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Volume 79, 1951
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Presidential Address

New Zealand and International Relations
in Science

In the early days of a Society such as the Royal Society of New Zealand, or of any similar body elsewhere, the first concern was the organizing of meetings and exchange of views between the members of a small group having little contact with or concern for the activities of groups working along the same lines in other centres. But the colony was hardly seventeen years old when the local societies sought or agreed to affiliation as the New Zealand Institute; and in successive anniversary addresses its first President repeated the conviction that “Co-operation is the secret of success in all scientific pursuits.” Effective co-operation was not obtained, however, by the new body as at first constituted. It required another twenty years or so of critical insistence by the Institutes, or a few far-sighted people in them, before the central governing body was finally constituted as an elected rather than as an appointed one.

There has been a steady growth in the idea and practice of co-operation and to-day we are so accustomed to such meetings as our own triennial Science Congress and the biennial meetings of the Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science that it is difficult to realize how much doubt and opposition marked their beginnings. The British Association on which they were modelled faced widespread ridicule when it first met, while to-day it is recognized not only as a forum of science but as an indispensable liaison between scientists and the general public. The development of similar organization, which followed elsewhere was not a painless evolution; and we do well to remember with gratitude the vigour with which Dr. A. K. Newman (Journ. Science, June, 1882) presented the case for a New Zealand Association of Science. We have in effect to-day in our own Society Congresses exactly what he was advocating, but they did not commence until some years later.

What has happened, as a matter of history, has been that new needs in the development of science have called for new organizations. The growth of science in industry led to the formation of the Institute of Chemistry and similar bodies, concerned mainly with professional standards, but not neglecting the advancement of their particular sciences. In the twentieth century the development of technology and related research has given rise to yet another kind of organization, the various Associations of Scientific Workers. Concerned primarily with working conditions—in the widest sense of the term—these Associations in most countries have also been actively interested in the social relations of science. This outlook has led logically and rapidly to international activity crystallized in 1946 by the founding of the World Federation of Scientific Workers. Its constitution includes such aims as—

1.

To work for the fullest utilization of science in promoting peace and the welfare of mankind.

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2.

To encourage the international exchange of scientific knowledge and of scientific workers.

3.

To improve the professional, social, and economic status of scientific workers.

4.

To encourage scientific workers to take an active part in public affairs, and to make them more conscious of, and more responsive to, the progressive forces at work within Society.

Some of these objects are capable of varying interpretation, as delegates to a recent conference of the Federation held in Prague found out; but nothing is more certain than that a bold and sincere attempt to tackle and discuss them is the only alternative to chaotic tensions stemming from power politics of one sort or another, and frustrating science and every other manifestation of constructive human endeavour.

We find ourselves, then, in an age in which scientific co-operation, begun from mixed motives of scientific need and vague goodwill, must now be recognized as a vital element in progress and survival. It is only recently that New Zealand scientists and scientific institutions have begun to participate with effective strength. It is true that valuable contributions have been made to Congress programmes for many years, but actual delegates seldom have numbered more than one or two. With the A.N.Z.A.A.S. it has been physically easier to participate, and apart from the three successful meetings that have been held in this country, the size of New Zealand delegations to the meetings held in Australian cities has shown a gratifying growth.

However, I think that it is no exaggeration to say that the past year has been the most important one to date in bringing home to New Zealand scientists, and, one hopes, the New Zealand public at large, the significance and possibilities of international co-operation in Science; and I hope that you will regard this address as an appropriate time and place to indulge in a few observations in retrospect on the Seventh Pacific Science Congress. The decision to extend to the Pacific Science Association an invitation to hold the Seventh Congress in New Zealand was made, as you know, not without misgivings. I have made elsewhere to-day some acknowledgment of the services of the local officers and organizers; but I should like to record again in this address my belief that without the persuasive eloquence and prophetic conviction of Professor R. S. Allan the decision never would have been made in time; and to record further that without the ability and personal sacrifice of Dr. G. Archey the Congress itself would not have achieved the measure of success in organization of which so many of our recent guests have expressed their appreciation. It would be pleasant to enlarge on such impressions as the wide range covered in the programme; on the originality of many of the contributions and in some cases the novelty of their presentation; on the immense stimulus gained by discussion in and out of session; and on the hundred and one things planned or unpremeditated that go to make the stuff of Congresses. Such pipe-dreams and reminiscences are pleasant, and I am sure they are good for us. But our sterner and more constructive duty is to ask: “After the Congress—

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what?” and, having decided what, to embark on the tasks ahead. To some extent they have been planned and the direction is clear. It was an outstanding feature of the Congress that the Divisional Research Planning Committees all worked hard throughout the period available and presented reports in which the problems were clearly formulated and methods of tackling them clearly defined. In the past, the only continuing activity between Congresses was that of the Standing Committees. They lacked liaison and the stimulus and executive help of a central bureau. This has now been provided for, and the new Standing Committees have the further advantage of wise and vigorous directives from the divisional discussions of the Seventh Congress. The list of projects and resolutions forms indeed a new charter—one that not only defines new problems and new aspects of old ones, but also one that recognizes the existence of other national and international organizations in the field and provides for close co-operation with them.

I should like to run through them all to illustrate this point, but there is not time to do so, and a selection must suffice. Last year I spoke on the scientific attitude to conservation problems. They have bulked largely in the recommendations of the biological science divisions, and these have been set out in a way which defines the following clear principles:

(a)

That conservation practices should be established on a scientific basis.

(b)

The recognition of informed public opinion as essential to sound conservation practice. This is accompanied by recommendation for educational programmes in conservation at all levels.

(c)

Support for such regional or world conventions as may be needed, and careful study of the objectives and organization of the International Union for the Protection of Nature.

(d)

That the high proportion of marine problems in the Pacific Area be recognized in conservation programmes. There is also a comprehensive list of rare or unique associations of plants and animals, and even of single species, for which urgent or immediate protective measures are urged.

The same realistic approach marks the rest of the recommendations in biology. Oceanography, an active section, also outlines its fundamental problems in both biological and physical fields, draws attention to the meagre and sporadic nature of surveys to date, and sets forth proposals for future guidance. One of these is the setting up of marine laboratories in geographically suitable areas—and the specific recommendations include New Zealand. Lack of local enterprise or development in this important field has never been more apparent than they were in the efforts of experienced overseas oceanographers to find their opposite numbers here, or any institution or department in which their technical problems could be discussed at a constructive level. There is no doubt that administrative action in this field is much handicapped by the lag in research.

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It is probable that meteorologists, vulcanologists, stratigraphers, and perhaps seismologists found more flint for their steel and found New Zealand better prepared to move forward in a programme of co-operative research. In the Social Sciences, too, there were vigorous discussions at a level practical enough to invoke political repercussions. For New Zealand science generally it may be said that we have had a stocktaking of strength and weaknesses and a stimulus which should result in an advance that will justify the expenditure of public money, and of time and energy, involved in holding the Seventh Pacific Science Congress.

The other notable link forged during the year in our chain of attachment to the international solidarity of science is the setting up of a permanent New Zealand National Commission for U.N.E.S.C.O. Officially recognized as a National Co-operating Body for Science, the Royal Society of New Zealand has been kept informed of all developments in the Natural Sciences programme. It has exercised its privilege of submitting nominations for membership of the National Commission; and of its two nominees one was appointed by the Minister of Education directly, and the other following nomination by the National Commission itself. No member of the Commission is a direct representative of any organization. Their special duties insofar as they relate to Science consist of helping in the interpretation of remits received by the Commission from co-operating bodies in Science, and of the documentary output of the Natural Sciences section of U.N.E.S.C.O. So far the Commission has been mainly occupied with clarification of policy and some routine duties connected with delegations to conferences, but it is fully alive to the importance of its function as a channel of communication between U.N.E.S.C.O. and the people of New Zealand.

Of U.N.E.S.C.O. itself it can be said that the situation is encouraging. The vigorous pruning of its programme, of which the need was so apparent at the First and Second General Conferences, was effectively applied at the Third, held a few months ago in Beirut. Many vague and impracticable projects were dropped and others took effective shape in action. The Natural Sciences section and the Sub-committees maintained their reputation for clear definition and a knowledge of what they wanted, and the programme in this field has shown results. The policy has been adopted of direct action by U.N.E.S.C.O. in matters of relief and reconstruction of scientific enterprise in war-devastated countries, and of limited financial and stimulative aid to international projects already being planned or undertaken, and considered to be constructive. Thus we find outlined in the Report of the Director-General for 1948 how four field science co-operation offices have been maintained—in the Middle East, the Far East, Latin America, and South Asia, engaged in exchanging and disseminating scientific information between those regions and other countries. The International Institute of the Hylean Amazon, which was initiated by U.N.E.S.C.O., has been set up under a Protocol by which eight nations assume all financial responsibility after 1948. To this practical interest in problems of life in the torrid zones has been added the organization of a conference, held in Switzerland

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last year, on High Altitude Research Stations. Under the heading of Pure Science are listed the grants-in-aid to the International Council of Scientific Unions and federated unions. Members will be aware that our own efforts to get representative attendance from less wealthy countries at the Pacific Science Congress were assisted by a grant of 20,000 dollars, sufficient to pay transportation expenses of nine delegates. Lastly, as a world centre for scientific liaison, U.N.E.S.C.O. received requests or suggestions on many matters more or less urgent. Two on which it has acted, and in which we have a direct interest, are the convening of conferences to be held on Scientific Abstracting and Indexing Services (June) and Technical Conference on the Protection of Nature (September). It is expected that New Zealand will be represented at both of these conferences. Adequate representation from a country of fewer than two million inhabitants at conferences held some twelve thousand miles away is going to be a recurrent and difficult matter to arrange, but the Royal Society has a duty to bring to the notice of the Government the importance of such conferences as those mentioned above, and the need for representation.

Yet another opportunity of participating in regional co-operative work is provided by the South Pacific Commission. Its work was explained at the recent Congress by Professor Baas-Beking, head of the Scientific Research Section; and it is to be hoped that New Zealand's contribution to its work will include activity in the natural sciences.

An important two-way channel of communication between New Zealand and the United States also has been established by the setting up of the Fulbright Foundation. Although the funds available under this are broadly defined as for educational purposes, the list just published of grants allotted in the first six months shows a gratifying proportion of students and workers in science. Only this week an expedition which has been operating since January in the Caswell Sound area of Fiordland is concluding its field work. New Zealand scientists and field staff have been engaging in biological survey of a little-known region under the scientific leadership of Dr. Olaus J. Murie, an American ecologist, who, as the first holder of a New Zealand Fulbright Fellowship, is undertaking a special study of the habits and status of the North American elk or wapiti in this part of Fiordland.

Although the list of promising developments is gratifying, I think it is fair to say that we are by no means yet adequately prepared to make the fullest possible contribution to international co-operative enterprise in science. A sound development at the national level is a prerequisite to any international team-work, and there are some weak spots in New Zealand science that need strengthening. This is a matter on which one can properly quote examples only from one's own field, and it is neither necessary nor appropriate to do it here, but in passing I suggest that each in his own field should be prepared to face the question of whether our own standards are yet good enough.

The Royal Society has, however, a duty to advise and urge its Government in respect to contributions which it feelds can and should be made to international questions by a scientific approach. One of these in which we should have an interest is the future of Antarctica.

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It is the only remaining large unoccupied area of the earth, and no one has shown any desire to live there. There has been active competition in the exploitation of its known natural resources, mainly marine; and arising partly from this and partly from motives of national prestige, much conflict of territorial claims, some of which have been, to say the least, undignified.

The only constructive suggestion to date has come from the United States, of whose State Department it must be said that its Antarctic policy has been consistent and indicative of careful study. The proposal was that seven of the Governments claiming Antarctic Territory should create a limited form of international regime, designed to settle the conflicting claims. To this Britain replied, accepting the proposal in principle, but the replies from New Zealand, France, Norway, Australia, Argentina, and Chile were classified as unfavourable. The Acting Prime Minister has since explained that New Zealand expressed willingness to enter into some such arrangement if such were acceptable to the other interested Powers, so that presumably the classification of the reply should have been “noncommittal” rather than “unfavourable.” There will be many who think that these claims can be settled ultimately only by some such method; but if agreement is going to be a matter of time there is no reason why an international agreement on scientific research plans in Antarctica should not be reached much earlier. Even joint expeditions are practicable, and in November this year a Norwegian-British-Swedish expedition will leave for two years in Queen Maud Land. There will be fourteen scientists and technicians, of whom the British members will be responsible for geological research, and the Norwegians and Swedes for the glaciological and meteorological investigations.

During the last three years there have been tentative suggestions for a New Zealand expedition and some hints of possible co-operation with other countries. That nothing has come of these is due in part to the absence of a research plan—some vagueness as to what we want to do. I should like to suggest that the Royal Society might give some attention to this need—perhaps a Polar Research Committee or a general research plan committee could prepare something that would be ready when the time came for decision on expeditions, as it is bound to do in the near future. If the Royal Society expects to be consulted in such matters, it is not enough to expect a request for opinion on the grounds of prestige alone. Our only claim to notice would be that we had given some careful thought to the matter and had at least the broad outlines of a practicable plan.

I am aware, as you will be, that a few aspects only of our international responsibilities have been touched upon in this address; but I hope that enough has been said to point the need for realization of our responsibilities and opportunities, and a strengthening of our New Zealand standards in all sciences, so that we may make a full contribution to that kind of scientific progress which unites instead of sundering the peoples of the earth.

R. A. Falla.

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Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council,
Held 17th May
, 1950.

The Annual Meeting of the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand was held on Wednesday, 17th May, 1950, in the Council Room, Victoria University College, Wellington.

Representation and Roll Call. The following responded to the roll call:—The President, Dr. R. A. Falla; representing the Government: Dr. G. Archey, Mr. B. C. Aston, Dr. W. R. B. Oliver; representing the Auckland Institute: Dr. L. H. Briggs, Mr. A. T. Pycroft; representing Wellington Branch: Dr. L. Bastings, Dr. J. T. Salmon; representing Canterbury Branch: Professor R. S. Allan, Dr. O. H. Frankel; representing Otago Branch: Dr. C. M. Focken, Mr. O. H. Keys; representing Hawke's Bay Branch: Mr. J. D. H. Buchanan; representing Nelson Institute: Dr. D. Miller; co-opted Member: Dr. J. Marwick; Hon. Treasurer: Mr. S. Cory Wright.

Apologies were received from the Hon. Minister for Scientific and Industrial Research, who wrote stating that owing to a meeting of the Executive Council he regretted that it was not possible for him to attend.

Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Vice-President, wrote apologising for absence as he was leaving for England on the 12th May for the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux Conference.

Mr. R. Willett, representative of the Soutland Branch, apologised for absence as he was attending a Coal Conference in Dunedin.

Honorary Patron. The President conveyed to the Council a personal message from his Excellency the Governor-General, the Honorary Patron of the Society. He said he had called on his Excellency, who regretted that a meeting of the Executive Council made it impossible to attend this meeting, and in previous years he was usually in residence in Auckland in May. Dr. Falla said his Excellency showed keen interest in the work of the Council and the Society as a whole, and he conveyed his warmest encouragement and good wishes.

New Members of the Council. The President welcomed to the Council Mr. O. H. Keys, who replaced Miss M. Fyfe as representative of the Otago Branch. The President also welcomed the Hon. Treasurer, Mr. S. Cory Wright, as a member of the Council consequent on the Royal Society of New Zealand Act, Amendments, 1949, being passed.

Obituary. The President referred to the loss the Society had sustained by the death of Professor R. Speight and of Professor A. J. Bartrum, and the Council stood in tribute to their memory.

Hector Award. The following report was received from Dr. H. D. Skinner, convener of the Hector Award Committee and adopted:—

“The Hector Award Committee consisting of Sir Peter Buck, Mr. Johannes Andersen and myself, nominates for the Hector Medal and Prize, Dr. Ernest Beaglehole, M.A. (N.Z.), Ph.D., Litt.D., F.R.S.N.Z., on account of his published researches in Polynesian ethnology.
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(Signed) H. D. Skinner

,
Convener Hector Award Committee.”

Amount of Hector Prize. On the motion of the Hon. Treasurer, it was resolved that the amount of £50 be the Hector Prize.

Hutton Award. The following report was received from Dr. D. Miller, convener of the Hutton Award Committee and adopted:—

“I herewith submit the finding of the Hutton Award Committee for 1950. The Committee comprised Drs. W. N. Benson, H. H. Allan and D. Miller.
“The unanimous recommendation of the Hutton Award Committee is in favour of Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, on account of both his zoological and botanical attainments.

D. Miller

,
Convener Hutton Award Committee.”

Notices of Motion. Two Notices of Motion, one regarding the title of the Wild Life Committee and the other regarding Presidential Addresses were handed in and deferred until later in the meeting.

Fellowship R.S.N.Z. On the recommendation of the Fellowship Selection Committee, Mr. B. C. Aston (Convener), Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. L. H. Briggs, Dr. D. B. Macleod and Professor R. S. Allan, the following were elected Fellows of the Society:—Professor J. C. Eccles, Professor P. W. Robertson, Dr. H. R. Whitehead, Dr. C. R. Laws.

Vacancies in Fellowship. On the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Dr. Briggs, it was resolved that two Fellows be elected in 1951.

Honorary Membership. An election for three honorary members was held, and resulted in Dr. H. E. Gregory, Dr. C. E. Tilley and Dr. Ernst Mayr being elected.

No vacancies in the Honorary Membership were declared.

Dr. Briggs suggested that more uniformity in the space given to setting out the qualifications of nominees for Hon. Membership was desirable. The President pointed out that the responsibility for providing adequate information regarding the qualifications of nominees lay with the nominating bodies, the Member Bodies.

Announcement of Awards. Dr. L. H. Briggs suggested that it would lend interest to the meeting at which the Presidential address is delivered if the announcements of the various awards and Fellowship election could be withheld from the press until the announcement is made publicly at the evening meeting. A good deal of discussion arose, and the suggestion did not meet with general approval.

Committees. On the motion of the President a cordial vote of thanks was accorded to the Hector, Hutton and the Fellowship Selection Committees for their work.

Report of the Standing Committee.

Annual Report for the Year Ended 31st March, 1950.

Meetings. Six meetings of the Standing Committee were held during the year, the attendance being as follows:—Dr. R. A. Falla, President, Wellington, 6; Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Vice-President, Wellington, 5; Mr. B. C. Aston, Wellington, 6; Dr. L. Bastings, Wellington, 6; Dr. J. Marwick, Wellington, 5; Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, Wellington, 5; Dr. J. T. Salmon, Wellington, 6; Mr. R. W. Willett, Wellington, 6; Dr. O. H. Frankel, Christchurch, 1; Mr. S. Cory Wright, Hon. Treasurer, Wellington, 3.

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Obituary. Professor R. Speight. News was received of the death of Professor R. Speight, and at the meeting of the Standing Committee held in September the President, Dr. Falla, referred to Professor Speight's reputation as a geologist, filling positions as Curator of the Canterbury Museum and Professor of Geology at Canterbury University College.

Professor Speight was President of the Society from 1933–1935, and as such in 1934 delivered the first Presidential Address to the Society after its change of title from New Zealand Institute to The Royal Society of New Zealand.

Professor R. S. Allan represented the Society at Professor Speight's funeral, and as a close associate of Professor Speight was asked to write an Obituary Notice for the Transactions.

Council. The Council remains the same as last year except that Mr. O. H. Keys replaces Miss M. Fyfe as a representative of the Otago Branch and that under the amended Act, the Hon. Treasurer, Mr. S. Cory Wright, holds a seat on the Council.

Honorary Editor. At a meeting of the Standing Committee held on the 15th September the resignation of Miss M. Fyfe as Honorary Editor was accepted with regret. Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, who had intimated that he would be prepared to act at least until the annual meeting in May, was appointed Honorary Editor.

Dr. J. Henderson, who held the position of Honorary Editor for some years, had expressed a wish to purchase a set of Maori Art. The Standing Committee decided to present him with a bound set in recognition of his services. The presentation was made by the President at a meeting of the Standing Committee in February.

Publication Matters. Volume 77, Part 3 was issued in May, 1949; Part 4 in September, 1949. The Science Congress (Volume 77, Part 5) was issued in November, 1949; and Volume 78, Part 1, was issued in February, 1950. This represents a total of 835 pages during the year, and is considerably in excess of recent annual printing output, so that there is room for optimism that the lag in the printing of the Transactions will soon be overtaken.

The Printers have pointed out that considerable blame for the delay must be shouldered by some of the authors themselves, and the imposing of the new rule making it imperative for galley proofs to be in the printers' hands three weeks after their issue should do much to minimise the delay.

The printers instanced cases during the printing of the Science Congress volume where galley proofs were over four months away from the printing office.

In July the Otago Daily Times Co. increased the cost of printing by a general 5s per page in text and plates and by 7s 3d per page for 8 point type.

The question of the continuance of bound volumes of Transactions was referred to Member Bodies, and the majority favoured the discontinuance of the bound volumes. A certain minority, however, protested, and in order to meet its wishes the printers were asked to quote for binding copies. They quoted 4s per copy for 400 copies. Members were advised of this concession, but the response was not sufficient to warrant further action and the Standing Committee decided to discontinue bound volumes as from 78.

This action reduced the price per text page to 25s 9d against the 27s quoted in July.

Advertising in Transactions. The question of the policy and expediency of advertising was referred to a sub-committee, which reported that enquiries had been made from possible advertisers, and it appeared that the Transactions, because of its limited circulation and its irregular dates of publication did not have an appeal as an advertising medium. The small amount of revenue that could be expected from this source could not justify the extra work involved in procuring advertisements.

The Sub-committee was thanked for its report, which was adopted.

Papers for Publication. The Wellington Branch desired an interpretation of the rules governing the publication of papers in the Transactions, and a subcommittee was set up to report as to whether the rules were adequate and whether any ambiguities existed. This report was submitted to members of the Council and to Member Bodies, some of whom required more time to consider it. After the Member Bodies have commented upon it, it is proposed to print it in the Transactions.

Science Congress Volume. The question of meeting the cost of the Science Congress Volume (£1,205) is one which has to be faced. The Department of

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Scientific and Industrial Research made a grant of £500 towards the cost of the volume. Owing to the delay of three years its publication price is subjected to the 1950 steep rise in printing costs.

The whole question of the publication of future Science Congress proceedings may have to be discussed at the annual meeting, as such an extra printing outlay every three years is quite beyond the Society's present resources.

Index to the Transactions. The decennial Index to the Transactions covering Volumes 64–75 is in process of preparation and a sub-committee consisting of Dr. Oliver (Botany), Mr. Willett (Geology) Dr. Salmon (Entomology) and Dr. Fell (Zoology) was set up to deal with the subject index.

Library. The Honorary Librarian, Professor L. R. Richardson, was given leave of absence on account of his visit overseas, and Dr. H. B. Fell was appointed Honorary Librarian during his absence.

The Library report gives details of the work during the year, but mention must be made here of the work done as a training project by two of the National Library School students in checking the holdings in the Library in the foreign languages sections. The students are graduates of the New Zealand University and were able to cover the German, French, Swedish, Dutch, Danish and Italian sections in the Library, and the results of their work will be incorporated in the Library Association's supplementary list of periodicals taken in New Zealand.

For the last three years trainees from the Library School have done a two months' project in the Society's Library and have completed listing the entire holdings. This work is invaluable not only for the Society's Library but to the whole of New Zealand through the inter-loan system.

However, this has not relieved the pressure of routine work in the Library, and the prospect of a part-time assistant in the Library at an early date is welcome.

Binding. The Society's binder completed the work he had had in hand for some time—namely, 52 volumes. The price has increased by approximately 5s per volume.

Member Bodies. The following reports and balance sheets for the year have been received:—

Wellington Branch for the year ended 30th September, 1949.
Canterbury Branch for the year ended 31st October, 1949.
Otago Branch for the year ended 31st October, 1949.
Nelson Philosophical Society for the year ended 31st December, 1949.

Fellowship. There are four vacancies in the Fellowship. The Member Bodies nominated fourteen for these vacancies, and the Fellows voted on these names, the results being sent to the Fellowship Selection Committee for recommendation to the annual meeting.

Hector Award. Owing to the absence overseas of Dr. G. H. Cunningham, the presentation of the 1948 Hector Medal and Prize was delayed until his return in 1949. The President, Dr. Falla, presented the medal to Dr. Cunningham at a public meeting of the Auckland Institute on the 13th June.

The 1949 Medal and Prize were awarded to Dr. R. A. Robinson, of Raffles College, Singapore, and the presentation was made at Singapore by the Chancellor of the University of Malaya on the Foundation Day ceremony of this new University. The Chancellor, Mr. Malcolm Macdonald, is Commissioner General of South-East Asia, and the occasion of the presentation received due publicity.

Hutton Grants. On the 15th September, on the recommendation of the Research Grants Committee, Mr. D. R. McQueen was granted £15 for research on the regeneration after fires in the Nothofagus forests of the Southern Tararuas.

Messrs. A. W. B. Powell and R. Cooper were granted £50 for an ecological survey of the Gouland Downs area of Western Nelson.

Mr. W. H. Dawbin was granted £40 to visit Norfolk Island to examine and make comparisons in the humpback whales, but subsequently he reported that the grant would not be necessary this year on account of the exceptionally poor whaling season at Norfolk Island.

Mr. L. E. Richdale applied for and was granted a transfer of his grant for research in the Solander Islands to albatross and penguin research on the Otago Peninsula.

One application for a grant was declined as it was for a project outside the scope for Hutton Grants.

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R.S.N.Z. Amendment Act. Further approaches were made to Treasury to increase the Society's grant, and have the full grant embodied in the Act but without success. However, the other desired amendments were incorporated in the Act, which now provides for two Vice-Presidents instead of one and for the Hon. Treasurer to be a member of the Council. It also provides that the retiring President shall continue to be a member of the Council for a term of one year. It further provides for two members to be elected to the Council by the Fellows of the Society in 1950 and every alternate year thereafter. The machinery for carrying out this latter amendment has to be set up and a sub-committee consisting of Dr. Marwick and Dr. Salmon was appointed to determine the best procedure for giving effect to this new clause.

The amendments will necessitate some supporting rules to be passed at the annual meeting, and the Amended Act and Rules will then be published in the Transactions and in booklet form.

New Zealand Science Congress. The next Science Congress which is to be held in Christchurch, was by resolution of the Council to be held in 1950. The Christchurch committee submitted alternative dates of August, 1950 or May, 1951, and it was felt that in view of the very recent Pacific Science Congress Christchurch session and the difficulty of accommodation during August in Christchurch, that May, 1951, was the better time. The A. and N.Z.A.A.S. Brisbane meeting is being held in May, 1951, but an endeavour is being made to avoid any clash of dates. Dr. Frankel attended the February meeting of the Standing Committee and reported on the progress of plans so far made amongst which a proposal to invite a distinguished visitor from overseas as the guest of the Congress if arrangements could be made to do so.

A first instalment of the grant for administration expenses was paid to the Christchurch Committee.

Pacific Science Congress. The Hon. Secretary, Dr. G. Archey, forwarded certain resolutions of the recent Pacific Science Congress for transmission to the proper quarters. The Standing Committee also considered the report on the Organisation of Research.

Permanent Secretariat. This has now been set up with headquarters in Honolulu, Mr. Loring G. Hudson, M.A., B.Sc., of Honolulu, being appointed Executive Secretary, and Miss Brenda Bishop, of Auckland, Assistant Secretary.

U.n.e.s.c.o.—Science Abstracting. As reported in the last annual report, a sub-committee had drawn up a comprehensive report on the matter of science abstracting for the Conference in Paris. Some dissatisfaction was expressed that through some misunderstanding this report was not placed on the agenda of the Conference.

Food and People. At the request of the National Commission for U.N.E.S.C.O. Member Bodies were asked to give prominence in the year's programmes to the Food and People project. The majority of Member Bodies have responded.

Appeal for Funds. Dr. Falla represented the Society at a meeting called by the National Commission to discuss ways and means of giving assistance in reconstruction in war-devastated countries. At this meeting a representative committee was set up to wait on the Minister of Education to ask him to launch an appeal for funds for the above purpose.

Computation Centre. U.N.E.S.C.O. submitted a proposal that an International Computation Centre be established. Dr. Bastings, to whom the matter was referred, reported that he could discover no function which such a centre might undertake which could not be fulfilled by computation centres already in existence or in process of being developed.

Wider information regarding the existing centres, however, and greater utilization of their facilities would be an advantage.

U.N.E.S.C.O. was advised accordingly.

Conferences. The New Zealand Association of Scientific Workers was supported by the Standing Committee in a protest to the National Commission at the calling of overseas conferences at short notice without agenda defining the terms of reference, thus giving sufficient time to obtain the full views of subscribing members.

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Book Coupon Scheme. U.N.E.S.C.O. submitted an international book coupon scheme designed to assist people in soft currency countries to obtain serious books in countries of hard currency. The Standing Committee agreed to support the scheme in principle, although it was not aware of any serious difficulties in obtaining supplies.

International Technical Conference on Protection of Nature. Several members, including the President, Dr. Falla, were invited to submit papers for presentation to the Conference at Lake Success in August/September.

Mr. J. D. Raeside was appointed to represent the Royal Society at this Conference, but he was also an official New Zealand delegate to the United Nations Conference on the Conservation and Utilization of resources at Lake Success on dates more or less synchronising with the other Conference so that his attendance was necessarily limited.

International Council of Scientific Unions. Mr. S. Cory Wright, who was visiting England, was appointed to represent the Society at the General Assembly of the International Scientific Unions held in September in Copenhagen.

Mr. Cory Wright briefly reported to the Standing Committee on the work of the General Assembly at which he had been appointed Chairman of the Finance Committee. Twenty-five countries were represented by 70 delegates.

Seventh International Botanical Congress. Dr. H. H. Allan was appointed to represent the Society at this Congress which is to be held in Stockholm this year.

Overseas Conferences. Preliminary announcements have been received regarding the International Entomological Congress, the International Geological Congress and the Third World Petroleum Congress, all to be held in 1951.

Sir Henry Dale, f.r.s. Advice was received from Dr. Marsden that Sir Henry Dale would be visiting New Zealand. Member Bodies were accordingly advised and opportunity was taken by all the centres to arrange lectures by this eminent scientist.

National Parks. At the June meeting of the Standing Committee discussion arose on Tongariro National Park and the control of National Parks in general and the need for a detailed constructive policy to be placed before administering authorities. With this end in view Dr. Marshall, the Society's representative on the Tongariro National Park Board, was invited to attend the next meeting and discuss with the Standing Committee the policy of the Tongariro National Park Board.

The outcome of this meeting was that a sub-committee was set up to consult with the Lands Department regarding measures which could result in a really effective National Park policy. The sub-committee subsequently reported that in an interview with the Lands Department Officers it was learned that a new Act was being drafted which would consolidate the various National Parks Acts now in existence. The Committee is to continue in office to watch proceedings for further report to the Society.

Maymorn Estate. The New Zealand Institute of Foresters asked for the support of the Society in pressing for the preservation of the Maymorn Estate.

A supporting letter was sent to the Hon. Commissioner for State Forests.

Museum Management Committee. Professor L. R. Richardson resigned from the Museum Management Committee owing to his absence overseas. The Standing Committee, however, granted him leave of absence, and Dr. H. B. Fell was appointed to act on the Committee during Professor Richardson's absence.

Loder Cup. The Society nominated Mr. A. Morris Jones for the Loder Cup award.

Advice has been received that Miss Nocline Baker, of Stewart Island, has been awarded the Loder Cup for 1949.

Stocks of Transactions. During the year approximately 120 volumes or parts of volumes of Transactions were received from the Auckland Institute from its surplus stocks for the purpose of completing sets for devastated libraries.

– xlvi –

W. R. Mechaelis Trust. The Otago University has accepted the administration of the W. R. Mechaelis Trust for the advancement of the sciences of Physics and Astronomy or Astrophysics in New Zealand. The gross annual income of the Trust is estimated at £190. The award is to be a biennial one alternately in physics and astronomy. A selection committee of three, appointed by the University of New Zealand, the Royal Society of New Zealand, and the New Zealand Astronomical Society is to make the awards.

Professor Florance was appointed to represent the Royal Society on the Selection Committee for the first award.

Handbook on Trichoptera of Australia and New Zealand. The Keeper of the British Museum asked the Royal Society if it would undertake to contribute to the publication of a Handbook on the Trichoptera of Australia and New Zealand. The matter was referred to the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research with the suggestion that it consult the Australian Council of Scientific and Industrial Research with a view to sharing the cost of publication.

Forest and Bird Society. This Society advocated co-ordination of effort in societies interested in the preservation of natural wild life in New Zealand.

It invited representatives of approximately 12 societies to attend a meeting and Dr. Falla was appointed representative of the Royal Society of New Zealand.

On the motion of Professor Allan, seconded by Dr. Frankel, the report of the Standing Committee was adopted.

Arising therefrom:—

Delay in Publications. Some discussion on the delay in publishing the Transactions took place. In reply to a question, Dr. Oliver, Hon. Editor, stated that Volume 78, Part 1 was issued, Parts 2 and 3 were being combined, and the galley proofs and some page proofs of this part have been received.

The papers for Part 4 have been sent to the printers, leaving only papers received since the beginning of 1950 in hand for Volume 79. The time lag seemed to be in the date of issue of advance copy and the receipt by members of their copies. Dr. Archey observed that the delay was now more apparent than real, and that the situation might be met by combining more parts. Dr. Salmon moved and Dr. Frankel seconded that Volumes 79 and 80 be issued as a combined volume. Dr. Oliver pointed out that this measure would result in confusion in reference and bibliography, and finally, on the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Mr. Buchanan, an amendement, “That the matter be referred to the Standing Committee for consideration,” was carried. A further motion, moved by Dr. Marwick, seconded by Mr. Keys, “That it be an instruction to the Standing Committee to avoid telescoping two volumes into one,” was carried.

Sub-committee's Report on Papers for Presentation in the Transactions. It was decided to refer the report of the Otago Branch, which had just been received, to the Sub-committee for consideration before its report is published in the Transactions.

Science Congress Volume. Dr. Frankel stated that the Canterbury Branch recommended that in future the size of the Science Congress Volume be greatly reduced, and that it should not be issued as a Part of the Transactions, but published separately as a Report of the Congress. After further discussion it was resolved, on the motion of Dr. Frankel, seconded by Professor Allan, “That the proceedings of the Royal Society Science Congresses be published as Reports of such Congress and not as Parts of the Transactions; that the Presidential Address and Section Chairman's addresses be printed in full, all

– xlvii –

other contribution in abstract form; and that the Report be distributed free to members of the Congress, at cost on request to members of the Society and to institutions and persons on the Exchange List, and to others at a small profit.

At a later stage, on the motion of Dr. Focken, seconded by Professor Allan, it was resolved that a levy of 2s 6d per volume be imposed on the copies of the 1947 Science Congress volume taken by Member Bodies.

Royal Society of New Zealand Act: Amendments, 1949. The President drew attention to the passing of the Royal Society Act Amendments, 1949. He stated that Treasury had declined to recommend that the clause covering the Society's annual grant should be amended to include the whole of the grant and that it declined to recommend an increase in the present grant.

On the motion of Dr. Salmon, seconded by Dr. Bastings, it was resolved, “That this Council re-affirms its opinion that an increase in the annual grant from the Government is a necessity, and directed the Standing Committee to make fresh approaches to Cabinet on this matter.”

Member Bodies. Mr. Keys mentioned that the Otago Branch was considering raising its annual subscription to meet increased calls on its finances and it was thought desirable that there should be uniformity if possible in this direction in Member Bodies. Representatives of Wellington and Hawke's Bay Branches mentioned that their subscriptions had already been increased, and Mr. Pycroft mentioned that Auckland Institute was considering action.

Dr. Archey suggested a conference of Presidents or Secretaries of Member Bodies as there were many points of interest common to all Member Bodies which could well be discussed.

On the motion of Mr. Keys, seconded by Dr. Archey, it was resolved: “That the Standing Committee be requested to give consideration to means whereby Member Bodies might unify or correlate their procedure regarding finance, life membership (including transfers) and organisation matters generally.”

Representation of Fellows on Council. On the motion of Dr. Focken, seconded by Mr. Pycroft, the report of the Sub-committee was received.

After some discussion, on the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Dr. Oliver, the following alternative method was adopted:—

Rules to Put Into Operation Clause 4 (f) of the R.S.N.Z. Act, Amendments, 1949:—

“Two members to be elected by the Fellows of the Society in the year 1950 and in every alternate year thereafter in the manner prescribed by rules made under this Act.”

Rules.

1.

In the year 1950 notice shall be posted to Fellows at their last notified address on or before 1st July intimating that written nominations for two Fellows proposed and seconded by Fellows and assented to by nominees shall close with the

– xlviii –

Secretary of the Royal Society of New Zealand on the 28th July, 1950.

2.

Voting papers containing the names of those so nominated shall be posted to Fellows on or before 14th August and shall be returned to the Secretary by 31st August, 1950.

3.

In 1952 and every alternate year thereafter, notice shall be posted to Fellows at their last notified address on or before 1st February intimating that written nominations proposed and seconded by Fellows and assented to by nominees shall close with the Secretary on 28th February.

4.

Voting papers containing the names of nominees shall be posted to Fellows on or before 10th March and shall close with the Secretary on the 31st March.

5.

All voting papers received shall be immediately forwarded to the Hon. Returning Officer, who shall notify the President as soon as possible of the result of the election.

6.

In the event of a tie the election shall be decided by lot determined by the Standing Committee.

The meeting adjourned for lunch at 12.30 p.m.

Afternoon Roll Call. Attendance was the same as for the morning session.

– xlix –

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Statement of Receipts and Payments for the Year Ended 31st March, 1950.
Receipts. Payments
£ s. d. £ s. d.
Balance at 31st March, 1949. 3,637 14 10 Otago Daily Times: Printing Vol. 77 (3 and 4) 616 5 0
Annual Government Grant 1,250 0 0 Salary 425 0 0
Sales of Publications 100 9 1 Research Grants 111 10 11
Travelling Expenses: Member Bodies' Share 24 0 4 Travelling Expenses 37 2 3
Levy on Volume 78 (in advance) 120 3 0 Library Binding 41 12 0
Refund Petty Cash from late Hon. Editor 0 6 0 Stationery 34 15 9
Hector Memorial Fund, Interest 52 9 8 Petty Cash 20 3 3
Hutton Memorial Fund, Interest 65 11 1 Hon. Editor's Expenses 6 17 3
T. K. Sidey Summer-time Fund, Interest 24 10 5 Charges (Telephone, Insurance, Bank, etc.) 15 18 8
Cockayne Memorial Fund, Interest 11 14 0 Subscription International Scientific Unions 40 8 2
Carter Library Legacy, Interest 6 8 2 Hutton Grants 64 18 4
Plant Diseases Trust, Interest 18 8 3 Hector Prizes (2) and Travelling Expenses 107 8 11
Hamilton Memorial Fund, Interest 2 7 0 Engraving Hector Medals (2) 1 16 6
Endowment Fund, Interest 75 12 0 1951 Science Congress: Instalment Christchurch Account 50 0 0
Interest on P.O.S.B. Account 42 10 0 Transfers from Bank N.Z. to Trust Accounts 13 5 0
Transfers from Trust Accounts to Bank N.Z. 146 4 3 Transfers from Bank N.Z. to Trust Accounts 13 5 0
Interest Paid Direct to Trust Accounts 136 6 7
Balance as Under 3,854 19 6
£5,578 8 1 £5,578 8 1

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Bank of New Zealand 1,557 15 3
P.O.S. Bank 2,280 11 0
Cash in Hand 5 17 11
Petty Cash in Hand 10 15 4
£3,854 19 6

(Signed) S. Cory Wright

, Honorary Treasurer.

– l –

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Statement of Assets and Liabilities at 31st March, 1950.
Liabilities. Assets.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
Hector Memorial Fund, Capital Account 1,184 18 1 Hector Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £1,250) 1,184 18 1
Hector Memorial Fund, Revenue Account 37 10 10 Hector Fund: P.O.S. Bank Account 37 10 10
Hutton Memorial Fund, Capital Account 1,506 8 6 Hutton Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £1,570) 1,506 8 6
Hutton Memorial Fund, Revenue Account 343 3 5 Hutton Fund: P.O.S. Bank Account 343 3 5
T. K. Sidey Summer-time Fund, Capital Account 549 8 6 Summer-time Fund: Ins. Stock (Face Value, £510) 500 2 6
T. K. Sidey, Summer-time Fund, Revenue Account 148 16 5 Summer-Time Fund: P.O.S. Bank Account 198 2 5
Plant Diseases Trust, Capital Account 542 13 5 Plant Diseases: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £500) 500 0 0
Plant Diseases Trust, Revenue Account 120 7 10 Plant Diseases: P.O.S. Bank Account 163 1 3
Cockayne Memorial Fund, Capital Account 249 12 0 Cockayne Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £260) 249 12 0
Cockayne Memorial Fund, Revenue Account 74 6 1 Cockayne Fund: P.O.S. Bank Account 74 6 1
Carter Library Legacy Capital Account 162 19 0 Carter Legacy: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £160) 162 19 0
Carter Library Legacy, Revenue Account 36 18 0 Carter Legacy: P.O.S. Bank Account 36 18 0
Hamilton Memorial Fund, Capital Account 79 10 2 Hamilton Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £60) 60 0 0
Hamilton Memorial Fund, Revenue Account 7 4 9 Hamilton Fund: P.O.S. Bank Account 26 14 11
Endowment Fund, Capital Account 2,129 2 5 Endowment Fund: Ins. Stock (Face Value, £2,070) 2,054 2 5
Endowment Fund, Revenue Account 434 9 10 Endowment Fund: P.O.S.B. Part General Account 509 9 10
Research Grant Fund 35 0 7 Sundry Debtors 75 10 10
N.Z. Science Congress Fund 50 0 0 Bank of New Zealand 1,557 15 3
Library Fund (Binding) 108 8 0 Post Office Savings Bank 1,771 1 2
Publication Expenses Fund 283 12 7 Petty Cash in Hand 10 15 4
Volume 78 Levy (in advance) 120 3 0 Cash in Hand 5 17 11
Accounts in Credit 3 8 1
Otago Daily Times (Science Congress Volume) 1,130 15 0
1947 Science Congress Volume Grant 500 0 0
Balance of Assets over Liabilities 1,189 13 3
£11,028 9 9 £11,028 9 9

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Property Assets–Estimated and Insured Value.
Estimated Value. Insured Value.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
Library and Stack Room Victoria University College 11,592 12 0 4,500 0 0
Furniture 95 12 6 40 0 0
Stock in Cellar, Parliament Bldgs. 500 0 0
Carter Library, Dominion Museum (jointly owned with Museum) 500 0 0
£5,540 0 0
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Revenue Account for the Year Ended 31st March, 1950.
Expenditure. Income.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Printing Transactions, Vol. 77, Parts 3, 4, 5 1,711 10 6 By Balance at 31st March, 1949 2,174 17 1
" Salary 425 0 0 " Annual Grant 1,250 0 0
" Stationery 34 15 9 " Trust Funds Administration Expenses 5 2 6
" Petty Cash 20 3 3 " Sales of Publications 127 3 2
" Binding Grant from General Account 50 0 0
" N.Z. Science Congress Grant, Christchurch 50 0 0
" Subscription International Scientific Unions 40 8 2
" Charges 22 9 11
" Travelling Expenses 13 1 11
" Balance 1,189 13 3
£3,557 2 9 £3,557 2 9
" By Balance £1,189 13 3
– lii –

Trust Accounts for the Year Ended 31st March, 1950.

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Hector Memorial Fund.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Prizes 1948 and 1949 100 11 5 By Capital Invested 1,184 18 1
" Engraving Medals (2) 1 16 6 " Bal. Revenue A/c. 31/3/49 95 6 7
" Travelling Expenses: Presentation 6 17 6 " Interest 52 9 8
" Administration Exs. 1 0 0
" Balance 1,222 8 11
£1,332 14 4 £1,332 14 4
By Balance Capital A/c. £1,184 18 1
" Balance Revenue A/c. £37 10 10

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Hutton Memorial Fund.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Grants 64 18 4 By Capital Invested 1,506 8 6
" Administration Exs. 1 0 0 " Bal. Revenue A/c., 31/3/49 343 10 8
" Balance 1,849 11 11 " Interest 65 11 1
£1,915 10 3 £1,915 10 3
By Balance Capital A/c. £1,506 8 6
" Balance Revenue A/c. £343 3 5

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T. K. Sidey Summer-time Fund.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 1 0 0 By Capital Invested and P.O.S.B. 546 19 6
" Balance 698 4 11 " Balance Rev. A/c., 31/3/49 127 15 0
" Interest to Rev. A/c. 22 1 5
" 1/10th Interest to Capital A/c. 2 9 0
24 10 5
£699 4 11 £699 4 11
By Balance Capital A/c. £549 8 6
" Balance Revenue A/c. £148 16 5

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Plant Diseases Trust.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 0 2 6 By Capital Invested P.O.S.B. 542 13 5
" Balance 663 1 3 " Bal. Revenue A/c., 31/3/49 102 2 1
" Interest 18 8 3
£663 3 9 £663 3 9
By Balance Capital A/c. £542 13 5
" Balance Revenue A/c. £120 7 10
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Cockayne Memorial Fund.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 0 2 6 By Capital Invested 249 12 0
" Balance 323 18 1 " Balance Revenue A/c. 31/3/49 62 14 7
" Interest 11 14 0
£324 0 7 £324 0 7
By Balance Capital A/c. £249 12 0
" Balance Revenue A/c. £74 6 1

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Carter Library Legacy.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 0 10 0 By Capital Invested 162 19 0
" Balance 199 17 0 " Bal. Revenue A/c., 31/3/49 30 19 10
" Interest 6 8 2
£200 7 0 £200 7 0
By Balance Capital A/c. £162 19 0
" Balance Revenue A/c. £36 18 0

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Hamilton Memorial Fund.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 0 2 6 By Capital Invested and P.O.S.B. 78 6 8
" Balance 86 14 11 " Bal Revenue A/c., 31/3/49 6 3 9
" Int. Cap. 1 3 6
" Int. Rev. 1 3 6
2 7 0
£86 17 5 £86 17 5
By Balance Capital A/c. £79 10 2
" Balance Revenue A/c. £3 4 9
" 1947 Prizes (held temporarily) £4 0 0

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Endowment Fund.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Exs. 1 5 0 By Capital Inv. and in P.O. Savings Bank 2,129 2 5
" Balance 2,563 12 3 " Bal. Revenue A/c., 31/3/49 317 12 10
" Interest 75 12 0
" Interest on General Account 42 10 0
£2,564 17 3 £2,564 17 3
By Balance Capital A/c. £2,129 2 5
" Balance Revenue A/c. £434 9 10

On the motion of Mr. Cory Wright, seconded by Dr. Archey, the Hon. Treasurer's report and balance sheet were adopted. A question was asked regarding the growing balances in the Cockayne Memorial Fund and the Carter Library Legacy and the Standing Committee

– liv –

was asked to investigate the possibility of utilizing these funds. Some discussion on the Endowment Fund and its purpose arose, Mr. Aston maintaining that all interest not allocated at the annual meeting should be allocated.

On the motion of Dr. Archey it was resolved that all available revenue in the Endowment Fund be utilized for publication expenses.

Report of the Honorary Editor.

At the Standing Committee held on September 15th, 1949, I was appointed Honorary Editor in succession to Miss Marion Fyfe.

In October all manuscripts, proofs, correspondence, and stationery in Miss Fyfe's hands were forwarded to me. At that time Part 1 of Volume 78 of the Transactions was being set up by the printers and was duly published in February, 1950. It contained the report of the annual meeting of the Society held on May 25th, 1948, and 14 papers (zoology, 7; geology, 3; palaeontology, 1; and botany, 3.) Volume 78, Parts 2/3, containing 19 articles and a biography, are in galley form, some in page form, and the manuscript for Part 4 has been forwarded to the printers.

The Report of the Royal Society's Sixth Science Congress was published in November, 1949, as Volume 77, Part 5 of the Transactions. Although this part was numbered in the same series as the other parts of the volume the pagination of Part 4 is not followed so that in Volume 77 pages 1–412 are duplicated. Authors and bibliographers will therefore have to take care when quoting this volume, it being necessary in all cases to give the number of the part in connection with the page numbers.

There is a considerable lag between the date of issue printed on the parts of the Transactions and their receipt by members. Volume 78, Part 1, for instance, is dated February, 1950, and copies were sent to the editor and secretary at that time, but members generally did not receive their copies until April. In the case of the New Zealand Science Congress volume the date on the title-page is November, 1949, but my copy did not reach me until February, 1950. This is a serious matter for workers in science. The date of issue as printed on the title-page should, in my opinion, be in accordance with the actual time the parts are available to members and others.

The dating of separates “issued separately” is a practice that is not to be commended as, if the issue of separates does precede the publication of the part of the Transactions in which they appear, the separates are at the most available to only one person and his correspondents and are not available to the members of the Society and the public. It has happened that priority of publication of scientific names has been obtained by quoting the date “issued separately.” The present practice is to put after the words “issued separately” the date on the corresponding part of the Transactions. The words “issued separately” consequently have no meaning and, furthermore, are confusing. I have, therefore, beginning with Volume 78, Parts 2/3, omitted these words under the title of the paper and added the date to the reference at the foot of the first page of every paper.

At the last annual meeting of the Society the question of the general appearance of the Transactions was discussed and a sample of a suggested format was submitted by the then Honorary Editor, Miss Fyfe. This was in small quarto size, which is the same height as the Transaction but about £3/4-inch wider. This allows a 5-inch column of text and more space for illustrations. The effect is a more attractive publication. The small quarto size has been adopted by most, if not all, the Royal Societies and Museums in Australia and by many other institutions in various parts of the world, including the Dominion Museum. I recommend that a decision on this question be made at this meeting so that if quarto size be adopted the first matter to be put into print for Volume 80, namely, the report of this meeting, can be set up in 5-inch columns. Normally the manuscript would go to the printers about the end of the year, that is, some months before the next annual meeting.

The printers, the ‘Otago Daily Times Co. Ltd,’ have been prompt in typesetting manuscripts, distributing proofs, and publishing the bound parts. Their proof-reading of scientific papers has been of a very high standard so that authors have had a minimum of corrections to make.

– lv –

I think, therefore, that the Society's appreciation of the efficiency with which the publication of the Transactions has been carried out should be placed on record.

(Signed) W. R. B. Oliver

, Hon. Editor.

In presenting his annual report, the Honorary Editor, Dr. Oliver, stated that Miss Fyfe had recommended at the last annual meeting that the format of the Transactions be altered, and he would like to see this done.

It was stated that no report had been received from the Committee that had been set up by the last annual meeting to report on this matter.

On the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Dr. Frankel, it was resolved that the question of the format be referred to the Standing Committee with power to act.

On the motion of Dr. Oliver, seconded by Mr. Pycroft, the Hon. Editor's report was adopted.

At a later stage the President paid a tribute to Dr. Oliver for assuming the duties of Hon. Editor, and a hearty vote of thanks was carried by acclamation.

Report of Acting Honorary Librarian.

Some applications for exchange have been received during the year but have not yet been dealt with by the Library Committee. Indeed, from a glance at the congestion in the Society's Library it would appear to be doubtful if many new incoming exchanges can be accommodated. The shelves are full to overflowing at present, the acute position being brought about by the resumption of further exchanges for some time debarred by censorship control from sending their publications.

The holdings in the Library have now been completely listed.

For the past three years trainees of the National Library School have carried out a project in the Library. Two students have been assigned each year to do a two-months' project in practical work and in that time the entire holdings of the Library have been listed and they have now been incorporated by the National Library Service in a supplementary list to the Harris List of Periodicals compiled some years ago.

Through this list there have already been demands for publications which other libraries were unaware the Royal Society had in its Library, and the interloan work, which makes quite a demand on the Librarian's time, is likely to increase.

Approximately 600 volumes were issued on loan during the year, more than 200 of them to other libraries and institutions through the interloan system.

A part-time assistant, unfortunately inexperienced, but whose interest lies in library work, will be available for work after the term holidays.

4th May, 1950.

H. B. Fell

,
Acting Hon. Librarian.

The report of the Acting Hon. Librarian, Dr. H. B. Fell, was adopted, and mention was made of the valuable work done in the Library by trainees of the National Library School in recording the Society's Library holdings.

National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum Board of Trustees.

After being closed to the public for some years under war conditions the Art Gallery was formally reopened on April 12th, 1949, by the Right Hon. the Prime Minister, and the Museum on September 27th, 1949, by His Excellency the Governor General.

Both Art Gallery and Museum have been considerably improved during the process of reconditioning, and, at last, a long-needed porte-cochère at the east entrance is actually under construction.

– lvi –

Both Gallery and Museum still suffer from lack of regular transport by tram or bus and both suffer from the dirty and destructive habits of a few visitors, paintings being smeared and exhibits cut or stolen.

The special exhibitions in the Art Gallery have been very successful, and at the Museum, the Maori Hall has been rendered really instructive as well as attractive.

W. P. Evans
P. Marshall


Representatives on the Board of Trustees.

The report of the representatives of the Society on the Board of Trustees of the National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum, Professor W. P. Evans and Dr. P. Marshall, was adopted.

Reports of Research Grantees.

Briggs, Dr. L. H., who received £25 from the special grant of £100 in 1948 and £69 16s 5d from the sale of apparatus originally bought with a research grant reported on the 27th April that, owing to his absence overseas, no report was furnished for 1948–49 and this report, therefore, covers a two-year period. The research work being done is on Plant Products of New Zealand. The essential-oil still and fractionating column purchased from previous grants has been used for further investigations of essential oils of New Zealand trees. Microchemical apparatus bought from similar funds is in constant use for all phases of the work on plant products.

There was an unexpended balance of £1 6s 9d from the 1945 grant and this, together with the two amounts mentioned above, will be required for the payment of research apparatus already ordered. This has arrived in New Zealand but has not yet been delivered. It will include items of a general research nature such as a vacuum distillation apparatus, vacuum drier, shaking machine, etc., required for research purposes. Vouchers will be presented after arrival of the goods and payment of the accounts.

Ten papers have been published in the Journal of the Chemical Society on the work which has been done and reference made to the grants from the Royal Society of New Zealand for which, once again, Dr. Briggs expresses his sincere appreciation to the Society.

Hutton Grants.

Cone, Dr. Greta, who was granted £50 for research on Fungi, reported last year that she had fully expended the grant in the purchase of books and travelling expenses in collecting trips.

On the 1st May she reported that the books are still in use for her research and they are all inscribed with the Royal Society's name. She expresses her gratitude for the use of these books.

Mr. V. J. Cook, who, in March, 1949, was granted £30 for research on Cyperaceae, reported on 30th March, 1950, that expenses to the amount of £13 15s 4d were incurred in visiting mainly the West Coast area of the South Island during December and January. The chief purpose of the trip was to collect various specimens of Cyperaceae and to study a number of them in the field.

Marples, Professor B. J., who has been for some years doing research work on vertebrate palaeontology at Duntroon, reported on the 28th April that, at his request, the Society transferred the balance of a grant of £5 for work on the Little Owl towards the expenses of a projected visit to Green Island. As circumstances have prevented this visit he asks permission to use the £5 on his vertebrate palaeontological research in North Otago. He reports that he has a fossil whale partially excavated near Duntroon, several other specimens located which are worth examination, and there still remains a great deal of territory to be explored.

Moore, Miss L. B. reported on the 19th April that so far she has not expended any portion of her grant for purchasing books, but during the next six months she hopes to expend it in Great Britain on literature or some special investigation.

McQueen, D. R., was, on 15th September, granted £15 for research on the regeneration after fires of the Nothofagus forests of the Southern Tararuas,

– lvii –

On the 12th July he reported that work has been continued on the burnt-off forests in the cold temperate belt of the Southern Tararuas and the ? Ridge, and a fortnight was spent on Mt. Reeves in January.

The money has been expended in transport by rail, bus, and the use of a pack-horse.

Richdale, L. E. In June Mr. Richdale asked for and was granted a transfer of his grant of £30 for research in the Solander Islands to albatross and penguin research on the Otago Peninsula. He reported on the 21st April that the grant has enabled him to continue the research work on the Otago Peninsula that has been under way for 14 years. He had incurred expenditure of £17 14s 6d in travelling and for ringing material.

To Punga, M. T., who, in 1946, was granted £30 for work in connection with geololgical aspects of palaeo-botany and petrography, reported on the 25th April that owing to ill-health, he had been unable to undertake any research work during the past year. He hoped, however, to continue the work in the near future.

Van't Woudt, B. D., who, in November, 1948, was granted £42 for research on exotic conifer plantations at Kaingaroa, reported on the 12th April by way of an interim report of over 20 pages covering headings as follows:

1.

Introduction.

2.

Climatic.

3.

Geology.

4.

Natural Vegetation on the Plains

5.

Light relations

6.

Temperature relations.

7.

Water relations.

8.

Lysimater experiments.

9.

Soil relations.

10.

The position of Pinus Radiata.

11.

Soil improvement.

He proposes, with the aid of a University Research Fund Fellowship, to continue the research for his Ph.D.

The reports of the research grantees and Hutton research grantees were adopted.

Tongariro National Park Board

Report of Royal Society's Representative.

The Board has had two meetings during the year at which a great deal of routine business has been done. It must be remembered that the Park has a perimeter of some 65 miles. There is practically no recognizable boundary throughout this distance, and two-thirds of it traverses open grass country. In countless places it is traversed by streams which afford ideal camping sites and no permission has to be obtained to camp on the Park. There is only one official to control this Park which is a natural playground for the whole of the North Island. It is readily accessible on all sides, for a main highway runs close to its boundary.

The Council of the Royal Society must, therefore, understand that no definite patrolling or caretaking is in any way possible for the Board. It can only be stated in general terms that efforts are made to prevent further encroachment of exotic plants with considerable success. Most of the country is too elevated to allow of the free growth of the broom. A good deal of what there is has been grubbed up during the year. The heather on the lower levels of the Park on the northern sides still grows in quantity, but close observation makes one think that the high robust Danthonia and even Poa is, to a considerable extent, saving and even restoring the natural appearance of the Park's surface. Some eleven mountain and out-of-door clubs have applied for permission to erect huts and, after consultation with the federated mountain clubs, permission has been granted to some nine of these, subject to report from the warden, Mr. Shout. In general, the Board is satisfied with the conduct of the members of these clubs though it is hard to exact quite satisfactory results. On the North side there is a good road for motor vehicles to the region of the club houses. One result of this is that motor cars with tourists take a multitude of beer bottles of which many

– lviii –

are broken and the surrounding ground becomes littered with broken glass. The Board is endeavouring to stop this.

These remarks are made in order to emphasise the difficulties that are encountered by the Board over the very wide and varied area that it endeavours to control and administer.

17th April, 1950.

P. Marshall.

The report of the Tongariro National Park Board submitted by Dr. P. Marshall, the Society's representative on the Board, was adopted.

National Parks. There was some discussion in committee on the draft of the National Parks Bill which had been submitted by the Department of Lands and Survey to the sub-committee set up by the Standing Committee to consider the administration policy of National Parks.

On the motion of Dr. Oliver it was resolved that the suggestions made regarding the Bill be forwarded to the Lands Department.

Great Barrier Reef Committee.

Report of Representative.

Two meetings of the Committee were held in 1949.

The report of the Sub-committee on the proposal to establish a Marine Biological Station on Heron Island in the Capricorn Group was considered at the meeting of July 15th. The Sub-committee recommended that the Capricorn Group provided the most favourable area in which to establish the station. Official support for the project has been accorded by the A.N.Z.A.A.S., the Australian National Research Council, and the Seventh Pacific Science Congress. Approaches for official support have been made to the C.S.I.R. and letters written to the National University of Australia, the Royal Society, London, the B.A.A.S., and the Royal Geographical Society seeking their goodwill. The following funds are known to be available: Great Barrier Reef Committee, £500; Goddard Memorial Fund, £500; A.N.Z.A.A.S., £25; donation, £5. Approaches for financial support have been made to various organisations.

Considerable discussion followed the presentation of this report. Much of it centred round a suggestion by Mrs. Mackerras that the station be situated further north, but the proximity of Heron Island to Brisbane and the fact that it is a very good example of a coral reef decided the Committee to approve the Sub-committee's recommendation. It was pointed out that there were permanent residents on Heron Island who could look after the station and equipment when not in use. Dr. Dorothy Hill, when in England last year, found everywhere that the proposal to establish a marine biological station on the Great Barrier Reef was received with enthusiasm, and many offers to help from individuals and institutions had been made.

The financial statement showed a balance in had on December 9th, 1949, of £1,192 0s 11d, the reduction since the balance was last reported being due to the donation of £500 for the Heron Island Biological Station project.

W. R. B. Oliver.

On the motion of Dr. Oliver the report submitted by him on the Great Barrier Reef Committee was adopted.

Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture.

Report of Representative.

The Twenty-seventh Annual Conference was held at Nelson February 21st, 1950. The Conference of the New Zealand Institute of Parks Administration was held at the same place during the same week. The Banks lecture for 1950 was delivered by Dr. D. Miller, his subject being “Some Zoological aspects of the New Zealand Flora” in which he gave an account of the effect of insects and other animals on plant life. A lecture on “Soil Fertility” was given by Sir Theodore Rigg, and an illustrated talk by Mr. E. S. Gourlay on “The Wild Flowers of the Northern United States.

On the recommendation of the Dominion Council, which expressed concern regarding the financial position of the Institute, the following increased

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subscription rates were approved: Life members, £15 15s; Fellows, £1 10s; Members, £1; Firms and Associations, £1 10s; Juniors (under 18), 2s 6d.

Membership at January, 1950, 2,695. There were then 18 District Councils.

W. R. B. Oliver

On the motion of Dr. Oliver his report as representative on the Royal N.Z. Institute of Horticulture was adopted.

Carter Observatory Board.

Report of Representatives of the Royal Society of New Zealand for the Year
Ended, 31st March
, 1949.

Board. The constitution of the Board at the end of the year was as follows: Mr. R. G. Dick, Professor D. C. H. Florance, Mr. R. S. Hayes, Professor F. F. Miles, Mr. C. M. N. Watson-Munro (Government); Mr. E. P. Norman, Mr. L. T. Jacobsen (Wellington City Council), Dr. M. A. F. Barnett, Mr. C. G. G. Berry (Royal Society of New Zealand).

Mr. F. W. Furkert was a representative of the Wellington City Council for the year until his death on 26th September, 1949. He was replaced by Mr. Jacobsen.

Mr. E. P. Norman was elected Chairman and Professor D. C. H. Florance Vice-chairman of the Board.

Seven meetings of the Board were held during the year.

Educational Work. The Observatory was opened to the public regularly on Friday evenings and on a few special occasions. Public interest is being maintained, and there was a total record of 1939 attendances.

Five 3-inch telescopes were purchased from a fund collected by the late Mr. A. C. Gifford for the purpose of lending them to secondary schools.

The Board has also made the Lecture Room at the Observatory available for the use of local astronomical societies.

Solar Work. Projection drawings of the sun have been continued as in the past. Since November, 1949, a new eyepiece purchased a few years ago and a new projection board manufactured locally have been brought into use. With this combination solar disc drawings, 25cm. in diameter are made. Detailed investigations of heliographic measurement methods has shown that positions to within one degree are reliable, and that if required five times this accuracy could be produced.

Many trials with an attachment for solar photography made by the Dominion Physical Laboratory have been carried out. These show that successful routine sunspot photographs are possible, but at present a regular programme has not been commenced.

A programme of regular spectrohelioscope observations was instituted on all fine working days, and the total observing time was 127 hours. Solar flares were seen on 46 occasions, but only four of these reached full importance.

Besides sending solar information to interested authorities in New Zealand sunspot observations have been forwarded to Zurich Observatory, and Spectrohelioscope observations to Meudon Observatory and the Royal Greenwich Observatory for use in international records.

It has been intimated to the Observatory that it may be called upon to supply more information in the future for international solar work.

Radio Disturbance Forecasts. These have been supplied, as in previous years, to the Post and Telegraph Department and the National Broadcasting Service. By request, forecasts were also commenced for Overseas Telecommunications Commission (Australia), Sydney.

Auroral Work. By a grant made by the Radio Research Committee, and considerable general assistance from the Meteorological Service, increased activity occurred in this field. In general, the number of reporting units has been increased, and the quality of reporting improved. The auroral cameras were overhauled and have now been installed at the aerodromes at Taieri and Invercargill. Much work has been done in rechecking past records for future reference.

An auroroal assistant was appointed in September.

– lx –

Reports have continued from the party on Campbell Island and the Australian Antarctic Expedition on Heard and Macquarie Islands.

Photo-Electric Photometry. Experiments were conducted by an honours student for his thesis to determine the possibility of using the 9-inch telescope for photo-electric photometry of stars.

The results indicated that a useful field of work may be possible after a few refinements have been made.

General. Thirteen successful plates were obtained of the partial solar eclipse of 1949, October 22, and await reduction.

Micrometer observations of the diameter of Venus were commenced.

Astronomical computations for various equiries were carried out.

M. A. F. Barnett
C. G. G. Berry

The report of the representatives on the Carter Observatory Board was adopted.

Report on the Activities of the Interim Secretariat of the Pacific Science
Council to the Royal Society of New Zealand
.

At the third meeting of the Pacific Science Council during the Seventh Congress it was agreed that, in order to further the establishment of a permanent Secretariat of the Council, the Royal Society of New Zealand should be asked to undertake the implementation of the resolutions of the Seventh Pacific Science Congress, and that a Committee (the Secretariat Establishment Committee) be appointed to keep in touch with the Royal Society of New Zealand's Secretariat activities and at an appropriate time to appoint a paid secretary to carry these activities forward to the Eighth Congress.

In May, 1940, the Royal Society of New Zealand's Congress Organising Committee recommended that the Royal Society should agree to the Pacific Science Council's request and that the writer be asked to undertake the Secretariat duties in addition to his continuing duties as Secretary-general of the Seventh Congress. This proposal was adopted at the Annual Meeting of the Royal Society of New Zealand in May, 1949.

The problem of finance for office running- expenses and salary for an Assistant Secretary was solved by the generous agreement of the Director-General of U.N.E.S.C.O. to allow the Royal Society's Congress Organising Committee to devote the balance of the U.N.E.S.C.O. Congress Visitor's Grant towards the establishment of the permanent Secretariat of the Pacific Science Council. This prompt and substantial gesture of goodwill towards the Secretariat was greatly appreciated.

As had been contemplated by the Pacific Science Council, the first duty of the Secretariat was to distribute copies of the resolutions and research recommendations of the Seventh Congress to the Representative Institutions of the Pacific Science Association, with a covering letter drawing attention to those recommendations and resolutions which particularly concerned a given Institution. Through the courtesy of the New Zealand Department of External Affairs the recommendations and resolutions were forwarded to the governments of the member-countries of the Pacific Science Association.

Following notification of the appointment by the President of the Seventh Congress of Chairmen of Standing Committees, the Secretariat opened up correspondence with Standing Committee Chairmen.

From the reports received from Representative Instititutions bearing on the resolutions and recommendations, and from information supplied by the Standing Committee Chairmen on members appointed and outline programmes adopted, Information Bulletins were compiled and distributed to Representative Institutions, to members of the Pacific Science Council, to Standing Committee Chairmen, and to some scientific publications.

Recommendations and resolutions of the Congress had also been communicated to international scientific organisations, and where the recommendations had called for co-operative work on Pacific problems the Secretariat opened up correspondence with certain of these international organisations to determine where useful co-operation could be achieved. Such of the information received as was of general interest to Representative Institutions was incorporated

– lxi –

in the Information Bulletins; to give more detailed and specific information to Standing Committee Chairmen a system of Standing Committee memoranda was started. The Information Bulletins and sometimes the Standing Committee memoranda were distributed to the international organisations which would find them of interest.

Copies of the minutes of the Pacific Science Council meetings during the Seventh Congress were distributed to members and to Representative Institutions. Recommendations in the minutes concerning internal administrative arrangements were taken up by correspondence and preliminary reports sent to members of the Council. It was decided to leave further action on these until the Secretariat should be established.

As envisaged by the Council, the Interim Secretariat kept in constant touch with the Secretariat Establishment Committees (Finance and Appointment) and in due course received their decision that sufficient funds were available to establish the Secretariat for an experimental period of two years, and the decision of the Appointment Committee as to the officers to be appointed. The Interim Secretariat communicated the decision of the Appointment Committee to the persons selected and received their acceptance, whereby the Secretariat is established. The Executive Secretary is Mr. Loring G. Hudson, of Honolulu, and the Assistant Secretary is Miss Brenda Bishop, of Auckland, New Zealand, and the office of the Secretariat is in the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu.

In conclusion, I would like to say how much the work of the Interim Secretariat was assisted by the ready interest with which our plans were received and the thoughtful consideration given to all our requests and suggestions, and to express my appreciation for this co-operation to the Representative Institutions, the international scientific organisations, and the Standing Committee Chairmen with whom I corresponded on Secretariat affairs.

Gilbert Archey,
IIon. Secretary Interim Secretariat of
the Pacific Science Council
.

Auckland Institute and Museum,
Auckland, S.E.l, New Zealand.

The report of the Interim Secretariat was presented by Dr. Archey who stated that the Permanent Secretariat had now been established in Honolulu, with Mr. Loring Hudson, secretary, and Miss Brenda Bishop, assistant secretary.

The Proceedings were being printed by the Government Printer, the first volume being in galley proof form. Details were given by Professor Allan of the material for the other volumes.

In reply to a question, Dr. Marwick, Chairman of the Publications Business Committee, stated that the proposed volumes would cost approximately £6,000.

Secretary-General: Eulogistic references were made to Dr. Archey, Secretary-General of the Congress, and the tremendous work he had carried out, and on the motion of Professor Allan, seconded by Mr. Pycroft, it was resolved that the Council place on record its highest appreciation of the work of the Secretary-General of the Congress, Dr. G. Archey. The success of the Congress, due in large part to his exceptional administrative ability, had brought great credit to New Zealand.

Other members paid a tribute to his work, and finally the President conveyed to Dr. Archey the resolution of the Council and its sincere thanks for his work.

Dr. Archey, in reply, thanked the Council for its resolution, stating that it had been a worth-while experience which had brought him into close contact with fellow-workers in and beyond New Zealand.

– lxii –

He referred to the great help and co-operation he had received from the Persident, Dr. Falla, and Professor Allan, Chairman of the Christchurch Committee, and he paid a tribute to the secretarial assistance of Miss Bishop, Mrs. Driver, and Miss Wood.

New Zealand Science Congress. Dr. Frankel reported that the dates set down for the Congress were the 15th–21st May, 1951, the annual meeting of the Council to be held on Tuesday, 22nd May.

The membership fee had been fixed at £1. It had been decided to invite Dr. Julian Huxley to be the official guest of the Congress.

Adult Education. Dr. Archey presented the report of the Special Committee on adult education in science, which he slightly amended, This was seconded by Mr. Keys, and adopted. Professor Allan moved, Mr. Pycroft seconded, that the report be sent to Dr. Hulme, convener of the Adult Education Board of the New Zealand University.

Notices of Motion.

Title of Wild Life Committee: On the motion of Mr. Pycroft seconded by Dr. Oliver, it was resolved that the name of the Wild Life Control Committee be changed to Conservation Committee.

Presidential Addresses: It was moved by Dr. Frankel and seconded by Dr. Salmon: “That Presidents be invited to deliver the Presidential Addresses to Member Bodies in rotation.”

In discussing this motion the opinion was expressed that it was a good thing to rotate as it would stimulate the Branches, but the decision to hold the annual meetings in rotation in other centers involved additional financial liability in travelling expenses, etc. Dr. Miller and Mr. Buchanan stated that for the first time a President of the Royal Society had delivered addresses in Nelson and Hawke's Bay, and Dr. Falla's action was greatly appreciated.

On the motion of Professor Allan, seconded by Dr. Briggs, it was resolved that the matter was worthy of consideration and was referred to the Standing Committee and the Member Bodies.

Secretary's Salary. The Standing Committee was given authority to make necessary adjustments in the secretary's salary.

Nominations Committee. It was reported that the Nominations Committee had met and considered the nominations which had been received from Member Bodies for the offices of President and Vice-Presidents, and it recommended that Mr. F. R. Callaghan be elected President and Dr. R. A. Falla and Dr. J. Marwick, Vice-Presidents.

The Nominations Committee report was adopted.

On the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Mr. Pycroft, it was resolved that the Member Bodies may make additional and confidential nominations to the Nominations Committee. Dr. Briggs suggested that provision should be made for two classes of Vice-President, one that the immediate past President fill that office and two additional Vice-Presidents to be elected.

Election of Officers.

President: Mr. F. R. Callaghan.

Vice-Presidents: Dr. R. A. Falla and Dr. J. Marwick.

Hon. Editor: Dr. W. R. B. Oliver.

– lxiii –

Hon. Treasurer: Mr. S. Cory Wright.

Hon. Librarian: Professor L. R. Richardson.

Representative Royal N.Z. Institute of Horticulture: Dr. W. R. B. Oliver.

Representative Great Barrier Reef Committee: Dr. W. R. B. Oliver.

Election of Committees.

Hector Award Committee: Professor C. A. Cotton (convener), Professor W. N. Benson, Dr. J. Marwick.

Hamilton Award Committee: Dr. G. Archey, Dr. C. M. Focken.

T. K. Sidey Summer-time Award Committee: Professor D. C. H. Florance (convener), Professor F. C. Chalklin, Dr. M. A. F. Barnett.

Fellowship Selection Committee: Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. L. H. Briggs, Dr. D. B. Macleod, Professor R. S. Allan, Dr. D. Miller.

Library Committee: The Hon. Librarian, Professor C. A. Cotton, Dr. J. Marwick, Dr. J. T. Salmon.

Conservation Committee: Dr. W. R. B. Oliver (convener), Dr. G. Archey, Dr. R. A. Falla, Mr. L. E. Richdale, Mr. C. A. Fleming, Dr. J. T. Salmon.

Research Grants Committee: Dr. R. A. Falla (convener), Dr. J. Marwick, Dr. D. Miller.

Nominations Committee: Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Dr. R. A. Falla, Professor R. S. Allan, Dr. C. M. Focken, Mr. J. D. H. Buchanan, Dr. D. Miller.

Votes of Thanks. On the motion of the President, the Council of Victoria University and the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research were thanked for the use of their Council rooms for meetings.

A vote of thanks was accorded to the Press, to the Secretary, and to the Hon. Treasurer.

In moving a vote of thanks to the retiring President, Dr. Falla, Professor Allan and Dr. Archey stated that the Society's thanks and its appreciation of Dr. Falla's work as President should be placed on record. Owing to circumstances his term of office was longer than usual and was especially arduous due to the fact that during that term it fell to his lot to be President of the Seventh Pacific Science Congress, and in that office he had brought distinction not only to himself but to the Royal Society of New Zealand. His term covered an important period in the progress of the Royal Society.

Other members spoke in appreciative terms of Dr. Falla's Presidency, and the motion was carried with acclamation.

Annual Meeting, 1951. The date suggested by the Science Congress Committee was the 22nd May, and the Standing Committee was left to confirm that date and make arrangements.

Vulcanological Films. Mr. Cory Wright stated that he had seen Dr. Gregory in Honolulu, who had stated that some good vulcanological films could be made available to the Society or its Branches.

– lxiv –

Evening Meeting. Dr. Falla delivered his Presidential Address entitled “The Functions of the Royal Society” at a meeting of the Wellington Branch held in the Dominion Museum on the same evening when Dr. Bastings, President of the Branch, presided. The meeting was well attended.

At the conclusion Dr. Frankel moved a most cordial vote of thanks to Dr. Falla for his interesting and stimulating address.

On the motion of Dr. Salmon it was resolved that the President be asked to allow his address to be published in the Transactions.

Confirmed.

R. A. Falla

,
Chairman.
2nd June, 1950.

Reports of Member Bodies.
Wellington Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual Report for the Year Ended 30th September, 1949.

Membership. The total membership now stands at 304 members and 80 associates, an increase in the total membership of 20 over the last year.

Syllabus. The following addresses were given before the Branch's general meeting during the session just closed:—27th October, 1948, Annual General Meeting; 20th December, 1948, In conjunction with the Wellington Branches of the Royal Aeronautical Society, the New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, the New Zealand Association of Scientific Workers and the New Zealand Institution of Engineers: “Scientific Co-operation in the English-speaking World,” by Sir Henry Tizard, K.C.B., F.R.S.; 27th April, 1949, “The Education of Scientists,” by Hon. Sir David Smith; 25th May, 1949, “New Zealand and International Science,” by Dr. R. A. Falla, being the Presidential Address to the Royal Society of New Zealand; 22nd June, 1949, “Scraps from the Society's Earlier Days,” by Dr. W. P. Evans; 27th July, 1949, “Evolution of the Individual,” by Prof. L. R. Richardson, being the Presidential Address to the Branch; 24th August, 1949, “The Place of Science,” by Dr. Gilbert Archey, Director, Auckland Museum, being the first Hudson Lecture; 28th September, 1949, “Aviation Medicine in the Royal Air Force,” by Group Captain P. B. Lee Potter, M.D., D.P.H., D.T.M. & H.

Addresses given before Sections were as follows:—

Astronomy and Geophysics Section. “Weather, Waves and Microseisms,” by Mr. W. M. Jones; “Aerial Photography,” by Mr. G. T. Railton; “Recent Overseas Work on Solar Prominences,” by Mr. I. L. Thomsen; “Radio Waves from Outside the Earth,” by Mr. C. J. Banwell.

Biology Section. “The Management of Wild Life,” a symposium contributed to by Dr. K. A. Wodzicki, Mr. G. F. Yerex, Dr. R. A. Falla, and Mr. D. F. Hobbs; “Genetics,” by Dr. R. A. Silow; “Some Problems of Fisheries Management,” by Mr. K. R. Allen; “Trailing of the Alaska-Yukon Caribou,” by Dr. O. J. Murie; “The New Zealand-American Fiordland Expedition,” by Mr. A. L. Poole; “Wallabies in New Zealand,” by Mr. R. Kean; “Vegetation of Some Auckland Sand Dunes,” by Miss A. Lush; “Octopuses and Their Allies,” by Mr. R. K. Dell.

Geology Section. “A Geologist Abroad,” by Mr. M. Ongley; “Rivers, Geology, and Soils of the Wairarapa,” by Messrs. T. H. F. Nivens, R. A. Cooper, and H. S. Gibbs; “Ash Showers of the North Island,” by Mr. N. H. Taylor; “Structural History of Western Southland,” by Mr. A. C. Beck; “Axes of Active Warping in Hawke's Bay,” and “Remarks on the Lyttelton Harbour Problem,” by Prof. C. A. Cotton.

Physics Section. “A Discussion of Some Recent Important Advances in Physics,” by Mr. N. V. Ryder; “Meteorological and Physical Aspects of

– lxv –

Radiation Frosts,” by Messrs. R. F. Bensemann, J. W. Hutchings, and M. E. Probine; “Medical Aspects of Radiation Physics,” by Mr. G. E. Roth; “Methods and Problems; “Medical Aspects of Radiation Physics,” by Mr. G. E. Roth; “Methods and Problems of Physical Oceanography,” by Mr. W. M. Jones; “The Designs of Optical Systems,” by Mr. N. J. Rumsey.

In addition the section held a screening of films on “Solar Eruptions and Ionospheric Disturbances,” described by Mr. C. J. Banwell, and a demonstration of the electron microscope at the Dominion Physical Laboratory, Lower Hutt.

Social Science Section. “Housing Policy and the State: Some Social Considerations,” by Mr. Charles Cameron; “A Discussion on the Experiences of Recent Science Congress”; “Projected Work in Rural Sociology,” by Mr. D. A. Viggers; “Sociological Problems of the Chatham Islanders,” by Mr. Frank Simpson; “The Machiavellian Tradition in Politics,” by Prof. R. S. Parker; “Trends in Social Policy,” by Prof. D. C. Marsh.

Technology Section. “New Trends in Electronics,” by Mr. I. K. Walker; “Measurement of Wind,” by Mr. R. A. Ewing; “The Pattern of Research in America,” by Mr. G. Maskill Smith; “Silicones,” by Mr. C. E. Fuller; “Sea Weeds in the World's Industries,” by Miss L. B. Moore; “The Future of Jet Propulsion,” by Group Captain G. E. Watt, C.B.E.; “Time and Motion Study in Industry,” by Mr. K. Schwarz.

Hudson Lecture. The Council invited Dr. Gilbert Archey, Director of the Auckland Institute and Museum, to deliver the first Hudson Lecture. Dr. Archey presented an outstanding philosophical address on “The Place of Sciences.”

Representation on the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand. On his election to the Presidency of the Branch, Professor Richardson resigned his position as Branch Representative on the Royal Society Council. Dr. L. Bastings was appointed in his place, and he and Dr. J. T. Salmon have continued to represent the Branch in this capacity.

Papers for Publication. The following papers were submitted through the Branch during the year:—“Studies of New Zealand Freshwater Ciliates,” by Mr. Brian Bary; “Studies of New Zealand Nothofagus,” by Mr. A. L. Poole; “Ctenophores from the Waters of Cook Strait and Wellington Harbour,” by Miss P. M. Ralph.

Waipoua Forest. The report of the Biology Section on this matter was adopted as the basis of the Branch's reply to the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand.

Seventh Pacific Science Congress. Many members of the Branch attended and took an active part in this Congress both in Auckland and Christchurch. Dr. J. F. Filmer and Mr. H. C. McQueen officially represented the Branch at the Auckland and Christchurch sessions respectively. The President, Prof. L. R. Richardson, was Organising Chairman, and the Branch's Secretary, Dr. J. T. Salmon, was General Secretary of the Zoology Division of the Congress. Dr. P. Marshall was Chairman of the Standing Committee on Volcanology, and Prof. C. A. Cotton and Mr. M. Te Punga were Organising Chairman and Secretary, respectively, of the Geology Division. Dr. M. A. F. Barnett and Mr. J. W. Hutchings, acted as Organising Chairman and Secretary to the Division of Meteorology, Dr. W. R. B. Oliver as Organising Chairman for the Botany Division, and Dr. W. M. Hamilton as Secretary to the Division on Soil Researches, Forestry and Agriculture.

Auckland Institute and Museum.
Annual Report for the Year Ended 31st March, 1950.

Membership. At the close of the year ending 31st March, 1950, the membership of the Auckland Institute and Museum stands at 632 members, of whom 236 are life members.

Bequests and Donations. The bequest of Miss M. A. N. Russell of seven acres of native bush at Titirangi as a reserve is cordially acknowledged. The bush is in excellent condition and will undoubtedly afford a valuable source of botanical study. The late Mr. A. G. Lunn, a former President of the Institute, has bequeathed a legacy of £25 and a selection of books from his library. The Auckland Electric Power Board has again donated £50

– lxvi –

to the Museum funds. The bequest of the residue of his estate by the late Mr. A. V. Hanson has already resulted in the addition of £1,970 to the funds, and the Council is now realising the remainder which is likely to produce a further £100.

No report would be complete without reference to the very great benefits which are accruing from the generous foundation provided by Mr. Edward Earle Vaile. Over £2,000 was expended from the income of this fund in the acquisition of important historical specimens, and books (including the library of Mr. Johannes C. Andersen) during the year.

War Memorial Appeal. Your Council is represented on the War Memorial Appeal Committee, which has now approximately £100,000 in hand and seeks a further £150,000 which, with the Government subsidy, will provide the required sum of £500,000.

Institute Meetings. Eight Monday evening lectures were given during the year: Mr. Harold Mattingly, M.A., F.S.A., “Everyday Life in Ancient Rome”; Colonel K. Howard, Film shown of the New Zealand-American Fiordland Expedition; Mr. M. H. Battey, M.Sc., “The Recent Eruption of Ngauruhoe”; Mr. C. N. Watson-Muuro, O.B.E., M.Sc., “Whither Atomic Power?”; Dr. E. J. Godley, M.Sc., “Human Genetics”; Dr. R. P. Anschutz, M.A., “Some Modern Political Theories”; Dr. Wilton E. Henley, “On Being Tired”; Dr. Olaus J. Murie, “Trailing the Alaska-Yukon Caribou.”

Papers were contributed by Mr. John Morton:, Mr. R. V. Mirams, Mr. E. G. Turbott, Mr. A. W. B. Powell, Professor Ph. H. Kuenen, Mr. R. C. Cooper, Mr. E. J. Searle and Professor V. J. Chapman.

The Sunday afternoon lectures at the Museum were again well attended. Mr. Johanes G. Andersen, “Captain Cook in Dusky Bay”; Professor K. B. Cumberland, “New Zealand's Pacific Island Neighbourhood”; Dr. T. E. Woodward, “Insect Life Histories”; Mr. A. W. Smith, “The Southern Rocky Mountains: The Roof of the United States of America”; Miss J. Dingley, “Plant Immigrants”; Mr. R. B. Sibson, “Wanderings in Southern France”; Dr. W. Cottier, “Insect Invaders”; Mr. L. M. Lennard, “The History of the Waitakers Ranges”; Dr. Gilbert Archey, “Native Art in Oceania.”

Anthropology Section. In the Anthropology Section an important present-day topic, “Trusteeship in the Pacific,” was presented in an interesting panel discussion by the Rev. R. Godfrey, Dr. V. W. T. McGusty, and Professor W. T. G. Airey. This discussion and a meeting to hear Dr. W. Wallace Atwood, a prominent American geographer attending the Science Congress, were in conjunction with the Geographical Society.

Astronomical Station. The Auckland Astronomical Society has now increased its membership to 100. There were nine well-attended meetings with an average attendance of 40, the subjects including “Meteors in Upper Atmosphere,” “The 3-inch Refractor,” and “Graphical Methods in Astronomy,” A film evening, contributions from the Junior Section, and an exhibition and social evening completed the programme. The lecturers were Messrs. R. A. McIntosh, L. N. H. Beaumont, and A. P. McKerras.

Pacific Science Congress. Certain duties accruing from the Seventh Pacific Science Congress have been accepted by members of the staff. Mr. Powell has edited for publication in the Congress Proceedings the papers and abstracts for the Division of Oceanography; Mr. Turbott is doing the same service for the voluminous Zoology Division material; Mr. Fisher, Mr. Battey, and Mr. Cooper checked and put into order the papers submitted in the divisions of Anthropology, Geology, and Botany respectively.

The Pacific Science Council, the Congress decided to establish a permanent Secretariat, requested the Royal Society to institute an interim Secretariat to implement the resolutions and recommendations of the Congress and to initiate other secretariat activities, and the writer undertook the duties of honorary secretary. Miss Brenda Bishop, Secretarial Assistant for the Congress, continued as Assistant Secretary, and has recently been appointed to the same position in the permanent Secretariat in Honolulu.

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Records of Auokland Museum. With this year's issue of the “Records,” the third volume of the Museum scientific journal was completed. Papers were contributed by Mr. H. Barraclough Fell, Mr. A. W. B. Powell, Mr. E. G. Turbott, Mr. R. C. Cooper, and Mr. M. H. Battey.

Education Service. The following is a summary of the number of children having attended one-hour lessons for the year ended 31st March, 1950:—Primary, 17,822; Intermediate, 3,786; Secondary, 4,288; Special Groups and Students 2,702; Total, 28,598.

The preparation of loan material has continued in co-operation with Mr. and Mrs. Turbott, Mr. Battey, and Mr. Cooper. New school cases, bird boxes, loose material boxes, and displays have been made, giving a total stock of 88 school cases, 90 bird boxes, 23 displays, and 8 loose material boxes. Some 460 loans were made to 218 schools; 60 in the city, and 158 in the province.

Librarian. During the year 1,438 books have been added to the Library. Of these, 1,067 were purchased from the Edward Earle Vaile Trust Fund. This fund has made it possible to acquire a number of rare and important works on the Pacific, consisting mainly of accounts of voyages of exploration and of scientific expeditions.

Canterbury Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual Report for the Year 1949.

Membership. The ordinary membership has increased from 222 to 240; 25 new members have been elected, two have died, and eight have resigned. Transfers between branches account for the balance. Associate membership has declined from 17 to 13, but four associates were elected to full membership.

Obituary. The Society records with deep regret the death during the year of two outstanding members.

Edgar Fraser Stead, F.R.S.N.Z., who died on 7th February, 1949, had been a member since 1904. He served on the Council for many years, was President in 1933, represented our Branch during the nineteen-thirties on the Royal Society Council, contributed to the Natural History of Canterbury and was a frequent speaker at our meetings.

Robert Speight, M.A., M.Sc. F.G.S., F.R.S.N.Z., whose death occurred on 8th September, 1949, was Curator of the Canterbury Museum from 1914 to 1936, and until 1930, Professor of Geology at Canterbury University College. He joined this Branch in 1890, being Secretary 1894–96 and 1908–11, and President in 1906 and 1928. For many years he was one of our representatives on the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand, of which he was President in 1933–35.

Seventh Pacific Science Congress. The chief event of 1949 has been the holding of the Seventh Pacific Science Congress of the Pacific Science Association. The Organising Committee appointed by the Royal Society of New Zealand to make arrangements for the Congress was assisted by a Christchurch Committee on which this Branch was strongly represented.

Programme. Twelve meetings were held during the year, three of these being special general meetings. The following address were given:—March 2nd, “Health and Disease from the Viewpoint of the Psychiatrist,” Dr. M. Bevan Brown; April 6th, “A Summary of the Excavations at the Moa Swamp, Pyramid Valley,” Mr. R. S. Duff; May 4th, “Science in the Post-War World” (Presidential Address), Professor R. S. Allan; July 6th, “The Polyzoa,” Dr. G. H. Uttley; September 7th, “Photomicroscopy in Theory and Practice and its Aid to Science,” Mr. C. R. Russell; October 5th, “Operational Research,” Dr. H. R. Hulme; November 2nd, “Underground Water in Canterbury,” Mr. B. W. Collins; March 10th, “The Evolution and Domestication of the Cotton Plant,” Dr. R. A. Silow; August 10th, “The Lyttelton Harbour Problem” (A combined meeting with the Christchurch Branch of the New Zealand Geographical Society), Dr. C. A. Cotton; October 20th, “The Museum and the Community” (A combined meeting with the Friends of the Museum), Dr. Gilbert Archey.

Riccarton Bush. The Society's representative on the Board of Trustees of Riccarton Bush reports as follows:

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The outstanding feature in Riccarton Bush proper this year was the fruiting of the New Zealand passion-flower Tetrapathaea tetranda. It is seven years since there was a similar display of the handsome fruits. Consequent on the onslaught made on exotic plants last year, weeds have ceased to be a serious problem. The major factor threatening the welfare of the bush is the long period of dry weather.

In spite of the great preponderance of introduced birds in the bush, smaller native species such as warblers, fantails, and silver eyes may usually be found. A pair of this paid a short visit, and a kaka remained for a fortnight in September until harried by magpies. German owls and magpies in the bush must be looked on as pests and destroyed.

Approximately five acres of bush on the old Deans estate will shortly be added to the bush and fenced to make one block of the bush proper. This area was badly overgrown with blackberry, elderberry, ash, sycamore, and spindle trees, and parts of it had been used as a rubbish dump. A major clearance has been carried out during the year, the Board's staff being assisted on several Saturdays by members of the Christchurch section of the New Zealand Forest and Bird Protection Society. It is hoped that all foreign growth will be removed by the end of the year and that replanting will commence in the autumn of 1950.

Report of the Representative of the Branch on the Canterbury Museum Trust
Board for
1949.

In preparation for the modernising and enlargement of the Museum as a Centennial Memorial of the foundation of Canterbury, a competition among architects was launched for the production of a suitable plan, and has met with considerable response.

Early in the year intensive and ordered study of the Pyramid Valley Swamp, near Waikari, was undertaken. Excavations lasted several weeks, and numerous and various skeletons were obtained as well as much further knowledge of the history of the swamp. A publication on this work has been issued by the Friends of the Museum.

After the regretted death of Mr. E. F. Stead, his very valuable collection of eggs and bird skins was handed to the Museum and has been suitably situated for examination.

Social Science Section. On May 11th the Rev. Benjamin Butcher spoke on “Among New Guinea Head Hunters,” and illustrated his talk by means of a large collection of slides. Mr. R. H. Thurlow Thompson gave an able and entertaining survey of the development of the popular opinion poll on June 16th, while Mr. C. R. Straubel spoke on “Who Were the Canterbury Pilgrims?” on August 17th. The final meeting was held on October 19th, when Mr. G. Miller delivered an address on “The Economic Origin of New Zealand's Democratic Institutions.”

Field Club Section. On 14th June, 1949, the Section Committee arranged a programme of evening lectures on Natural History topics, and field trips to various localities, where material discussed at lectures could be collected or studied on the spot. This programme has been carried out as planned, and has proved so popular with members that two further evening meetings and another field trip were arranged to complete the year's activities.

Otago Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual Report for Session 1949.

Membership. The total Branch membership is now 165. Membership over the past 10 years is given below for the sake of comparison:

Year: 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949
Membership: 178 173 160 150 153 158 164 168 167 165

Representatives on the Museum Committee. For another Session Messrs. George Simpson and C. V. Dayus have continued to give their services in this capacity.

Representatives on the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand. Miss Marion Fyfe and Dr. C. M. Focken.

Fellowship of the Royal Society of New Zealand. Of the four Fellows elected this year, two are members of this branch, Mr. George Simpson and

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Professor F. G. Soper. The congratulations of the Branch go to these two gentlemen whose signal work in the cause of science have earned them this recognition.

Pre-Sessional Meetings. The opportunity of hearing lectures by distinguished visitors to this country was taken in three pre-sessional meetings held in March. Dr. R. A. Silow, plant geneticist, Dr. Anton Bruun, zoologist, and Mr. Harold Mattingly, formerly Assistant Keeper of Coins and Medals at the British Museum, all delivered addresses of great interest; members of the Branch enjoyed meeting and talking to these gentlemen.

Main Branch Meetings. March 14, Dr. R. A. Silow, “The Evolution and Domestication of a Crop Plant”; March 22, Dr. Anton Brunn, “Danish Marine Expedition, with an Account of Animals of the Ocean Deeps”; March 25, Mr. Harold Mattingly, M.A., “Some Aspects of Life in Ancient Rome” (Joint Meeting with Historical Section); April 12, Presidential Address (Dr. Basil Howard), “X Marks the Spot”; May 3, Dr. C. M. Focken, Dr. N. L. Edson, Mr. T. H. Kennedy, M.Sc. Mr. H. Muir, B.Met.E.: A Symposium, “Tagged Atoms (Radio-Isotopes)” (Joint Meeting with Otago Branch, New Zealand Institute of Chemistry); June 14, Dr. G. H. Satchell, “The Biology of Sewage Purification”; July 12, Mr. R. Greenwood, M.A., F.R.G.S., “Our Topsy-Turvy World”; August 16, “Stewart Island Expedition” (Dr. Howard, Dr. Williams, and Mr. W. Martin); September 26, Dr. H. Bernadelli, “Mix-up in Society”; October 11, Dr. C. E. Tilley, F.R.S., President of the Geological Society of London, “Recent Advances in the Geology of the Scottish Highlands”; November 11, Annual General Meeting followed by G. N. Davies, D.D.S., “A Report on the Dental State of Native Fijians.”

Junior Lectures. Five lectures during the winter term. Average attendance 42. There is some doubt whether these should be continued. Two schools have asked that there be a further trial for one year. June 10, Prof. B. J. Marples, M.A., M.Sc, “Spiders”; June 24, Mr. A. D. Campbell, M.Sc., “Dyes and Dyeing”; July 8, Dr. H. Bernadelli, “Mix-up in Society”; July 22, Microscope Demonstrations by the Microscope Section of the Branch; August 5, Mr. B. J. Garnier, M.A., “Your Eyes and How to Use Them.”

Historical Section. After being inactive since 1940 the Section was revived at a meeting called on August 4, 1948, by a group of the University staff. Four meetings were held during the year, including a joint meeting with the Otago Branch of the Royal Society addressed by Dr. Morrell, a lecture by Professor J. Rutherford of Auckland University College, and a discussion on history teaching in conjunction with the annual conference of Otago and Southland Secondary School teachers. At the end of the year the membership of the Section had reached 40, including 11 full members of the Royal Society and 10 student members.

The programme for the 1949 session comprised 8 meetings, including a joint meeting with the Otago Branch of the New Zealand Geographical Society, with which the Section also exchanged invitations to further meetings. Thirty-four new members joined, including 23 student members, making a total of 74 for the financial year 1948–49, but, owing largely to the annual turnover of senior students, attendances have merely been maintained at about the 50 mark.

Nelson Philosophical Society.
Annual Report for 1948–1949 Session.

Membership. The total membership of the Society for the year was 49, including 34 full and 15 associate members, compared with 36 and 15 respectively for 1948.

Meetings. Seven meetings were held during the 1948–49 Session, particulars of the addresses being as follows: 18th October, 1948, Annual meeting with showing of films, “Cook Strait Submarine Cable” and “T.V.A.”; 9th May, 1949, Sir Theodore Rigg, Presidential address, “Plant Nutrition”; 20th June, 1949, Sir Walter Scott, “Peoples of Czecho-Slovakia and Hungary”; 18th July, 1949, Dr. K. Curtis, “Tasmania”; 15th August, 1949, Mr. R. T. J. Blick, M.Sc, “Colour Photography”; 19th September, 1949, Mr. M. Bannister, B.Sc., “Forest Tree Improvement”; Miss J. Watson, M.Sc. “Zinc Deficiency”; Miss E. B. Kidson, M.Sc., “Hard Core of Tomatoes”; 5th October, 1949, Dr. R. A. Falla, President Royal Society of New Zealand, “The Royal Society of New Zealand in Relation to World Science.”

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Obituary. The Society records with regret the passing the year of Sir Thomas Easterfield. The following resolution was recorded in the minutes:—

“This meeting of the Nelson Philosophical Society places on record its high appreciation of the many valuable contributions to the advancement of science in New Zealand made by the late Sir Thomas Easterfield. In particular, it records the great interest taken by him in the work of the Nelson Philosophical Society and the valuable help which he gave as President and member over a period of 29 years.

Hawke's Bay Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual Report for Year Ended 31st December, 1949.

Meetings. 1949 was again a very active year for the Society. Council met five times, and at the Annual General Meeting Miss Woodhouse lectured on New Zealand books. At the two Quarterly Meetings Dr. Brown addressed members and friends on the Fiordland Expedition in August, and Dr. Falla spoke on the discovery of the Notornis in October.

Administration. The arrangements by which Council meets alternately in Napier and Hastings have been found to work satisfactorily for both Napier and Hastings members.

Membership. The total membership of the Branch is 136, of whom four are Life Members; 1948 membership, 126; died or left, 8; new members, 18.

Bulletin. Two bulletins appeared during the year, one containing Miss Woodhouse's talk on New Zealand Books given at the last Annual General Meeting in 1949, and the other containing Dr. Brown's lecture on the Fiordland Expedition.

Library. A meeting was held with representatives of the Art Society and the Public Library to discuss the question of duplicating the purchase of books, and it was decided that books on active Science should be the responsibility of the Royal Society, the Public Librarian making recommendations as she thought fit.

Incorporation. It has been decided during the year that the Society should become incorporated and the matter is now completed. The future name of the Society will be “The Hawke's Bay Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Incorporated.” The new rules have been drafted and have been approved by the Registrar.

Sections. Sections have been very active during the year. There are now six sections which have all held regular meetings during the year for members only, and on the visit of well-known personalities the meetings have been thrown open to all members and friends. Dr. Falla lectured to members and guests of the Ornithological Section at the Spring Quarterly meeting; Dr. Owen Thomas lectured on Phase Contrast Microscopy; and the Geographical Section undertook extensive field work in connection with the Land Utilization Survey.

Southland Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual Report for the Year Ended 31st March, 1950.

Membership. During the period six new members were elected, one resigned, and one transferred to Canterbury Branch.

The membership at the end of the year was: Life Members, 4; Members, 42; Total, 46.

Meetings. Eight meetings were held, the average attendance being about 20 members and visitors.

The subjects and the speakers were: 27th April, 1949, Annual Meeting—Address by the President, Mr. F. M. Corkhill, on “Sand Dunes”; 6th May, 1949, Film evening—Captain G. M. Turner showed his films of “Bird Life on the Farne Islands,” “Gardens of Stewart Island,” “Seals on Bench Island,” and “Bird Life on Stewart Island”; 25th May, 1949, “Mycorrhiza,” Dr. G. T. S. Baylis; 22nd June, 1949, “Science Protects the Citizen,” Mr. O. H. Keys; 27th July, 1949, “National Parks and Nature Reserves from an Ecological Standpoint,” Mr. J. T. Holloway; 25th August, 1949, Film evening—Mr. J. H. Sorensen showed his films of wild life in the Southern Islands; 28th September, 1949, “Bivalve Molluscs,” Miss Beryl I. Brewin; 26th October, 1949, “The Geology of Stewart Island,” Dr. G. J. Williams.