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Volume 79, 1951
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The Hypocreales of New Zealand
III. The Genus Hypocrea

[Read before the Auckland Institute, August 22, 1950; received by the Editor, August 25, 1950]

Hypocrea includes species possessing one-septate spores which at maturity break up within the ascus into two unicellular part-spores. The genus forms a natural group showing few morphological differences, though spore size and form of the stroma appear sufficiently consistent to use in separating species. Creopus Link (syn. Chromocrea Seaver) was separated from Hypocrea by pigmented spores; but as their colour varies from hyaline to dark olive-green and as these species differed in no other morphological character, all have been included in Hypocrea. Similarly, Protocrea Petch has been treated as a synonym since the distinction between a byssoid subiculum and a stroma is sometimes difficult to maintain.

This paper lists 17 species from New Zealand. They are saprophytes, living on dead organic material, such as dead bark, rotting wood, or old fungus fructifications. The list is incomplete, as collections are not sufficiently extensive over the country (and fructifications appear ephemeral, lasting for only a few weeks).

The author wishes to thank the Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, for forwarding type material of New Zealand species, to Dr. G. H. Cunuingham for his help in preparation of this paper, and to Miss B. Hooton for Latin translations of new species.

Hypocrea Fries, Systema Orbis Vegetabiles, p. 104, 1825

Creopus Link, Handbuch zur Erkennung der Gewachsc, Vol. 3, p. 349, 1833; Chromocrea Seaver, Mycologia, Vol. 2, p. 58, 1910; Protocrea Petch, J. Bot., Vol. 75, p. 219, 1937.

Stroma byssoid, or fleshy, pulvinate or effuse, light or brightly coloured, never carbonaceous; perithecia superficial or immersed in a superficial zone of stroma. Asci cylindrical, bearing typically eight one-septate spores which at maturity divide within the ascus to form sixteen unicellular part-spores. Paraphyses absent, pseudoparaphyses usually present, branched, filamentous. Part-spores globose, cuboid, ovate or oblong, echinulate, wall hyaline or pigmented.

Type Species: Hypocrea rufa Pers. ex Fr.

Distribution: World wide.

Key to Species

Stroma absent, perithecia superficially arranged on an effused, byssoid subiculum 1. H. farinosa Berk. & Br.
Stroma present, perithecia caespitose, usually immersed in the stroma.
 Stroma effuse, applanate.
  Spores 3.5–7.0 × 3.0–4.5μ 2. H. citrina Pers. ex Fr.
  Stroma pulvinate, often fused with one another to form an effuse stroma.
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  Stroma smooth; spores 3.5 × 3.0–3.5μ 3. H. pulvinata Fuckel.
  Stroma cerebriform.
   Spores 5–8 × 4–5μ 4. H. hunua Dingley
   Spores 3.5–4 × 3.5μ 5. H. manuka Dingley
Stroma discrete, rarely aggregated in groups, never fused together.
 Stroma irregular in shape, margins incurved, united to substrate.
  Stroma pulvinate, ostioles protruding.
   Spores globose, oval, 3–6 × 3–4μ 6. H. coprosma Diugley
  Stroma more or less pulvinate, ostioles sunken.
   Spores 3–7 × 3–4μ 7. H. toro Dingley
  Stroma collapsed when dry, wrinkled, ostiole not distinct.
   Spores hyaline.
    Spores 3.5–5 × 3–3.5μ 8. H. vinosa Cooke
    Spores 9–16 × 9–12μ 9. H. macrospora Dingley
   Spore wall pigmented, 3–6 × 3–3.5μ 10. H. gelatinosa (Todc) Fr.
 Stroma discoid.
  Stroma exceeding 5 mm. diameter.
   Lenticular, margin thin, undulate; spores globose or cuboid, 2–3.5μ 11. H. schweinitzii (Fr.) Succ.
   Flattened, margins thickened; spores globose or oval, 3.5–5.5 × 3.5–4μ 12. H. colensoi Lloyd
  Stroma under 5 mm. diameter.
   Spores with hyaline or lightly pigmented walls.
     Ostiole not distinctly papillated, spores globose or oval, 3–6 × 3.5–4μ 13. H. rufa (Pers.) Fr.
     Ostiole distinct, darker colour than stroma. Spores 3.5–5.5 × 3.0–3.5μ 14. H. patella Cooke & Peck.
  Spores with pigmented wall.
   Stroma dark coloured.
    Stroma tuberculate, protuberance following outline of underlying perithecia, spores 3.5–5 × 3–4μ 15. H. tawa Dingley
    Stroma smooth, ostiole not papillated.
    Spores 3.5–6 × 3–4μ 16. H. jecorina Berk. & Br.
   Stroma ochraceous, translucent. punctate with dark spores in underlying perithecia.
   Spores globose 2.5–3.5μ 17. H. novae zealandica Dingley

1. Hypocrea farinosa Berkeley and Broome, Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Ser. II, Vol. 6, p. 186, 1851. Plate 51, fig. 1, a and b

Protocrea farinosa (Berk. & Br.) Petch, J. of Botany, Vol. 75, p. 219, 1937.

Subiculum effuse, spreading over surface of substratum, byssoid, mycelium hyaline. Perithecia superficial, or semi-immersed in subiculum, globose, collapsing when dry, 0·15–0·3 mm. diameter, translucent, hyaline when fresh, buff or ochraceons when dry, ostiolc minute, papillated; perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous, 15–30μ diameter, cells thin walled, 4–6μ diameter, lightly pigmented. Asci cylindrical, 55–65 × 3–4μ, thin walled, 16 part spores, uniseriate; pseudoparaphyses evanescent, with occasional globose, thick walled cells 10μ diameter. Part-spores globose or cuboid, 2–3μ, or oval when 3–4·5 × 2–2·5μ, hyaline, minutely echinulate.

Type Locality: Great Britain.

Distribution: British Isles, New Zealand.

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Habitat: On dead wood or decayed fungous fructifications. Poria sp. Auckland: Whangarei, Western Hills, 300 ft., June, 1948; J. M. D.; Rangiriri, Lake Whangape, April, 1948, J. M. D.

Petch (1937) defined Protocrea to include species which, in growth habit, resemble Hypomyces, i.e. perithecia are scattered among an effuse subiculum, but spores are characteristic of Hypocrea. The absence of a stroma appears too variable a character to justify a new genus. In weathered collections of H. citrina, for example, perithecia appear to be scattered on a byssoid mycelial mass, but in fresh specimens they are embedded within a well-defined stroma.

Spores of collections listed are smaller than the measurements given by Petch (1938), but in other respects specimens agree with his description of this species.

2 Hypocrea citrina (Persoon) Fries, Summa Vegetabilium Scandinavia, p. 383, 1849. P'late 51, fig. 2, a and b

(Sphaeria citrina Pers. Obs. Myc., Part 1, p. 68, 1796); S. citrina Pers. ex Fr., Syst. Myc., Vol. 2, p. 337, 1822.

Stroma effuse, applanate, sometimes more than 1 cm. in length, 5–6 mm. diameter, 0·3–0·8 mm. thick, sulphur yellow or ochraceous, margins white, often byssoid, surface punctate with irregularly arranged, translucent, amber coloured perithecia, pseudoparenchymatous, hyaline, outer cells pigmented yellow, mycelium loosely aggregated at base. Perithecia oval or globose, 0·15–0·25 mm. diameter, immersed in stroma, hyaline or lightly pigmented, ostiole 70–90μ long, papillated above surface of stroma; perithecial wall pseudo-parenchymatous, 10–20μ thick, cells small, 2–4μ diameter. Asci cylindrical, truncate, thin walled, 75–150 × 4·5–7μ, with 16 part-spores, uniseriate; pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Part-spores cuboid, or globose, 3·5–6μ diameter, or oval, 5·0–7·0 × 3·0–4·5μ, hyaline, echinulate.

Type Locality: Europe.

Distribution: Europe; North and South America; India; Australia; New Zealand.

Habitat: Saprophytic on bark or rotten wood and fungus fructifications.

Beilschmiedia tawa (A. Cuun.) Hook. f. and Benth. Auckland. Rotorua, near Waiotapu, June, 1950, J. M. D.

Elaeocarpus dentatus (Forst.) Vahl. Auckland. Bay of Islands, Omahutu State Forest, June, 1948, J. M. D.

Phebalium nudum Hook. Auckland. Waipoua, September, 1949, J. M. D.

Pittosporum crassifolium A. Cunn. Auckland. Piha, September, 1949, J. M. D.

Pittosporum tenuifolium Banks and Sol. Auckland. Waitakere Ra., Mountain Rd., Henderson, May, 1947, J. M. D.; June, 1948, J. M. D.; Cascade Kauri Park, March, 1950, J. M. D.; Whangarei, Parahaki, June, 1948, J. M. D.

Schefflera digitata Forst. Auckland. Bay of Islands, Puketi, June, 1948, J. M. D.

Tremella sp. Auckland. Coromandel, Te Moehau, January, 1947, J. M. D.

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Unknown hosts. Auckland. Hunua Ra., Maumoukai Valley, June, 1949, J. M. D. Wellington. Weraroa, July, 1919, G. H. Cunningham.

The collection on “an unknown host” from Weraroa was determined by C. G. Lloyd as H. sulphurea (Schw.) Sacc. Seaver (1910) recorded that in H. sulphurea asci and spores are larger than in H. citrina and gave the measurements as 80–110μ and 4–5μ, and 62–75μ and 3–4μ for asci and spores of H. sulphurea and H. citrina respectively. He stated that H. sulphurea occurred on dead wood and branches while H. citrina was common on the ground and on old fungus fructifications. Saccardo (1883), Winter (1887) and Petch (1938) described H. citrina with asci up to 100μ long and with spores 4–7 × 3–4μ, and lists its habitat as saprophytic on dead wood. From Seaver's description of H. sulphurea it appears that his concept of this species is identical to the species placed under H. citrina by Saccardo, Winter and Petch; under H. citrina Seaver described another species, probably H. pulvinata.

Colenso (1890) recorded H. citrina from New Zealand from material collected in Hawkes Bay and determined by M. C. Cooke at Kew. The species is characterised by the sulphur coloured effuse stroma dotted with translucent ostioles; occasionally in weathered collections perithecia appear superficial on a white byssoid stroma.

3. Hypocrea pulvinata Fuckel, Symbolae Mycologia, p. 185, 1869. H. citrina var. fungicola Karsten, Myc. Fenn., Vol. 2, p. 204. 1873.

H. fungicola (Karsten) Sacc., Syll. Fung., Vol. 2, p. 528, 1883.

Stroma pulvinate, 4–6 mm. diameter, 1 mm. thick, sometimes confluent with other stromata, thin, effuse, applanate, buff coloured, punctate with depressed ostioles, margins incurved, united to surface of host, pseudoparenchymatous outer cells pale coloured, 5–8μ diameter, thin walled but compacted, inner tissue cells loosely aggregated, sometimes prosenchymatous, 10–12μ diameter, hyaline. Perithecia globose or oval, 0·25–0·35 × 0·2–0·25 mm., yellow, superficially arranged below pigmented zone of stroma, ostiole 65–70μ long, perithecial wall 15–20μ thick, pigmented and distinct. Asci cylindrical, truncate, 70–80 × 5μ, with 16 unicellular part-spores, uniseriate, pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Part-spores globose, 3·0–3·5μ, oval or pyriform when 4–5 × 3·5μ, hyaline, minutely echinulate.

Type Locality: Germany.

Distribution: Europe; North America; New Zealand.

Habitat: On decaying wood or fungus fructifications.

Fuscoporia sp. Auckland. Coromandel, December, 1946, J. M. D.

Unknown host. Auckland. Waitakere Ra., near Titirangi, June, 1949, J. M. D.

Petch (1935) states: “H. pulvinata was described by Fuckel in 1869 from specimens growing on decaying Polyporus sulphureus, and in 1873 Karsten described H. citrina f. fungicola on decaying Polypori. The latter name is usually written as Hypocrea fungicola Karst. Weese has examined part of the type-specimen of Hypocrea pulvinata and finds that these two names refer to the same fungus. Weese's clarification of the references to this species was published in Mitteil. Botan. Inst. Tech. Hochsch. Wien. IV, 28–32 (1927).”

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Seaver (1910) gave H. fungicola as a synonym of H. citrina. It seems probable that Seaver confused H. pulvinata with H. citrina, while typical specimens of H. citrina Fr. he referred to H. sulphurea. H. pulvinata differs from H. citrina by its thick, lightly coloured stroma, smaller spores and asci. In local collections the stroma is pulvinate, not effuse, but in other characters specimens are comparable with European material.

4. Hypocrea hunua n. sp. Plate 51, fig. 3, a, b, and c

Stroma inaequale, convolutum, 2·5–4 mm. diam. confluens ut stroma effusum, ultra 1 cm. longum 1–1·25 mm. densum brunneo-vinosum, tuberculatum, pseudoparenchymatum formet. Perithecia ovata vel pyriformia 0·3–0·5 × 0·25 mm., in regione inaequale superficiali immersa, ostiolo papillato 75–100μ longo. Asci cylindrici 100–180 × 4–5μ, 16 sporis divisis pseudoparaphysibus evanescentibus. Sporae divisae globosae 5–6μ vel ovatae 6–8 × 4–5μ echinulatae, pallide luteae.

Stroma irregular, pulvinate, convoluted or cerebriform when fresh, 2·5–4 mm. diameter, often united to form an effuse stroma up to 2 cm. in length, 1–1·25 mm. thick, vinaceous brown, when fresh buff suffused vinaceons brown, tuberculate, tubercles corresponding to underlying perithecia, ostiole papillate, dark coloured, margins incurved, united to substratum, pseudoparenchymatous, outer cells 3–5μ diameter, compacted, pigmented and thickened, inner cells up to 10μ diameter, hyaline. Perithecia oval or pyriform, 0·3–0·5 × 0·25 mm., immersed in superficial zone of stroma, ostiole 75–100μ long, papillate, perithecial wall 5–10μ thick, hyaline. Asci cylindrical, 100–180 × 4–5μ, with 16 part-spores, uniseriate; pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Part-spores globose, 5–6μ, oval or pyriform then 6–8 × 4–5μ, lightly pigmented yellow, echinulate.

Type Locality: Auckland, Hunua Ra.

Distribution: New Zealand.

Habitat: On rotten wood.

Coprosma robusta Raoul. Auckland. Titirangi, May, 1950, J. M. D.

Podocarpus ferrugineus D. Don. Auckland. Rotorua, Te Whaiti, June, 1950, J. M. D.

Unknown host. Auckland. Hunua Ra., Mangatawhiri Stream, August, 1946, J. M. D. (type collection).

Spores are larger than those of H. pulvinata and the stroma is dark vinaceous brown when dry. Similarly the effuse tuberculate stroma separates this species from H. rufa or H. vinosa.

5. Hypocrea manuka n. sp. Plate 54, fig. 2, a, b, and c

Stroma pulvinatum 2–8 × 0·5–1·5 mm., in coronas aggregatum, ochraceum vel brunneo-castaneum, rugosum, pseudoparenchymatum, marginibus incurvatis et ad substratum conjunctum. Perithecia ovata 0·2–0·3 × 0·15–0·2 mm. in regione superficiali stromatis ordinata, ostiolo 60–70μ longo, non papillato. Asci cylindrici 65–90 × 4μ, 16 sporis unicellularibus pseudoparaphysibus evanescentibus. Sporae divisae, globosae vel cuboides 3·5–4·5 × 3·5μ, hyalinae, subtiliter echinnlatae.

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Stroma pulvinate, convoluted, 5 × 2–8 mm., 0·5–1·5 mm. thick, aggregated in clusters, ochraceous, or chestnut brown when dry and mature, luteus when fresh, wrinkled, punctate with dark coloured ostioles, margins incurved and united to bark or decorticated wood, pseudoparenchymatous, outer cells 2–5μ, pigmented and thickened, inner cells 8–10μ diameter, hyaline, loosely aggregated. Perithecia oval, 0·2–0·3 × 0·15–0·2 mm., superficially arranged on stroma, ostiole 60–70μ long, papillate, perithecial wall 10–15μ thick, pigmented. Asci cylindrical, 65–90 × 4μ, ends truncate with 16 unicellular part-spores, uniseriate; pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Part-spores globose or cuboid, 3·5–4·5 × 3·5μ, hyaline, finely echinulate.

Type Locality: Ngaitonga Range, Bay of Islands.

Distribution: New Zealand.

Habitat: On rotten wood.

Leptospermum scoparium Forst. Auckland. Bay of Islands, Ngaitonga Ra., June, 1948, J. M. D. (type collection); Whangarei, June, 1948, J. M. D.

Unknown host. Auckland. Hunua Range, Kohukohunui, October, 1949, J. M. D.

Stromata are aggregated in clusters, usually on the undersurface of logs. The species is similar to H. patella Cooke and Peck, but the stroma is large and forms a convoluted mass which when dried shrinks to at least half its size.

6. Hypocrea coprosma n. sp. Plate 52, fig. 3, a, b, and c

Stroma pulvinatum, 5–10 mm. diam. ad medium substratum affixum, bubalinum vel vinoso-bubalinum, prosenchymatum, marginibus incurvatis et liberis, ostiolis protrudentibus punctatum. Perithecia globosa velorata, 0·15–0·3 mm. diam. in regione superficiali stromatis immersa, ostiolo 60–70μ longo, papillato. Asci cylindrici 85–100 × 4–5μ, 16 sporis divisis uncellularibus, cuboidibus vel globosis 3–4μ diam., leviter tinctis, echinulatis.

Stroma pulvinate, sometimes orbicular, 5–10 mm. diameter, 3 mm. thick, freely scattered on host, buff, vinaceous buff margins thickened, incurved but free, centrally attached, sometimes appearing as if stalked, outer tissue pseudoparenchymatous, cells small, 2–4μ diameter, pigmented and thickened, inner hyphae up to 6μ diameter, hyaline, prosenchymatous. Perithecia 150–200μ diameter, oval or globose, superficially arranged in the pigmented zone, ostiole 60–70μ, not papillate. Asci cylindrical, 85–100 × 4–5μ, apex truncate, with 16 part-spores, uniseriate; pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Part-spores cuboid or globose, 3–4μ diameter, or oval then 5–6 × 3–4μ, lightly pigmented, tuberculate.

Type Locality: Waiatarua, Waitakere Range, Auckland.

Distribution: New Zealand.

Habitat: On rotten wood.

Coprosma robusta Raoul. Auckland. Waitakere Range, Waiatarua, November, 1948, J. M. D. (type collection).

The species resembles H. pulvinata, but the stroma is discrete, never aggregated together, margins free, centrally attached to a sub-

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stratum. Spores are usually small, although unevenly divided part-spores are common. Occasional spores fail to divide at the septa.

7. Hypocrea toro n. sp. Plate 54, fig. 1, a, b, and c

Stroma pulvinatum, leviter convolutum. 5–6 mm. diam., 1·5 mm. crassum, cremeum bubalinum, brunneo-suffusum, ostiolis submersis translucentibus punctatum, ad medium substratum affixum, pseudo-parenchymatum, marginibus incurvatis plerumque densatis liberis. Perithecia globosa 150–200μ diam., in regione superficiali stromatis immersa, ostiolo 70–80μ longo, non papillato. Asci cylindrici 70–100 × 4–6μ, 12–16 sporis divisis, pseudoparaphysibus absentibus. Sporae divisae globosae vel cuboides, 3–4μ, vel ovatae 5–7 × 3–4μ echinulatae, hyalinae.

Stroma pulvinate, slightly convoluted, rarely orbicular, 5–6 × 2·5–5 mm., 0·5–1 mm. thick, scattered or gregarious, cream or buff suffused brown, punctate with translucent, sunken ostioles, margins incurved, sometimes thickened but free, undulate, stroma centrally attached, pseudoparenchymatous, cells up to 10μ diameter, outer tissue compacted, hyaline, thin walled collapsed in dried specimens. Perithecia globose, 0·15–0·2 mm. in diameter arranged in superficial zone of stroma, ostiole 70–80μ, not papillate, perithecial wall 15–20μ thick, distinct and lightly pigmented yellow. Asci cylindrical, 70–95 × 4–6μ with 12–16 unicellular part-spores; pseudoparaphyses absent. Spores globose or cuboid, 3–4μ diam. or oval then 5–7 × 3–4μ, echinulate, hyaline.

Type Locality: Western slopes of Te Moehau, Colville.

Distribution: New Zealand.

Habitat: On bark of dead branches.

Suttonia salicina Hook. f. Auckland. Coromandel Peninsula, Colville, January, 1947, J. M. D. (type collection).

The sunken translucent ostioles serve to separate the species from H. hunua, H. coprosma and H. pulvinata. The stroma is neither pulvinate nor prosenchymatous and margins are thickened but free.

8. Hypocrea vinosa Cooke. Grevillea, Vol. 8, p. 65, 1879. Plate 52, fig. 2, a, b, and c

Stroma irregularly shaped, sometimes more or less discoidal, 2–5 mm. diameter, 1–0·5 mm. thick, brown vinaceous, when fresh, chestnut brown, pulvinate, but wrinkled when dry, margins incurved, usually free, occasionally united to substratum; outer tissue pseudo-parenchymatous, cells 3–5μ diameter, pigmented and thickened, inner tissue prosenchymatous, sometimes a loosely aggregated pseudo-parenchyma, cells 8–12μ hyaline, thin walled. Perithecia globose or oval, 150–200μ diameter, compacted in a superficial zone, ostiole 60μ long, not papillate; perithecial wall 10–15μ thick, pigmented yellow, distinct. Asci 65–70 × 3–4μ, cylindrical with 16 part-spores, uniseriate pseudoparaphyses effuse. Part-spores globose or cuboid, 3–3·5μ diameter, oval or pyriform when 4–5·5 × 3–3·5μ, hyaline, finely echinulate.

Type Locality: Waitaki, New Zealand.

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Distribution: New Zealand.

Habitat: On rotten wood.

Beilschmiedia taraire (A. Cunn.) Benth. and Hook. f. Auckland. Bay of Islands, Puketi, June, 1948, J. M. D.

Beilschmiedia tawa (A. Cunn.) Hook. f. and Benth. Auckland. Hunua Ra., Otau, May, 1950, J. M. D.

Hoheria populnea A. Cunn. Auckland. Titirangi, June, 1948, J. M. D.

Leptospermum scoparium Forst. Auckland. Titirangi, July, 1947, J. M. D.

Leucopogon fasciculatus A. Rich. Auckland. Purewa bush, August, 1948, J. M. D.

Nothofagus sp. Auckland. Lake Waikaremoana, March, 1949, M. Ambler.

Suttonia salicina Hook. f. Auckland. Titirangi, Woods Bay, July, 1948, J. M. D.

Unknown hosts. Auckland. Waitakere Ra., Cascade Kauri Park, September, 1948, J. M. D.; Piha, April, 1948, J. M. D.; Bay of Islands, Puketi, June, 1948, J. M. D.; Te Aroha, October, 1949, J. M. D.

As Cooke (1879) stated, this species is similar to H. rufa, but it is not associated with any conidial form. The stroma is uneven in shape, usually pulvinate when fresh, but becomes wrinkled when dry. The ostiole never protrudes above the surface of the stroma. Mature stromata are powdered with hyaline spores, while in dried specimens spore cirri arise from the ostioles.

9. Hypocrea macrospora n. sp. Plate 51, fig. 4, a and b

Stroma inaequale 4–6 mm. diam., 1 mm. crassum ochraceum vel bubalinum farinosum, pseudoparenchymatum marginibus densatis, incurvatis et ad substratum conjunctis. Perithecia globosa 0·2–0·3 mm. diam. in regione superficiali stromatis inaequaliter ordinata, ostiolo 100–180μ longo, non papillato. Asci 80–160 × 8–14μ, 6–8 sporis uniseptatis et articulatis, maturitate 12–16 sporis divisis, pseudo-paraphysibus diffusis. Sporae divisae globosae vel cuboides 9–16 × 9–12μ dense echinulatae, lutae vel olivaceae.

Stroma irregularly shaped, more or less pulvinate, sometimes discoidal but usually flattened, often concave, 4–6 mm. diameter, 1 mm. thick, ochraceous, sometimes buff, farinaceous, margins thickened, incurved, united to substratum, sterile; stroma pseudoparenchymatous, cells 5–8μ diameter, outer cells lightly pigmented and thickened, inner cells thin walled, hyaline. Perithecia globose, 0·2–0·3 mm., irregularly arranged in a superficial zone, ostiole 100–180μ long, not papillate above surface, perithecial wall 10–15μ thick, distinct, lightly pigmented yellow. Asci cylindrical, 80–160 × 8–14μ, ends truncate with sixteen part-spores; pseudoparaphyses effuse. Part-spores globose 9–12μ, or oval, then 9–16 × 9–12μ, yellow or olivaceous, coarsely echinulate.

Type Localty: Auckland. Waitakere Ra., off Anawhata Road.

Distribution: New Zealand.

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Fig. 1—Hypocrea farinosa: (a) Section of perithecia. (b) Ascus. (c) Spores.
Fig. 2—H. citrina: (a) Section of stroma showing perithecia. (b) Spores.
Fig. 3—H. hunua: (a) Section of stroma showing perithecia; (b) Ascus; (c) Spores.
Fig. 4—H, macrospora: (a) Section and surface view of stroma; (b) Spores.

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Fig. 1—H. schweinitzii: (a) Section of stroma; (b) Spores.
Fig. 2—H. vinosa: (a) Section and surface view of stroma; (b) Ascus; (c) Spores.
Fig. 3—H. coprosma: (a) Section and surface view; (b) Ascus; (c) Spores.
Fig. 4—H. rufa: (a) Section and surface view of stroma; (b) Spores.
Fig. 5—H. patella: (a) Section and surface view of stroma; (b) Spores.

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Fig. 1—H. tawa: (a) Section of perithecia; (b) Spores.
Fig. 2—H. jecorina: (a) Section of perithecia; (b) Spores.
Fig. 3—H. gelatinosa: (a) Section of perithecia; (b) Spores.
Fig. 4—H. novae-zealandica: (a) Section of perithecia; (b) Spores.

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Fig. 1—H. toro: (a) Section and surface view of stroma; (b) Ascus; (c) Spores.
Fig. 2—H. manuka: (a) Section and surface view of stroma; (b) Ascus; (c) Spores.
Fig. 3—H. coleusoi: (a) Section and surface view of stroma; (b) Section of perithecia; (c) Spores.

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Habitat: On bark of living Leptospermum scoparium Forst. Auckland. Waitakere Ra., off Anawhata Road, October, 1946, J. M. D. (type collection); September, 1949, J. M. D.

A distinct species with large dark-coloured spores. Perithecia are irregularly distributed in a superficial layer of the stroma. The thick margins are always sterile.

10. Hypocrea gelatinosa (Tode) Fries. Summa Vegetabilium Scandinaviae, p. 383, 1849. Plate 53, fig. 3, a and b

(Sphaeria gelatinosa Tode, Fung. Meckl., 2, p. 48, 1791.) S. gelatinosa Tode ex Fr., Syst. Myc., Vol. 2, p. 330, 1822. Creopus gelatinosa (Tode) Link, Handb. Erkennung der Gewachse, Vol. 3, p. 349, 1883. Hypocrea moriformis Cke. & Mass., Grev., Vol. 17, p. 3, 1888. Chromocrea gelatinosa (Tode) Seaver, Mycologia, Vol. 2, p. 58, 1910.

Stroma pulvinate, irregular, sometimes globose, 0·5–2 mm. diameter, 0·5 mm. thick, pale yellow, sometimes amber, translucent or opaque, especially when fresh, olivaceous with mature spores in immersed perithecia, often tuberculate, tubercles following outline of underlying perithecia, margins attached to host, pseudoparenchymatous, cells large, up to 20μ diameter, hyaline, outer cells thickened and occasionally lightly pigmented. Perithecia globose, 0·15–0·25 mm. diameter, immersed in superficial zone of stroma, ostiole 20–40μ long, papillate above surface of stroma, perithecial wall 15–25μ thick, hyaline, but distinct. Asci cylindrical, 85–100 × 4–5μ with 16 unicellular part-spores, uniseriate; pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Part-spores globose or cuboid, 3–4μ diameter, obovate, then 4·5–6μ × 3–3·5μ, olivaceous, echinulate.

Type Locality: Mecklenberg, Germany.

Distribution: Great Britain; Europe; North and South America; New Zealand.

Habitat: On rotten wood or on old fructifications of fungi.

Beilschmiedia tawa (A. Cunn.) Hook. f. and Benth. Auckland, Hunua Ra., Otau, April, 1950, J. M. D.

Fuscoporia sp. Auckland. Hunua Ra., Otau, April, 1950, J. M. D.

Melicope ternata Forst. Auckland. Thames, Kaueranga, June, 1950, J. M. D.

Unknown hosts. Auckland. Waitakere Ra., Waiatarua, November, 1948; J. M. D.; Titirangi, November, 1948, J. M. D.; Birkenhead, July, 1947, J. M. D.

The dark coloured spores were used by Link and later by Seaver to separate the genus Creopus and Chromocrea respectively, H. gelatinosa being described as the type species in both cases. The colour of the spores varies throughout species of Hypocrea from hyaline to dark olivaceous, consequently a division within the genus would be too difficult to maintain. Species are therefore placed under Hypocrea. When immature the stroma is ochraceous and discoid, but when perithecia are formed it becomes tuberculate and translucent. Mature spores give the stroma an olivaceous appearance.

H. gelatinosa was recorded by Berkeley in Hooker's Florae Novae-Zealandiae (1855).

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11. Hypocrea schweinitzii (Fries) Saccardo. Sylloge Fungorum, Vol. 2, p. 522, 1883. Plate 52, fig. 1, a and b

Sphaeria schweinitzii Fr., Elenchus Fungorum, Vol. 2, p. 60, 1829. Sp. regens Fr., Elenchus Fungorum, Vol. 2, p. 61, 1828. Sp. contorta Schw., Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., Vol. 2, p. 194, 1832. Hypocrea contorta (Schw.) Berk. & Curt., Grev., Vol. 4, p. 14, 1875. H. rigens (Fr.) Sacc., Michelia, Vol. 1, p. 301, 1878. H. lenta sensu Schw. non S. lenta Tode.

Stroma scattered, discoidal, rosette-shaped or lenticular, 2·5–15 mm. diameter, 0·5–2 mm. thick, yellow-green when fresh, brown, olivaceous or black when dry and mature, smooth, punctate with projecting ostioles, margins free, incurved, stroma centrally attached to host; pseudoparenchymatous, outer cells small, 2–5μ diameter, pigmented, inner cells 5–10μ diameter, hyaline. Perithecia globose or oval, 200–250μ diameter, immersed in superficial zone of stroma, ostiole 60–70μ, papillate above stroma surface, perithecial wall 10–15μ thick, pigmented brown, distinct. Asci cylindrical, truncate, 40–60 × 3·5–4μ with 16 unicellular part-spores, uniseriate; pseudo-paraphyses branched. Part-spores globose or cuboid, 2·0–3·5μ diameter, hyaline, sometimes light yellow, minutely echinulate.

Type Locality: North America.

Distribution: Great Britain; Europe; North and South America; New Zealand.

Habitat: On dead branches.

Beilschmiedia taraire (A. Cunn.) Benth. and Hook. f. Auckland. Waipoua, April, 1947, J. M. D.

Dacrydium cupressinum Sol. Auckland. Waitakere Ra., Cascade Kauri Park, May, 1948, J. M. D.

Eleagnus pungens Thunb. Auckland. Waitakere Ra., off Anawhata Rd., April, 1948, J. M. D.

In the literature, there has been confusion as to the correct name for this species. Originally Schweinitz referred the species to Sphaeria lenta Tode; but Fries (1822) expressed doubt as to whether Schweinitz's specimen was the same as the species described by Tode. According to Petch (1935) Fries later described this North American material as two species, Sphaeria schweinitzii and S. rigens. Saccardo (1883) recognised Fries’ subgenera as genera and included both species in Hypocrea. Ellis and Everhart (1892) examined both H. rigens and H. schweinitzii and stated that they were the same species, H. rigens being the immature form. Seaver listed both and additionally H. contorta, as synonyms of H. lenta (Tode) Berk. and Br. Petch (1935) stated that H. lenta Berk. and Br. belonged to yet another species of Hypocrea, whereas Tode's species Sphaeria lenta was typical of the genus Penzigia. In another note on S. lenta Petch (1936) referred British collectors to the first authentic name, H. schweinitzii. H. schweinitzii is characterized by its thin lenticular stroma, usually dark coloured with free thin margins. Spores are globose or cuboid, and uniformly divided by the septa.

12. Hypocrea colensoi Lloyd. Mycological Notes No. 71, Vol. 7, p. 1258, 1924. Plate 54, fig. 3, a, b, and c

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Stroma discoidal, occasionally pulvinatc, 2·5–7 mm. diameter, 1–2 mm. thick, scattered or caespitose, often distorted by mutual pressure, ochraceous, occasionally rust coloured when dried, punctate with dark coloured ostioles, margins free, undulate, sometimes thickened, centrally attached to host, outer layer of tissue pseudoparenchymatous, cells 5–10μ diameter, lightly pigmented yellow, inner tissue prosenchymatous, hyphae loosely aggregated, 5–7·5μ diameter, hyaline, thin walled. Perithecia oval, sometimes globose, 0·5 × 0·2–0·5 mm., crowded in superficial pigmented zone, ostiole 50–70μ, papillate, perithecial wall 5–10μ thick, pigmented yellow, distinct. Asci cylindrical, 60–100 × 4μ, with 16 unicellular part-spores; pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Spores globose or cuboid, 3·5–4μ, ovate or oblong when 5–5·5 × 3·5–4μ, hyaline, thin walled, finely echinulate.

Type Locality: Waipawa, Hawkes Bay.

Distribution: New Zealand.

Habitat: On rotten wood. Taranaki. Mt. Egmont, April, 1946, J. M. D. Wellington. Tararua Ra., Gable End Ridge, November, 1932, E. E. Chamberlain.

Material forwarded by Colenso from Waipawa was determined by M. C. Cooke as H. saccharina Berk. and Curt.; but one collection labelled b 982 was separated by Lloyd (1924) as the type of his H. colensoi.

The fleshy, golden yellow stroma with thick margins separates this species from H. schweinitzii. Spores are cuboid or oval, unequally divided by the septa and are larger than in the preceding species. Sometimes the centrally attached stroma has the appearance of being shortly pedicellated.

13. Hypocrea rufa (Pearson) Fries. Summa Vegitabilium Scandinaviae, p. 383. 1849. Plate 52, fig. 4, a and b

Sphaeria rufa Pers, ex Fr., Syst. Mycol., p. 335, 1822.

Stroma discoidal, 1–3 mm. diameter, 0·5 mm. thick, sometimes confluent with one another, umber or chestnut brown, smooth, often wrinkled when dry, margin free, rounded, sometimes light coloured, stroma centrally attached, pseudoparenchymatous, outer cells 3–4μ, pigmented and thickened, inner cells hyaline, 5–10μ diameter. Perithecia oval, 0·2–0·25 × 0·5 mm., arranged in superficial zone of stroma, ostiole 50–60μ, rarely protruding above surface of stroma, perithecial wall 15–20μ thick, lightly pigmented yellow. Asci cylindrical, 30–80 × 4–6μ, with 16 unicellular part-spores. Part-spores globose or cuboid 3–3·5μ, or ovate and pyriform when 3–4 × 4–6μ, hyaline, echinulate. Conidial stage: Mycelium effuse, hyaline, conidio-phores arising laterally from hypha, conidia borne in clusters at apex. Spores spherical, 3–6μ diameter, olivaceous, minutely echinulate.

Trichoderma viridis Pers. ex Fr.

Type Locality: Europe.

Distribution: Europe; North and South America; Australia; New Zealand.

Habitat: On rotten wood or on old fungous fructifications.

Fomes mastoporus (Lev.) Cooke. Auckland. Remnera, April, 1950, J. M. D.

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Fomes setulosa Lloyd. Auckland. Whangarei Heads, October, 1947, J. M. D.

Hymenochacte sp. Otago. Milford Sound, February, 1948, J. M. D.

Phyllocladus trichomanoides D. Don. Auckland. Thames, Kaueranga Valley, June, 1950, J. M. D.

Unknown host. Wellington. York Bay, February, 1923, E. J. Butler.

The collection from York Bay was determined as above by E. M. Wakefield of the Kew Herbarium. This species was first recorded for New Zealand by Colenso (1892) from material collected by him at Waipawa, Hawkes Bay, and identified by M. C. Cooke at Kew. The conidial stage, Trichoderma viridis, is present among young immature stromata. H. rufa may be separated from H. patella by its darker coloured stroma, rarely punctate with ostioles and with rounded free margins. In H. vinosa the stroma is larger, but irregular in shape and usually wrinkled in dried specimens.

14. Hypocrea patella Cooke and Peck. 29th Report New York State Museum, p. 57, 1878. Plate 52, fig. 5, a and b

Stroma discoid or patelliform, 1–3 mm. diameter, 0·5–1 mm. thick, pulvinate when fresh, wrinkled when dry, often aggregated in groups, occasionally confluent with one another, cinnamon or honey coloured, punctate with brown papillated ostioles, margins rounded, incurved, united to host, outer tissue pseudoparenchymatous, 30μ thick, cells 10μ diameter, lightly pigmented and thickened, inner tissue prosen-chymatous, hyphae 5–6μ diameter. Perithecia globose, sometimes oval, 0·15–0·2 × 0·2–0·3 mm., irregularly arranged in a superficial zone of prosenchymatous tissue, ostiole 60–100μ long, papillate, perithecial wall 6–10μ thick, yellow, distinct. Asci cylindrical, 60–90 × 4–5μ, with 16 unicellular part-spores, uniseriate; pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Part-spores unequal, cuboid or globose, 3·5–4μ, sometimes oval when 4·5–5 × 3·5–4·0, hyaline, finely echinulate.

Type Locality: Buffalo, New York, United States of America.

Distribution: North America; New Zealand.

Habitat: On rotten wood.

Brachyglottis repanda Forst. Auckland. Turangi, October, 1949, J. M. D.

Fuchsia excorticata L. f. Auckland. Rotorua, Waiotapu, June, 1950, J. M. D.

Melicope ternata Forst. Auckland. Thames, Kaueranga Valley, June, 1950, J. M. D.

Unknown hosts. Auckland. Rotorua, Waiotapu, June, 1950, J. M. D. Wellington. York Bay, September, 1919, E. H. Atkinson. Otago. Hollyford Valley, January, 1950, J. M. D.

The collection from York Bay, Wellington, was determined as above by E. J. Seaver. This species, differs from H. rufa in that the margins of the stroma are rounded, incurved and united to the substratum of host. The stroma is lighter coloured than in H. rufa and H. vinosa; in dried specimens it appears brown and wrinkled, but fresh specimens are pulvinate, honey coloured and dotted with dark

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coloured papillate ostioles. As Seaver (1909) stated, immature stroma appear as small yellow areas in the centre of a clump of white mycelium.

15. Hypocrea tawa n. sp. Plate 53, fig. 1, a and b

Stroma discoidale, 1–2 mm. diam., 0·5–1 mm. densum, pulvinatum, brunneo-vinosum, tuberculatum, ad medium substratum affixum, pseudoparenchymatum ostiolis papillatis, marginibus rotundis, liberis. Perithecia globosa 0·15–0·25 mm. diam. in regione superficiali stromatis ordinata, ostiolo 70–80μ longo, papillato. Asci cylindrici 70–80 × 4–6μ, 16 sporis divisis unicellularibus, pseudoparaphysibus ramosis. Sporae divisae globosae vel cuboides 3·5–4·5μ vel ovatae 4·0–5·0 × 3·0–4·0μ, olivacene, echinulatae.

Stroma discoid, 1–2 mm. diameter, 0·5–1 mm. thick, scattered, numerous, pulvinate when fresh but convex when dry, brown vinaceous, punctate with dark papillate ostioles, margins rounded, free, stroma centrally attached to a substratum, pseudoparenchymatous, cells up to 15μ diameter, outer cell pigmented and thickened, inner cells thin, walled, hyaline. Perithecia globose, 0·15–0·25 mm. diameter, arranged in a superficial zone of stroma, ostiole up to 80μ long, papillate; perithecial wall 10–15μ thick, pigmented, distinct. Asci cvlindrical, 70–80 × 4–6μ, thin walled, with 16 unicellular part-spores, uniseriate, pseudoparaphyses branched, ramifying in cavity of perithecia. Part-spores cuboid or globose, 3·5–4·5μ or more or less oval when 5–4 × 3·0–4·0μ, olivaceous, echinulate.

Type Locality: Auckland, near Alfriston.

Distribution: New Zealand.

Habitat: On rotten wood.

Beilschmiedia tawa (A. Cunn.) Hook. f. and Benth. Auckland. Near Alfriston, August, 1948, J. M. D. (type collection).

Alectryon excelsum Gaertn. Auckland. Near Alfriston, September, 1947, J. M. D.

Unknown host. Auckland. Near Alfriston, September, 1947, J. M. D.

When fresh this species resembles H. rufa, but the pigmented spores and its distinct papillated ostioles sharply differentiates it from others described from New Zealand. H. tawa may be separated from H. novae-zealandica by its larger spores and the darker coloured stroma.

16. Hypocrea jecorina Berkeley and Broome. J. Linn. Soc., Vol. 14, p. 112, 1875. Plate 53, fig. 2, a and b

H. umbrina Cooke. Grev., vol. 12, p. 78, 1884.

Stroma more or less discoid, 1–3 mm. diameter, 1 mm. thick, sometimes aggregated and confluent with one another, pulvinate when fresh, rugose when dry, livid brown or fuscus, margins thin, incurved but free, stroma centrally attached, punctate with black ostioles, pseudoparenchymatous, outer cells small, 4–6μ, pigmented and thickened, inner cells 10–15 × 10μ, hyaline, thin walled. Perithecia oval, 0·1–0·15 × 0·2–0·25 mm., irregularly arranged but closely compacted in superficial zone of stroma, perithecial wall 7–12μ, pigmented, dis-

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tinct, ostiole 40–50μ, sometimes papillate. Asci cylindrical, 75–100 × 4μ, with 6–8 uniseptate, articulate spores, containing at maturity 12–16 part-spores, uniseriate, pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Part-spores globose or cuboid, 3·5–4μ, oval or pyriform when 4–6 × 3–3·5μ, olivaceous, coarsely echinulate.

Type Locality: Nuwara, Eliyia, Central Province, Ceylon.

Distribution: Ceylon; New Zealand.

Habitat: On fungous fructification.

Fuscoporia sp. Auckland. Auckland Domain, May, 1949, D. W. McKenzie.

Perithecia are sunk in the tissues of the stroma, but the ostioles are papillated above its stroma. The perithecial wall is pigmented and distinct. Spore characters appear similar to those of H. gelatinosa, especially when mature, but the pseudoparenchymatous tissues of the stroma are pigmented. Petch (1920) stated that though Cesati described H. gelatinosa var. umbrina from Ceylon, it was redescribed as H. umbrina by Cooke (1884), and upon re-examination of the Cesati material in Kew herbarium, he found this species to be identical with H. jecorina.

17. Hypocrea novae-zealandica n. sp. Plate 53, fig. 4, a and b

Stroma discoidale 1–4 mm. diam., 1 mm. densum, ochraceum vel luteum translucens, in peritheciis substratis sporis fuscis punctatum, marginibus rotundis, densatis, liberis. Perithecia ovata vel globosa 0·2–0·3 × 0·3 mm., in regione superficiali stromatis immersa, ostiolo 80–100μ longo, papillato. Asci cylindrici 45–65μ × 4μ, 16 sporis divisis, unicellularibus, pseudoparaphysibus absentibus. Sporae divisae globosae vel cuboides 2·5–3·5μ, echinulatae, olivaceae.

Stroma discoidal, sometimes concave, 1–4 mm. diameter, 1 mm. high, scattered, luteous or ochraceous, translucent, punctate with dark spores in underlying perithecia, margins thickened, rounded, free, centrally attached to host, sometimes appearing as if shortly stipitate; pseudoparenchymatous, outer cells small, 2–4μ, lightly pigmented, not thickened, inner cells 10μ diameter, hyaline, collapsed in dried specimen. Perithecia oval or globose, 0·2–0·3 × 0·3 mm., superficially arranged and confined to the centre of the disc, margins sterile, ostiole 80–100μ long, papillated above surface of stroma, perithecial wall 20μ thick, hyaline but distinct. Asci cylindrical 45–65μ × 4μ, thin walled, with 16 unicellular part-spores, uniseriate; pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Part-spores globose or cuboid, 2·5–3·5μ diam., olivaceous, echinulate.

Type Locality: Auckland. Waitakere Ra., Cutty Grass Road.

Distribution: New Zealand.

Habitat: On dead branches.

Melicytus ramiflorus Forst. Auckland. Little Barrier Island, November, 1947, J. M. D.; Waitakere Ra., Cutty Grass Road, August, 1948, J. M. D. (type collection); Cascade Kauri Park, May, 1948, J. M. D.

Beilschmiedia tawa (A. Cunn.) Hook. f. and Benth. Auckland. Rotorua, near Waiotapu, June, 1950, J. M. D.

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When immature, this species appears similar to small specimens of H. gelatinosa. The immature stroma is bright yellow and translucent and is similar in appearance to a discomycete. It differs from H. gelatinosa in that perithecia are sunken in the stroma, never causing the stroma to be tuberculate, but as in H. gelatinosa the mature stroma appears dark coloured with the pigmented spores in the underlying perithecia. Part-spores are evenly divided into globose or cuboid, echinulate spores. Immature specimens forwarded to Kew by Colenso (b.229) are labelled H. saccharina Berk. and Curt. on the sheet. Other specimens collected by Colenso and determined as H. saccharina by Cooke have been renamed H. colensoi by C. G. Lloyd (1924).

Colenso (1886 and 1893) recorded the following species (which have not been included in the above descriptions) from material collected by himself at Waipawa, Hawkes Bay, and named by M. C. Cooke, of Kew. They have not been included herein, as material has not been available for examination.

Hypocrea carnea Berk. and Curt.

Hypocrea sulphurella Kalch. and Cke.

On examination, type material of Hypocrea berggreni Cooke proved to be a species of Aleurodiscus.

Literature Cited

Colenso, W., 1886. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 19, pp. 301–313.

—— 1892. Ibid., vol. 25, pp. 338–340.

Cooke, M. C., 1884. Grevillea, vol. 12, pp. 77–100.

Ellis, J. B., and Everhart, B. M., 1892. The North American Pyrenomycetes, 793 pp.

Lloyd, C. G., 1924. Mycological Notes, no. 71, pp. 1237–1268.

Petch, T., 1920. Annals Roy. Bot. Gardens, Peradeniya, vol. 7, pp. 85–138.

—– 1935. Jour. Botany, vol. 73, pp. 184–192.

—– 1936. Ibid., vol. 74, pp. 193–231.

—– 1937. Ibid., vol. 75, pp. 218–231.

—– 1938. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc., vol. 21, pp. 243–305.

Saccardo, P. A., 1883. Sylloge Fungorum, vol. 2, 815 pp.

Seaver, F., 1910. Mycologia, vol. 2, pp. 48–92.

Winter, G., 1887. Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen Flora, vol. 1, part 2, 928 pp.