated to Representative Institutions in March; it was also sent, with a formal invitation, to all Governments concerned by the Department of External Affairs.

Meanwhile, Divisional Chairmen and Secretaries were corresponding with their overseas colleagues on programme matters, and their proposals, together with suggestions received from the Secretary-General from Representative Institutions and from Chairmen of Standing Committees appointed by the Sixth Congress, were consolidated into a scientific programme of symposia and sectional discussions. This was sent out in cyclostyled form in July, and included in the printed Circular of Information issued on 1st August.

– xvi –

The correspondence that ensued from Representative Institutions, from other scientific institutions, and from individual scientists, gave confirmation of widespread interest in the Congress, but not, immediately, of certainty of participation. Lists of those known to be coming were circulated to all Congress workers for their information; by the end of September an adequate attendance was assured.

A conference of Divisional Chairmen and the Organizing Committee was held in November to discuss the scientific programme generally, and in particular to draw up a time table that would avoid major clashes of interest. The Organizing Committee held its sixth and last pre-Congress meeting at this time and confirmed administrative details for executive action.

Certain difficulties were experienced at this stage; inevitable difficulties arising from the short period available in which to organize and complete preparations. Two of these were late notification of papers for the programme and late advice as to the size of the delegations and of intending personal attendance.

The first difficulty was intensified by the long Christmas and New Year holidays we now enjoy, printers included, and in this connection the Committee has expressed its special thanks to Professor Allan and to Mr. Denis Glover of the Caxton Press for their united achievement in ensuring the punctual appearance of the General Programme. The second problem, accentuated by the uncertainty of air travel and of dates of arrival, was met by similar co-operation between the hotels and the accommodation committees.

These instances are mentioned not to emphasize difficulties, but as examples of the hard work and willing co-operation given by all who accepted responsibilities for Congress arrangements, and the Committee records its appreciation of the valuable help given by the Auckland and Christchurch Committees and their workers, by divisional programme organizers, by the heads of Government departments and their staffs, and by all who assisted in giving hospitality and entertainment to both overseas and New Zealand Congress members.

(B) The Congress itself followed substantially the printed programme. To aid discussion, cyclostyled abstracts were provided of all papers received in time, and to each Division a stenographer was allotted for office work, but chiefly to type or cyclostyle the record of day to day discussions as dictated by divisional recorders.

It was intended that the Auckland session record of discussions should be distributed at the opening of the Christchurch session, but delays in inter-island transport occurred and they were not available until the last two days of the session. The stock of abstracts was similarly delayed; those attending at Auckland had, of course, been able to secure their copies.

A press liaison room was established, the duties being largely undertaken by Mr. J. A. D. Nash; facilities were made available to the National Film Unit and the New Zealand Broadcasting Service, and space was allotted for scientific trade and Government exhibits. An Information Office from D.S.I.R. was extensively consulted.

The attendance at Auckland was—

Overseas Visitors 200
New Zealand Visitors to Auckland 200
Auckland enrolments 350

The attendance at Christchurch was 600 and included additional Christchurch enrolments. The attendance of overseas scientists was higher than at previous Pacific Science Congresses; and the New Zealand participation, both of scientists and laymen, was eminently satisfactory.

At Christchurch, in addition to the scientific sessions, most of the meetings of the Pacific Science Council were held; an important outcome was the decision to establish a permanent secretariat, and the invitation arising therefrom to the Royal Society of New Zealand to take the first steps in this venture. Of equal moment were the meetings in Christchurch of the Congress Committee for the Organization of Research, whose Research plan was adopted at the final meeting of the Pacific Science Congress and endorsed by the final plenary session. Another important meeting was that at which the scientific staff of the South Pacific Commission described the Commission's research proposals, which were closely followed and very fully discussed.

– xvii –

(C) Finance. There is a balance of approximately £2,900 in the Pacific Science Congress Account, while there is an amount of £1,995 in the U.N.E.S.C.O. Account after paying transport for seven delegates from war-devastated countries from a grant of 20,000 dollars given for this purpose by U.N.E.S.C.O.

(D) The immediate post-Congress duty of the Royal Society's Organizing Committee is to transmit the proceedings and resolutions to member countries, and to notify Chairmen of the Congress Standing Committees of their appointment.

The more continuing duty is to have the papers and abstracts presented at the sessions edited and to arrange for the printing and distribution of the Proceedings. The Committee has decided to print the Proceedings in single divisional or in appropriately grouped divisional volumes, and in order to facilitate wide availability, to offer single volumes, as well as sets, for sale. The cost will inevitably exceed the balance of funds in hand, and the Executive, after consultation with the Editorial and the Publications Committees, is to advise the Government of the amount required.

For the Organizing Committee,

Gilbert Archey

, Secretary-General.

Resolution arising from the above report carried at a meeting of the Organizing Committee held on 10th May, 1949:

“The Eighth Pacific Science Congress will be held in the Philippines. New Zealand's participation in past Congresses has been numerically weak both in personnel and in papers contributed. The Committee therefore recommends that to avoid repetition of the inadequate representation the Council of the Royal Society should on receipt of notification of the Eighth Congress appoint a committee to deal with all aspects of New Zealand's participation therein.”

On the motion of Dr. Salmon, seconded by Dr. Marwick, the report was adopted, and the President thanked Dr. Archey for submitting such a comprehensive account of the organization of the Congress.

In reply to a question regarding the distribution of the Proceedings of the Congress, Dr. Archey stated that copies would be given as follows: to Official Members, to overseas Governments, to Representative Institutions in those Governments, to Departments of State, to N.Z. University and the University Colleges, to Scientific Institutions.

On the motion of Mr. Pycroft, seconded by Professor Allan, it was resolved that the Annual Meeting records its appreciation of the work done by Dr. Archey, whose organization of the Congress was responsible for its success; he did a magnificent job and has earned our grateful thanks.

Carried by acclamation.

In reply, Dr. Archey stated that his position had been a happy one, for the became better acquainted with his colleagues throughout New Zealand, and this led to closer co-operation, and he had also had the pleasure of meeting overseas colleagues. Thanks were also due to the Organizing Committee with its President and the local committees.

On the motion of Dr. Falla, seconded by Dr. Marwick, warm thanks were extended to all who worked on behalf of the Congress Organizing Committee.

On the motion of Dr. Salmon, seconded by Mr. Willett, it was resolved that the Organizing Committee continue in office.

The meeting then adjourned for lunch, at which the visiting members entertained the local members.

Afternoon Roll Call. The following attended: Dr. Falla, Dr. Archey, Mr. Aston, Dr. Oliver, Mr. Pycroft, Dr. Bastings, Dr. Salmon,

– xviii –

Professor Allan, Dr. Frankel, Miss Fyfe, Dr. Focken, Mr. Buchanan, Dr. Miller Mr. Willett, Dr. Marwick, and the Hon. Treasurer, Mr. Cory Wright.

Hon. Librarian's Report

Report of Honorary Librarian

The addition of thirteen exchanges in the past year brings the total of exchanges to approximately six hundred.

Several feet of additional shelving have been added, and the file to hold current numbers of the journals has been increased by another 168 compartments. These changes have facilitated library work and relieved the congestion temporarily.

An assistant was employed for a short period to catalogue the G. V. Hudson bequest and during the course of the year Russian periodicals in our stacks were catalogued by a student from the National Library School for the Harris catalogue.

Loans, inter-library and personal, totalled 660, of which 149 were postal.

The original loan book, commencing in 1888, is now nearly filled. Since it contains many signatures of New Zealand scientists, it will be preserved.

L. R. Richardson

, Hon. Librarian.

On the motion of Dr. Oliver, the Report of the Hon. Librarian, Professor L. R. Richardson, was adopted.

Research Grantees Reports

Reports of Research Grantees

Briggs, Dr. L. H., who received £25 from the special grant of £100, has not yet returned from England, where he proposed to purchase material and equipment for chemical researches.

Parry, Miss G., who was granted £40 for research on Sea Anemones from the special grant of £100, reported on the 23rd December, 1948, that she had completed an extensive collecting excursion in the Auckland District, and she detailed the places visited and the species collected or inspected. She was leaving for England and hoped to have the work completed for a Review of New Zealand Anemones by the time she reached England. She intended to discuss certain problems with regard to the work with Professor Stephenson, of the University of Wales, and Professor Carlgren, of the University of Lund, before publishing the work. She asked if the Society would consider the publication of the whole survey as a separate Bulletin or provide some grant to cover the cost of a large paper containing many illustrations. The whole of the grant had been expended.

Hutton Grants

Battey, Mr. M. H., who was granted £30 from the Hutton Fund for an investigation of the igneous rocks and general geology of Cape Kerikeri district, North Auckland, reported that two visits of two or three weeks' duration have been made to the area and the whole of the coastline of the peninsula has been traversed, in so far as it is accessible by land, with the exception of three and a-quarter miles, and the greater part of the inland portion has been examined. A large suite of about 240 specimens has been collected for microscopic study and megascopic comparison. The sectioning of the rocks is proceeding, but the work is being delayed by the non-arrival of the petrographic microscope on order from England. All the specimens collected and the thin sections as they are made are being placed in the Auckland Museum. Expenses to date amount to £8 1s 8d.

McKenzie, Mr. D. W., who was granted £44 for aerial photography of Wellington, has reported that no commercial firm would undertake the type of work and detailed specification required and the work is now being done with aerial cameras in the possession of the Geography Department of Victoria University College. There have been only six occasions during the past nine months when the conditions were suitable, and on three of these flights were made and negatives taken which already have been of use. Some of these have been incorporated in a work on “The Geology of Wellington,” to be published by the Education Department. Other photographs are being used in a publication on the Sinclair Sheet of the 1:25,000 Survey of New Zealand, which will be available

– xix –

to schools from the Geography Department of Victoria University College towards the end of 1949. Total expenses to date are £18 1s 2d.

Te Punga, Mr. M. Very little has been done on the geological aspects of paleobotany and petrography for which Mr. Te Punga was granted £30 in 1946, because of the illness of the grantee during the latter part of the year.

Cone, Dr. Greta, who was granted £50 for research on Fungi, has utilised the grant in the purchase of books and in collecting trips round Levin, the Tararuas, the Orongorongo Water Reserve, Nelson, etc. A full report on the work will be submitted at a later date.

Richardson, Professor L. R., Bary, Mr. B., who were granted £30 from the Hutton Fund for observational flights to observe the blooming of Cyclotrichium in Wellington Harbour, reported on the 26th April that two flights were undertaken over Wellington Harbour and also over Cook Strait to check its distribution in open water and in parts of the Sounds. It was found that Cyclotrichium could be identified in all the Sounds, but not in Cook Strait, although blooms were found just to the south of French Pass, indicating that it occurs in open-sea conditions. General conclusions indicate that patent blooming is a phenomenon of semi-enclosed waters—that Cyclotrichium blooming in the harbour is carried through the harbour mouth and dispersed in Cook Strait. The incidence of phenomenon is such that the blooming of Cyclotrichium is to be regarded as a major seasonal event for our waters. There is one potential practical application in that it photographs from the air and is an excellent indicator of the movements of the superficial layers of water, sufficiently so that movement of water through the harbour mouth at Wellington was traced for seven miles along the coast. The two flights cost £27 8s 4d.

On the motion of Dr. Marwick, the reports presented by Hutton and other research grantees were adopted.

National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum

Report for the Year ended 31st March, 1949

The Board of Trustees met three times during the year.

The Art Gallery rooms were fully reconditioned during the year and the Gallery has since been reopened to the public.

The Museum rooms are still not fully reconditioned, but it should be possible to reopen them before long.

The expansion schemes outlined two years ago are still looked forward to, and are likely to remain so for some years to come.

The Board of Trustees is asking the Government for an increased grant so that the staffs may be brought up to the required efficiency.

P. Marshall,
W. P. Evans

Representatives on the Board of Trustees.

On the motion of Dr. Oliver, the report by Professor W. P. Evans and Dr. P. Marshall, representatives of the Council on the Board of Trustees of the National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum, was adopted.

Royal N.Z. Institute of Horticulture

Report of Representative

During the past year the following District Councils were established: Taihape, Waikato (at Hamilton), South Taranaki (at Hawera), Hawke's Bay (at Napier), and Lower Hutt and Eastern Bays (at Lower Hutt). The annual conference held at Auckland, 25th January, 1949, was opened by the Minister of Agriculture, Hon. E. L. L. Cullen. The Banks Lecture was delivered by Mr. J. A. McPherson, his subject being “Some Plant Introductions in the Auckland District.” The membership of the Institute in January, 1949, was over 2,000 (in September, 1946, it was 374).

The Auckland Council has been very active, in conjunction with other bodies, in endeavouring to preserve various important areas of native forest,

– xx –

including Waipoua, Kirk's Bush, and a pohutukawa forest at Ninety Mile Beach, and in pressing for a more extensive campaign against the European wasp.

W. R. B. Oliver

Representative of the R.S.N.Z. on the Council
of the R.N.Z. Institute of Horticulture

On the motion of Dr. Oliver, the report presented by him as representative of the Society on the Council of the Royal N.Z. Institute of Horticulture was adopted.

Great Barrier Reef Committee

Report of Representative

A meeting of the Committee was held at Brisbane on 10th September, 1948.

The business mainly concerned routine matters. Most discussion centred round a proposal to erect a Marine Biological Station on Heron Island, and a sub-committee was appointed to go into all the possibilities. Discussion also took place on tourists and the selling of shells. The balance in hand is £1,681 12s 7d, of which £1,300 is in bonds.

W. R. B. Oliver

Representative on the Committee.

On the motion of Dr. Oliver, his report as representative on the Great Barrier Reef Committee was adopted.

On the motion of Dr. Archey it was resolved: “That the Royal Society of New Zealand observes with much interest the proposal of the Great Barrier Reef Committee to establish a Marine Biological Station on Heron Island, and offers its best wishes for the success of this important undertaking.”

National Parks. Dr. Oliver presented the following report of the Wild Life Committee of the Society.

National Parks and Other Reserves for the Protection of the Plants
and Animals of New Zealand

Report by the Wild Life Committee

I. What should be protected:

1. The indigeneous plants and animals of New Zealand, other than those harmful to man. Among the latter are some predacious birds such as harriers, hawks and black-backed gulls, and one fruit-eating (also insect-eating) bird, the silver eye.

2. Examples of the plant formations of New Zealand. The present National Parks and bird sanctuaries cover, with one important exception, practically all the main plant formations. The exception is the kauri forest, of which no extensive area is included in any National Park. Forest and grassland protected for the purpose of preventing erosion serves the same purpose as National Parks in conserving plant formations.

3. Useful introduced animals. There are several kinds of imported seed-eating birds that should be protected until they become so numerous as to be harmful either to our crops or to native birds. Opossums and rabbits are at once harmful and useful. They need no protection other than to regulate the industries founded on them.

II. Plants and Animals at present protected by law:

1. “The Native Plants Protection Act, 1934,” provides for the protection of indigenous plants in public areas, not naming species. The Act does not apply to specimens collected for scientific or educational purposes. This Act is administered by the Lands and Survey Department.

2. “The Animals Protection and Game Act, 1921–22,” covers both imported and indigenous species. These are listed in three schedules (a) animals absolutely protected; (b) imported game; (d) native game (including the black swan). With regard to (b) and (c) the Act contains provisions enabling the Minister to declare open shooting seasons under licence for any or all of the species. The Act is administered by the Internal Affairs Department.

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3. National Parks.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Tongariro National Park 150,000
Egmont National Park 79,000
Peel Forest National Park 1,305
Abel Tasman National Park 37,600
Arthur Pass National Park 146,400
Additional area 150,000
Tasman National Park 97,800
Hooker Glacier National Park 38,000
Sounds National Park 2,407,000
Southern Alps (not yet named) 94,060
Total 3,201,165

4. There are many sanctuaries for the protection of the indigenous flora and fauna. Some, for instance, Little Barrier, Kapiti, and Resolution are of first importance.

5. Scenic Reserves are small areas of bush, but often they contain botanical and geological features of particular interest. Scenic Reserves gazetted number 1,230 of a total acreage of 922,760.

6. Public Domains, not primarily intended for the protection of the native plants they contain, total 827, of a total area of 80,084 acres. They are areas, however, which serve for the conservation of native plants.

7. Many large areas of forest and mountain tops are included in the reserves of the State Forest Service, but forests are liable to be cut over for their timber, as was done in a considerable portion of the Waipoua Kauri Forest.

III. Administration:

1. Controlling authorities. Boards constituted by Act of Parliament, with Commissioners of Crown Lands as Chairmen: Tongariro, Egmont, Peel Forest, Abel Tasman, Arthur Pass.

Land and Survey Department: Hooker Glacier, Sounds, Tasman, and Southern Alps National Parks, Kapiti Island Bird Sanctuary, Scenic Reserves, Domains.

Internal Affairs Department: The controlling authority of all sanctuaries directly constituted under the Animals Protection and Game Act. It is not, however, the controlling authority of any area in respect of ownership except the sanctuary at Pouto Point.

Marine Department: This department controls the lighthouse reserves, into which no one is admitted except by permission of the Department. Several of these reserves are islands containing native plants and animals practically untouched by settlement. Among these are Poor Knights Island, Cuvier Island, Moko Hinau Group, Hen and Chickens, and The Brothers. Stephen Island, partly farmed, contains tuataras and sea birds. Farewell Spit, also partly farmed, is the breeding place of several species of gulls and terns.

Tourist Department: Little Barrier Island Bird Sanctuary, Resolution Island Bird Sanctuary.

2. Importation of plants is controlled by the Department of Agriculture, and of animals by the Internal Affairs Department.

Plants are examined on importation mainly for the purpose of detecting harmful insects and fungal diseases. Large numbers of plant species have come in by accidental means and have established themselves. Several kinds have been carried into forest areas and even to mountain tops by mammals and birds, thus altering the composition of the native vegetation.

Very few kinds of animals are imported for liberation. Usually only birds suitable for sport are allowed to be released. Mammals imported in the past have done an enormous amount of damage to the native forests. Deer, pigs, goats, chamois and opossums are the chief destructive mammals now well established in New Zealand forests and grasslands.

3. The control of harmful animals, other than rabbits, is undertaken by the Internal Affairs Department, which constantly has parties in the field, and in limited areas has exterminated the species concerned, for instance, goats on the Three Kings Islands and pigs on the Poor Knights. Royalties are paid for the killing of harriers, keas, little owls, hedgehogs, stoats, polecats, and ferrets.

The control of rabbits is in the hands of Rabbit Boards, the Department of Agriculture administering the Rabbit Nuisance Act.

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The taking of opossums is under control of the Internal Affairs Department. In the case of rabbits and opossums there is a conflict of interests, as both animals form the bases of industries.

Unprotected species of indigenous birds are the harrier, bush hawk, mutton bird, black-backed gull, skua, several species of shags, and the silver eye.

Most introduced species of birds are unprotected by law. Of those protected, the Australian magpie is in part harmful.

4. The taking of protected animals is controlled by the Internal Affairs Department. Permits are sparingly given for the taking of protected birds and mammals for scientific and educational purposes, chiefly for museums, universities and the Government.

The taking of seals is controlled by the Marine Department. Prior to 1946 no permits had been issued for twenty-two years, but in that year permits were granted, and, unfortunately, over 6,000 fur seals were killed, regardless of sex or age.

Permits to take tuataras are granted only for special reasons, such as scientific study. In the past a few have been taken, by permission, for overseas museums or zoological gardens.

IV. Recommendation for further action:

From the above brief statement of the present position of National Parks and similar reserves, and the protection otherwise afforded to the indigenous plants and animals of New Zealand, it would appear that some further action is desirable. The Committee accordingly makes the following recommendations for the consideration of the Royal Society.

1. In selecting new areas for protection, especially those of considerable size, particular consideration should be given to the types of plant formation they contain. It should be the aim, in a general way, to protect in several localities each different kind of forest, scrub, grassland, mountain vegetation and swamp. At present, probably the main types of forest are covered, though not in a sufficient number of localities. The existing areas of kauri forest are, however, small, owing to the amount of timber cutting that has been done in the past. Waipoua, the best remaining kauri forest, is controlled by the State Forest Service, a Department that at any time may decide to cut timber in it, as in fact it has already done over a considerable portion. The Committee has, therefore, no hesitation in recommending that the Waipoua Kauri Forest, with an adequate surrounding belt of other forest or scrub, be absolutely protected.

There are still many forested areas and some outlying islands unsuitable for settlement that could be set aside as sanctuaries for plants and animals. All the subantarctic islands that are not as yet protected should at the earliest date be constituted a National Park. The most outstanding example of an island that should be a National Park, though more on account of its geological than its botanical features, is White Island, in the Bay of Plenty.

There is indeed an urgent necessity for a check-up regarding the protection of the plant formations of New Zealand.

2. No further importations of birds or mammals for releasing should be made without the fullest scientific investigation. Past experience has shown that every species that has become established has done some harm, if only to displace native species, while it is practically impossible to exterminate any kind of bird, mammal or insect that has run wild. All liberated animals very soon reach the remotest parts of New Zealand.

3. The present efforts to control deer, pigs, goats, chamois and their like should be intensified. It is especially important to reduce to the smallest numbers or, if possible, exterminate wapiti, red deer, chamois and tahr, as these animals are extensively altering the forests and grasslands in the National Parks and thus defeating the objects for which these areas were set aside.

4. Finally, the Committee repeats the recommendation it made in 1945 that there be set up a National Wild Life Council to include a representative of each of the departments of Agriculture, Forestry, Public Works (soil conservation and rivers control), Marine, Tourist, Internal Affairs, Scientific and Industrial Research, Acclimatisation Societies, the Royal Society of New Zealand, the University of New Zealand, and the Chief Executive Officer of the Council.

That the Council have the responsibility of considering all problems of wild life control and the preservation and development of the natural resources of

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the Dominion and its Dependencies; of determining the problems requiring investigation, and preparing and administering a co-ordinated research plan; and of formulating a national natural resources and wild life control policy.

W. R. B. Oliver

Convener Wild Life Committee of the
Royal Society of New Zealand

In the discussion which followed, Dr. Archey moved: “That the report be sent to Departments concerned and that each section dealt with be sent to its appropriate Minister.”

This was carried.

Dr. Miller, in speaking to Section II, stated that lack of organization was responsible for the lack of control of the wasp and the white butterfly.

On the motion of Dr. Frankel, seconded by Dr. Archey, it was resolved that Section IV be emphasized in the report and represented to the Prime Minister.

It was finally resolved, on the motion of Dr. Oliver, that the report as amended be adopted.

Tongariro National Park Board

Report of Representative on the Board

The Board met in October, 1948, and a meeting of the Management was held in March.

Mr. T. Shout has been appointed Warden of the Tongariro National Park.

The appointment of a ranger and caretaker has been deferred until accommodation has been arranged.

Six new huts have been approved for erection in the Park as follows: Alpine Sports Club and Taihape Alpine Club; Hutt Valley Tramping Club, Tongariro Ski Club, Tararua Tramping Club, and Ruapehu Ski Club (second hut). The proposals for the huts and buildings are in future to be forwarded through the Federated Mountain Clubs with their approval.

The destruction of broom on the Park has been continued. The road to the Ohakune Hut has been improved. The erection of a memorial to Tukino Te Heu Heu is under consideration.

The late eruption of Mount Ngauruhoe has not done any damage to the Park.

P. Marshall

, Representative on the Board.

On the motion of Mr. Pycroft, the report of the representative on the Tongariro National Park Board, Dr. P. Marshall, was adopted.

A letter from the Auckland Branch of the Forest and Bird Protection Society regarding a motor road through the bush at Ohakune was referred to the Standing Committee.

Carter Observatory Board

Report of Representatives

Eight meetings of the Carter Observatory Board were held during the year, and the normal business conducted.

In December, 1948, Mr. M. F. Luckie, who has been Chairman of the Board since its inception in 1939, retired, and the vacancy was filled by Mr. F. W. Furkert, representing the City Council. Mr. E. P. Norman was elected Chairman and Professor D. C. H. Florance, Deputy Chairman.

During the year the Board considered carefully many items concerning the foundation and improvement of existing work at the Observatory.

Approval was given for commencing experimental work on photo-electric photometry of stars, and the possibility of expanding the present auroral programme with further Government aid was explored. Generally speaking, the work of the year should bear fruit in time to come.

The Board received a valuable gift in the form of the complete astronomical library of the late Mr. A. C. Gifford. This is to be used for the extension of

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general astronomical knowledge among the public. Also, the funds collected by Mr. Gifford under the title “Students of the Starry Skies” were transferred to the Board. This money will be used for purchasing small telescopes for distribution to science classes of secondary schools and thus fulfil many of the ideals entertained by Mr. Gifford. Five such instruments are now on order from England.

The educational work of the Observatory has been maintained. During the year, the total attendances of visitors amounted to 1707. In January, a special course of one week's duration for secondary school teachers was held. This was most successful teachers from all parts of the country attending.

The purchase of a 16 mm. Ampro Sound Projector has assisted demonstrations at the Observatory to a high degree.

Solar observations have been maintained as in previous years. Observations for relative sunspot numbers have been transmitted to the international headquarters at Zurich, and spectro-helioscope observations were sent to Muedon, commencing in January, 1949. During 1948, special observations were made as required at the request of the Greenwich Observatory, and reports of outstanding solar flares reported by cable.

Progress was made by the Dominion Physical Laboratory in the construction of a sun camera for attachment to the 9-inch telescope.

The provision of radio disturbance forecasts to the Post and Telegraph Department and the National Broadcasting Service have been maintained with the previous fair success.

Auroral work along the lines of previous years has been maintained, and as a prelude to a complete revision of all existing material from 1931 to date, the records have been subjected to a preliminary survey.

With the help of the Government in many ways, plans have been outlined for the commencement of parallactic auroral photography in the South Island in the latter half of 1949.

Miscellaneous work has been undertaken at the Observatory as required. Ephemerides of comets have been computed when necessary, and this and other relevant information distributed to approved amateur astronomers as occasion demanded.

The passage of time serves to accentuate that the Observatory is fulfilling a much-needed function, and that further development is vitally necessary for future progress.

C. G. G. Berry,
M. A. F. Barnett

Representatives on the Carter Observatory Board.

Dr. Focken moved the adoption of the report by the representatives on the Carter Observatory Board, Dr. M. A. F. Barnett and Mr. C. G. G. Berry. Carried.

Dr. Archey commended the report and the amount of work accomplished by the Carter Observatory during the year.

Permanent Secretariat: Pacific Science Association. Dr. Archey reported that the Pacific Science Council had decided that there should be set up a Permanent Secretariat and that the Royal Society had been asked to carry on until such time as financial means were found to enable an appointment to be made. It was resolved that the Society agrees to the recommendation, subject to there being no financial commitments.

N.Z. Science Congress, 1950. Professor Allan and Dr. Frankel extended an invitation on behalf of the Canterbury Branch to hold the next Science Congress in Christchurch.

Dr. Marwick moved that the Canterbury Branch be thanked and that the date of the Congress be fixed after consultation with the Canterbury Branch.

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U.N.E.S.C.O.: Group Discussions. Following a discussion on a circular letter from the National Commission of U.N.E.S.C.O. it was resolved, on the motion of Dr. Archey, that the National Commission of U.N.E.S.C.O. be advised that the Royal Society and its Branches will co-operate especially in respect to Sections C and D, namely, semi-popular levels and academic levels.

Election of Officers. The Nominations Committee reported that it had met and considered the nominations received from Member Bodies and it recommended that Dr. R. A. Falla be re-elected President and Mr. F. R. Callaghan Vice-President.

The following officers were elected: President, Dr. R. A. Falla; Vice-President, Mr. F. R. Callaghan; Hon. Treasurer, Mr. S. Cory Wright; Hon. Editor, Miss Marion Fyfe; Hon. Librarian, Professor L. R. Richardson; Co-opted Member, Dr. J. Marwick; Rep. Great Barrier Reef Committee, Dr. W. R. B. Oliver; Royal N.Z. Institute of Horticulture, Dr. W. R. B. Oliver.

Election of Committees

Hector Award Committee: Dr. H. D. Skinner, Mr. J. C. Andersen, with power to co-opt one other.

Hutton Award Committee: Dr. D. Miller, Dr. H. H. Allan, Professor W. N. Benson.

Fellowship Selection Committee: Mr. B. C. Aston, Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. L. H. Briggs, Dr. D. B. Macleod, Professor R. S. Allan.

Library Committee: Professor L. R. Richardson (Hon. Librarian), Professor C. A. Cotton, Professor W. P. Evans, Dr. H. H. Allan.

Wild Life Committee: Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, Dr. G. Archey, Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. H. H. Allan, Mr. L. E. Richdale, Mr. C. A. Fleming.

Nominations Committee: Mr. Pycroft, Professor R. S. Allan, Mr. J. D. H. Buchanan, Professor W. P. Evans, Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. H. D. Skinner.

Research Grants Committee: Dr. R. A. Falla (Convener), Dr. H. H. Allan, Dr. J. Marwick.

Votes of Thanks. Votes of thanks were passed to the Council of Victoria University College for the use of the Council Room, to the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research for the use of its Council Room, to the President, to the Hon. Treasurer, to the Secretary, and to the Press.

Annual Meeting. Arrangements were left in the hands of the Standing Committee.

Travelling Expenses. It was resolved that travelling expenses be paid.

Consultative Man-power Committee. On the motion of Professor Allan, it was resolved that matters brought forward by the Scientific Man-power Committee be referred to the Standing Committee.

Confirmed Standing Committee meeting, June 3, 1949.

R. A. Falla

, Chairman,

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Reports of Member Bodies
Wellington Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand

Annual Report for the Year ended 30th September, 1948

Membership. The membership of the Branch now stands at 360, made up of 286 full members and 74 associates.

General Meetings. October 22, 1947, Annual General Meeting, followed by screening of scientific films; April 28, 1948, Presidential Address, “How a Geologist Learns,” by Mr. M. Ongley; June 23, 1948, “Peace-time Applications of War-time Nuclear Developments,” by Mr. C. N. M. Watson-Munro; July 28, 1948, “Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation,” by Mr. W. L. Newnham; August 25, 1948. “Contemporary Social Change in the Cook Islands,” by Prof. E. Beaglehole; September 22, 1948, “The Hot Springs of New Zealand,” by Mr. J. Healy.

Presidential Address to the Royal Society of New Zealand, “Scientists and Conservation,” by Dr. R. A. Falla. This annual address, previously given each year before the Annual Meeting of the Royal Society of New Zealand, was this year given for the first time before a general meeting of the Branch.

Combined Meeting with the Wellington Branch of the New Zealand Institution of Engineers, April 1, 1948, “Some War Incidents of an Industrial Research Laboratory,” by Sir Clifford Paterson, O.B.E., F.R.S., D.Sc., Past President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers.

Astronomy Section. “The Solar Atmosphere,” by Dr. R. C. Allen; “The Interior of the Earth,” by Mr. W. M. Jones; “Astronomical Applications of Photo-electric Cells,” by Mr. K. D. Adams; “Auroral Work of the Carter Observatory,” by Mr. I. L. Thomsen.

Biology Section. “The Marine Provinces of New Zealand,” by Miss L. B. Moore; “Submarine Daylight and Photosynthesis of Marine Algae,” by Dr. Tore Levring; “Lakes,” by Mr. K. R. Allen; “Subantarctic Seals,” by Mr. J. H. Sorensen; “Evolution of Evolution,” by Prof. H. D. Gordon; “Illustration in Biological Research, with Special Reference to Photography,” by Dr. J. T. Salmon.

Geology Section. “Pacific Strandlines,” “Volcanic Eustatism, ‘Tectonic’ or ‘Structural’?”, “Shutter Ridges on the Line of the Wellington Fault,” and “Note on a New Californian Theory of Tectonic Earthquakes,” by Prof. C. A. Cotton; Symposium, “Exhibits and Reviews of Recent Interesting Papers,” “Applications of Geophysics to New Zealand Conditions,” by Mr. N. Modriniak and Dr. E. I. Robertson; “Miscellaneous Notes on Structure,” by Dr. A. R. Lillie.

Physics Section. “The Atomic Pile,” by Mr. C. N. M. Watson-Munro; “The Canterbury Project,” by Mr. R. Unwin; “Some Recent Developments in Geophysical Methods,” by Dr. E. I. Robertson; “Detection of Nuclear Particles by the Photographic Emulsion Method and its Application to Cosmic Rays,” by Mr. F. D. Manchester; “Radio Echoes from Meteorites,” by Mr. C. J. Banwell.

Social Science Section. “The Newspaper as a Social Service,” by Miss M. Godfrey; “A. N. Whitehead on Historical Foresight,” by Dr. E. G. Jacoby; “Some Superstitions—Their Development and Meaning,” by Mrs. I. Macaskill; “Child Guidance in New Zealand,” by Mr. J. G. Caughley; “Social Aspects of Medical Treatment,” by Dr. Charles Burns; “Employment Research in New Zealand,” by Mr. N. S. Woods.

Technology Section. “Lubrication,” by Mr. J. Stewart; “Possible Power Sources (Neither Atomic nor Fuel),” by Mr. R. McLennan; “The Design of Hydro-electric Power Stations: Civil Engineering and Scientific Implications,” by Mr. W. A. Bloodworth, B.E.; “Industrial Application of Rubber Latex,” by Mr. E. Freyberger; “The Place of Ceramics in Modern Life,” by Mr. W. Vose; “Light and Sight,” by Mr. S. C. MacDiarmid; “Contemporary Engineering in Sweden,” by Mr. C. E. Taylor.

Science Exhibition. This exhibition, which was held in the Wellington Town Hall from the 12th to the 14th April, was an outstanding success. Approximately 6,300 persons paid for admission, and in addition the exhibition was attended by about 3,000 school children in organized parties from the Wellington schools. A private view attended by His Excellency the Governor-General was held at 5 p.m. on Monday, the 12th April.

The Hudson Lecture. The Council has decided to establish an annual memorial lecture, to be known as the Hudson Lecture, which will be given in August each

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year by an outstanding New Zealand scientist. Although commemorating the late Mr. G. V. Hudson and his contributions to New Zealand science, the lecture is in no way limited in subject matter or scope and the Council hopes that it will become a scientific event of outstanding importance each year. An honorarium of ten guineas will be paid to the lecturer.

Representation on the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand. Professor L. R. Richardson and Dr. J. T. Salmon have represented the Branch.

Papers for Publication. “Notes on Synonymy among New Zealand Insects” and “A New Species of Acridiidae,” by Dr. J. T. Salmon.

Waipoua Forest. The Royal Society's Sub-committee Report on Waipoua Forest was referred to the member societies for comment. It has been discussed and reported on by the Committee of the Biology Section, and is under consideration by the Council.

Meeting Rooms. The fifty theatre seats ordered last year were installed in the Branch's room at the Dominion Museum in time for the 1948 session and have proved a valuable addition to our amenities.

Observatory. The Observatory is in a good state of repair and the instruments have been in constant use throughout the year.

Library. The Library Committee met early this year and advised the purchase of a number of new books which were agreed to by the Council. Periodicals are still slow in coming to hand and many are well behind in publication. Subscriptions have been started to the two new journals, Research and Human Relations. It has been decided to discontinue the subscription to Science News Letters when the current subscription runs out.

Publicity. A considerably improved coverage of the Branch's activities has been given by the local Press during the past year, and for this the Council would like to express its sincere thanks. An offer from the Council of the N.Z.A.S.W. to publish reports of lectures given before meetings of the Society in the New Zealand Science Review has been accepted and some reports have already appeared in the Review.

J. F. Filmer
H. C. McQueen


J. T. Salmon

, Secretary.

Auckland Institute and Museum

Annual Report for the Year Ended 31st March, 1949

Donations. Gifts during the year included a bequest of £1,000 by Mr. E. P. Mitchelson; a cinema-sound projector, the gift of Sir Frank Mappin; a grant of £450 authorised by the Minister of Education, the Hon. T. H. McCombs, for constructing a lecture and projection room for visting school classes; and a donation of £50 from the Auckland Electric Power Board.

Membership. During the year 64 new members have been enrolled, but we have lost from various causes 29 members. Our membership is now 830, of whom 232 are life members.

Honours. The Council cordially congratulates Dr. G. H. Cunningham, F.R.S.N.Z., on the award to him of the Hector Medal for his distinguished botanical investigations.

Science Congress. The Seventh Pacific Science Congress, held in February, was a momentous event in the history of science in New Zealand. The Institute shared with the Auckland University College the privilege of acting as host institution in Auckland; and the Auckland Committee, under the chairmanship of Dr. Archey, who was also Secretary-General of the Congress, included the Mayor, the Town Clerk, and the Presidents and members of both institutions.

An “At Home” given by the Mayor, a Garden Party given by Sir Frank and Lady Mappin, and a joint Institute and University College Reception in the War Memorial Museum, constituted the formal entertainment; members of both institutions contributed liberally to a fund for excursions, transportation and other hospitality.

An attractive handbook, “Auckland,” was sponsored by the City Council, the Harbour Board, the Transport Board, and the Electric Power Board, and many local organizations and citizens gave ready assistance.

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The Congress was attended by over 200 delegates from overseas and by over 500 from New Zealand. Many of the visiting scientists visited the Museum several times during their stay in the city and spoke highly of the building, the exhibits, and the efficiency of the staff.

Meetings. A lecture by Sir Ben Lockspeiser, Director-General of Scientific Research in the Ministry of Supply, was arranged in conjunction with the Auckland Branch of the Institution of Engineers. The other lectures were given by Mr. E. G. Turbott, M.Sc., “Birds of the Outlying Islands”; Mr. A. W. B. Powell, F.R.S.N.Z., “Land Snails and Earth History”; Dr. G. Blake Palmer, “Psychiatry and Social Problems” (annual British Medical Association lecture); Mr. J. D. Sargent, M.Sc., “Bacteria in Relation to Milk Quality.” Three ordinary meetings were held, papers being read by Miss Myra Carter, Miss V. Dellow, Miss A. Lush, Mr. W. Andrew, Mr. V. J. Cook, Mr. M. H. Battey, and Mr. S. M. Hovell.

Sunday Lectures. This year's Sunday afternoon lecture series comprised eight addresses given by Auckland scientists, including members of the Museum staff. Good attendances again testified to the appreciation the public have of these lectures. Contributors to the series were: Mr. Johannes C. Andersen, “Maori Place Names”; Mr. R. B. Sibson, “Bird Migration and New Zealand”; Mr. M. H. Battey, “Pacific Geology”; Professor V. J. Chapman, “Salt Marshes”; Mr. A. C. Hipwell, “Primitive Art”; Mr. R. S. Walsh, “The Inmates of the Hive”; Mr. J. Healy, “Recently Active Volcanoes in New Zealand”; Mr. R. C. Cooper, “Some New Zealand Alpine Plants.”

Astronomical Section. The Auckland Astronomical Society has had a considerable increase in members, the number now being 78. Eight meetings were held, with an average attendance of 38, the subjects including Sundials, Galaxies, Auroras and Earthquakes, the last being given by Dr. E. A. Hodgson, Assistant Dominion Astronomer of Canada, a visitor for the Pacific Science Congress.

Anthropology and Maori Race Section. The Anthropology Section has also increased its membership during the year from 53 to 84; it had an average attendance of 51 at eight lectures. The section has been fortunate in having had lectures from Professor Raymond Firth, Dr. Herbert Money and Mr. H. E. Maude during their recent visits to New Zealand.

Field Trips. Field trips included a short visit to Great Island, Three Kings group, through the generosity of Mr. A. J. Black, of Dunedin, who provided transport in his motor vessel, the Alert, and two visits to the extreme northern coast through the courtesy of Messrs. A Hancox, of Kaikohe, and R. A. Prouse, of Levin, both of whom provided motor transport.

Exhibitions. The thirteenth annual Cheeseman Memorial Show of Native Flowers was opened by Mrs. V. J. Chapman on Saturday, 25th September, and continued until the following Wednesday. Visitors to the show numbered 5,000, including primary and secondary school classes, and stage 1 botany classes from Auckland University College. The adult section of the show was smaller than in past years, but included exhibits arranged or sent by the Auckland Botanical Society, the Forest and Bird Protection Society, the Titirangi Beautifying Society, the Wellington Botanical Society, the Levin Native Flora Club, Massey College, Canterbury College and Otago University. Fifty friends and societies contributed material for the show and 500 children took part.

Education Service. The following is a summary of the number of children having attended one-hour lessons for the year ended 31st March, 1949:

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Primary Intermediate Secondary Special Total
31/3/48—End of Term 182 28 210
Term II, 1948 12,610 2,001 650 64 15,325
Term III, 1948 6,068 703 1,435 156 8,362
1/2/49–31/3/49 1,909 1,558 1,647 20 5,134
20,769 4,262 3,760 240 29,031

Material has been sent to 55 town schools and 137 country schools, and there are 141 schools requesting material which cannot be supplied owing to the lack of prepared displays. The Education Department made a grant of £150 for materials and transport of displays.

Schedules of the Cheeseman Memorial Prize Competition were printed in the Star and Herald during the first term and sent to all schools in the Auckland Province when schools re-opened. There were 48 entries and the standard of

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work is steadily rising. Schedules for the Cheeseman Memorial Spring Show of Native Flowers were sent to all schools in the Auckland Province, and great enthusiasm was shown, children and teachers coming from as far as Thames and Whangarei. There were 32 school entries in table exhibits and 457 individual entries.

Under the guidance of Miss M. L. Hurrey, Assistant Education Officer, a natural history club was formed when schools re-opened. The response of the children was so keen that 72 children joined, thus necessitating the splitting of the club into three groups—junior, intermediate and senior—each of which met once a month on Saturday mornings.

This year 50 Training College students have been posted to the Museum for teaching practice.

Library. During the year a record number of books and pamphlets have been added to the Library. Of the total number of 1,615, over 1,200 were purchased from the Edward Earle Vaile Trust Fund, 110 from the Mackechnie Fund, and nearly 300 were received by donation. The most important purchase was that of the private library of Mr. Johannes C. Andersen consisting of works chiefly relating to New Zealand.

Displays were arranged throughout the year. In August the Botanical Society held an afternoon at the Museum, and a special display of botanical works was arranged. Books loaned by the National Library Service were displayed at the Cheeseman Memorial Flower Show in September. In May the National Library Service sent on loan for some months over 200 American periodicals, and many of these were displayed. In connection with the Pacific Science Congress, a display case was set up illustrating the history of Pacific exploration.

Canterbury Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand

Annual Report for the Year Ended 31st October, 1948

Membership. The ordinary membership has decreased from 227 to 222; associate membership has decreased from 18 to 17.

Constitution. Early in 1948 the Council appointed a sub-committee, comprising Mr. G. Stokell, Mr. C. W. Collins and the Hon. Secretary, to draft a new Constitution. This, after being approved by the Council, was submitted to all members in September. The Constitution was passed unanimously without amendment at a special general meeting on October 6. It still remains for the Rules of the Society to be revised in accordance with the new Constitution.

Canterbury Museum. In April the Canterbury Museum passed from the control of the Canterbury University College Council to the Canterbury Museum Trust Board, representative of the whole province. Professor E. Percival took his seat on the new Board as the representative of this Society. Mr. R. S. Duff, who went to London University in 1947 on a British Council Scholarship, returned to Christchurch in September and took up his position as Director of the Canterbury Museum.

Seventh Pacific Science Congress. During the year, arrangements were finally made for the Seventh Pacific Science Congress to be held in New Zealand, from February 2 to 22, 1949. The Royal Society of New Zealand, supported by the Government, is responsible for the organization, and a full programme of sessions, tours and local excursions has been arranged. The second week of meetings will be held in Christchurch from February 15 to 22, and this Branch of the Society will be joint hosts with Canterbury University College.

Meetings. March 3, “Engineering and Abstract Science” (Presidential Address), Professor G. G. Calvert; April 7, “Soil Mechanics,” Mr. P. J. Alley; May 5, “Hay Fever and Associated States,” Dr. A. B. Pearson; June 2, “The New Mechanics,” Dr. F. C. Chalklin; July 7, “Fossil Penguins,” Professor B. J. Marples; August 4, “The Magnetic Survey of New Zealand, Its Aims and Methods,” Mr. H. F. Baird; September 1, “The Use of Models in Hydraulic Engineering,” Mr. P. M. Gilmour; September 15, “The Organic Factors in Personality,” Dr. Alan Crowther (additional general meeting arranged by the Social Science Section); October 6, “The Work of the Seventh Pacific Science Congress,” Dr. R. S. Allan; November 3, “A Worm's Eye Veiw of Radio Location,” Mr. C. E. Fenwick.

Papers. April 7, “Additions to the Rotatoria of New Zealanod, Part 3,” C. R. Russell; May 5, “An Eroded Coast Line,” Professor R. Speight; “A Freshwater Smelt from the Chatham Islands,” Mr. G. Stokell; July 14, “A New

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Explanation of the Thermo Mechanical Effects in Liquid Helium ii, and also of the Second Sound Wave,” Dr. D. B. Macleod; October 6, “Studies on a Freshwater Mussel of the Genus Diplodon,” Mr. R. L. C. Pilgrim.

On November 17, 1947, a special meeting of the Society was held, in conjunction with the Forest and Bird Protection Society and the Association of Friends of the Canterbury Museum, to hear an address entitled “Gateways to the Antarctic,” by Dr. Robert Cushman Murphy, of the American Museum of Natural History, New York.

On March 12, 1948, a special meeting of the Society was held, in conjunction with the Canterbury Branch of the New Zealand Institute of Engineers, to hear an address by Sir Clifford Paterson, F.R.S., Past President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers.

Riccarton Bush. The Society's representative on the reconstituted Board of Trustees of Riccarton Bush has presented to the Council the following annual report: “As the result of the passing of ‘The Riccarton Bush Amendment Act, 1947,’ the Board has been increased to include representatives of the Riccarton Borough Council and of Waimairi, Paparua, and Heathcote County Councils. The Board was given power by the Act to levy contributions on all the local bodies mentioned, together with the Christchurch City Council, and to purchase an area of some thirteen acres with the old Deans homestead which is to be included as part of the reserve.

“The newly constituted Board met on February 25, 1948, and entered into possession of the new area on March 30, 1948.

“Work on the new area has been confined to general maintenance and planting a small area with specimen trees donated by the Christchurch City Council. Plans are in hand for the preservation of the majority of the trees, many of which are of great historic and scientific value. The Christchurch Rotary Club has generously offered to restore to its original condition the 1843 homestead which has been removed to a new site.

“As regards Riccarton Bush proper, the increased revenue has enabled the employment of an assistant to the ranger. Together they have made a large-scale attack on the larger areas of weeds which had increased owing to the opening up of the bush after the snow damage of 1945. All weeds are now being removed by the roots and with the extra labour available future infestation should be kept down to a minimum. While blackberry, spindletree, elderberry and bittersweet are the worst weeds, a recent survey showed that in addition to these there are eighty-nine species of alien plants which have to be dealt with.

“Shelter on the southern boundary has been provided by the planting of a belt of Lombardy poplars donated by Lincoln College.”

Honorary Librarian's Report. The Society's Library continues to be steadily used by members, by the Canterbury University College community under the merger agreement, and by members of sister societies and others who borrow through the inter-loan scheme. At the same time, use by our members of the College Library is increasing, though less advantage than might have been expected is taken of special facilities, such as the postal service.

Field Club Section. The membership of the Club at present stands at 28. During the year seven excursions have been well attended by members and visitors. Two evening meetings were held in the Museum during July and August. Addresses were given by J. Veale, “Mosses and Ferns,” and G. Stokell, “Scientific Description of Fishes and How to Read the Age of Fishes from Scale-studies.”

Social Science Section. Four well-attended meetings of the section have been held during the year. Addresses were given by Mrs. Ann Rosenberg on “Psychiatric Social Work in Britain”; by Dr. Alan Crowther on “The Physical Factors in Personality”; by Mr. H. Critchfield on “Climate as a Factor in Man's Environment”; and at a joint meeting with the Biology Section, Professor E. Percival gave an illustrated address on “How Came the Erect Posture in Man?”

Biology Section. As it was the opinion of the Chairman of the Biology Section that this section fulfilled no useful purpose, the Council decided to dissolve it from November 30, 1948.

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Otago Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand

Annual Report for Session 1948

Membership. The total membership of the Branch is now 167, compared with 168 at the end of the 1947 session.

Representatives on Museum Committee. Mr. C. V. Dayus and Mr. George Simpson continued to act in this capacity.

Representatives on Council of Royal Society of New Zealand. Dr. C. M. Focken and Professor Gordon J. Williams.

Fellowship of the Royal Society of New Zealand. Dr. N. L. Edson, a member of the Branch and an Associate Professor in the University of Otago, was elected a Fellow at the Annual Meeting. Your Council feels that this honour is well merited by Dr. Edson, who has done extensive and important research in biochemistry.

Address by Dr. Robert Cushman Murphy. Dr. Murphy visited Dunedin after the close of the 1947 session, but the “Red” lecture theatre, Medical School, was engaged for November 19, 1947, and a large number of members was able to attend to hear this eminent authority lecture on Oceanic Birds, and to see some beautiful slides and two interesting films which he brought with him.

Auditorium. The Branch's Auditorium Fund, now amounts to £1,874 7s 1d. The Government is subsidising the cost of the Museum extension. The discussions revealed the fact that the existing plans and proposals for the Auditorium in the Museum extension were nothing like those envisaged by your Council, who feel that, in this connection, the original wishes of the anonymous donor of the greater part of the fund should be followed. Although it is realised that the Auditorium is primarily for Museum purposes, and that the major portion of its cost will be borne by the Museum Fund proper, there can be no doubt that the donor intended his gift to provide reasonable facilities within that Auditorium for the activities of the Royal Society. At various times during the year a delegation from your Council, consisting of the President, Hon. Treasurer, and Hon. Secretary, have met both the Museum Committee of Management and the Building Sub-committee of that body to discuss further the question of the Auditorium, and it seems probable that a satisfactory solution will eventually be worked out.

World Calendar. Your Council passed the following resolution: “That the Otago Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand is in full agreement with the movement of the World Calendar Association Incorporated to establish the World Calendar,” and forwarded it to the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand with a request that the question of the World Calendar be put on the agenda of the Annual Meeting for 1948. A copy of the resolution was sent to the World Calendar Association Incorporated.

Discussion at the Annual Meeting of the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand resulted in an intimation being sent to the World Calendar Association Incorporated, to the Prime Minister, and to the Leader of the Opposition that the Royal Society of New Zealand is in favour of calendar reform as proposed by the World Calendar Association.

Astronomical Section. This section has informed your Council that the local Telescope Makers' Club wishes to amalgamate with it, and that the section is in favour of such amalgamation. The proposal raises certain constitutional points and the whole matter is still under consideration.

General Meetings. April 20, Presidential Address (Dr. Basil Howard), “A Layman Looks at Science”; May 4, Dr. R. R. Nimmo, “Tube Alloys or the Atomic Bomb”; June 8, Mr. J. Rogers, M.Sc., A.N.Z.I.C., “Mineral Dressing: Some New Zealand Problems”; July 13, Professor Marples, “Penguins”; biographical sketch, Mr. W. V. Heazlewood, M.Sc., “Professor James Gow Black”; August 10, Mr. W. Vose, “The Role of Ceramics in Modern Life and Industry”; biographical sketch, Miss B. Brewin, M.Sc., “Professor Parker”; September 14, Dr. W. P. Morrell, “Gold” (joint meeting with Historical Section of the Branch); biographical sketch, Dr. H. D. Skinner, “John Buchanan, F.L.S.”; October 12, Professor R. M. Gabriel, “The ‘Numbers’ of Mathematics”; biographical sketch, Professor C. J. Williams, “Professor James Park.”

Original Papers. Miss Beryl I. Brewin, M.Sc., “Ascidians from Otago Coastal Waters”; Mr. K. W. Allison, B.Sc., “New Species of New Zealand Bryophytes”;

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Mr. A. C. Amies, M.Sc., F.G.S., “An Intrusion of Porphyrite near Waihao Forks,” with an appendix by Mr. D. S. Coombs, M.Sc., “Note on the Occurrence of Further Porphyritic Rocks in River Gravels of South Canterbury and North Otago”; Professor W. N. Benson and Dr. H. J. Finlay, “Micropalaeontology of a Concretion in a New Zealand Crab.”

Junior Lectures. The attendance this year has been rather disappointing, the average being only 48. It is hoped there will be an improvement next year. Organiser, Dr. Basil Howard.

Astronomical Section. The section has had a successful year. With regard to the Beverly-Begg Observatory, the season of public nights held each Saturday, beginning late in April and lasting until the end of September, was a successful one with only four occasions on which sky conditions were totally unfit for observation. Attendance figures this year showed a decline, 320 visitors patronising the Observatory, as against 370 for last year. The largest attendance on any evening was 40 on May 15.

Observations of occultations have been continued, although under some difficulty on occasions on account of the absence of the clock. However, a new clock is on order from England, and when it arrives this work, whose importance was stressed by Dr. Comrie on his recent visit, will be much facilitated. A useful acquisition during the year was a stop-watch purchased for the Observatory.

During the year the section has interested the Queenstown Progress League in the marking of the spot at Queenstown where an American expedition to Otago observed the transit of Venus on December 8, 1874. The section is prepared to provide a suitably inscribed plaque for fixing to a pedestal or stone let into the ground.

The Committee of the section recently met a delegation from the Telescope Makers' Club which desired to enter into an arrangement with the section for the joint use of a common lecture and work room. It was decided that a joint appeal be made to the Government for a grant to provide additional accommodation at the Observatory which could be used by both parties.

The section roll stands at 48 full members and 24 associate members.

Historical Section. At a meeting on August 4 it was decided to revive the Historical Section, Dr. W. P. Morrell being elected President, and about fifty indicating their intention of becoming members. Mr. W. J. Harris gave an address on that occasion on “Source Materials for the Historian in Otago,” and two further meetings were held, Dr. J. Rutherford reading a paper on “The Acquisition of British Sovereignty in New Zealand” and a panel discussion on “‘The Teaching of History in Secondary Schools” being held on October 9, in conjunction with the annual conference of Otago and Southland secondary teachers. The section also held a joint meeting with the Branch, when Dr. Morrell spoke on “The Otago Gold Rush in Perspective.”

Scientific Methodology Section. No meetings were held this year.

Microscopical Section. Owing chiefly to lack of office-bearers with sufficient spare time, this section remained in partial abeyance. The only meeting held was organised for the Junior Branch on the evening of July 16 in the new Medical School, Hanover Street.

Nelson Philosophical Society

Annual Report for Year Ended 30th September, 1948

Membership. The total membership of the Society for the year was 51.

Meetings. October 20, 1947, Sir Reginald Stradling, Vice-President of the Institution of Civil Engineers and Technical Adviser to the Ministry of Works, “Housing Research”; November 17, 1947, Mr. R. S. S. Meredith, “Water Power”; May 17, 1948, Mr. A. W. Parrott, “Observations on the Freshwater and Marine Fisheries of New Zealand”; June 21, 1948, Mr. C. I. Kidson, “Coal” (Presidential Address); July 19, 1948, Mr. E. W. F. B. L. Hendricks, “Indigenous Peoples of Indonesia”; August 16, 1948, Major G. M. Smart, “Impressions of Japan”; September 20, 1948, Mr. A. N. Field, “Post-War Economic Ideals versus Realities.”

C. I. Kidson

, Chairman.

B. H. Wood

, Hon. Secretary.

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Hawke's Bay Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand

Annual Report for the Year ended 31st December, 1948

Annual General Meeting. The annual general meeting of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Hawke's Bay Branch, was held in the Art Gallery, Napier, on March 29. The President, Dr. C. D. Costello, was in the chair. The speaker for the evening was Miss A. Woodhouse, who worked for many years in the Turnbull Library. She took as the subject for her address the early books on New Zealand, examples of these, from the Russell Duncan and McLean collections, being on view in the Museum.

Council Meetings. Early in the year it was decided to alternate meetings of Council in the two districts and to do the same with general meetings. As the membership is fairly evenly divided between Napier and Hastings, this will minimise the expense and inconvenience of travelling.

Membership. Present total, 126.

General Meetings. The annual meeting and three quarterly meetings were held in March, June and August and October respectively. Papers were read as follows: Dr. A. G. Clark, “Do Continents Move?”; Dr. R. A. Falla, “Subantarctic Sanctuaries”; Mr. Ewing, “The Weather”; and Mr. Aitken, “Interplanetary Travel.”

Broadcasts. Five broadcast talks were given from Station 2YZ: Mr. J. D. H. Buchanan, “Work of the Royal Society”; Rev. F. H. Robertson, “Gannets at Cape Kidnappers”; Mr. E. Phillips, “H.B. History”; Canon S. F. N. Waymouth, “Comets and Meteors”; Mr. H. A. McLean, “Water Supplies in Hawke's Bay.”

Science Exhibition. This exhibition, held in both Napier and Hastings, was a major effort and a gratifying success. It has been fully reported to members in the Bulletin. Well over 11,000 people attended in the two towns. Of the profit received, £50 was granted to the Hawke's Bay Art Society, which has applied it to the work of its Historical Department; £10 to the Hastings Museum Committee and certain books were purchased for the Library; the balance has been put to “Special Reserve.”

Projector Fund. The donors to this have now agreed that the money shall become a “Special Reserve.”

Library. This is now housed very well in the Reference Library in Napier. A few additions have been made and a number of books are on order.

Sections. These have shown very gratifying activity, though mainly in the Hastings District. Some movements are already afoot to organise them at the Napier end, but the difficulty there lies in the numbers already fully taken up with work in the Museum and kindred societies.

Representative on Council of Royal Society. Mr. J. D. H. Buchanan.

Papers. One by Dr. Levring has been submitted for publication.

Museums. The Society is represented on the Management Committee of the Hawke's Bay Art Gallery and Museum in Napier and on the Hastings Museum Committee. The Society is gradually increasing its efforts in this direction.

C. D. Costello

, President.

Southland Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand

Annual Report for the Year ended 31st March, 1949

Membership. The membership at the close of the year was 41.

Meetings. May 4, 1948, Annual Meeting and Film Evening; June 23, “Science as Applied to Horticulture,” A. A. Hume; July 28, “Some Solar System Sketches,” G. G. Couling; film, “Fifty Degrees South”; August 25, Presidential Address, “Coal Resources of New Zealand,” R. W. Willett; September 17, films of Three Kings and “Bird Life on Stewart Island,” G. M. Turner; September 22, “The ‘Numbers’ of Mathematics,” Professor R. M. Gabriel; October 27, “The Future of Atomic Energy,” Dr. R. R. Nimmo.

Balopticon. The Branch's own balopticon was received and cost £92 1s 7d; £18 1s has been received in donations from members, but further help is asked.

F. Malcolm Corkill

, President.

O. Sansom

, Hon. Secretary.