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Volume 79, 1951
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The Hypocreales of New Zealand
II. The Genus Nectria.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, May 24, 1950; received by the Editor, May 30, 1950.]

Fries in Summa Vegetabilium Scandinaviae, 1849, defined Nectria to include species with fleshy, brightly coloured perithecia which were either caespitose on a conidial stroma or freely scattered on the surface of the host. Saccardo (1883) divided the genus into seven sub-genera, using for the division characters such as the presence of hairs, tubercles, or a pulvinate stroma. Cooke (1884) raised Saccardo's sub-genera to generic rank and retained Saccardo's names for the genera. He restricted Nectria to include only species with a well-developed stroma upon which perithecia were borne and placed in Dialonectria other species where perithecia were scattered freely on the surface of the host. Seaver (1909) retained Cooke's sub-divisions, but transferred to Nectria speeies with perithecia scattered freely on the surface of the host tissue. He stated that Cooke's sub-division did not include the type species of the genus. Seaver erected Creonectria to include stromatic species. As Fries did not indicate any type, Petch (1938) retained Cooke's genera. Although in some species a stroma was well defined, other species showed forms where the perithecia were scattered freely on the host or were united on a pulvinate stroma. The morphology of different species showed no character sufficiently distinct to justify a generie separation. Sphaerostilbe Tulasne has been discarded as the structure of the perithecium is identical with that of Nectria, a Stilbum conidial stage was the basis for the genus. The genera Lasionectria Cooke and Nectriopsis Maire have also been discarded as the characters used for separation are ephemeral and could be missing from herbarium material. This paper lists 31 species of Nectria from New Zealand. The majority of species are saprophytes on decaying organic material, a few appear to be wound parasites when conditions are favourable, one species occurred parasitically on bark of apple trees, two species parasitised scale insects, while another three species occurred on decaying fungus fructifications. This list is not complete as collections were not sufficiently extensive over the country.

The writer wishes to thank the Director, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, for forwarding on loan part of the type collections of New Zealand species, to Dr. G. H. Cunningham for his advice during the preparation of this paper, and to Miss B. Hooton for Latin translations of new species.

2. Nectria Fries Summa Vegetabilium Scandinaviae p. 387, 1849.

Dialonectria Cke. Grev., Vol. 12, pp. 77 and 109, 1884; Sphaerostilbe Tul., Sel. Fung. Carp., Vol. 1, p. 130, 1861; Lasionectria Cke. Grev., Vol. 12, p. 112, 1884; Stilbocrea Pat. Bull. Soc. Myc. France,

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Vol. 16, p. 186, 1900; Creonectria Seaver, Mycologia, Vol. 1, p. 183, 1909; Nectriopsis Maire, Ann. Mycol., Vol. 9, p. 323, 1911.

Perithecia superficial, scattered freely on surface of host, caes-pitose or gregarious on a pulvinate, often erumpent, pseudoparenchy-matous stroma or a byssoid subiculum. Asci eight spored, spores liberated by rupturing of apex of ascus. Spores, one septate, elliptical, oval or fusiform, hyaline or lightly coloured; pseudoparaphyses usually present.

Type SpeciesNectria cinnabarina (Tode) Fr.

Distribution—World wide.

Key to Species.

Perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous, cell wall hyaline, pigment present as globules within the cells.

Spores under 15μ long.
Spores smooth, 8–14 × 2–4μ 1. N. ochroleuca (Schw.) Berk.
Spores verrucose, 9–13 × 4–6μ 2. N. grisea Dingley
Spores 12–20 × 4–7μ 3. N. quisquiliaris Cke.

Perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous, cell wall lightly pigmented, not thickened, translucent when fresh.

Perithecia freely scattered on surface of
    host 4. N. byssiseda Rehm.
Perithecia gregarious on a byssoid stroma.
  Spores elliptical or fusiform.
    Spores 5–9 × 2.5–4μ 5 N. manuka Dingley
    Spores 7.5–10 × 3–4μ 6. N. berkeleyana (Plowr. and Cke.) Dingley
    Spores 12–20 × 4–6μ 7. N. aemulans Rehm.
  Spores oval ends blunt.
    Spore smooth, 8–16 × 4–6μ 8. N. peziza (Tode) Fr.
Perithecia caespitose on a small poorly developed erumpent stroma.
    Spore smooth, 9–26 × 4–8μ 9. N. hauturu Dingley
    Spores verrucose, 8–11 × 5–6μ 10. N. ruapehu Dingley

Perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous, cell wall pigmented, thickened.

Perithecia smooth.
  Spores smooth.
    Stroma absent or poorly developed.
      Spores broadly elliptical, 14–20 × 4–7μ 11. N. galligena Bres. ex Strasser
      Spores fusiform, 15–22 × 4–6μ 12. N. fragilis Dingley
    Stroma present; perithecia semi-immersed 13. N. otagensis Currey ex Lindsay
  Spores verrucose.
    Parasitic on scale insects.
      Spores oval, rarely elliptical, 8–15 × 4–6μ 14. N. aurantiicola Berk, and Br.
      Spores elliptical, 16–24 × 6–10μ 15. N. flammea (Tul.) Dingley
      Saprophytic on dead bark 16. N. punicea (K. & Schm.) Fr.
    Spores echinulate.
      Spores fusiform or elliptical, 14–20 × 5–7μ 17. N. coccinea (Pers.) Fr.
      Spores tuberculate 18. N. sanguinea (Bolt.) Fr.
  Perithecia tuberculate.
    Spores smooth.
      12–20 × 3–6μ 19. N. cinnabarina (Tode) Fr.
      15–20 × 5–8μ 20. N. zelandica Cooke
  Spores striate.
    Perithecia scattered, sometimes gregarious.
      Spores 10–20 × 6–10μ 21. N. haematacoccus Berk. & Br.
      Spores 20–32 × 10–14μ 22. N. illudens Berk,
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    Perithecia caespitose on an erumpent stroma.
      Spores 16–24 × 6–10μ 23. N. balsanae Speg.
      Spores 22–38 × 10–16μ 24. N. plagianthi Dingley

Perithecia wall darkly pigmented and thickened, pseudoparenchymatous structure difficult to discern.

Spores verrucoae.
12–16 × 5–7μ 25. N. rubi Osterwalder
12–25 × 6–10μ 26. N. mammoidea Phil. & Plowr.
Spores smooth.
12–17 × 6–8μ 27. N. tasmanica Berk.
13.5–16 × 5–6μ 28 N. pinea Dingley

Perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous, outer cells thin walled, 10–20μ diameter, inner cells 5–7μ diameter, densely pigmented and thickened.

Spores small, under 15μ.
Spores elliptical, fusiform, 7–10 × 2.5–3.5μ 29. N. tawa Dingley
Spores elliptical, ends truncate, 9–13 × 3–4μ 30. N. coprosmae Dingley
Spores over 20μ long 31. N. westlandica Dingley

1. Nectria ochroleuca (Schweinitz) Berkeley. Grevillea, Vol. 4, p. 16, 1875.

Sphaeria ochroleuca Schw. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. n.s. Vol. 4, p. 204, 1831.

Calonectria ochroleuca (Schw.) Seaver. Mycologia, Vol. 1, p. 191, 1909. Plate 23, fig. 1.

Perithecia superficial, caespitose on a pulvinate, occasionally effuse, erumpent pseudoparenchymatous stroma, up to 2mm. diameter, globose 0·2–0·3mm. diameter, translucent, coral coloured, orange, bleaching to cream in over mature specimens, ostiole minute, umbilicate. Perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 50μ thick, cells 5–8μ diameter. Asci clavate or elliptical 30–50 × 5–10μ, 6–8 spored, obliquely uniseriate, biseriate at apex; pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Spores one-septate, often constricted at septa, fusiform 8–14 × 2–4μ, smooth, hyaline. Conidial stage: Conidiophoies verticillate, aggregated to form a pulvinate sporodochium, sometimes developed into a stalklike structure, orange or salmon coloured, conidia cylindrical or oval 4–9 × 2–4μ, hyaline. Verticillium tubercularioides Speg.

Type Locality: Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Distribution: North America, West Indies, Europe, New Zealand.

Habitat:

Beilschmiedia tawa (A. Cunn.) Hook. f. and Benth.

Auckland, Titirangi, March 1946, J.M.D.; Waipoua, May 1947, J.M.D.

Brachyglottis repanda Forst.

Auckland, Te Aroha Mt., October 1948, J.M.D.

Coprosma grandifolia Hook. f.

Auckland, Waitakere Ra. Rua-te-whenua, October 1949. J.M.D.

Corynocarpus laevigata Forst.

Auckland, Piha, July 1946, J.M.D.

Edwardsia microphylla (Ait.) Salisb.

Auckland, Piha, January 1946 (2 col.); Whangarei Heads, October 1947, J.M.D.;

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Auckland city, Purewa bush, November 1948, J.M.D.

Lupinus arboreus L.

Auckland, Piha, July 1947, J.M.D.; Whatipu, June 1946, J.M.D.

Melicytus ramiflorus Forst.

Auckland, Waitakere Ra., off Anawhata Rd., June 1946, J.M.D.;

Whangarei, Parahaki, June 1948, J.M.D.

Muehlenbeckia australis Meissn.

Westland, Weheka, December 1946, J.M.D.

Nothopanax arboreum Seem.

Auckland, Waitakere Ra., off Anawhata Rd., August 1948, J.M.D.

Auckland city, December 1948, D. W. McKenzie.

Prunus persica Sieb. & Zucc.

Auckland, Massey, December 1947, E. E. Chamberlain.

Pyrus malus L.

Auckland, Mt. Albert, July 1949, A. Farmer.

Rhopalostylis sapida Wendl. & Drude.

Auckland, Waitakere Ra., Waiatarua, November 1946, J.M.D.;

Titirangi, April 1948, J.M.D.

Robinia pseudoacacia L.

Auckland city, Mt. Eden, August 1949, E. M. Hay.

Salix sp.

Auckland, Mt. Albert, September 1948, D. W. McKenzie;

November 1948, D. W. McKenzie.

Ulex europaeus L.

Auckland, Waitakere Ra., Swanson, May 1946, J.M.D.;

Mt. Albert, November 1948, D. W. McKenzie.

This species is readily separated from N. grisea and N. quisquiliaris by its small, smooth spores. When fresh perithecia are translucent but pigment granules are absent from bleached weathered specimens. The diversity of form in the colour of perithecia and in the arrangement of the conidiophores substantiated Petch's suggestion (1938 and 1941) that N. seminicola Seaver and N. pallidula Cke. were synonyms. Field observations suggested that this species may be a wound parasite.

2. Nectria grisea nom. nov.

Sphaerostilbe variabilis Berk. & Br. J. Linn. Soc., Vol. 14, p. 115, 1875;

Sphaerostilbe hypocreoides Kalchbr. & Cooke. Grev., Vol. 9, p. 17, 1880;

Stilbocrea hypocreoides (Kalchbr. & Cke.) Seaver. Mycologia, Vol. 2, p. 62, 1910;

Sphaerostilbe henningsii Ferdinandsen & Winge. Bot. Tidsckrift Vol. 29, p. 12, 1908;

Sphaerostilbe placenta Theissen. Annales Mycologici, Vol. 9, p. 55, 1911.

Plate 24, fig. 8.

Perithecia superficial, sometimes semi-immersed in tissue of the pulvinate, pseudoparenchymatous stroma 2–4mm. diameter, formed around base of stalked conidial stroma. Perithecia globose 0·2–0·3mm.

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diameter, salmon, pale greyish green when dry and mature, cottony, ostiole umbilicate, distinctly pigmented. Perithecial wall hyaline, pigment granules present in cells in sub-hymenial layer, outer hyphal structure indistinct. Asci cylindrical, end rounded, 60–90 × 5–8μ, 4–8 spored, uniseriate, pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Spores one-septate, elliptical or oval 9–13 × 4–6μ, verrucose, hyaline. Conidial stage; conidiophores united into a synnema 1–3mm. high, heads globose, flesh or dark coloured 0·5–1mm. diameter; conidia oval or cylindrical 5–8 × 2μ, smooth, hyaline; Stilbum sp.

Type Locality: South Africa.

Distribution: South Africa, South America, Ceylon, Australia, New Zealand.

Habitat: Corynocarpus laevigata Forst.

Auckland, Piha, August 1946. J.M.D.

Dysoxylum specatabile (Forst. f.) Hook. f.

Auckland, Hunua Ra., October 1946, J.M.D.;

Coromandel, December 1946, J.M.D.;

Paihia, June 1948, J.M.D.;

Waitakere Ra. near Titirangi, May 1949, J.M.D.

Melicytus ramiflorus Forst.

Auckland, Auckland city, Purewa bush, August 1948, D. W. McKenzie;

Hunua Ra., Mangatawhiri Stream, October 1946, J.M.D.;

Coromandel, December 1948, J.M.D.

Rhopalostylis sapida Wendl. & Drude.

Auckland, Titirangi, Wood's Bay, July 1948, J.M.D.

The combination N. variabilis has been used to denote another species of Nectria, similarly the combinations N. hypocreoides, N. placenta and N. henningsis, therefore this species has been renamed. Types of the synonyms have not been examined but from the diagrams and descriptions in the literature they appear to be identical. The variation in colour between mature and immature species included forms which were described as different species. Patouillard defined Stilbocrea to include species with perithecia more or less buried in a fleshy stroma but like Sphaerostilbe it was associated with a Stilbum conidial stage. Morphologically these speeies are Nectria-like consequently the genus has been listed as a synonym.

3. Nectria quisquiliaris Cooke. Grevillea, Vol. 8, p. 65, 1879. Plate 23, fig. 3.

Perithecia superficial, free or caespitose, in groups of 2–10 on a small pseudoparenchymatous stroma 0·5–2mm. diameter, globose, collapsing when dry 0·2–0·4mm. diameter, farinaceous coral or flesh coloured, salmon pink when dry, ostiole small umbilicate; peritheeial wall pseudoparenchymatous 50μ diameter, cells 4–6μ diameter, walls hyaline, not thickened, pigment granules present within the cells, especially in sub-hymenial layer. Asci cylindrical sometimes clavate 35–80 × 6–12μ, 4–8 spored, biseriate; pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Spores one-septate, elliptical 12–20 × 4–7μ verrucose hyaline. Conidial stage; conidiophores verticillate, sometimes united to form a sporodochium, pale flesh coloured 0·5–0·3mm. diameter, conidia cylindrical or oval, one-celled 5–9 × 3–5μ hyaline smooth.

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Type Locality: Melbourne, Australia.

Distribution: Australia, New Zealand.

Habitat:

Coprosma grandifolia Hook. f.

Auckland, Waitakere Ra., Rua-te-whenua, August 1949, J.M.D.

Coprosma robusta Raoul.

Auckland, Waitakere Ra., August 1948, J.M.D.

Cyathea dealbata Swartz.

Auckland, Waitakere Ra., August 1947, J.M.D.

Dysoxylum spectabile (Forst. f.) Hook. f.

Auckland, Whangarei Heads, October 1947, J.M.D.

Edwardsia microphylla (Ait.) Salisb.

Auckland, Whangarei Heads, October 1947, J.M.D. (2 col);

Auckland city, Purewa bush, August 1948, J.M.D.;

November 1948, D. W. McKenzie.

Melicytus ramiflorus Forst.

Auckland, Waitakere Ra., October 1946, J.M.D. August 1947, J.M.D.; August 1948, J.M.D.

Nothopanax arboreum Seem.

Auckland, Waitakere Ra. off Anawhata Rd., September 1948, J.M.D.

Pseudowintera colorata (Raoul) Dandy

Otago, Hollyford Valley, January 1950, J.M.D.

Schefflera digitata Forst.

Westland, Weheka, December 1946, J.M.D.

The large verrucose spores separate this species from N. ochroleuca. Perithecia are farinaceous, not cottony as in N. grisea and caespitose on the old conidial stroma. Observations suggest that the species is a saprophyte on dead wood but occasionally penetrated living tissue as a wound parasite.

Though the part of Cooke's type lent by Kew herbarium showed no mature perithecia the distinct morphological characters of the immature perithecia were identical with local collections. No conidia were found on the type labelled ‘conidial stage’ from Dunedin, New Zealand.

4. Nectria byssiseda Rehm. in Rabh.-Pazschke, Fung. extra-europ. No. 4152, 1900.

Plate 25, fig. 1a and b.

Perithecia scattered or gregarious, 3–6 perithecia united on a poorly developed, gelatinous stroma, globose or oval, collapsing when dry 0·1–0·2mm. yellow, translucent, ostiole small, not distinct. Perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 10–20μ thick, cells 2–6 × 2μ, cell walls not thickened but lightly pigmented. Asci clavate or elliptical 20–45 × 4–6μ thin walled, 8 spored, obliquely uniseriate or biseriate; pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Spores one-septate, fusiform, oblong or elliptical, occasionally allantoid, ends rounded sometimes constricted at septa 7–10·5 × 2–3μ verrucose, hyaline sometimes lightly tinted yellow.

Type Locality: France.

Distribution: Europe, New Zealand.

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Habitat:

Macropiper excelsum Miq.

Auckland, Whangarei Heads, Maniha, October 1947, J.M.D. Hansford (1946) suggested that N. bakeri Rehm. and N. perpusilla Sacc. were probably synonymous with this species, while Calonectria inconspicua Whit. and N. pipericola Rehm. differed in that perithecia were hairy. All these species are parasitic on sooty moulds.

Perithecia are translucent, light coloured, often yellow, and with small fusiform ascospores. In this species the filiform spores are truncated at the ends and the thin translucent, lightly pigmented perithecial walls collapsed when specimens were dried.

5. Nectria manuka sp. nov.

Plate 25, fig. 2.

Perithecia gregaria in subiculo effuso et hyalino, globosa 0·15–0·35mm. cremea vel pallide brunnea, pilosa; ostiolo minuto et umbilicato; pariete perithecii pseudoparenchymato 20–30μ crasso; cellulis 5–8 × 5–10μ; parietibus leviter tinctis, raro densatis. Asci cylindrici, interdum elliptici 35–60 × 5–6μ; 8 sporis, in apice oblique uniseriatis; pseudoparaphysibus absentibus. Sporae uniseptatae, ovatae vel ellipticae 5–9 × 2·5–4μ leves, hyalinae.

Perithecia gregarious, aggregated on an effuse, byssoid subiculum, globose collapsing, becoming pezizoid when dry 0·15–0·35mm. diameter, cream or light brown, hairy, ostiole minute; perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 20–30μ thick, cells rectangular or cuboid 5–8 × 5–10μ, walls lightly pigmented, rarely thickened. Asci cylindrical, sometimes elliptical 35–60 × 5–6μ thin-walled, 8 spored, obliquely uniseriate at apex, pseudoparaphyses absent. Spores one-septate, oval or elliptical 5–9 × 2·5–4μ, smooth, hyaline.

Type Locality: Mt. Albert, Auckland.

Distribution: New Zealand.

Habitat:

Leptospermum ericoides A. Rich.

Auckland, Mt. Albert, September 1948, D. W. McKenzie, type collection. Unknown host.

Auckland city, December 1948, D. W. McKenzie.

The species resembles N. peziza but spores are smaller and perithecia are covered with hairs. This species and the following two are characteristic of Maire's genus Nectriopsis (syn. Hyphonectria Petch) in that they possess the growth habit of a Hypomyces, but spores are typical of Nectria.

6. Nectria berkeleyana (Plowr. and Cooke) n. comb.

Hypomyces berkeleyanus Plowr. & Cooke. Grevillea Vol. II, p. 48, 1882.

Nectriopsis berkeleyana (Plowr. & Cooke) Maire. Annales Mycologici, Vol. 9, p. 323, 1911;

Hyphonectria berkeleyana (Plowr. & Cooke) Petch.

J. of Bot., Vol. 75, p. 220, 1937.

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Plate 25, fig. 3.

Perithecia gregarious on a vinaceous subiculum on undersurface of host pileus, pyriform or oval 0·25–0·3 × 0·5–0·2mm., ostiole papillate, perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 25–35μ, outer cells up to 6μ diameter, walls pigmented but not thickened, inner cells rectangular 8 × 2μ, hyaline. Asci cylindrical, ends truncate 80–95 × 3–4μ, 8 spored, uniseriate, pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Spores one-septate, oval, obovate or elliptical 7·5–10 × 3–4μ, pale yellow, verrucose.

Type Locality: England.

Distribution: England, New Zealand.

Habitat:

Stereum rameale Schw.

Auckland, Waipoua, September 1949, J.M.D.

The colour of this species appeared more intense than Petch (1938) described, but other characters agree with his description. In this New Zealand collection a massive subiculum covers the undersurface of the host pileus and the spores are typically oval, not apiculate is in Hypomyces.

7. Nectria aemulans Rehm. Annales Mycologici, Vol. 7, p. 539, 1909. Plate 24, fig. 9.

Perithecia scattered or gregarious on a thin, effuse, hyaline subiculum 20μ thick, globose, pezizoid when dry 0·2–0·3mm. diameter, salmon pink, translucent and hairy, ostiole papillate; perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 40μ thick, cells 4–6 × 5–10μ, thin walled, lightly pigmented yellow, sub-hymenial layer pigmented but structure difficult to discern. Asci elavate or elliptical thin walled 50–75 × 8–10μ, 6–8 spored, biseriate, pseudoparaphyses diffluent. Spores one-septate, elliptical or fusiform, ends truncate 14–20 × 4–6μ, smooth, hyaline.

Type Locality: Sao Lepoldo, South Brazil.

Distribution: South America, New Zealand.

Habitat:

Cyathea medullaris Swartz.

Auckland, Waitakere Ra., Anawhata Rd., March 1948, J.M.D.;

Henderson, Stony Creek, April 1948, J.M.D.; May 1948, J.M.D.

Hunua Ra., Moumoukai Valley, June 1949, J.M.D.

Specimens agree with Rehm's description. Both occurred on dead fern stipes. Rehm remarked that the species had the growth habit of Hypomyces. Local collections form a salmon pink mass on fallen stipes of Cyathea medullaris. Colonies are fringed with a mass of white mycelium in which perithecia are semi-immersed. Spores are longer than those of the two preceding species, and fusiform not oval as in N. peziza.

8. Nectria peziza (Tode) Fr. Summa Vegetabilium Scandinaviae, p. 388, 1849.

Sphaeria peziza Tode ex Fr. Syst. Myc., Vol 2, p. 452, 1822;

Dialonectria peziza (Tode) Cooke. Grevillea, Vol, 12, p. 110, 1884. Plate 22, 2a and b.

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Perithecia free, scattered or gregarious on a poorly developed stroma, globose, collapsing and becoming pezizoid when dry 0·1–0·3mm. diameter, coral coloured, translucent, farinaceous, some-times hairy, ostiole papillate; perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 60μ wide, cells up to 10μ. diameter, cell walls lightly pigmented, not thickened. Asci cylindrical, sometimes clavate 60–75 × 7–12μ., 4–8 spored, biseriate at apex; pseudoparaphyses filamentous and branched. Spores one-septate, broadly elliptical or oval 9–16 × 3·5–6μ, smooth, hyaline.

Type Locality: Mecklenburg, Germany.

Distribution: Europe, North America, New Zealand.

Habitat:

Hoheria populnea A. Cunn.

Auckland, Titirangi, March 1946, J.M.D.

Poria sp.

Auckland, Auckland city, Purewa bush, November 1948.

D. W. McKenzie; Titirangi, May 1948, J.M.D.

Thyronectria polytricha (Schw.) Seeler.

Auckland, Waitakere Ra., off Anawhata Rd., April 1948, J.M.D.

Perithecia are lightly coloured, translucent and thin walled often among hairlike white mycelium. Spores are broadly oval and similar to those of N. tawa, not fusiform as in N. aemulans.

9. Nectria hauturu sp. nov.

Plate 23, fig. 2.

Perithecia libere sparsa vel gregaria, in stromate parvo et erum-penti, globosa 0·3–0·5mm. diameter, corallina, corruentia; ostiolo umbilicato; pariete perithecii pseudoparenchymato 120μ. crasso; cellulis densatis et leviter tinctis. Asci cylindrici vel clavati 50–90 × 8–10μ; 4–8 sporis biseriatis; psendoparaphysibus. Sporae uniseptatae, fusi-formes, ellipticae vel ovatae, 9–26 × 4–8μ, leves, hyalinae.

Perithecia scattered or aggregated into groups of 2–10 seated on a poorly developed erumpent stroma, globose 0·3–0·5mm. coral or salmon pink, collapsing when dry, ostiole umbilicate; perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 120μ thick, outer cells 10–20μ diameter, walls lightly thickened and pigmented, subhymenial cells 3–4μ diameter, walls thickened and pigmented. Asci clavate or cylindrical 50–90 × 8–10μ, 4–8 spored, biseriate; pseudoparaphyses filamentous, branched. Spores one-septate, sometimes unequally divided by septa, fusiform, elliptical or oval, occasionally allantoid, rarely spherical, 9–26 × 4–8μ smooth, hyaline.

Type Locality: Little Barrier Island, New Zealand.

Distribution: New Zealand.

Habitat:

Carmichaelia sp.

Auckland, Little Barrier Isl., December 1947, J.M.D. type collection.

Similar to N. cinnabarina differing in that perithecia are lighter coloured and spores irregular in shape and size. Perithecia collapse when dry. They are aggregated into clusters of 3 to 10 on a small erumpent stroma.

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10. Nectria ruapehu sp. nov.

Plate 25, fig. 4.

Perithecia gregaria vel caespitosa in stromate parvo et pseudo-parenchymato; globosa, 0·2–0·5mm. diam., corallina, translucida; ostiolo obscuro; pariete perithecii pseudoparenchymato 55–60μ crasso; cellulis exterioribus hyalinis; cellulis interioribus leviter tinctis. Asci cylindrici 45–65 × 6μ; parientibus tenuibus; 8 sporis, oblique uniseriatis; pseudoparaphysibus absentibus. Sporae uni-septatae, late ellipticae, 8–11 × 5–6μ, verrucosae, pallide luteae.

Perithecia gregarious or caespitose on or immersed in a poorly developed pseudoparenchymatous stroma, globose 0·2–0·5mm. diameter, coral coloured darker when mature, translucent, ostiole small, indistinct, perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 55–60μ thick, cells 8–10μ diameter, outer cells thick walled but hyaline, inner cells pigmented. Asci cylindrical 45–65 × 6μ, 8 spored, obliquely uniseriate; pseudoparaphyses diffluent. Spores one-septate, broadly elliptical constricted at septa 8–11 × 5–6μ, sometimes non-septate, globose, 6–8μ diameter, verrucose, yellow, thick walled.

Type Locality: Mangatorutoru Stream, Mt. Ruapehu.

Distribution: New Zealand.

Habitat:

Coprosma pseudocuneata Oliver.

Wellington, Mangatorutoru Stream, Mt. Ruapehu, March 1948, J.M.D. type collection; Whakapapa-iti Stream, October 1949, J.M.D.

Perithecia appear in small clusters of 3–10 often on an old leaf sear at the base of a lateral branch. Spores are broader than those of N. hauturu and perithecia are immersed in the stroma similar to a Hypocrea. The perithecial wall consists of thick walled, almost hyaline cells.

11. Nectria galligena Bresadola ex Strassr. Vert. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, Vol. 51, p. 413, 1901.

Dialonectria galligena (Bres.) Petch. Catalogue of Yorkshire Fungi, p. 37, 1937.

Plate 24, fig. 3.

Perithecia separate, scattered or gregarious in groups of 3 or 4, oval or globose 0·15–0·3 × 0·25–0·4mm., dull red, darker when mature, smooth, ostiole papillate and surrounded by a smooth ring of tissue, perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 50μ thick, cells 5–8μ diameter, rectangular or cuboid, walls pigmented and densely thickened. Asci clavate or cylindrical 60–100 × 8–10μ, 8 spored, obliquely uniseriate, occasionally biseriate at apex, pseudoparaphyses filamentous and branched. Spores one-septate, sometimes constricted at septa, elliptical or broadly oval 14–20 × 4–7μ, hyaline, smooth. Conidial stage; conidiophores aggregated into small, white tufted pustules, conidia cylindrical, linear, sometimes curved 3–4 septate 20–30 × 2μ Cylindrocarpon wilkommi (Lind.) Wollenw.

Type Locality: Austria.

Distribution: Europe, North and South America, South Africa, Japan, New Zealand.

– 187 –

Habitat:

Pyrus malus L.

Auckland, Whangarei, April 1925, P. E. Everett (3 col.); Auckland city, July 1946, Hort. Div.; October 1947. Anon.; New Lynn, July 1939, P. Fry; Mt. Albert, July 1948, D. W. McKenzie; September 1949, J. A. Hunter; Henderson, December 1949, Hort. Div.

N. galligena, a species which causes considerable damage to branches of apple trees, has been collected from the Auckland province. T. W. Kirk (1905) recorded apple canker from New Zealand but identified the casual organism as N. ditissima Tul. Cayley (1921) stated that the fungus responsible for apple canker in England was N. galligena, not N. ditissima. Cunningham (1925) recorded N. galligena from material collected near Whangarei.

Perithecia are small and dark coloured, a stroma is not present and asci are rounded at the apex, not truncate as in N. punicea. As the species is found only on an introduced host, it is probable that it has been introduced into New Zealand.

12. Nectria fragilis sp. nov.

Plate 25, fig. 3.

Perithecia gregaria in corona erumpenti, globosa 0·2–0·4mm. diam., miniata ad colorem ferrugineum pallescentia; ostiolo papillato; pariete perithecii pseudoparenchymato 40–50μ crasso; cellulis 5–15μ diam., parietibus densatis et tinctis. Asci clavati vel elliptici; 8 sporis biseriatis. Sporae uniseptatae, ellipticae, filiformes, 15–22 × 4·5–6μ, leves, hyalinae.

Status conidialis. Conidia globosa vel elliptica, 3–7 × 3–4μ.

Perithecia gregarious in erumpent clusters of 10 or more, stroma absent; globose 0.2–0.4mm. diameter, scarlet, fading to ferruginous, wrinkled occasionally with irregular tubercles, ostiole distinct, papillate and surrounded by a disc of smooth tissue; perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 40–50μ thick, cells 5–15 × 5–10μ, rectangular or cuboid, pigmented and thickened. Asci elliptical or clavate, 74–110 × 10–14μ, 8 spored, spores biseriate, occasionally uniseriate at base, pseudoparaphyses filamentous, branched. Spores one-septate, elliptical, filiform 15–22 × 4·5–6μ, smooth, hyaline. Conidial stage; conidiophores stout, compacted to form a pale salmon stroma, conidia globose or elliptical 3–7 × 3–4μ. Tubercularia sp.

Type Locality: Lower Hollyford, Otago.

Distribution: New Zealand.

Habitat: Pseudowintera colorata (Raoul) Dandy.

Otago, Lower Hollyford, January 1950, J.M.D. (2 col. one being type).

Perithecia are globose, never oval as in N. galligena and sometimes covered with scalelike tubercles. Spores are arranged biseriately in the ascus, elliptical, or broadly elliptical, never oval.

13. Nectria otagensis Currey ex Lindsay in Trans. Royal Soc. Edinburgh, Vol. 24, pp. 407–457, 1867.

– 188 –

Calonectria otagensis (Linds.) Sacc. Sylloge Fungorum Vol. 2 addenda p. 68, 1883.

Plate 22, fig. 3.

Perithecia caespitose, semi-immersed in a salmon pink, fleshy, pulvinate prosenchymatous stroma 1–3mm. diameter; perithecia globose 0·1–0·45mm. ostiole papillate and pigmented; perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous, cells loosely aggregated 75μ thick, outer cells thickened and pigmented, sub-hymenial layer hyaline, cells thin walled. Asci cylindrical or clavate 50–120 × 6–10μ, 8 spored, uniseriate; pseudoparaphyses filamentous. Spores one-septate, elliptic-oblong, 12–20 × 4–8μ smooth, hyaline.

Type Locality: Green Island bush, near Dunedin, New Zealand.

Distribution: Australia, New Zealand.

Habitat: Melicytus ramiflorus Forst.

Wellington, Weraroa, September 1919, E. H. Atkinson; May 1923, G. H. Cunningham; Wanganui, Kahi, December 1932, E. E. Chamberlain.

Unknown host.

Stewart Isl., February 1882, T. Kirk.

Superficially this species appears similar to species of Hypocrea for as in N. ruapehu perithecia are immersed in the stroma; but the spores are typical of Nectria. Saccardo (1883) included the species in the genus Calonectria; it seemed probable that he misinterpreted as septa the large vacuoles of the immature spores.

14. Nectria aurantiicola Berkeley and Broome. Journal of Linnean Soc., Vol. 14, p. 117, 1875.

Sphaerostilbe coccophila Tul. 1865 quad Rabenhorst Fungi Europaei Exsicc. Ed. nov. Ser. II, No. 262, p. 269; S. aurantiicola (Berk. and Br.) Petch Ann. Perad. Vol. 7, p. 119, 1920; Nectria coccophila (Tul.) Wollenw & Reinking, Die. Fusarien, pp. 34–36, 1935 (in part); N. episphaeria f. coccophila Snyder & Hausen Am. J. of Bot., Vol. 32, p. 665, 1945.

Plate 24, fig. 5.

Perithecia caespitose or gregarious, superficial on scale insects, oval or pyriform 0.1–0.25 × 0.2–0.3mm. blood red, dark red, or black when mature and dry, ostiole distinctly papillate, perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 20–30μ thick, cells 4–6μ diameter, cell walls pigmented but not thickened. Asci cylindrical or clavate, ends truncate 55–90 × 5–8μ, 8 spored, uniseriate; pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Spores one-septate, oval, or elliptical 8–15 × 3.5–6μ verrucose, light brown.

Conidial stage, conidiophores united to form a stalklike or pulvinate stroma, coral or scarlet, conidia 6–9 septate, cylindrical, filiform, sometimes falcate, apex apiculate 60–90 × 4–5.5μ a few sporidia 3 septate, crescent shaped 12–13 × 4μ. Fusarium coccophilum (Desm.) Wollenw. & Reinking, or Microcera aurantiicola Petch.

Type Locality: Ceylon.

Distribution: North America, Europe, India, Japan, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand.

– 189 –

Habitat: on scale insects on Citrus sp.

Auckland, Tauranga, October 1926, P. Everett; February 1936, W. Cottier.

On scale insects on Pyrus malus L.

Auckland, Thames, November 1926, P. Everett.

On scale insects on Meryta sinclairii Seem.

Auckland city, December 1948, D. W. McKenzie.

On scale insects on Entelea arborescens R. Br.

Auckland city, December 1948, D. W. McKenzie.

Under N. coccophila Tul. Wollenweber & Reinking (1935) included all species of Nectria with a Fusarium conidial stage which attacked scale insects. Petch (1921) separated this species from N. flammea by its smaller perithecia and spores, and absence of stroma.

15. Nectria flammea (Tulasne) comb. nov.

Sphaerostilbe flammea (Tul. Sel. Fungi. Carp. 1, p. 138, 1861; S. coccophila Tul. (1865) quoad Desm. Plantes Crypt. de France 2nd Ed. ser. I, No. 1350 et 1st Ed. ser. I, No. 1750.

Plate 22, fig. 5.

Perithecia caespitose on a well developed, pulvinate pseudoparenchymatous stroma 0.5–2.5mm. diameter, formed at the base of a stalked conidial stroma, globose or pyriform, 0.2–0.3mm. diameter scarlet, darker when mature, rugose, ostiole papillate and surrounded by a distinct darker coloured area, perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 40μ thick, cells 3–5μ diameter, cell walls pigmented and thickened, sub-hymenial layer hyaline but mycelium evanescent. Asci cylindrical, ends rounded 100–150 × 7–10μ, 4–8 spored, uniseriate; pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Spores one-septate, sometimes constricted at septa, elliptical or oval 15–24 × 6–10μ, verrucose, light brown, thin walled. Conidial stage; conidiophores usually united into synnema, flesh coloured sometimes scarlet, translucent, spores 4–9 septate, cylindrical, filiform, usually falcate, apex apiculate 34–95 × 3–6μ, hyaline. Microcera coccophila Desm.

Type Locality: Europe.

Distribution: Europe, North and South America, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand.

Habitat:

Scale insects on Brachyglottis repanda Forst.

Auckland, Hunua Ra., Moumoukai Valley, October 1946, J.M.D.; Turangi, Mt. Pihanga, 2,000ft. October 1949, J.M.D.

Scale insect on Coprosma areolata Cheesem.

Auckland, Whangarei Heads, October 1947, J.M.D.

Scale insects on Coprosma grandifolia Hook. f.

Auckland, Waitakere Ra., Cascade Kauri Park, December 1947, J.M.D.

Scale insects on Dysoxylum spectabile Hook. f.

Auckland Henderson, May 1948, J.M.D.

Scale insects on Melicytus ramiflorus Forst.

Auckland, Little Barrier Isl., December 1947, J.M.D. (2 col.).

– 190 –

Scale insects on Ribes sativum Syme.

Auckland, Tauranga, August 1947, A. R. Grainger;

Mt. Albert, July 1948, D. W. McKenzie.

Scale insects on Solanum auriculatum Ait.

Auckland, Orakei, September 1948, D. W. McKenzie.

Scale insects on unknown host.

Wellington, Weraroa, December 1924, G. H. Cunningham.

Lloyd incorrectly identified the collection from Weraroa on an unknown host as N. illudens. In N. illudens perithecia are tuberculate and spores marked with longitudinal striae. The conidial stage is similar to that of N. aurantiicola but Petch (1921) differentiated between the two species as small curved 3 septate conidia are common in N. aurantiicola only. He recorded the conidial stage only from New Zealand material in Herbarium Kew collected by W. Colenso.

16. Nectria punicea (Kunze and Schmidt) Fries. Summa Vegetabilium Scandinaviae, p. 387, 1849.

Sphaeria punicea Kunze & Schmidt ex Fries. Syst Myc. Vol. 2, p. 415, 1822; Nectria ditissima Tul. Sel. Fung. Carp., Vol. 3, p. 72, 1865.

Plate 24, fig. 10.

Perithecia superficial, gregarious on an erumpent pseudoparenchymatous stroma, translucent, gelatinous when fresh, globose 0.2–0.3mm. bright red, darker when mature, ostiole distinct, dark coloured, papillate; perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 20–30μ thick, cells 4–7μ diameter, walls pigmented and thickened. Asci cylindrical occasionally clavate, apex truncate when immature, 60–100 × 6–10μ, 8 spored, uniseriate, occasionally biseriate at apex; pseudoparaphyses filamentous. Spores one-septate, elliptical 14–18 × 5–8μ hyaline and verrucose.

Type Locality: Europe.

Distribution: Europe, North America, New Zealand.

Habitat:

Aristotelia serrata (Forst.) Oliver.

Auckland, Turangi, Mt. Pihanga 1,500ft, October 1949, J.M.D.

Coprosma sp.

Auckland, Waitakere Ra., Henderson, May 1948, J.M.D.

Coprosma areolata Cheesem.

Auckland, Whangarei Heads, October 1947, J.M.D.

Coprosma foetidissima Forst.

Otago, Upper Hollyford Valley, January 1950, J.M.D.

Coprosma robusta Raoul.

Auckland, Turangi, Mt. Pihanga 2,000ft, October 1949, J.M.D.

Pittosporum colensoi Hook. f.

Auckland, Ruapehu Mt. Whakapapa-iti stream, October 1949, J.M.D.

Pittosporum eugenioides A. Cunn.

Auckland, Turangi, Pihanga Mt. 2,000ft, October 1947, J.M.D.

Unknown host.

Wellington, Botanical Gardens, October 1922, G. H. Cunningham.

– 191 –

Sydow, 1924, recorded the last collection as N. galligena forma. Spores of this species are verrucose and larger than in N. galligena. When immature a thickened truncated apex protrudes above the contents of the ascus.

17. Nectria coccinea (Pers.) Fr. Summa Vegetabilium Scandinaviae, p. 388, 1849.

Sphaeria coccinea Pers. ex Fr. Syst. Mycol., Vol. 2, p. 412, 1822.

Creonectria coccinea (Pers.) Seaver. Mycologia Vol. 1, p. 188, 1909.

Plate 22, fig. 6.

Perithecia caespitose on a pulvinate erumpent pseudoparenchymatous ochraceous stroma, 2–3mm. diameter, globose or oval 0·2–0·25mm. diameter, scarlet, ostiole distinct, papillate; perithecial walls pseudoparenchymatous 20–30μ thick, cells 5–10 × 8–12μ diameter, cell walls pigmented and thickened. Asci cylindrical or clavate 80–110 × 8–10μ, 4–8 spored, obliquely uniseriate, biseriate at apex; pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Spores one-septate, elliptical or fusiform 14–20 × 5–8μ echinulate, hyaline. Conidial stage; conidiophores united to form a pulvinate sporodochium, orange or red coloured, conidia cylindrical, occasionally falcate 3–6 transverse septa 28–30 × 2·5–4μ. Fusarium sp.

Type Locality: Europe.

Distribution: Europe, North and South America, Australia, New Zealand.

Habitat:

Carmichaelia sp.

Westland, Weheka, Fox Glacier Rd., December, 1946, J.M.D.

Cooke (1879) recorded N. coccinea from New Zealand. Unlike in N. punicea a well defined stroma is present and spores are minutely echinulate not verrucose.

18. Nectria sanguinea (Bolton) Fries. Summa Vegetabilium Scandinaviae, p. 388, 1849.

Sphaeria sanguinea Bolt. ex. Fr. Syst. Myc., Vol. 2, p. 453, 1823; S. epishaeria Tode ex Fr. Syst. Myc. Vol. 2, p. 454, 1823; Nectria episphaeria (Tode) Fr. Summa Veg. Scand. p. 388, 1849; Dialonectria episphaeria (Fr.) Cooke. Grevillea Vol. 12, p. 82, 1884; D. sanguinea (Bolt.) Cooke. Grevillea Vol. 12, p. 110, 1884.

Plate 24, fig. 4.

Perithecia superficial, scattered or caespitose in groups of 2–6, stroma occasionally present, globose, oval or pyriform, often collapsing when dry 0·15–0·25mm. diameter, scarlet, ostiole distinctly papillate; perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 30μ thick, cells 5–6μ diameter, mycelial walls pigmented and thickened. Asci cylindrical 48–95 × 5–6μ, 8 spored, uniseriate; pseudoparaphyses evanescent or absent. Spores one-septate, oval, often constricted at septa 6–14 × 3–5μ, tuberculate, light brown or yellow.

Type Locality: Nova-Scotia, Canada.

Distribution: Europe, North and South America, Australia, New Zealand.

– 192 –

Habitat:

Diatrype sp.

Auckland, Mt. Albert, September 1948, D. W. McKenzie.

Fomitopsis hemitephra (Berk.) G. H. Cunningham.

Otago, Otautau, November 1946, G. B. Rawlings.

Hypoxylon sp.

Auckland, Hunua Ra., July 1946, J.M.D. September 1947. J.M.D.; June 1949, J.M.D.; Little Barrier Isl., November 1947, J.M.D. (5 col.); Waitakere Ra., Titirangi, May 1948, J.M.D.

Wellington, Weraroa, September 1919, G. H. Cunningham (2 col.); Butterfly Reserve, May 1947, G. B. Rawlings.

Otago, Lower Hollyford Valley, January 1950, J.M.D.

Lupinus arboreus L.

Auckland, Piha, July 1947, J.M.D.

Unknown Sphaeriaceous fungi.

Auckland, Turangi, slopes of Mt. Pihanga, October 1949, J.M.D.; Waitakere Ra., Titirangi, June 1949, J.M.D.; Rua-tewhenua, August 1949, J.M.D.

The species was first recorded from Hawke's Bay by Colenso (1886) from material determined by M. C. Cooke as N. episphaeria. Seaver (1909) separated N. episphaeria and N. sanguinea on spore characters and the nature of the host but noted that the two species were similar. The differences in spore size and shape used by Seaver to separate the two species were present in any one of above collections. Petch's findings that the two species were synonyms was followed. Wollenweber (1931) listed Fusarium aquaeductum Lagerh. var. medium Wollenw. as the conidial stage of N. episphaeria; Snyder and Hansen (1945) renamed this conidial stage as Fusarium episphaeria. No conidial form was found in the New Zealand collections.

19. Nectria cinnabarina (Tode) Fries. Summa Vegetabilium Scandinaviae, p. 383, 1849.

Sphaeria cinnabarina Tode ex Fr. Syst. Myc., Vol. 2, p. 412, 1822.

Nectria purpurea (L.) Wilson & Seaver. Jour. Mycology, Vol. 13, p. 51, 1907.

Creonectria purpurea (L.) Seaver. Mycologia, Vol. I, p. 184, 1909.

Plate 22, fig. 4.

Perithecia superficial, caespitose on an erumpent, pulvinate pseudoparenchymatous stroma 1–3mm. diameter, globose 0·2–0·4mm. diameter, vermilion, umber when overmature, tuberculate, ostiole papillate and surrounded by a distinct darkly pigmented zone, perithecial wall 40μ thick, pseudoparenchymatous cells 5–6μ diameter, walls pigmented and thickened. Asci clavate sometimes shortly stalked 45–80 × 6–12μ, 8–spored, biseriate, pseudoparaphyses filamentous, branched. Spores one-septate, elliptical or obovate, occasionally allantoid 14–17 × 3–6μ hyaline, smooth. Conidial stage; conidiophores 50–100μ long, compacted together to form an erumpent pulvinate sporodochium, scarlet or orange, translucent when fresh; conidia one-celled, oblong oval or cylindrical, sometimes allantoid 6–8 × 2–5μ

– 193 –

hyaline. Tubercularia vulgaris Tode.

Type Locality: Europe.

Distribution: Europe, North America, Ceylon, Tasmania. New Zealand.

Habitat:

Abutilon sp.

Otago: Invercargill, November 1949, D. A. Richards.

Cytisus scoparius Link.

Wellington, September 1919, E. B. Levy.

Edwardsia microphylla (Ait.) Salisb.

Otago: Ravensbourne, December 1919, G. H. Cunningham.

Juglans regia L.

Canterbury: Christchurch, May 1947, G. B. Rawlings.

Laburnum sp.

Otago: November 1919, G. H. Cunningham.

Prunus armeniaca L.

Otago: December 1919, G. H. Cunningham.

Prunus avium L.

Otago: February 1947, J. D. Atkinson.

Prunus persica Sieb. & Zucc.

Otago: December 1919, G. H. Cunningham.

Pyrus communis L.

Hawke's Bay, Hastings, August 1922, G. H. Cunningham.

Ribes sanguineum Pursh.

Otago, Earnscleugh, September 1949, F. O. McCarthy.

Ribes sativum Syme.

Otago: Queenstown, February 1948, J.M.D.

Kirk first recorded N. cinnabarina from New Zealand in 1905 on Prunus armeniaca L. Cunningham (1925b) recorded the species from stone and pome fruits, small fruits, horse chestnut, mulberry, silver birch, maple and broom. Up to the present this species has been recorded only on one native host, suggesting that it has been introduced on some cultivated plant.

20. Nectria zelandica Cooke. Grevillea, Vol. 8, p. 65, 1879.

Perithecia caespitose on a pseudoparenchymatous stroma 0·5–1mm. diameter, globose 0·2–0·35mm. diameter, scarlet, fading to coral sometimes farinaceous, usually tuberculate, ostiole darker coloured papillate; perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous up to 50μ thick, cells 4–10μ diameter, cell wall thickened and pigmented. Asci cylindrical or clavate 80–100 × 8–12μ ends rounded, 4–8 spored, uniseriate, biseriate at apex, occasionally biseriate, pseudoparaphyses absent. Spores one-septate, occasionally unicellular, elliptical or oval, 12–22 × 5·5–8μ, hyaline, smooth. Conidial stage; conidiophores united to form an erumpent sporodochium, coral coloured, darker when dry, spores cylindrical, ends apiculate, foot cells well defined, occasionally falcate 29–60 × 2·5–4μ, 3–5 septate, mostly 4. Fusarium sp.

Type Locality: Little River, Banks Peninsula, Canterbury.

Distribution: New Zealand, Australia.

Habitat:

Hoheria glabrata Sprague & Summerh.

– 194 –

Otago: L. Te Anau, February 1948, J.M.D.; Arthur R., Milford Sound, February 1948, J.M.D.

Unknown host.

Wellington, Weraroa, G. H. Gunningham. September 1919.

Although similar to N. cinnabarina this species has been separated by its irregularly shaped spores; these are broader and vary in length from 12 to 20μ. Spores from part of the type collection forwarded from Kew Herbarium were smaller than the measurements given by Cooke. Irregular warts are well developed on perithecia in the type collection and in specimens from Weraroa but are reduced to scales in collections from Hoheria.

21. Nectria haematococcus Berkeley and Broome. J. Linnean Soc., Vol 14, p. 116, 1873.

Dialonectria haematococcus Cke. Grevillea, Vol. 12, p. 110, 1883; Nectria diversispora Petch. Annales Perydeniya Vol. 3, p. 4, 1906; Hypomyces haematococcus Reinke & Wollenw. Ang. Bot., Vol. 8, p. 191, 1926.

Perithecia free, occasionally gregarious on a poorly developed stroma, globose 0·35–0·5mm. diameter, orange or scarlet tuberculate; perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 60μ wide, tubercles up to 100μ high, cells 10–30μ diameter, walls pigmented and thickened. Asci clavate or cylindrical 70–100 × 8μ, 4–8 spored, obliquely uniseriate, biseriate at apex, pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Spores one-septate, ovate or oval, sometimes pyriform 12–17 × 6–8μ, sometimes constricted at septa, striate and lightly tinted yellow. Conidia borne in clusters 0–4 septate, cylindrical, sometimes curved, foot cells clearly defined 16–40 × 4–6μ. Fusarium solani (Mart.) Appel & Wollenw.

Type Locality: Ceylon.

Distribution: Asia. Africa. Central and South America, New Zealand.

Habitat:

Hedycarya arborea Forst. f.

Auckland, Purewa bush, September 1948, D. W. McKenzie.

Knightia excelsa R. Br.

Auckland, Pirongia, December, 1945, J.M.D.

Melicytus ramiflorus Forst.

Auckland, Whangarei, June 1948, J.M.D.

Unknown host.

Auckland, Waitakere Ra., November 1941, J.M.D.

Wollenweber (1913) interpreted the genus Hypomyces to include all species with chlamydospores in their conidial stage for he held this feature was more important than perithecial characters. He included many Nectria species in Hypomyces. Petch (1920) suggested that N. cancri Rutgers and N. coffeicola Zimmerman were synonymous with N. haematococcus. Wollenweber (1943) listed N. citri P. Henn., N. asperata Rehm., N. luteo-coccinea Hoehnel and N. victoriae P. Henn. as synonyms, but treated N. cancri as a variety of N. haematococcus.

22. Nectria illudens Berkeley. Flora Tasmaniae, Vol. 2, p. 203, 1860. Plate 24, fig. 6.

– 195 –

Perithecia scattered, stroma absent, globose 0·4–0·5mm. diameter, tuberculate, ochraceous, umber or scarlet, ostiole distinct, papillated; perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 70μ thick, tubercles 100μ high, cells large 20–30μ diameter, cell walls thickened and pigmented. Asci elliptical cylindrical, usually truncate at apex 54–160 × 10–15μ, 4–8 spored, spores obliquely uniseriate in ascus. pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Spores one-septate, slightly constricted at septa, broadly elliptical, sometimes oval, 20–30 × 10–14μ, often constricted at septa, striate, lightly tinted yellow, thick walled (1μ diameter).

Type Locality: New Zealand.

Distribution: New Zealand.

Habitat:

Brachyglottis repanda Forst.

Auckland. Hunua Ra., Moumoukai Valley, October 1946.

J.M.D.

Corynocarpus laevigata Forst.

Auckland, Waitakere Ra., Henderson, January 1948, J.M.D.

Dysoxylum spectabile (Forst. f.) Hook. f.

Auckland, Little Barrier Isl., December 1947, J.M.D.

Melicytus ramiflorus Forst.

Auckland, Hunua Ra., Moumoukai Valley, October 1946, J.M.D.; Waitakere Ra., Piha Valley, June 1946, J.M.D.; September 1948, J.M.D.; Henderson, Mountain Rd., May 1948, J.M.D.; Rua-te-whenua, August 1949, J.M.D.

Wellington, Weraroa, May 1919, G. H. Cunningham.

Unknown host.

Auckland, Swanson, November 1941, J.M.D.

Wellington, York Bay, July 1923, E. J. Butler and G. H. Cunningham.

The external appearance is similar to that of N. haematococcus but the striate spores are larger. Young perithecia are first scarlet, becoming orange or ochraceous when mature.

23. Nectria balsanae Spegazini. Annal. Soc. Cientif., Vol. 16, p. 233, 1883.

N. subfurfuracea P. Henn & E. Nym. Monsunia, Vol. 1, p. 64, 1899.

Plate 22, fig. 2.

Perithecia gregarious on an erumpent prosenchymatous stroma, colonies up to 1 cm. diameter, perithecia globose or oval 0·2–0·3mm. diameter, tuberculate, red or coral, farinaceous with crystals secreted by the perithecial wall, perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 50μ thick cells up to 12μ diameter, walls pigmented and thickened, asci cylindrical or clavate 90–120 × 10–12μ, truncate, 6–8 spored, uniseriate sometimes biseriate at apex, pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Spores one-septate, elliptical or pyriform, ends rounded 16–24 × 6–10μ hyaline or lightly pigmented, striate.

Type Locality: Paraguay.

Distribution: South America, Africa, Java.

Habitat:

Hoheria populnea A. Cunn.

– 196 –

Auckland, Titirangi, February 1947, J.M.D.; Auckland city, April 1949, D. W. McKenzie.

Unlike N. haematococcus and N. illudens the species possesses a pulvinate stroma but perithecia are smaller and appear farinaceous with crystals adhering to the outer cells; Hoehnel and Weese (1911) listed N. subfurfuracea as a synonym of N. balsanae. Weese (1915) also suggested that N. sukanensis P. Henn., N. cainitonis P. Henn. and N. congensis Sydow. were synonyms. He stated that these species differed from N. balsanae in colour, ornamentation of the perithecia, presence or absence of a stroma, and in spore size; none of which he considered were sufficiently distinct to warrant specific separation. New Zealand collections show similar characters which appear distinct and constant. N. plagianthi was separated on spore size, in N. illudens a stroma was absent, while in N. haematococcus the spores were smaller.

24. Nectria plagianthi sp. nov.

Plate 24, fig. 2a, 2b.

Perithecia caespitosa in stromate erumpenti ad 1 cm. diam., globosa vel ovata 0·3–0·4mm. diam., tuberculata, aurantiaca vel testacea; ostiolo papillato, pariete perithecii 120μ crasso, cellulis 10–15 × 12–22μ, parietibus densatis et tinetis. Asci parietibus tenuibus, clavati vel elliptici 140–200 × 18–24μ, 4–8 sporis uniseriatis. Sporae ovatae vel obovatae, uniseptatae 22–38 × 10–16μ, striatae, pallide luteae.

Perithecia caespitose on an erumpent stroma, up to 1 cm. diameter globose or ovate, 0·3–0·4mm. tuberculate, orange or latericius, ostiole papillated, often collapsed in dried specimens; perithecial wall 120μ thick, cells 10–15 × 12–22μ, walls thickened and pigmented, inner cells smaller and rectangular 10–12 × 5–10μ, walls lightly pigmented. Asci thin walled, elliptical, clavate ends pointed 140–200 × 18–24μ, 4–8 spored, uniseriate. Spores one-septate ovate or obovate 22–38 × 10–16μ, striate, lightly pigmented yellow.

Type Locality: Otago, Upper Hollyford Valley.

Distribution: New Zealand.

Habitat:

Hoheria glabrata Sprag. & Summerh.

Otago: L. McKellar, February 1948, J.M.D.; Arthur R. Milford, February 1948.

Plagianthus betulinus A. Cunn.

Otago, Upper Hollyford Valley, February 1950, J.M.D. (type col.); Arthur R. Milford. February 1948.

The perithecia are similar to N. balsanae and are arranged on a large pulvinate stroma but the spores are much larger and are biseriately arranged at the apex of the clavate asci.

25. Nectria rubi Osterwalder. Ber. deutsch. Bot. Gesell., Vol. 29, p. 620, 1911.

Nectria mammoidea var. rubi Weese. Zeitschr. Garungsphys., Vol. 1, p. 128, 1912; Hypomyces rubi (Osterw.) Wollenw. Phytopath., Vol. 3, p. 211, 1913.

Picture icon

Section of perithecium and spores:
1. Nectria peziza
2. N. balsanae
3. N. atagensis
4. N. cinnabarina
5. N. flammea
6. N. coccinea

Picture icon

Section of perithecium and spores:
1. N. ochroleuca
2. N. hauturu
3. N. quisquillaris
4. N. mammoidea
5. N. tasmanica

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1. N. tawa. Section of perithecium and spores.
2. N. plagianthia. Ascus and spores.
3. N. galligena. Ascus and spores.
4. N. sanguinea. Ascus and spores.
5. N. aurantilcola. Section of perithecium and spores.
6. N. illudens. Section of perithecium and spores.
7. N. westlandica. Section of perithecium and spores.
8. N. grisea. Section of perithecium and spores.
9. N. aemulans. Ascus and spores.
10. N. punicea. Ascus and spores.
11. N. coprasmae. Ascus and spores.

Picture icon

Section of perithecium and spores:
1. N. byssiseda
2. N. manuka
3. N. berkeleyana.
4. N. ruapehu
5. N. fragilis

– 197 –

Perithecia scattered, sometimes in clusters of 2–4 perithecia on a poorly developed stroma, globose or obpyriform 0·3–0·5mm. diameter, bright red, darkening to vinaceous brown or black when mature, smooth, sometimes wrinkled, ostiole papillated; perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 80–100μ, cell wall densely thickened and pigmented, structure difficult to discern, sub-hymenial layer hyaline, effuse. Asci clavate or cylindrical 80–120 × 5–6μ, 8 spored, uniseriate; pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Spores one-septate, broadly elliptical 12–16 × 5–7μ hyaline and verrucose.

Type Locality: Wadenswil, Switzerland.

Distribution: Europe, New Zealand.

Habitat:

Rubus ideaus L.

Nelson, Riwaka, January 1949. P. Fry; Tapawera, January 1949, P. Fry.

Viburnum sp.

Wellington, Palmerston North, November 1949, P. B. Coleman.

Pethybridge (1927) described a Fusarium stage with conidia with 0–5 septa, 12–60 × 5·5–7μ, sickle shaped and borne on branched conidiophores; also he stated that Osterwalder described a violet coloured sporodochium. No conidia are present in New Zealand collections. Curtis (1946) recorded a species of Nectria causing crown-rot of raspberries in Nelson, but did not identify the species. Petch (1938) followed Weese and listed the species as a variety of N. mammoidea but stated that it possessed smaller spores. Wollenweber included the species in the genus Hypomyces as chlamydospores were present in cultures of the fungus.

26. Nectria mammoidea Philip and Plowright. Orevillea, Vol. 3, p. 126, 1875.

Plate 23, fig. 4.

Perithecia superficial, scattered or caespitose on a brick red pseudoparenchymatous stroma, colonies 0·5–2mm, diameter, oval or globose 0·4–0·5mm. diameter, scarlet, rust coloured when overmature, ostiole papillated; perithecial wall thickened and pigmented, masking the pseudoparenchymatous structure. Asci cylindrical sometimes clavate, 90–120 × 10–12μ, 8 spored, uniseriate; pseudoparaphyses filamentous, branched. Spores one-septate, sometimes constricted at septa, oval or obovate 12–25 × 6–10μ, verrucose, hyaline.

Type Locality: Great Britain.

Distribution: Europe, North America. New Zealand.

Habitat:

Unknown host.

Auckland; Mt. Tongariro, December 1936, G. H. Cunningham.

Unlike in N. rubi perithecia are produced on a pulvinate stroma. Cell walls of the perithecia are so densely pigmented and thickened that the pseudoparenchymatous structure was difficult to discern. Both N. rubi and N. mammoidea may be separated from N. tasmanica by their verrucose spores.

27. Nectria tasmanica Berkeley. Flora Tasmaniae, Vol. 2, p. 279, 1860.

– 198 –

Plate 23, fig. 5.

Perithecia superficial, gregarious or caespitose on a brown pulvinate erumpent stroma, colonies 2–6mm. diameter, pseudoparenchymatous walls fuscus, thickened; perithecia globose 0·4–0·6mm. diameter, red, vinaceous brown when mature and dry, ostiole papillate and surrounded by a distinct flattened disc; perithecial wall 50μ thick, cell wall pigmented and thickened, true pseudoparenchymatous structure masked by thick walls. Asci cylindrical 80–120 × 8–10μ, 8 spored, uniseriate, pseudoparaphyses absent. Spores one-septate, broadly elliptical, oval, sometimes constricted at septa 12–17 × 6–8μ, smooth, hyaline.

Type Locality: Tasmania.

Distribution: Australia and New Zealand.

Habitat:

Beilschmeidia tawa (A. Cunn.) Hook, f. & Benth.

Auckland, Waipoua, April 1947, J.M.D.

Wellington, Weraroa, April 1924, G. H. Cunningham.

Cordyline australis Hook. f.

Auckland, city, Purewa bush, December 1948, D. W. McKenzie,

Coprosma grandifolia Hook, f.

Auckland, Waitakere Ra., Rua-te-whenua, Aug. 1949, J.M.D.

Leucopogon fasciculatus A. Rich.

Auckland, Waitakere Ra., Upper Piha Valley, August 1948, J.M.D.

Muehlenbeckia australis Meissn.

Westland, Wehcka, December 1946, J.M.D.

Olearia avicenniaefolia (Raoul) Hook. f.

Westland, Waiho, December 1946, J.M.D.

Pittosporum colensoi Hook. f.

Westland, Weheka, December 1946, J.M.D.

Rhopalostylis sapida Wendl. & Drude.

Auckland, Titirangi, April 1948, J.M.D.

Schefflera digitata Forst.

Otago, Doubtful Sound, February 1948, J.M.D.

Weinmannia racemosa Linn. f.

Westland, Waiho, December 1946, J.M.D.

In discussing N. tasmanica, Weese (1915) listed N. umbilicata P. Henn. N. lucida Hoehnel and N. oculata Hoehnel as possible synonyms. N. tasmanica has the distinct papillated ostiole surrounded by a distinct flattened ring. As in N. mammoidea the structure of the perithecial wall is masked by the thickened and pigmented cell wall. Perithecia are brittle since in overmature collections it was difficult to find one unbroken. Tufts of hyaline mycelium occurred among the perithecia.

28. Nectria pinea n. sp.

Sphaeria cucurbitula var. B. nigrescens Tode, Fung. Meckl., Vol. 2, p. 39, 1791; Nectria cucurbitula (Tode) Fr., Summa Veg. Scand., p. 388, 1849 (in part); Nectria cucurbitula Sacc., Michelia, Vol. 1, p. 409, 1879; Creonectria cucurbitula (Sacc,) Seaver, Mycologia, Vol. 1. p. 189, 1909.

– 199 –

Perithecia gregaria in stromate fusco, pulverato, prosenchymato; globosa, 0·2–0·3mm. diam., maturitate atrorubra; ostiolo papillato; pariete perithecii 15–20μ crasso; cellulis 5–10μ solide densatis et tinctis. Asci cylindrici interdum clavati 75–100 × 6–10μ; 8 sporis oblique uniseriatis, in apice biseriatis; pseudoparaphysibus filamentosis. Spores uniseptatae, ellipticae vel ovatae 13·5–16 × 4·5–6μ, leves, hyalinae.

Perithecia gregarious on a dark coloured, pulvinate prosenchymatous stroma, globose 0·2–0·3mm. diameter, red, black when mature, ostiole papillate and surrounded by a distinct, often flattened zone 8–10μ diameter; perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous, 15–20μ thick, cells 5–10μ diam., densely thickened and pigmented. Asci cylindrical sometimes clavate 75–100 × 6–10μ, 8 spored, obliquely uniseriate, biseriate at apex pseudoparaphyses filamentous. Spores one-septate, elliptical or oval 13·5–16 × 4·5–6μ, smooth, hyaline.

Type Locality: Whakarewarewa, Rotorua.

Distribution: Europe, North America, New Zealand.

Habitat:

Pinus radiata D. Don.

Auckland, Whakarewarewa, September 1949, G. B. Rawlings.

There seems to have been some confusion in the literature as to the name of this species. Saccardo (1883) described sporidia within the immature ascus of N. cucurbitula and suggested that the species was synonymous with Chilonectria cucurbitula (Curr.) Sacc. and with Calonectria cucurbitula (Fr.) Sacc. Ellis and Everhart (1892) when recording N. cucurbitula stated that no sporidia were observed as described by Saccardo, while Seaver (1909) stated that the species Creonectria cucurbitula is not N. cucurbitula (Tode) Fr. but N. cucurbitula Sacc. Petch (1938) noted that this species has been confused with N. coryli. N. cucurbitula (Tode) Fr. referred to two species of Nectria, one where sporidia were produced within the ascus i.e., N. coryli Fuckel (syn. Chilonectria cucurbitula (Curr.) Sacc.) and another species which Seaver described as Creonectria cucurbitula and Petch as Nectria cucurbitula Sacc. This is a case of ‘nomen confusum’ and the later species has been renamed and redeseribed. As in N. tasmanica spores are smooth and hyaline, and perithecia are accompanied by tufts of hyaline mycelium but perithecia are smaller, thinner walled. Spores are elliptical and not as broad as the preceding species. As the species was found only on an introduced host, it seems probable that it has been introduced.

29. Nectria tawa n. sp.

Plate 24, fig. 1.

Perithecia libere sparsa, globosa vel pyriformia, 0·1–0·25mm. diam., sanguinea vel ferruginea, scabrida; ostiolo papillato; pariete perithecii 30–40μ crasso; cellulis exterioribus parietibus tenuibus 15–20μ diam.; cellulis interioribus parvis 4·5μ diam., densatis. Asci clavati 30–60 × 5–10μ; 8 sporis oblique uniseriatis, in apice biseriatis. Sporae uniseptatae, fusiformes vel ellipticae 7·5–10 × 2·5–4μ, verrucosae, hyalinae.

Perithecia scattered, globose or pyriform collapsing when dry 0·1–0·25mm. diameter, scarlet or blood coloured, scabrid, ostiole

– 200 –

papillate surrounded by a flattened disc up to 10μ diameter; perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 30–40μ thick, outer cells thin walled, hyaline or lightly tinted, cuboid 15–20μ, collapsed in dried specimens which give perithecia a wrinkled appearance, inner cells 4–5μ diameter, pigmented and thickened. Asci elliptical or clavate 30–60 × 5–10μ, 8 spored, obliquely uniseriate, sometimes biseriate at apex; pseudoparaphyses filamentous, forming network within perithecia. Spores uniseptate, fusiform or elliptical 7·5–10 × 2·5–4μ, verrucose hyaline.

Type Locality: Titirangi, Auckland.

Distribution: New Zealand.

Habitat:

Beilschmeidia tawa Benth. & Hook.

Auckland, Titirangi, May 1940, J.M.D. (type collection);

Waitakere Ra., Rua-te-whenua, August 1949, J.M.D.

Coprosma grandifolia Hook. f.

Auckland, Bay of Islands, June 1948, J.M.D.

Coprosma lucida Forst.

Auckland, Waipoua, September 1949, J.M.D.

Coprosma robusta Raoul.

Auckland, Hunua Ra., October 1946; J.M.D.; Waitakere Ra., Mountain Rd., Henderson, May 1948, J.M.D.

Hoheria glabrata Sprag. and Summerh.

Otago, Wilmott Pass, Manapouri, February 1948, J.M.D.; L. McKellar, February 1948, J.M.D.

Olearia rani (A. Cunn.) Ckn.

Auckland, Hunua Ra., Moumoukai Valley, October 1946, J.M.D.

Phormium tenax Forst.

Wellington, Kelburn, November 1945, G. H. Cunningham.

Rhopalostylis sapida Wendl. & Drude.

Auckland, Waitakere Ra., Waiatarua, November 1948, J.M.D.

Schefflera digitata Forst.

Auckland, Bay of Islands, Paihia, June 1948, J.M.D.; Puketi State Forest, June 1948, J.M.D. Otago, Doubtful Sound, February 1948, J.M.D.

Perithecia are small, bright red, similar in appearance to those of N. sanguinea but spores are smooth, fusiform or elliptical.

30. Nectria coprosmae n. sp.

Plate 24, fig. 11.

Perithecia sparsa vel caespitosa, globosa 0·15–0·3mm. pallide rubra vel brunneo-vinosa, scabrida, ostiolo papillato; pariete perithecii pseudoparenchymato 40μ crasso; cellulis exterioribus 10–20μ leviter densatis; cellulis interioribus parvis, 4–5μ diam.; solide densatis et tinctis. Asci cylindrici vel clavati 20–50 × 4–7μ; terminis truncatis; 6–8 sporis biseriatis; pseudoparaphysibus filamentosis. Sporae uniseptatae, ellipticae vel filiformes; terminis truncatis 9–13 × 3–4μ; leves hyalinae.

Perithecia scattered or caespitose, globose, occasionally pyriform 0·15–0·35mm., light red darkening to brown vinaceous when mature,

– 201 –

scabrid, ostiole minute, papillate, perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 40μ thick, outer cells 10–20μ, lightly pigmented and thickened, sub-hymenial cells small 4–5μ diameter, densely pigmented and thickened. Asci cylindrical or clavate 20–50 × 4–7μ ends truncate, 6–8 spored, biseriate, occasionally obliquely uniseriate; pseudoparaphyses filamentous forming a network within the perithecia. Spores elliptical, filiform, ends truncate 9–13 × 3–4μ smooth, hyaline.

Type Locality: Auckland, Waitakere Ra., Anawhata Rd.

Distribution: New Zealand.

Habitat:

Coprosma grandifolia Hook. f.

Auckland, Waitakere Rn., Huia, August 1947, J.M.D.; Anawhata Rd., August 1947, J.M.D. (type collection); September 1947, J.M.D.; Waitakere Ra., Rua-te-whenua August, 1949, J.M.D.

Perithecia were collected on bark damaged by insects. Spores are larger than those of N. tawa and the ends are truncated, pyriform and often irregularly divided by a septum.

31. Nectria westlandica sp. nov.

Plate 24, fig. 7.

Perithecia gregaria, globosa 0·5–0·8 mm., brunneo-vinosa, inaequale tuberculata; ostiolo papillato; pariete perithecii 50μ crasso; pseudoparenchymato sed structura occulta parietibus cellulorum densatis et solide tinctis. Asci elliptici 95–140 × 10–16μ, evanescentes. Sporae uniseptatae, ellipticae vel naviculatae 30–42 × 9–12μ, leves, hyalinae.

Perithecia gregarious, globose 0·5–0·8mm. dark red, brown, vinaceous irregularly tuberculate, ostiole papillate, perithecial wall 50μ thick, pseudoparenchymatous but structure masked by thickened densely pigmented walls; tubercles hyaline, pseudoparenchymatous, cells thin walled and hyaline 10–12μ diameter. Asci elliptical 95–140 × 10–16μ, 8 spored, spores biseriate or obliquely uniseriate, pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Spores one-septate, elliptical or naviculate, sometimes falcate 30–42 × 9–12μ, smooth, hyaline.

Type Locality: Westland, Waiho.

Distribution: New Zealand.

Habitat:

Olearia avicenniaefolia Hook. f.

Westland, Waiho, November 1946. Type collection.

A species easily identified by its large elliptical spores and dense perithecial wall with small scale-like tubercles. When immature perithecia are smaller and scarlet.

Literature Cited.

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Colenso, W., 1886. Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. 19, pp. 301–313.

Cooke, M. C., 1879. Grevillea, Vol. 8, pp. 54–60.

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—— 1925b. Fungous Diseases of Fruit Trees, 382 pp.

Curtis, K. M., 1946. Annual Report Cawthron Inst. 1945–46 p. 16.

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Ellis, J. B., and Everhart, B. M., 1892. The North American Pyrenomyceies, 793 pp.

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—— 1921. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc., Vol 7, pp. 133–167.

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—— 1914. Annales Mycologici, Vol. 12, pp. 282–314.

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—— 1910. Mycologia, Vol. 2, pp. 48–92.

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—— 1931. Zeitschrift fur Parasitenkende, Vol. 3, pp. 269–516.

—— 1943. Centralb. fur Bakt., Vol. 100, pp. 171–207.