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Volume 79, 1951
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Flora and Vegetation of the Caswell and George Sounds
Area Covered by the New Zealand-American Fiordland Expedition

[Read before the Wellington Branch, February 23, 1950; received by Editor, March 2, 1950.]


From the end of February to the beginning of May, 1949, technical parties of the New Zealand-American Fiordland Expedition were in the field studying New Zealand's naturalized wapiti (Cervus canadensis) herd and the area considered to be the main breeding ground of this herd (Poole, 1949). The area, defined the previous year by a reconnaissance party consisting of the American, Colonel John K. Howard, and some experienced New Zealand stalkers, extends from the West Coast to Lake Te Anau, with Bligh Sound and the Worsley River as the northern boundary, and Caswell Sound and the S.W. Arm of the Middle Fiord of Lake Te Anau as the southern boundary; a total area of some 100,000 acres.

Although many activities were represented in the Expedition, the main purpose was the study of the wapiti population, which has grown from eighteen animals liberated in George Sound in 1905 (Wodzicki, 1947). Part of the investigation necessarily consisted of observations upon feeding habits and the effect of the deer on the vegetation. As thorough a study as possible was therefore made of the botany of the area.

The following is a general account of the vegetation and includes a section on the food and feeding habits of the deer. It was found that red deer (Cervus elaphus) were present throughout the wapiti range. As these two animals probably hybridise and as the food habits of the two are essentially the same, the term “deer” is used throughout in the generic sense to include both.

No previous description of the vegetation of this particular area has been given; nor for that matter has the plant cover of any part of the Fiordland National Park, other than parts of the coast line, been investigated in detail. Cockayne (1928) gives a description several lines in length referring to the forests as Nothofagus menziesii dominant and to the alpine vegetation as tall tussock herb-field. Dusky Sound in the south was itself collected in by the two Forsters (Cheeseman, 1925) on Cook's second voyage. Cheeseman notes that Olearia operina, Celmisia holosericea, Gentiana saxosa, G. montana and Cordyline indivisa were amongst the plants collected. In 1791 Archibald Menzies, surgeon of the Discovery, commanded by Captain Vancouver, spent three weeks in Dusky Sound and collected ferns, mosses and liverworts besides a few flowering plants. Lyall, surgeon-naturalist to the survey ship H.M.S. Acheron, collected at various periods from

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1847–51 in Milford Sound, Chalky Inlet, Dusky Bay and Preservation Inlet. After the activities of these earlier botanists spasmodic collecting was done by Petrie, Cockayne, Oliver, and others. During the expedition of the New Golden Hind in 1945, H. H. Allan collected extensively in the Sounds and adjacent country.

The Habitat

The basement rocks of most of that country stretching from Milford Sound to Preservation Inlet are metamorphic gneisses with veins of feldspar and quartz. They have been intensively glaciated. Benson, Bartrum and King (1934) have described the geology and geo-morphology of this type of country around Chalky and Preservation Inlets. While the country around Caswell and George Sounds and eastwards to Lake Te Anau is somewhat similar, it is higher and more dissected, and is probably the most rugged stretch of this inhospitable area.

Narrow mountain ranges, the remains of a deeply dissected upland, are separated by precipitous U-shaped valleys which extend as deep sounds to the coastline and to the lakes in the east. The mountains range about 4,000 ft. in height and seldom reach 5,000 ft. The valley floors are flattish, and in the lower reaches are covered with sands and sandy silts. Great steps are present in the valleys, and hanging valleys are frequent. Low hills of morainic material are sometimes present along the sides of the larger valleys, and lakes formed by the deposition of morainic material across valleys, or by rock bars or rock avalanches falling across valleys, are many.

Rivers and streams are numerous, as are waterfalls descending from the mountain tops directly down the valley sides. The vegetation is saturated at most times so that heavy rain finds its way quickly to the streams and rivers, which rise and fall with great rapidity. The Stillwater River, the largest in the area studied, rose twenty-four feet in six hours, and Lake Marchant, into which it flows, rose fourteen feet during the same rain storm.

Except on the sandy valley bottoms and on the moraines the forest virtually sits on unweathered rock in a thick mat of roots, peaty litter and abundant mosses and liverworts. The only hold this forest has is by the roots which penetrate the crcvices of shattered rock. It is astonishing the angle of slope forests are able to grow on. Nevertheless, the vegetation frequently becomes unstable and the scars of natural avalanches are plentiful. On new avalanches the unweathered white surface of the rock is left exposed, the vegetation peeling off it as though it were a skin. This form of gigantic slipping is such a constant feature of the valley sides that it must be a major factor in determining plant succession. Moreover, it has a marked indirect effect in that the process is sufficiently rapid to prevent the accumulation of all but the most minute amounts of coarse sandy soil. The forest, or rather scrub forest, on the valley sides is therefore present by virtue of the constantly moist conditions.

Area Studied

On the 26th February, in company with the first scientific party of the expedition, the writer travelled from Milford to the Stillwater Base Camp. Thereafter a period of six weeks was spent in the area.

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This period included a day on Mary Peaks during which a complete traverse was made around the tops, five days at Leslie Clearing, ten days at the Upper Stillwater Camp, from which base Saddle Hill was climbed, two days at George Sound, two days on the Henry Saddle, and two days at Hankinson Hut. The remainder of the time was spent at the Stillwater Base Camp. Immediately after leaving the area, short visits were made to Mount Luxmore and several forest areas, some populated by red deer only, on the east and west shores of Lake Te Anau. These areas lie outside the main wapiti breeding country, but examination of them was useful for comparative purposes.

The area was later visited by three other botanists and a party of the National Forest Survey. Dr. W. R. B. Oliver spent the period from March 26 to April 5 collecting for the Dominion Museum in the vicinity of Caswell Sound, Stillwater base, and Leslie Clearing. Mr. V. D. Zotov worked over approximately the same ground during the same period, making an overland trip to George Sound, and collected both cryptogamic and phanerogamic plants. Miss R. Mason spent the period April 6–24 in the George Sound, Henry Saddle area collecting generally and paying particular attention to the water plants and to the feeding habits of the deer. Samples of the stomach contents of all animals shot were collected and were examined by Miss Mason. The Forest Survey party, under the leadership of Mr. J. T. Holloway, were in the area for about a month, from March 26.

Thanks are due to all these people who have kindly allowed the writer to use information and herbarium material collected by them.


Three major series of plant communities clothe the country: the forest communities ranging from sea-level to approximately 3,000 ft. altitude and dominated almost throughout by silver beech (Nothofagus menziesii); the alpine vegetation above 3,000 ft. altitude dominated for the most part by species of Danthonia (D. flavescens, D. crassiuscula and an unnamed species); and the bog communities differing greatly in nature according to altitude and the method of formation. Southern rata (Metrosideros umbellata) is present throughout the forest communities and on some steep faces equals or exceeds the silver beech in amount. On the Lake Te Anau side mountain beech (Nothofagus cliffortioides) is more abundant along the lake shore. South of the area on the eastern slopes of Mount Luxmore and extending southwards, the mountain beech is dominant up to 2,000 ft. elevation and pockets of N. fusca are present. Introduced plants are absent except for a few species, mostly grasses, around the old beach heads of George and Caswell Sounds, and around the much-frequented Hankinson Hut at the head of Lake Hankinson.

A feature of plant distribution is the number of species which extend from sea-level to timber line or even higher. Dacrydium biforme, silver beech, mountain beech, southern rata, Weinmannia racemosa, Phyllocladus alpinus, Hoheria glabrata, Aristotelia fruticosa, Nothopanax simplex, Pseudopanax lineare, Archeria traversii, Coprosma foetidissima, C. ciliata, are some of the trees and shrubs found throughout the altitudinal range of forest and scrub. Smaller

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plants such as Nertera depressa and Oreobolus strictus extend throughout the complete altitudinal range and Rostkovia gracilis comes to low altitudes down waterfalls. The rapid transport of seed down waterways and the constant slipping of vegetation must account for much of this type of distribution.

Large numbers of mosses and liverworts throughout the forest is a characteristic feature. The trunks and limbs of trees and shrubs are almost invariably covered, and festoons of Weymouthia hang from trees and shrubs in the river bank forests. The forest floor is everywhere covered with such a thick mat that regeneration of trees is inhibited and much of it takes place epiphytically or perched on logs where the bryophyte layer is thinner. Epiphytism and perching of plants is widespread in numbers and is rich in species. It is much greater than is normally seen in silver beech forests.

The Forest and Scrub Communities

(1) Valley Bottom Forests

These forests are dominated by silver beech, which reaches its largest dimensions in the valleys, sometimes growing to heights of 80 to 100 ft. and to diameters of 2–3 ft. or occasionally much greater: old gnarled trees reach diameters of 6–8 ft. Larger trees are parasitised heavily by the fungus Cyttaria gunnii and by Elytranthe tetrapetala, and they carry numerous epiphytes. Griselinia littoralis, Nothopanax colensoi, N. simplex and Lycopodium billardieri are the most frequent ones to be seen.

In places silver beech forms a complete canopy, but there are usually many gaps. The sandy levees are occupied by thickets of Pseudowintera colorata with much Coprosma rotundifolia, while underneath these grow bush rice grass (Microlaena avenaceae) and the shield fern (Polystichum vestitum). On the immediate bank, often hanging over the water, grow Hoheria glabrata, Weinmannia racemosa, and occasional Fuchsia excorticata and Pittosporum colensoi. Most of these riverbank trees and shrubs were seeding well and seemed to attract a fair population of wood pigeons (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae) and bellbirds (Anthornis melanura).

Other plants making up the valley bottom forest communities are: Intermediate trees—Weinmannia racemosa, Metrosideros umbellata, Elaeocarpus hookerianus, Nothofagus cliffortioides (on the shore line and adjacent to bogs), Podocarpus hallii and occasional Podocarpus ferrugineus. A notable absence amongst the tree species is Podocarpus dacrydioides; one tree only was reported by a member of the expedition, but no specimen was collected. Small trees and shrubs—Nothopanax simplex, N. colensoi, N. anomalum, Suttonia divaricata, Myrtus pedunculata, Pseudopanax crassifolium, Coprosma foetidissima, C. colensoi, C. ciliata, Griselinia littoralis, Carpodetus serratus. Treeferns—Dicksonia squarrosa and Cyathea smithii.

The forest floor is carpeted with a thick layer of mosses and liverworts amongst which grow N. depressa and a plant included under N. dichondraefolia, juvenile Nothopanax simplex, Libertia pulchella, Luzuriaga parviflora, and the ferns Blechnum discolor, B. procerum, B. fluviatile, B. nigrum, Polystichum hispidum, P. vestitum, and Leptopteris superba. Climbers and lianes are not numerous: those

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present are Muehlenbeckia australis, Rubus cissoides, Rhipogonum scandens (only within the immediate influence of the sea) and Metrosideros diffusa which scrambles over the floor as well. Climbing ferns and small epiphytic plants scattered throughout the forest are: Polystichum adianteforme, Polypodium diversifolium, P. billardieri, P. grammitidis, Asplenium flaccidum, Tmesipteris tannensis, Lycopodium billardieri, Earina autumnalis, E. mucronata (near the coast only), Dendrobium cunninghamii. Filmy ferns are abundant on trees, shrubs and forest floor. The most common species are Hymenophyllum mutifidum, H. dilatatum, H. demissum, H. scabrum, H. flabellatum, H. rufescens and Cardiomanes reniforme.

Regeneration of the forest takes place partly from perching plants or epiphytes; seedlings do not always seem to survive on the floor of the forest itself unless it is bared of mosses and liverworts.

(2) Lowland and Montane Forests of the Valley Sides

In this description is included the forest occurring on the moraines or avalanches stretching across the floor or along the sides of some valleys. Since these are composed of rocky materials they form a very different habitat from the sandy valley bottoms. The forest on them is more akin to that on the easier slopes of the valley sides themselves.

The forest is dominated throughout by silver beech except on very steep faces where southern rata becomes dominant or is the sole tree. On the easier slopes up to an altitude of 400 ft. to 500 ft. and within the influence of the sea, two to three trees of rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum) per acre are scattered throughout the forest. These trees, although above the beech canopy, are small for rimu, reaching heights of 70 ft. to 80 ft. and are seldom 2 ft. in diameter. Phyllocladus alpinus, infrequent in the valley bottoms, enters the communities; mountain totara, Weinmannia racemosa and Coprosma foetidissima become more plentiful, Nothopanax anomalum becomes less plentiful and in some extensive areas is absent altogether. This shrub disappears at an altitude of about 1,000 ft. Nothopanax simplex, N. colensoi, Suttonia divaricata and Myrtus pedunculata are present in about the same proportions as they are in the valley floor forests. Pseudopanax lineare increases in quantity with increasing altitude. Mountain beech makes its appearance on ridges and knolls, which, judging from the presence of Lycopodium volubile, might dry out more easily than the surrounding forest. Nertera depressa, and a species hitherto confused with N. dichondraefolia and all the valley bottom ferns are present, and Astelia nervosa is in places plentiful. Lianes are absent and the forest is not difficult to penetrate. Dracophyllum longifolium is plentiful along the coast line.

There is the usual luxuriant growth of mosses and liverwort on the forest floor and over the stems and branches of trees and shrubs. Mention was made earlier that the forest sits in a layer of these plants, mixed with litter and matted roots, on top of the unweathered rock. Its only footholds are the roots which penetrate shattered rock. Such a forest must be highly unstable both physically and ecologically. The sheer weight on steep slopes often causes it to peel off the rock and slip into the valleys. The exposed rock begins to heal again by the growth of hepatics, ferns and such small flowering plants as Nertera

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spp., Hydrocotyle spp., Epilobium spp., etc. Such slipping must be an important factor in succession in these valley-side forests. That the forests are unstable ecologically can readily be argued. The nature of the forest floor, especially the absence of soil, is such that any change in the climate to dryer conditions would quickly be reflected in the vegetation. A major change to dryer conditions would undoubtedly see the degeneration of most of the forest to scrub or to still more xerophytic vegetation. The existence of the present forest on the valley sides depends primarily upon the high rainfall spread fairly evenly throughout the year.

(3) Bog Forests

Bog forests occur frequently in gently sloping valley bottoms not subject to flooding, on valley spurs where rock has been polished by glaciers, even when these spurs are very steep, and on the faces of moraines where seepage must occur. Such forests are to be distinguished from scrub and stunted forest surrounding sedge and moss bogs formed behind river levees. True bog forests are evidently the result of continuous water seepage or water flow over the smooth polished rock, which encourages an extra strong growth of mosses including Sphagnum. Sometimes Sphagnum spp. are dominant over sizable areas.

The plants in these communities differ in composition according to altitude, and possibly a number of other undetermined factors, such as the acidity of the seepage, etc. One such subalpine forest on a valley step face at Leslie Clearing contains widely spaced silver beech, Dacrydium biforme and some Nothofagus cliffortioides growing to a height of about 25 ft. Many seedlings, saplings, and suckers of the Dacrydium are present. Intermediate shrubs reaching 10–15 ft. height are Nothopanax simplex, Coprosma pseudocuneata, Suttonia divaricata, Archeria traversii, and Dracophyllum longifolium (mountain form). The open floor is soft and semi-boggy with a thick covering of mosses, including much sphagnum, and liverworts. Other plants growing on this floor include Lycopodium volubile, L. scariosum, Carpha alpina, Oreobolus strictus, Astelia cockaynei, A. linearis, Gahnia procera, Pratia angulata, Nertera spp., Drosera stenopetala and Colobanthus acicularis. The unnamed species of Danthonia descends to this bog and is frequent, while Gentiana montana and Forstera sedifolia which are usually alpine plants are also to be seen.

Near the Upper Stillwater Camp, at about 1,000 ft. elevation, a bog forest is present on the comparatively steep slopes of a valley spur. It is dominated by Dacrydium intermedium and Nothofagus cliffortioides and has a much thinner and dryer layer of mosses than the Leslie Clearing bog forest. Alpine species of flowering plants are absent from the floor. Archeria traversii and Gaultheria spp. are plentiful.

(4) Subalpine Forest and Scrub

As with the lowland and montane forest of the valley sides these communities are present on steep to precipitous slopes. They lie between approximately 2,000 ft. and 3,000 ft. elevation, though the timberline is very irregular, depending on the topography and other factors, and may drop in places several hundred feet. J. T. Holloway

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of the Forest Survey Party, attributes this extreme irregularity to a disintegration of the timberline following on a change in the climate of the south-west to cooler and wetter conditions, and in the south-east to cooler and dryer conditions.

Silver beech is the dominant tree right to the timberline, though in places where slips have occurred and are healing over, tongues of Hoheria glabrata are present. Over limited areas Olearia colensoi and Senecio bennettii become dominant and in many places southern rata is co-dominant with the beech. Weinmannia racemosa and mountain beech are the only other tree species present. The canopy, usually about 35 ft.–40 ft. high, is fairly complete, though the trees become greatly reduced in height and somewhat scattered at or near the timberline. The shrub layer is composed of Senecio bennettii, Olearia colensoi, Nothopanax colensoi var. montana, N. simplex, Pseudopanax lineare (many seedlings and juvenile plants of this species are present), Pseudowintera colorata, Suttonia divaricata, Coprosma colensoi, C. foetidissima, C. pseudo-cuneata, C. ciliata, Aristotelia fruticosa, Archeria traversii, Dracophyllum longifolium (mountain form) and occasional Pittosporum crassicaule and Dracophyllum menziesii.

The forest floor has a thick covering of mosses and liverworts in which grow Blechnum procerum, Leptopteris superba, Polystichum vestitum, Blechnum penna-marina, Astelia nervosa, A. cockaynei, Phormium colensoi, Luzuriaga parviflora and Libertia pulchella.

Some of the alpine plants come down into this forest, such as Danthonia flavescens, Ourisia macrocarpa, and Forstera sedifolia.

The irregular timberline at about 3,000 ft. consists of patches of stunted silver beech and southern rata accompanied by shrub species interspersed with patches of alpine vegetation. Shrub groves unaccompanied by the stunted tree species extend to at least 4,000 ft. Characteristic members of these are Dracophyllum fiordense and Olearia crosby-smithiana; other species are Dracophyllum menziesii, D. longifolium (mountain form), Olearia colensoi and Nothopanax colensoi var. montana.

(5) Coastal Scrub of Southern Fiords (Preservation Inlet to Doubtful Sound).

The expedition had no opportunity to examine the coastal scrub, but H. H. Allan has kindly supplied the following account of an area further south which would be comparable with that in the vicinity of George and Caswell Sounds.

“Along the rocky shores of the Sounds where exposure to wind is considerable the forest is margined by a narrow belt of scrub, the prevailing brownish tone colour being due to the dominance of epacrids, especially Dracophyllum longifolium, D. menziesii, Archeria traversii var. australis and Cyathodes acerosa. Over 50 species occur in the association as a whole, of which Pimelea gnidia, Griselinia littoralis, Gaultheria antipoda, Coprosma foetidissima and Pseudopanax lineare are often conspicuous. In more sheltered embayments Olearia operina, O. angustifolia, Carmichaelia arborea, C. grandiflora,

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Hebe salicifolia and Hebe elliptica may become prominent. Marginal to the scrub again, in many places Phormium colensoi, Anisotome lyallii, A. intermedia, Blechnum durum and other small species may be conspicuous, with here and there Celmisia holosericea and Gentiana saxosa to add a gayer note.”

Alpine Vegetation

(Tall Tussock Herb-field)

For the most part the alpine communities fall into Cockayne's (1928) class “tall tussock herb-field.” Over the many different habitats provided on the tops, Danthonia spp. are dominant everywhere except on rocky faces, the steepest slopes and in the bogs. Three Danthonias are present over considerable areas and are usually well intermingled. These are D. flavescens, D. crassiuscula and an undescribed large tussock form having narrow rolled leaves with pungent tips.

On easier slopes the following shrubs are scattered throughout the Danthonias: Dracophyllum uniflorum, D. rosmarinifolium (rare), Hebe laingii, H. buxifolia, Suttonia nummularifolia, Coprosma serrulata, C. repens, Gautheria depressa, and Hymenanthera alpina. In steeper places shrubs from the timberline appear.

Throughout the tops occur the following herbaceous plants, some much more plentiful on the very steep faces than on the gentler, Danthonia-dominated slopes: Hymenophyllum multifidum, Polypodium billardieri var. pumilum, Polystichum cystostegia, Blechnum penna-marina, Lycopodium fastigiatum, Arthropodium candidum, Bulbinella hookeri, Uncinia compacta, Astelia linearis (in places very plentiful), A. cockaynei, Anisotome haastii, Carpha alpina, Rostkovia gracilis, Caltha novae-zelandiae, Geum parviflorum, Viola Cunninghamii, Drapetes dieffenbachii, Epilobium spp., Gentiana grisebachii, G. montana, Aciphylla colensoi, A. congesta, Anisotome aromatica, A. haastii, Angelica decipiens, Pentachondra pumila, Ourisia macrocarpa var. cordata, O. sessilifolia, Plantago brownii, Nertera depressa, Forstera sedifolia, F. tenella, Helichrysum bellidioides, Cotula squalida, Celmisia lanceolata, C. verbascifolia, C. holosericea, C. sessilifolia, the grasses Deyeuxia filiformis, Deschampsia tenella, Poa colensoi, Agrostis dyeri and A. subulata.

Bog Communities

(1) Lowland and Montane

Along the larger valleys, particularly at lower elevations, are numerous bogs of greater or lesser extent, surrounded by stunted scrub or forest. These bogs are formed in two ways. Along the flatter valleys rivers flood frequently and deposit sand as a bank levee. Behind these levees bogs or sometimes lagoons are formed. The second method of formation is by lagoons or lakes behind moraines or valley steps becoming filled with peaty vegetation mixed with sand and silt. Both types of bog finally have much the same vegetation.

The Stillwater River, in its lower reaches, has many of the first type along its banks. On the surface of these grow much Carex gaudichaudiana, cushions of Polytrichum spp., Sphagnum spp., together with Potamogeton suboblongus in the wettest places, and some cushions

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of Oreobolus strictus; growing throughout are Scirpus spp., Helichrysum bellidifolium, Geranium sessiliflorum, Hydrocotyle americana, Schizeilema nitens, Pratia angulata, Epilobium spp., Danthonia gracilis, Deyeuxia filiformis, etc. Hypolaena lateriflora, Juncus pauciflorus, J. luxurians and Carex secta are some of the plants which have a more restricted and specialised distribution on these bogs. Sometimes growing scattered over the surface, but more densely around the edges, are stunted shrubs or tree saplings. These include Nothopanax anomalum, Coprosma ciliata, Nothofagus menziesii, N. cliffortioides, Phyllocladus alpinus, Archeria traversii, Suttonia divaricata, and the climber Parsonsia heterophylla.

These bogs are in the process of constant formation and destruction as the valleys become filled with sand, for the remains of past ones may be seen embedded at different heights along the vertical section of the river bank.

The second type of bog is well illustrated by the large Leslie Clearing, which lies behind a rock bar at about 2,000 ft. elevation. It represents the last stages of the filling in of the hollow behind the bar and a stream now meanders over the surface of the filled-in material. It contains more sand than the river bank bogs, and is, over most parts, much dryer. There is less moss growth and not so much peat formation. Carex gaudichaudiana is dominant over a good deal of the surface and many of the other river bank bog species are also present. Alpine plants entering the communities are Forstera tenella, Rostkovia gracilis and Gentiana spp. Shrubs are few and consist of creeping Coprosma cheesemanii, of Suttonia divaricata and Pernettya macrostigma.

(2) Alpine

Cushion bogs are common on the gentler saddles around tarns and on the occasional flat shelves. In these occur Donatia novae-zelandiae, Oreobolus strictus, Carpha alpina, Rostkovia gracilis, Caltha novaezelandiae, Plantago brownii, and Scirpus aucklandicus.

Herbaceous Swards

Herbaceous swards of quite limited extent occupy sandy or silty deltas and bars at the mouths of larger streams and rivers where they flow into lakes. These bars are subject to continual alteration as sand and silt is deposited on them. Should they become stable they are quickly invaded by shrubs, in particular Pseudowintera colorata. The plants in these swards are Pratia angulata, Cotula squalida, Gunnera monoica var. albocarpa, Scirpus spp. and Eleocharis gracilis.

The Deer Population and the Vegetation

The extent of the main breeding area of the wapiti has already been given as approximately 100,000 acres. The population has been estimated variously at from 500 to 1,200. To this number must be added red deer probably equalling the wapiti in number. Thus there is an overall distribution of about one animal per 50 to 100 acres. From the evidence of the plants themselves, however, and from animals seen and from their spoor, the population feeds mainly in two areas: (a) the valley bottoms and valley sides up to a height of 400 to 500 ft.

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above the bottoms; and (b) the subalpine forest and scrub and mountain tops above the timberline. Certain easy spurs leading from the tops to the valley bottoms are used as lanes for frequent passing up and down, but by and large the belt of forest between the subalpine and that of the lower sides of the valleys is almost uninhabited. It is the opinion of experienced stalkers that many animals are either permanent valley or permanent top dwellers, but snow during the winter is almost certain to drive the animals into the valleys. Another factor which must be considered when trying to arrive at a comprehensive statement of the effect on the vegetation of the deer population, is that much of the feeding on the tops is done by herds which seem to browse an area heavily and then leave it for a length of time. Extensive areas of tops are thus free of animals and appear to have been so for some time. In the lowland and montane forests there are also large areas almost free of animals. They are the rough steps between the relatively level parts or the valleys. The terrain of these is difficult alike for man and beast. One of the roughest seen has shut off Lake Thomson and is composed of shattered rocks, many of which are each the size of a large house.

The wapiti population seems to be confined towards the east by the presence of red deer and the competition for food. This may not be the full explanation, for the natural rate of colonisation under such adverse conditions is very slow; for instance, the population has not yet spread in numbers farther north to Bligh Sound or south to Charles Sound where there is no competition from red deer and there is ample food.

Valley Bottom Feeding Grounds

Where deer are present in numbers their effect on the vegetation is obvious, but apart from severe depredations on a few species this effect could not so far be described as damaging. Along well-worn tracks on the sandy levees and in the valley floor forest in general browsing is severe on all species of Nothopanax, Griselinia littoralis, Coprosma foetidissima and Schefflera digitata, and on the ferns Polystichum vestitum, Leptopteris superba and in places Dicksonia squarrosa. A number of other shrubs and the grasses Microlaena avenaceae and Danthonia cunninghamii are occasionally eaten. A list of the most important plants eaten is given in Appendix A.

The question arises to what extent shrubs such as Shefflera digitata and species of Carmichaelia, relished by deer and present in very small numbers, have been eaten out. The former shrubs if ever present in any quantity would have been plentiful as an epiphyte as well as a ground plant, but epiphytes are absent. The plant is also absent in some areas which have never been frequented by animals. Carmichaelia grows in inaccessible places on the river bank and it is doubtful if much of it ever occurred in accessible places.

Seedlings and saplings of the silver beech are browsed along tracks and spasmodically elsewhere. It would seem therefore that the major succession of the forest has, as yet, been unaffected by the presence of the animals. This statement does not mean that the same population might not in time bring about a change as preferred foods disappeared

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and the seedlings of forest dominants were eaten in quantity. At present animals seem to migrate from areas before this stage is reached.

The river valley bogs are fed on consistently and probably constitute the main feeding areas in the valleys. Carex gaudichaudiana, which is the dominant plant over parts of many of these bogs, is kept grazed like a grass. Carex secta, not present in any quantity, is also grazed hard. All shrubs and young trees growing on or around the edge of these bogs are invariably browsed hard and kept stunted, but these would be stunted in any case because of the boggy conditions.

Small herbaceous plants such as Lagenophora spp. and mosses may be eaten in quantity, but this is very difficult to detect except by the analysis of stomach contents.

Subalpine Forest and Scrub and Alpine Vegetation

In their use for feeding, these two types of vegetation must be considered together, for animals which frequent the tops browse extensively in the subalpine scrub and forest, and may spend some of the winter months in this belt.

The effect of animals feeding on the alpine vegetation is difficult to assess because it is not easy to determine, apart from a few obvious species, what or how much of a species has been or is being eaten. It would seem that Danthonia flavescens probably forms the main food, though quantities of woody and herbaceous plants are also eaten.

It might be as well to discuss briefly the evidence seen on Mary Peaks and to use this as a standard with which to compare other areas. These peaks are isolated and extend around a large cirque. Stalkers say that animals have been present consistently on them for some ten years. During the course of a day spent in traversing completely around them some twenty-seven wapiti were seen and the effect of one herd of seventeen feeding over a confined area was examined. This area consisted mainly of a good Danthonia-covered slope lying to the south-west. Danthonia flavescens had been browsed heavily in places and the vegetation opened up particularly on spurs. Shrubs browsed extensively were Hebe laingii, H. buxifolia, Coprosma serrulata and the tips of Dracophyllum uniflorum. Herbaceous plants noticeably browsed were Astelia cockaynei, Celmisia holosericea, Aciphylla spp., and Ranunculus spp. A number of other plants listed in Appendix A were eaten to some extent.

Where animals had not been feeding for some time past on these tops the vegetation was closed, though there were many tracks through it. The effects of the browsing on shrubs was noticeable and very few intact or healthy plants of Hebes were to be seen. It seemed possible that the wapiti had reduced considerably the numbers of these as well as of such herbaceous plants as Ranunculus, Astelia and some Celmisia species. A plant such as Anisotome haastii, which was untouched by deer, was plentiful, so it appeared that other herbs eaten by the wapiti might also at one time have been plentiful. They may have suffered more readily from grazing than the grasses. These species were much more plentiful on the steep places inaccessible to animals, though it was possible that this was just a habitat difference. Such appeared to be partly the explanation, for comparison with other tops,

– 73 –

where deer were sparse or according to stalkers had never been present, showed that these plants had probably never been plentiful on the easier slopes dominated by Danthonias.

The subalpine scrub and forest around Mary Peaks showed the effect of animal browsing more obviously than did the alpine vegetation. Damage done to shrubs must take a greater time to recover than does the damage to herbaceous plants and grasses. In the subalpine belt Coprosma foetidissima and N othopanax spp. were eaten or barked where available and were frequently killed. Danthonia flavescens and Phormium colensoi growing in this belt were usually eaten to the ground. On the easier slopes tracks were numerous.

Other tops visited, Saddle Hill, Leslie Clearing tops, and the tops around Henry Saddle, had deer on them or had had them not long previously. The type of browsing and its effect on the vegetation were the same as described for the Mary Peaks. The most noticeable effect was the presence of tracks, the damage to the Hebes and certain other plants such as Phormium colensoi, and the paucity of Ranunculus. spp. Otherwise the vegetation seemed little affected and where the terrain permitted communities were closed. One of the members of the expedition visited Mount Pluvius, an area to which deer have evidently not spread. He reported that the vegetation was very little different from that seen on the deer-frequented tops.

To sum up, it would seem that the present population of deer has modified the vegetation to the extent of affecting a certain limited range of species in the valley bottoms and in the subalpine and alpine communities. Some of these species are affected seriously in that they are being reduced; others, including Pseudowintera colorata and some grasses must be increasing. There is, however, no permanent effect on vegetation cover or succession except in very restricted areas: regeneration of the major forest trees is virtually unaffected.

Since deer are in the area their presence must be tolerated, for total destruction of animals in such country would be impossible. It is therefore necessary that the problem of vegetation conservation—a problem which must now be considered for all remaining native vegetation in New Zealand and not just for particular isolated areas—should be faced rationally. Here is an area, prized by hunters, who are almost the only people visiting its interior, with a population of deer so far not highly destructive to the vegetation. Almost the only management policy practicable would be an endeavour by encouraging shooting, to keep the animal population somewhat below its present level. Reasonable accounts of the vegetation and deer herds are now available, so that inspections from time to time should show whether such a policy can be put into effect and how it works. A danger, possibly a very real one, will come from the infiltration by immigration and by crossing of numbers of red deer which may prove more adaptable to the country, and by the immigration of thar into the area. Thar are already in the Clinton Valley to the north. Large numbers of browsing animals of any kind would have a disastrous effect on such an unstable vegetation cover.

– 74 –


Acknowledgment is made to V. J. Cook for the identification of Scirpus, to N. Potts for assistance with the identification of Coprosma, to several members of the staff of the Botany Division for other identifications, to H. H. Allan for the identification of Celmisia, for supplying the section on Coastal Scrub and for checking the manuscript, and to W. R. B. Oliver for numerous suggestions. Acknowledgments to the botanist members of the expedition have already been made in the text.


Benson, W. N., Bartrum, J. A., and King, L. C., 1934. The Geology of the Region about Preservation and Chalky Inlets, Southern Fiordland, N.Z. Part II. Trans Roy Soc. N.Z., vol 64, pp. 51–85.

Cheeseman, T. F., 1925. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. Wellington, N.Z. Government Printer.

Cockayne, L., 1928. Vegetation of New Zealand (2nd ed.). Veg. der Erde, Vol. 14. Leipzig, W. Engelman.

Poole, A. L., 1949. Brief Account of the New Zealand-American Fiordland Expedition. N.Z. Science Rev., vol. 7, no. 8.

Wodzicki, K., 1947. Interim Report on Wild Life Problems in New Zealand. D.S.I.R. unpublished report.

Appendix A
Plants Commonly Eaten by Deer
(Compiled from field observations only. Plants are listed as far as
possible in order of preference. The list is not a complete one.

Lowland and Montane Vegetation (Winter Range) Forest


Griselinia littoralis, Elaeocarpus hookerianus, Nothopanax simplex, N. colensoi, Coprosma foetidissima, Weinmannia racemosa, Polystichum vestitum, Leptopteris superba, Carmichaelia spp., Coriaria plumosa, Muehlenbeckia australis, Nothopanax anomalum, Microlaena avenaceae, Hoheria glabrata, Danthonia cunninghamii, Pseudopanax crassifolium, Nothofagus menziesii, Suttonia divaricata.

Valley Bogs

Carex gaudichaudiana, Carex secta; all shrubs or stunted trees growing around the edge of the bogs.

Alpine and Subalpine Vegetation (Summer Range)

Forest and Scrub

Nothopanax colensoi var. montana, N. simplex, Coprosma foetidissima, Astelia cockaynei, A. nervosa, Phormium colensoi, Hoheria glabrata, Polystichum vestitum, Leptopteris superba, Danthonia cunninghamii, Senecio bennettii, Dracophyllum longifolium (mountain form), Dacrydium biforme, Suttonia divaricata, Aristotelia fruticosa, Olearia crosby-smithiana.

Tall Tussock Herb Field

Danthonia flavescens, Coprosma serrulata, Hebe laingii, H. buxifolia, Astelia cockaynei, Phormium colensoi, Dracophyllum uniflorum, Hymenanthera alpina, Aciphylla colensoi, Gentiana spp., Celmisia spp., Ourisia spp., Polystichum cystostegia, Danthonia crassiuscula, Danthonia oreophila.

– 75 –

Appendix B
List of Ferns, Lycopods and Flowering Plants

I. Indigenous Plants
(N.B.—Herbarium numbers refer to Botany Division Herbarium, D.S.I.R.)
1, Very Rare; 2, Rare; 3, Infrequent; 4, Abundant; 5, Very Abundant.
L, Lowland; M, Montane; SA, Subalpine; A, Alpine.

Families and Species Distribution Approximate Abundance
Hymenophyllum rarum R. Br. L, M. Forest 3
" sanguinolentum (Forst. f.) Presl L, M. " 3
" villosum Col. A. Tussock Herb-field 1
" dilatatum (Forst. f.) Swartz L. Forest 3
" pulcherrimum (Col.) Swartz L. Forest 3
" demissum (Forst. f.) Swartz L, M. " 4
" flabellatum Labill. L, M. " 3
" scabrum A. Rich. L, M. " 2
" rufescens Kirk L, M. " 2
" ferrugineum Colla L, " 2
" cheesemanii Baker L, M. " 2
" tunbridgense (L.) Smith L, M. " 3
" peltatum Desv. L, M. " 3
" multifidum (Forst. f.) Swartz L, M, SA, A. Forest scrub, Tussock Herb-field 3
" bivalve (Forst. f.) Swartz L, M. " 1
Cardiomanes reniforme Presl L, M. Forest 4
Trichomanes colensoi Hook. f. L. " 2
" venosum R. Br. L, M. " 1
Dicksonia squarrosa Swartz L, M. Forest 4
Cyathea smithii Hook. f. L, M. " 4
" medullaris (Forst. f.) Swartz L. Coastal 1
Alsophila colensoi Hook. f. M. Forest 1
Polystichum vestitum (Swartz) Presl L, M, SA. Forest 4
" hispidum (Swartz) J. Smith L. " 2
" adianteforme (Forst. f.) Ching L, M. " 3
" cystostegia (Hook. f.) J. B. Armstr. SA, A. Herb-field 2
Leptolepia novae zealandiae Kuhn. L. Stream 1
Asplenium obtusatum Forst. f. L. Coast 2
" bulbiferum Forst. f. L. Forest 2
" flaccidum Forst. f. L, M. " 4
Bleohnum vulcanicum (Blume) Kuhn. L, " 2
" discolor (Forst. f.) Keys L, M. " 3
" fluviatile (R. Br.) Salom. L, M. " 3
" lanceolatum (R. Br.) Sturm. L, M. " 3
" banksii (Hook. f.) Mett. Caswell Sound,
Boulder Beach
" nigrum (Col.) Mett. L, M. Forest 3
" patersoni var. elongata Hook. L, M. " 2
" penna-marina (Poir.) Kuhn. L, M, SA, A. Bog, Herbfield 3
" procerum (Forst. f.) J. Anderson L, M, SA. Forest 3
Bleohnum minor (R. Br.) Ckne.
" membranaceum (Col.) Mett. L, M. Forest 2
Hypolepis millefolium Hook. L, M. " 3
" tenuifolia Bernh. L, M. " 3
" rugosula (Labill.) J. Smith L, M. " 2
Adiantum affine Willd. L, " 1
Histiopteris inoisa (Thumb.) J. Smith L, M. " 3
Paesia scaberula (A. Rich.) Kuhn. L. " 2
– 76 –
Polypodium billardieri Wild. L, M, SA. Forest 4
" var. pumilum Cheesem. A. Herb-field 3
" diversifolium Wild. L, M. Forest 3
" grammitidis (R. Br.) J. Smith L, M. " 3
Pteridium aquilinum var. esculenta Hook. f. George Sound (probably not natural to the area) 1
Pyrrosia serpens (Forst. f.) C. Christen. L. Forest 2
Schizaea fistulosa Labill. M. Bog, Forest 1
Leptopteris superba (Col.) Presl L, M. Forest 4
" hymenophylloides (A. Rich.) Presl L. " 1
Lycopodium billardieri Spring. L, M. " 3
" billardieri var. gracile T. Kirk L, M. " 3
" varium R. Br. SA. Scrub 1
" fastigiatum R. Br. SA, A. Bog 3
" scariosum Forst. f. L, M, SA. Forest 3
" volubile Forst. f. L, M. " 3
Tmesipteris tannensis Bernh. L, M. " 3
Isoetes kirkii A. Braun L, M, SA, A. Lakes 3
Podocarpus dacrydioides A. Rich. L. Forest 1
" ferrugineus D. Don L, M. " 2
" hallii T. Kirk L, M, SA. " 3
Dacrydium cupressinum Soland. L, M. SA. " 2
" intermedium T. Kirk L, M. Bog, Forest 2
" biforme (Hook.) Pilger L, M, SA. Bog, " 3
Phyllocladus alpinus Hook. f. L, M, SA. Forest, Scrub 3
Triglochin striatum Ruiz. L. Shore 2
Potamogeton suboblongus Haeg. L, M, SA. Bog 3
" cheesemanii A. Bennett L, M. Bog 2
Microlaena avenacca (Raoul) Hook. f. L, M. Forest 4
Hierochloe alpina Roem. & Schult. A. Herb-field 2
Danthonia cunninghamii Hook. f. L, M. Stream banks 2
" flavescens Hook. f. A. Herb-field 4
" crassiuscula T. Kirk A. " 4
" (unnamed species) Herb. No. 67560 SA, A. " 4
" setifolia Hook. f. A. " 2
" gracilis Hook. f. A. Bog 3
" oreophila Petrie A. Herb-field 2
Arundo fulvida Buch. Shoreline 1
Deyeuxia setifolia Hook. f. L, M, SA, A. Bog 3
" filmiformis (Forst. f.) Hook. f. L, M. 2
Deschampsia chapmani Petrie L, M. Bog 2
" tenella Petrie
Poa colensoi Hook. f. A. Herb-field 1
Poa oraria Petrie L. River bank 2
Trisetum antarcticum Trin. A. Herb-field 1
Petriella colensoi (Hook. f.) Zotov A. " 2
Agrostis dyeri Petrie A. " 2
" subulata Hook. f. A. " 1
Mariscus ustulatus C. B. Clarke Shore 1
Eleocharis acuta var. tenuis Sarse L, M. Bog, Meadow 2
Scirpus cernuus Vahl. Shore 3
– 77 –
Scirpus aucklandicus Boeck. L, M, SA, A. 3
" merrillii (Paula) Kunth A. 3
" inundatus Poir. SA, A. 3
" (unnamed species) L. Bog 1
Carpha alpina R. Br. SA, A. Herb-field 4
Schoenus pauciflorus Hook. f. SA, A. 3
Gahnia procera Forst. SA. Bog, Forest 2
Oreobolus strictus Berggr. L, M, SA, A. Bog 2
" pumilio R. Br. A. Bog 1
" pectinatus Berggr. A. " 2
Uncinia compacta R. Br. A. Herb-field 3
" fusco-vaginata Kukenth. A. " 2
" uncinata (Linn. f.) Kukenth. L, M. Forest 3
" uncinata var. pediculata (Kukenth.) Petrie A. Herb-field 2
" filiformis Boott. L, M, SA. Herb-field 2
" riparia R. Br. L, M. " 2
Carex appressa R. Br. L. Shore 2
" secta Boott. L. Bog 2
" stellulata Good A. Herb-field 2
" gaudichaudiana Kunth L, M, SA. Bog 4
" subdola Boott. L. Bog 2
" litorosa Bailey L. Shore 2
" dissita Sol. L. River bank 3
" ternaria Forst. L, M. Bog 2
" lucida Boott. L. Beach 2
" acicularis Boott. A. Bog 2
" dipsacea Berggr. L. Bog 2
Leptocarpus simplex A. Rich. L. Shore 1
Hypolacna lateriflora Benth. L, M, SA. A. Bog 2
Gaimardia setacea Hook. f. SA, A. Bog 2
" ciliata Hook. f. A. Herb-field 1
Rostkovia gracilis Hook. f. L, M, SA, A. Herb-field, 4
Juncus planifolius R. Br. L, M. Bog 3
" antarcticus Hook. f. A. Herb-field 2
" novae zealandiae Hook. f. SA, A. Bog 3
" pauciflorus R. Br. L. Bog 2
" polyanthemos Buchen. L. Bog 2
" effusus Hook. f. L, M. Bog 2
" pusillus Buchen. A. Herb-field 2
Luzula campestris D. C. L, M, SA, A. Herb-field, Bog 2
Rhipogonum scandens Forst. L. Forest 2
Luzuriaga marginata (Gartn.) Benth. et Hook. f. L, M, SA. Forest 4
Cordyline indivisa (Forst. f.) Steud. L. M. Bluffs 1
Phormium colensoi Hook. f. L, M, SA, A. Scrub 3
Astelia nervosa var. sylvestris Ckn. et Allan L, M, SA. Forest, Scrub 3
" cockaynei Cheesem. SA, A. Scrub, Herb-field 3
" linearis Hook. f. A. Herb-field, Bog 4
" nivicola Ckn. A. Herb-field 1
Chrysobactron hookeri Col. A. " 2
Libertia pulchella Spreng. L, M, SA. Forest 4
– 78 –
Dendrobium cunninghamii Lindl. L. Forest 2
Earina mucronata Lindl. L. " 2
Earina autumnalis Hook. f. L. " 3
Microtis (undertermined species) L. Bog 1
Lyperanthus antarctious Hook. f. L, M. Forest 1
Prasophyllum colensoi Hook. f. A. Herb-field 3
Aporostylis bifolia (Hook. f.) Rupp L, M. Forest 3
Corybas rivularis (A. Cunn.) Hook. f. L. " 3
Ascarina lucida Hook. f. L. " 2
Nothofagus menziesii (Hook. f.) Oerst. L, M, SA. Forest, Scrub 5
" cliffortioides (Hook. f.) Oerst. L, M, SA. " 2
Urtica incisa Poir L. River bank 2
Loranthus micranthus Hook. f. L. Forest 1
Elytranthe tetrapetala (Hook. f.) Engl. L, M, SA. Forest 3
" flavida (Hook. f.) Engl. L, M, " 2
Rumex flexuosus (Forst. f.) L, M. Shore 2
" neglectus T. Kirk L. Beach 2
Muehlenbeckia australis (Forst. f.) Meissn. L, M. Forest 2
" complexa var. grandifolia H. Carse L. " 2
" axillaris Walp. L. River-bank 2
Montia fontana L. L, M, SA, A. Bog 2
" australasica (Hook. f.) Pax et Hoffm. L, M. Bog 2
Stellaria parviflora Hook. f. L, M, SA. Forest 2
Colobanthus crassifolius Hook. f. L, M, SA. Bog 2
Scleranthus biflorus (Forst. f.) Hook. f. A. Herb-field 1
Clematis paniculata Willd. M. Forest (Lake Hankinson) 1
Ranunculus acaulis D. C. L. Shore 2
" hirtus Forst. f. L, M, SA. Forest 2
" hirtus var. stoloniferous T. Kirk L, M. " 1
" lyallii Hook. f. A. Herb-field 2
" (unnamed species) Herb. No. 67865 L. Bog 2
" (unnamed species) Herb. No. 67866 L. " 2
Caltha novae-zelandiae Hook. f. A. " 3
Pseudowintera colorata (Raoul) Dandy L, M. Forest 4
Hedycarya arborea Forst. L. Shore-forest 2
Cardamine heterophylla (Forst. f.) Schulz. L, M, SA, A. Bog, Herb-field 3
Pachycladon glabra Buch. A. Rocks 1
Drosera arcturi Hook. SA, A. Bog 2
Tillaea sinclairii Hook. f. L. Caswell Sound beach 1
Carpodetus serratus Forst. L. Forest 2
– 79 –
Pittosporum colensoi Hook. f. L. River bank 2
" crassicaule (Ckn.) Lg. et Gy. L, M, SA. Scrub 2
Weinmannia racemosa Linn. f. L, M, SA. Forest, Scrub 4
Rubus cissoides A. Cunn. L, M. Forest 3
" squarorsus Fritsch. L. " 2
" schmidelioides A. Cunn. L. " 1
Geum parviflorum Sm. A. Herb-field 3
Potentilla anserina L. L, M, SA. Bog 2
Acaena sanguisorbae Vahl. L, M, SA. River bank 2
Carmichaelia grandiflora (Benth.) Hook. f. SA. 1
" arborea (Forst. f.) Druce L. River banks 2
" (unnamed species) L. River islands 3
Sophora microphylla (Ait.) Salisb. L. Shore 1
Geranium microphyllum Hook. f. L, M, SA, A. Bog, Herb-field 3
Oxalis lactea Hook. L, M, SA, A. Forest, Bog, Herb-field 2
Callitriche verna L. L, M. Lakes 2
" muelleri Sond. L, M. " 2
Coriaria arborea Lindsay L, M. River bank 2
" plumosa Oliver L, M. " 2
Pennantia corymbosa Forst. L, M. " 1
Elaeocarpus hookerianus Raoul L, M, SA. Forest, Bog 4
Aristotelia serrata (Forst. f.) Oliver L, M. River bank 2
" fruticosa Hook. f. L, M. Forest, Bog 3
" serrata × fruticosa L. Forest 1
Hoheria glabrata Sprague et Summerhayes L, M, SA. River bank, Scrub 3
Elatine gratioloides A. Cunn. L. Lakes 3
Viola cunninghamii Hook. f. L, M, SA, A. Forest, Herb-field, Bog 4
" filicaulis Hook. f. L, M, SA, A. Forest, Herb-field, Bog 4
Melicytus ramiflorus Forst. L. Forest 1
Hymenanthera alpina (Kirk) Oliver A. Herb-field 2
Pimelea gnidia (Forst.) Willd. L, M. Scrub 1
" prostrata (Forst. f.) Willd. A. Herb-field 2
Drapetes dieffenbachii Hook. A. " 3
" lyallii Hook. f. A. Henry Saddle 1
Leptospermum scoparium Forst. L, M, SA. Bog, Clearings on spurs 2
Metrosideros umbellata Cav. L, M, SA. Forest, Scrub 5
" diffusa (Forst. f.) Oliver L, M. Forest 3
Myrtus pedunculata Hook. f. L, M, SA. " 4
– 80 –
Epilobium nerterioides A. Cunn. A. Herb-field 2
" chionanthum Haussk. L, M. Bog 1
" pubens A. Rich. L. Shore 1
" alsinoides A. Cunn. L, M, SA, A. Bog, Herb-field 2
" rotundifolium Forst. f. L, M. 3
" linnaeoides Hook. f. L, M. River bank 2
" pedunculare A. Cunn. L, M, SA, A. Bog, Herb-field 3
" pedunculare var. virida Ckn. L, M. Lake edge 3
" glabellum Forst. f. M. Waterfall 1
" matthewsii Petrie A. Herb-field 1
" novae zealandiae Haussk. L, M. Lake edge 1
Fuchsia excorticata Linn. f. L. River bank 2
Myriophyllum elatinoides Gaud. L, M. Bog 2
" propinquum A. Cunn. L, M. Bog 2
Gunnera monoica var. albocarpa T. Kirk L, M. River bank 2
" dentata T. Kirk L, M. River bank 1
Nothopanax simplex (Forst. f.) Seem. L, M, SA. Forest, Scrub 5
" colensoi (Hook. f.) Seem. L, M. Forest 4
" colensoi var. montana Kirk S, A. Forest, Scrub 4
" anomalum (Hook.) Seem. L, M. Forest 3
" simplex × anomalum L, M. " 2
Pseudopanax lineare (Hook. f.) C. Koch. L, M, SA. Forest, Scrub 4
" crassifolium (Sol.) C. Koch. L, M. Forest 2
Schefflera digitata Forst. L. River bank 2
Hydrocotyle americana L. L, M, SA. Bog 3
" microphylla A. Cunn. L, M. Lake edge 2
Centella uniflora (Col.) Nannfeldt L. Shore 1
Schizeilema nitens Domin L, M. Bog 3
Actinotus suffocata Rodway M. Bog 2
Oreomyrrhis andicola Endl. M. Herb-field 2
Lilaeopsis novae-zealandiae (Gandoz.) A. W. Hill. L. Shore 1
Apium prostratum Lab. L. " 3
" filiforme (A. Rich.) Hook. f. L. " 2
Aciphylla lyallii Hook. f. A. Herb-field 2
" colensoi Hook. f. A. Scrub, Herb-field 2
" congesta Cheesem. A. Herb-field 2
" (unnamed species) Herb. No. 67224 A. " 2
Anisotome lyallii Hook. f. L. Shore 1
" aromatica Hook. f. A. Herb-field 2
" intermedia Hook. f. A. " 2
" haastii (F. von Muell. ex Hook. f.) Ckn. et R. M. Laing A. " 3
Angelica montana Ckn. L. Forest 1
Griselinia littoralis Raoul L, M, SA. Forest 4
Gaultheria depressa Hook. f. L, M, SA, A. Herb-field 2
" rupestris (Forst. f.) R. Br. L, M, SA, A. Forest, Scrub, Herb-field 4
" rupestris var. subcorymbosa Col. L. Forest, Scrub 2
Pernettya macrostigma Col. L, M, SA, A. Herb-field 4
Pentachondra pumila (Forst. f.) R. Br. SA, A. Herb-field 3
Cyathodes juniperina (Forst.) Druce L, M, SA. Scrub 2
– 81 –
Cyathodes empetrifolia Hook. f. M. Bog forest 1
Archeria traversii Hook. f. L, M, SA. Forest, Scrub 4
" var. australis Hook. f. L, M. Forest (open) 2
Dracophyllum fiordense Oliver SA. Scrub 3
" menziesii Hook. f. SA, A. " 3
" longifolium (Forst.) R. Br. L. Shore 2
" longifolium (mountain form) SA. Forest, Scrub 3
" uniflorum Hook. f. A. Scrub, Forest 3
" rosmarinifolium (Forst.) R. Br. A. Herb-field 2
" pronum Oliver A. Herb-field 2
Myrsine australis (A. Rich.) Allan L. Forest 2
" divaricata (A. Cunn.) Hook. f. L, M, SA. Forest, Scrub 4
" nummularia Hook. f. A. Herb-field 3
Samolus repens (Forst.) Pers. L. Coast 3
Gentiana grisebachii Hook. f. L, M, SA, A. 2
" montana Forst. f. A. Herb-field 3
Parsonsia heterophylla A. Cunn. L. Forest, Bog 1
Myosotis (unnamed species) Herbarium No. 67838 A. Mary Peaks, 4,000 ft. 1
Limosella lineata Hoffm. L, M. Lake 1
Hebe salicifolia (Hook. f.) Pennell L. River bank 2
" subalpina Ckn. M. Forest 1
" buxifolia (Benth.) A. Herb-field 2
" laingii Ckn. A. " 1
" elliptica (Forst. f.) Pennell Coast 1
Parahebe lyallii (Hook. f.) Oliver L, M. River bank 2
" catarractae (Forst. f.) Oliver L, M. Cliffs 2
Pygmaea ciliolata Hook. f. A. Herb-field 1
Ourisia macrocarpa var. cordata Ckn. A. " 3
" crosbyi Ckn. L, M. Shore and cliffs 2
" sessilifolia Hook. f. A. Herb-field 2
" caespitosa Hook. f. A. " 2
" (unnamed species) Herb. No. 67841 L. Bog 2
Euphrasia zealandica Wettst. A. Herb-field 2
" repens Hook. f. A. " 1
Plantago brownii Decne. A. Herb-field, Bog 3
Plantago triandra Berggr. SA, A. Bog 2
Coprosma lucida Forst. f. L. Forest 1
" serrulata Hook. f. A. Herb-field 2
" rotundifolia A. Cunn. L, M. River bank 3
" retusa Petrie SA, Timber-line 2
" rhamnoides A. Cunn. L. Shore 2
" parviflora Hook. f. L, M, SA. Forest 2
" ciliata Hook. f. L, M, SA. Forest, Bog 4
" propinqua A. Cunn. L. Scrub 1
" astoni Petrie SA. " 2
" brunnea Ckn. L, M, SA. Scrub 1
" rugosa Cheesem. L, M. " 2
" antipoda Oliv. L. River bank 1
" foetidissima Forst. L, M, SA. Forest, Scrub 5
" colensoi Hook. f. L, M, SA. " 4
" pumila Hook. f. A. Herb-field 4
" cheesemanii Oliver. SA. Bog 2
– 82 –
Coprosma pseudocuneata Oliver L. Forest 1
" colensoi × foetidissima L. " 1
" cuneata Hook. f. A. Scrub 1
Nertera ciliata T. Kirk A. Herb-field 1
" depressa Banks et Sol. L, M. Forest, Bog 3
" dichondraefolia Hook. f. A. Bog 2
Galium umbrosum Sol. L, M, SA. Forest 4
Pratia angulata (Forst. f.) Hook. f. L, M, SA, A. Forest, Bog, Herb-field 4
Lobelia anceps Linn. f. L. Shore 1
Wahlenbergia albomarginata Hook. A. Mary Peaks 1
Selliera radicans Cav. L. Shore 2
Donatia novae zealandiae Hook. f. A. Bog 3
Phyllachne colensoi (Hook. f.) Berggr. A. Bog 3
Forstera sedifolia Linn. f. A. Herb-field 2
" tenella Hook. f. SA, A. Herb-field, Bog 3
Oreostylidium subulatum (Hook. f.) Berggr. A. Bog 1
Lagenophora barkeri T. Kirk L, M, SA. Bog, Forest 4
" var. multidentata Simp. et. Th. L, M. Forest 2
" petiolata Hook. f. M. Forest 1
Olearia operina Hook. f. L. Shore 2
" colensoi Hook. f. M, SA. Forest, Scrub 4
" arborescens Ckn. et R. M. Laing L, M. Scrub 2
" ilicifolia Hook. f. L, M. Scrub 2
" crosby-smithiana Petrie SA. Scrub 2
Celmisia ramulosa Hook. f. A. Herb-field 2
" walkeri T. Kirk A. " 1
" holosericea Hook. f. A. " 3
" brownii Chapm. A. " 1
" petriei Cheesem. A. " 2
" coriacea Hook. f. A. " 1
" verbascifolia Hook. f. A. " 2
" lanceolata Ckne. A. " 2
" graminifolia Hook. f. SA. Bog 4
" sessiliflora Hook. f. A. " 3
" argentea T. Kirk A. " 1
" glandulosa Hook. f. var. longiscapa Ckn. SA, A. Bog 3
Gnaphalium trinerve Forst. f. L, M, SA. River bank 2
" keriense A. Cunn. L, M, SA. " 2
" collinum Lab. L, M. Bog 1
" luteo album L. L. River bed 1
Raoulia grandiflora Hook. f. A. Herb-field 2
" tenuicaulis Hook. f. L, M. River bed 2
Leucogenes grandiceps (Hook. f.) Beauv. A. Rocks 1
Helichrysum bellidioides (Forst. f.) Willd. L, M, SA, A. Bog, Herb-field 3
" filicaule Hook. f. L, M. Bog 1
Cassinia vauvilliersii Hook. f. SA. Scrub 2
Craspedia uniflora Forst. f. A. Herb-field 1
Cotula squalida Hook. f. L, M, SA, A. Bog 3
Abrotanella spathulata Hook. f. A. Rocks 1
Erechtites prenanthoides (A. Rich.) D.C. L, M, SA. Scrub 2
" (species unnamed) Herb. No. 67857 SA. Bog 1
Senecio scorzoneroides Hook. f. A. Herb-field 2
" bennettii Simpson et Thomson L, M, SA. Forest, Scrub 2
– 83 –
Families and Species Distribution Approximate Abundance
2. Naturalized Plants
Juncus macer S. F. Gray Hankinson Hut
Dactylis glomerata L. Hankinson Hut
Agrostis tenuis Sibth. Caswell Sound, Hankinson Hut
Anthoxanthum odoratum L. Caswell Sound, Hankinson Hut
Cerastium glomeratum Thuill. L.
Rumex acetosella L. George Sound
Trifolium repens L. George Sound
Prunella vulgaris L. Hankinson Hut
Hypochaeris radicata L. Caswell Sound
Senecio jacobaea L. George Sound
3. Plants Collected on Mount Luxmore and Not in the Expedition Area
Cystopteris fragilis Bernh. SA. 2
Gleichenia circinata var. alpina (R. Br.) Hook. f. A. 2
Dacrydium laxifolium Hook. f. A. 2
Danthonia teretifolia Petrie A. 3
Soleranthus biflorus (Forst. f.) Hook. f. A. 1
Hymenanthera dentata var. angustifolia Benth. SA. 1
Angelica decipiens Hook. f. A. 2
Cyathodes pumila R. Br. A. 2
Myosotis spathulata Forst. f. SA. Bluff 2
Coprosma linariifolia Hook. f. L, M. 3
Brachycome thomsoni T. Kirk L, M. 2
Raoulia subsericea Hook. f. A. 2
Celmisia viscosa Hook. f. A. 1