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Volume 79, 1951
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The Moss Flora of the Dunedin Botanical Sub-district

[Read before the Otago Branch, October 17, 1950; received by the Editor, October 25, 1950]

No previous attempt has been made to compile a catalogue of the Mosses indigenous to the Dunedin Botanical Subdistrict; but any previous list would have been premature, as recent investigations by Allison, Simpson, Thomson, and the writer have greatly supplemented those previously known from the area.

This sub-district has been delimited by Simpson and Thomson (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 67, 431–432); but it may be regarded as all that area inland from the coast between Akatore and Stony Creek, just south of the Shag River, to a line extending from Waitahuna Hill, in the south, through Hindon and Scratchback Hill to the coast at Stony Creek. This block of country has an approximate area of 145,000 hectares, or 560 square miles. It may be well to note, however, that there is no evidence that the mosses are in any way restricted in their distribution to the same botanical districts as have been defined for the flowering plants.

The earliest collections were made by William Martin, grandparent of the writer (1850–1), and by Sir James Hector and John Buchanan, a number being recorded by Hooker in his Handbook of the New Zealand Flora. These were supplemented later by Dr. Sven Berggren, Dr. Lauder Lindsay, Mr. Donald Petrie, and Mr. William Bell. Of some 3,000 moss collections throughout New Zealand made by Berggren in 1873–5, 42 were obtained in Dunedin or at Evansdale. These were determined in 1937 by Dixon and Bartram, and a representative portion is now housed in the Auckland Museum. Lauder Lindsay, while a guest of William Martin in 1861, collected mosses in and south of Dunedin as far as the Clutha River. A list of his gatherings is contained in “Contributions to New Zealand Botany,” published in 1868.

The last decade of the century found Mr. William Bell, of Pine Hill, and Mr. D. Petrie, chief inspector of schools for Otago, actively engaged in collecting the local bryophytes. Though each was the discoverer of many species new to New Zealand—several from this sub-district—neither at any time published anything concerning the mosses, being content to send copious suites of specimens to such authorities as Brotherus, Mitten and Dixon. Bell's herbarium cannot now be traced, but Petrie's moss collections are now housed in the Dominion Museum herbarium.

Nothing further was done in investigating the local mosses till the fourth decade of the present century, when Simpson and Thomson, in the course of a detailed study of the plants of the Dunedin district, made numerous collections of the mosses, which are now housed in the herbarium of the Plant Research Bureau at Wellington.

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They record some thirty-five of the local epiphytic mosses in their paper on the flora of the Dunedin Botanical Sub-district of the South Otago District (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 67, 438).

More recently K. W. Allison, chief local officer of the Forestry Department, has collected the bryophytes of this area, and has been successful in locating a large number of species not previously noted by other collectors, or species not locally observed in recent years. Some of these he recorded in a paper (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 77, 278–283), since when he has collected many others. Most of these recently found have been made available to me for inclusion in this paper. The writer has also collected a majority of the local mosses, including several not noted by others. All are represented in the herbaria of the Auckland Museum (Berggren's), Dominion Museum (Petrie's). Plant Research Bureau (Simpson and Thomson's), or in the private herbaria of Allison, and the writer. The total at present known is 285, or half the total moss flora of New Zealand.

Further additions are to be expected, but their number is unlikely to be large, and the time seems opportune to record those already collected or observed. The rapid disappearance of the forest cover, and the changes consequent on settlement, cultivation, drainage, burning, and grazing are making the extinction of many local species almost a certainty within the area.

Every botanical district is bounded by an ecotone of varying width, so that it is not possible to delimit the area by a line. For this reason a number of species are included which are technically located outside the boundary set by Simpson and Thomson. Such are records from Akatore, Waihola, Horse Range Road, etc.

A number of mosses collected in the Dunedin Sub-district by Berggren in 1874 have not subsequently been found in the Dunedin area. Such are Campylopus holomitrium, Oligotrichum tenuirostre, Rhacopilum robustum, Thamnium latifolium var. elongatum and Thuidium denticulosum. The same thing applies to Breutelia elongata gathered by Hector and Buchanan in Waipori Gorge and recorded by Hooker; but the finding this year of Psilopilum bellii by Allison after a lapse of 60 years, indicates that the others may yet be re-discovered in the area.

Notes on Individual Species

Campylopus bicolor (Hornsch.) Hook. f. This species, first gathered locally in Kaikorai Valley in 1879, is interesting, “from having many leaves of type form, obtuse and hairless, others with distinct hair, and others tapering without hair” (Sainsbury).

Campylopus clavatus (R. Br.) H. f. and W. To this species Sainsbury attributes Campylopus insititius, and possibly Thysanomitrium leptodus. I have retained the separate records for these species in the meantime.

Dicranum pumilum Mitt. Since Hector first collected this moss in 1863 on “dry ground, Otago,” it had not been subsequently seen till Allison recently gathered it on rocks near the Waipori powerhouse.

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Dicranoloma robustum (H. f. & W.) Par. Numerous intermediate forms between this and var. setosum have been gathered on the summit of Maungatua by Simpson and the writer.

Eurhynchium praelongum Hobk. This moss is extremely abundant in Bethume's Gully and other Dunedin localities and fruits freely. It is an indigenous moss that has invaded plantations and lawns and in some places become the dominant moss. Possibly in some cases it may have been introduced.

Hennediella macrophylla (R. Br. ter.) Par. Numerous recent gatherings of Hennediella by Allison and the writer have made it clear that only one variable species is involved. This opinion of Sainsbury is shared by Allison and myself. Even the genus is scarcely to be distinguished from Pottia.

Hypnodendron arcuatum (Hedw.) Mitt. The writer recently obtained on a stream-bank near the summit of Swampy Hill, Dunedin, an aquatic form of this moss bearing small tufts of radicles on the stems. It is the absence of radicles that distinguishes this genus from Mniodendron.

Hypopterygium novae-seelandiae var. nudicaule Dix. In his Studies in the Bryology of New Zealand, Dixon, on p. 295, reports having received specimens from three localities all in the North Island. Two of these localities, however, are in the Dunedin Subdistrict in the South Island—viz., Blueskin, Waitati (wrongly spelt Waititi), and Purakanui (spelt Papakami), in which localities Berggren collected this moss in 1874.

Neckera brownii Dixon. Until recently this moss was known only from Banks Peninsula and one other unspecified locality. In 1949 Allison recorded it from the Dunedin area; but prior to this the writer had gathered it on Otago Peninsula, at Bluff, at Invercargill, and on Stewart Island. He has since obtained it from Waipori Gorge, Blue Mountains (Tapanui), Riverton, and Tuatapere. It would appear to have its centre of New Zealand distribution in the South Otago Botanical District in common with such other moss species as Goniobryum subbasilare, Isopterygium limatum, or Rhizogonium pennatum.

Neckera laevigata H. f. & W. On p. 463 of the Handbook of the N.Z. Flora, Hooker records this species as having been collected at Queensland Bush by my grandfather. The correct name of the locality is Green Island Bush, where for a time my grandfather resided.

Orthorrhynchium elegans (H. f. & W.) Reichdt. Sainsbury (Bryologist XLI, No. 1, p. 18), discussing Vegetative Reproduction in Some New Zealand Mosses, states that he has only once seen this moss with the deciduous habit. Both in the Dunedin area and in other parts of Otago and Southland, as well as at Butterfly Creek, near Wellington, the writer has observed stems with deciduous leaves. Commonly the young leaves near the tip and the lowermost leaves alone remain on the stems. The plants were fully as robust as other plants. Indeed, a majority of the plants in each area studied displayed the deciduous habit.

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Pleuridium arnoldii (R. Br. ter.) Par. Petrie first obtained this diminutive moss on Swampy Hill, near Dunedin. Allison and the writer have recently noted it both on Flagstaff and on Swampy Hill, while I have also gathered it on Maungatua at 2,600 feet altitude.

Psilopilum bellii Broth. William Bell first obtained this moss at Pine Hill and on Mt. Cargill, but diligent search by subsequent botanists failed to locate it till the present year, when Allison detected it near the Leith Saddle.

Sciadocladus spp. Hitherto it has not been known whether only one or both species of Sciadocladus was present in the local moss flora. This was because fruiting plants were not known and the gametophytes are indistinguishable. The discovery of fruiting plants of S. menziesii collected by Petrie on Mt. Cargill, and of S. kerrii, collected by Allison on Swampy Hill, however, makes the position clear; but whether all records are attributed to the correct species in the absence of sporophytes seems open to question.

Sciaromium bellii Broth. There is general agreement with the opinion of Sainsbury that the moss so named is only an aquatic form of the sub-aquatic moss Campylium relaxum now named Cratoneuropsis relaxa. There have been several recent local gatherings of the aquatic form, but Sciaromium is now deleted from the New Zealand flora.

Seligeria cardotii. A moss gathered by me near Waipori may be this species, but better material is needed for accurate determination. The species has not been included in the list of species.

Sphagnum spp. S. cymbophylloides, S. dielsianum, S. magellanicum, S. otagoense, and S. sub-bicolor all present in this district have now been merged by Le Roy Andrews as forms of S. leionotum. Similarly the following members of the Cuspidata section—viz., S. irritans, S. kirkii, S. linguaefolium, and S. subcuspidatum, noted locally—are included as forms of S. falcatulum. These and S. antarcticum are the only local Sphagna.

Tortula submutica Broth. Sainsbury has pointed out that this species must be dropped as the Anderson's Bay plant is T. phaea.


I am much indebted to the Curators of the Museums at Auckland and Wellington, and to the Director of the Plant Research Bureau for facilities provided, enabling me to study the moss collections housed in these institutions. Once again I have to acknowledge the kindness of Mr. Sainsbury, in critically examining material forwarded, and for helpful information. Mr. Allison, whose unrivalled knowledge of the local bryophytes is acknowledged, has placed me much in his debt by placing at my disposal his numerous local finds, as well as by sharing many of them with me.

In the notes that follow, abbreviations are used as under:— Dr. H. H. Allan (H.H.A.); W. Bell (W.B.); Dr. Sven Berggren (S.B.); K. W. Allison (K.W.A.); H. N. Dixon (H.N.D.); Sir J. D. Hooker (J.D.H.); Dr. Lauder Lindsay (L.L.); Dr. Donald Petrie

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(D.P.); George Simpson (G.S.); G. Simpson and J. Scott Thomson (G.S. and T.); W. Martin, Sr. (W.M.Sr.); P. Martin (P.M.); W. Martin (W.M.).

Catalogue of Mosses with Specific Localities and Habitats

Acanthocladium extenuatum (Mitt.) Brid. On earth, logs, and tree trunks in forest. Not common. Leith Valley (W.M.); Mt. Cargill (K.W.A.).

Acaulon apiculatum (H. f. & W.) Jaeg. On bare consolidated earth and banks. Uncommon. Berwick (K.W.A.); Waipori (W.M.).

Acrocladium auriculatum (Mont.) Mitt. Common on earth, rocks, and trees in forest, and in damp shady places.

Amblystegium riparium B. & S. Edge of pond. Rare. Outram (K.W.A.).

Andreaca rupestris Hedw. On subalpine schist and volcanic rocks. Not common. Maungatua (G.S. & W.M.); Mt. Watkin (S. & T.); Flagstaff (W.M.).

Astomum austrocrispum (C.M. & Beck.) Broth. Bare, consolidated earth. Very rare. Pine Hill, Oct. 1899 (W.B.); North-East Valley (W.B.); Outram, Berwick (K.W.A.).

Barbula australasiae (Hook. and Grev.) Brid. On earth and banks. Not common. Waitati (S. & T.); Dunedin (G.S.); Pukehiki (W.M.).

B. torquata Tayl. On earth and banks. Not very common. Waitati R. (S.B.); Dunedin (S.B.); Otago Penl. (K.W.A. & W.M.).

Bartramia norvegica (Gunn.) Lindb. Shady subalpine rocks. Uncommon. Maungatua (W.M. & K.W.A.).

B. papillata H. f. & W. Wet places in shade but not in forest. Common. Fergusson's Creek (H.H.A.); Maungatua (W.B. & S. & T.); Town Belt (W.M.); Otago Penl. (W.M.).

Blindia magellanica. On damp rocks near stream. Very rare. Evansdale Creek (K.W.A.).

Brachythecium albicans B. & S. Lawns and dry grassland. Uncommon. Mornington, Brockville (K.W.A.).

B. paradoxum (H. f. & W.) Jaeg. On rocks in streambed. Leith Valley (D.P., G.S., & W.M.); rocky banks, Akatore-Waihola Road (G.S.)—a form with entire leaves.

B. plumosum B. & S. On rocks in streambed. Uncommon. Blueskin (S.B.); Leith Valley (W.M.).

B. rutabulum B. & S. On earth, rocks, logs, and tree-bases. Moderately common. Dunedin (S.B.); Town Belt, Leith Saddle, and Pukehiki (W.M)

B. salebrosum B. & S. On rocks in streambed, swamp, wet grassland, and tree bases. Rather rare. Mt. Watkin (S. & T.); Scratchback Hill and Silverstream (G.S.); Leith Valley (K.W.A. & W.M.).

B. velutinum B. & S. Near Berwick, Otokia, Horse Range Road (K.W.A.).

Breutelia affinis (Hook.) Mitt. Shady places on wet banks. Rare. Berwick, Coastal ridge above Clarendon (K.W.A.).

B. elongata (H. f. & W.) Mitt. On earth in forest. Not recently seen. Waipori Gorge (H. & B.) in Handbook N.Z. Flora.

B. pendula (Hook.) Mitt. Damp grassland, and wet shady banks (rarely in forest). Maungatua (S. & T. & W.M.); Otago Penl., Town Belt, Brighton, etc. (W.M.).

Bryum appressifolium Broth. On caudex of sedge in swampy ground. L. Waihola (K.W.A.).

B. argenteum Hedw. In culverts, at base of buildings, etc. Very common in Dunedin streets.

B. austro-pallescens Broth. Habitat not known. Not recently seen. Pine Hill (W.B.), type locality.

B. billardieri Schwaegr. Doubtfully distinct from B. truncorum. Signal Hill (D.P.); Flagstaff (P.M.) 1880.

B. blandum H. f. & W. On submerged stones, or on earth or stones by side of streams in montane stations. Scarcely common. Maungatua (S. & T. & W.M.); Bethune's Gully (W.M.); Waitati; Mt. Watkin, Mt. Cargill (K.W.A.).

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B. campylothecium Tayl. Sand dunes. Signal Hill (L.L.); Aramoana, Taieri Beach (K.W.A.).

B. capillare Hedw. var. torquescens (B. & S.) Husn. Rare. Near Henley (K.W.A.).

B. chrysoneuron C.M. Dunedin (L.L); Port Chalmers, North-East Valley (K.W.A.).

B. curvicollum Mitt. Coastal banks, etc. Uncommon. Aramoana, Evansdale (K.W.A.).

B. dichotomum Hedw. Ditches and damp banks. Dunedin (S.B.); Blueskin (S.B.); Town Belt (W.M.).

B. eximium Mitt. Swampy places. Not recently seen. Dunedin (D.P.) 1892; North-East Valley (H. & B.) in Handbook.

B. laevigatum H. f. & W. On wet moss and wet rocky banks. Not rare. Maungatua (G.S.); Akatore-Waihola Rd. (G.S.); Berwick, hills above Otokia (K.W.A.).

B. obconicum Hornsch. Very rare. Near Henley (K.W.A.).

B. truncorum Brid. On earth, stones, logs, and trees; also on earth in the open. Very common. Waitati (G.S.); Leith Valley on submerged rocks (G.S.); Blueskin (S.B.); Maungatua (G.S. and W.M.).

Buxbaumia aphylla Hedw. On earth among trees. Very rare. Berwick (K.W.A.) 1945, first record for S. Island; Waitati (K.W.A.).

Calliergonella cuspidata (Hedw.) Loeske. On earth. Uncommon. Pelichet Bay, 1888 (W.B.); Opoho, Waihola (K.W.A.); Mt. Cargill (W.M.).

Calomnion laetum H. f. & W. On caudices of tree ferns. Not uncommon. Pine Hill (W.B.); North-East Valley (H. & B.); Leith Valley (W.M.).

Calyptopogon mnioides (Schwaegr.). Broth. Trunks and branches of forest trees and on lianes. Common. Dunedin (S.B.); Otago Penl., Taieri Mouth, Leith Valley, etc. (W.M.).

Camptochaete angustata (Mitt.) Jaeg. On roots, trunks, and branches of forest trees, also stones on forest floor. Common.

Camptochaete arbuscula (Hook.) Jaeg. Same stations as previous species. Common.

C. gracilis (H. f. & W.) Par. Exposed roots, and stones on forest floor or in streams. Not uncommon. Morrison's Creek, Mt. Watkin (G.S.); Blueskin (S.B.); Bethune's Gully, Town Belt, Swampy Hill, etc. (W.M.).

C. pulvinata (H. f. & W.) Jaeg. On trunks and branches of forest trees. Not uncommon. West Taieri Bush, Wickliffe Bay (G.S.); Bethune's Gully, Town Belt, Pukehiki (W.M.).

C. ramulosa (Mitt.) Jaeg. On trees and stones in forest. Common. Bethune's Gully. Town Belt, Swampy Hill (W.M.).

Campylium decussatum (H. f. & W.) Broth. Nichol's Creek (J. M. Mitchell per K.W.A.).

C. polygamum (B. & S.) Bryhn. Rare. Dunedin (S.B.).

Campylopodium euphorocladum (C.M.) Besch. Banks and bare earth. Rare. Dunedin (W.B.).

Campylopus bicolor (Hornsch.) Hook. f. On peaty soil. Uncommon. Kaikorai Valley (P.M.) 1879; Abbot's Hill (G.S.); Maungatua (G.S. & W.M.); Kaikorai Valley (G.S.).

C. clavatus (R. Br.) H. f. & W. Clay soils and banks. Very common. Blueskin (S.B.); Waipori, Mt. Watkin (G.S.); Leith Valley, Mt. Cargill, Waitati (W.M.).

C. holomitrium (C.M.) Jaeg. No habitat listed. Dunedin (S.B.). A dubious record.

C. insititius H. f. & W. Clay soils. Not common. Probably synonymous with C. clavatus. Fergusson's Creek (H.H.A.) det. H.N.D.

C. introflexus (Hedw.) Mitt. On earth, decaying wood, burnt soils. Very common.

C. torquatus (Mitt.) Jaeg. Clay banks and soils. Not common in this area. Dunedin, 1893 (D.P.); Mt. Cargill (K.W.A.).

Catagonium politum (H. f. & W.) Dus. On soil and clay banks both within and outside forested areas, also on rocks and shingle. Common. North-East Valley

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(D.P.); Silver Peaks. Mt. Watkin. Waitati (S. & T.); Anderson's Bay, Mt. Cargill (W.M.).

Ceratodon purpureus Brid. On earth, peat. and logs. Abundant.

Cheilothela chilensis (Mont.) Broth. In subalpine tussock, also in soil overlying rock, and rock crevices. Not common. Maungatua (W.B.); Maungatua and Flagstaff (W.M.).

Cladomnion ericoides (Hook.) H. f. & W. On forest trees. Not uncommon. Mt. Cargill (D.P.); Leith Saddle (S. & T.); Mt. Cargill, Swampy Hill (W.M.).

Conostomum australe Swartz. Rock crevices and soil overlying rock in montane areas. Rather rare. Flagstaff (K.W.A.); Maungatua (W.M.).

C. pusillum (H. f. & W.). Steep bank of small gully. Rare. Maungatua, 2,500 ft. (K.W.A.).

Cratoneuropsis relaxa (H. f. & W.) Fleisch. Usually in or near streams. Moderately frequent. (Sciaromium bellii is only an aquatic form.) North-East Valley (W.B.); Silverstream, Leith Valley, and Morrison's Creek (G.S.); Waipori Gorge (W.M.).

Cryphaea dilatata H. f. & W. On trees, and on rocks in stream-bed. Not common. Leith Valley. Waipori Gorge (W.M.).

C. tasmanica Mitt. Rocks in stream-bed. Uncommon. Leith Stream (W.M.).

C. tenella (Schwaegr.) Hornsch. On lianes and on tree branches. Common. Dunedin (D.P.); Abbot's Hill. Mt. Watkin (S. & T.); Pukehiki, Mt. Cargill, Leith Valley (W.M.).

Cyathophorum bulbosum (Hedw.) C.M. On earth, stones, roots, and tree bases in forest. Common. Leith Valley (D.P. & W.M.); Morrison's Creek (G.S.); Dunedin (K.W.A.).

Desmatodon binnsii (R. Br. ter.) Dix. Moist soil. Very rare. Mt. Watkin, 13/7/35 (S. & T.); Horse Range Rd. (K.W.A.).

D. lingulatus (H. f. & W.) Steere. Moist soil. Very rare Waitati (S.B.); Port Chalmers (K.W.A.).

Dichclodontium nitidum (H. f. & W.) Broth. On branches of forest trees. Very rare. Akatore Hills (K.W.A.).

Dicnemon calycinum (Hook.) Schwaegr. Well illumined stations on tree trunks. Not very common. Pine Hill (D.P.); Maungatua, Taieri Mouth, Mt. Cargill (W.M.).

Dicranella gracillima (C.M. et Beck.) Par. Moist soils in the open. Rare. Pine Hill on clay (W.B.); near Berwick, Fraser's Gully (K.W.A.).

D. jamesonii (Tavl.) Broth. Wet soils by streams. Very rare. Blueskin (S.B.); above Otokia, near Black Head (K.W.A.).

Dicranoloma cylindropyxis (C.M.) Dix. Forest floor and on tree-trunks. Not common. Mt. Cargill (D.P.); Maungatua (G.S. & W.M.).

D. dicarpum (Hornsch.) Par. On forest floor. Rare. Mt. Cargill (W.B.).

D. fasciatum (Hedw.) Par. Floor of beech forest and on rotten log. Not common. Maungatua (K.W.A. & W.M.); Waitati (K.W.A.).

D. integerrimum (Broth. et Geheeb) Par. Uncommon. Summit bogs on Maungatua, 2,800 ft. (W.M.).

D. integrifolium Dix. Peaty soil near subalpine bogs and on wet rocks. Common. Maungatua (S. & T. & W.M.).

D. menziesii (H. f. & W.) Par. Moist forest soils, logs and tree-trunks, also stones on forest floor. Not uncommon. Mihiwaka (S. & T.); Waipori Gorge (W.M.); Dunedin (G.O.K.S.); Maungatua. Bethune's Gully (K.W.A.).

D. menziesii var. rigidum (H. f. & W.) Par. On tree ferns, on earth, and on leaf-fall in forest. Not rare. Taieri Mouth (K.W.A.); Abbot's Hill, Mt. Cargill (G.S.); Morrison's Creek, Leith Saddle, Mt. Watkin, Mihiwaka (S. & T.).

Dicranoloma platycaulou Dix. Rotting logs, and tree bases in forest. Not common. Mt. Cargill (P.M., D.P., G.S., K.W.A., and W.M.). Leith Saddle (K.W.A.).

D. plurisetum (C.M.) Dix. On forest floor. Common. Blueskin (S.B.); Mt. Cargill (D.P. & W.M.); near Berwick, Leith Saddle (K.W.A.).

D. pungentella (C.M.) Par. Peaty soils in subalpine areas, Maungatua (S. & T. & W.M.); near Berwick (K.W.A.).

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D. robustum (H. f. & W.) Par. On wet rocks. Not common. Maungatua (G.S. & W.M.); Flagstaff (K.W.A.).

D. robustum var. pungens H. f. & W. On soil and on rocks in subalpine stations. Not uncommon. Pine Hill, 1879 (P.M.); Mt. Cargill, Maungatua, Silver Peaks (G.S.). “Often strongly approaches D. robustum” (G.O.K.S.); Flagstaff (K.W.A.).

D. robustum. var. setosum (H. f. & W.) Sainsb. Rocks and soils in subalpine stations. Fairly common. Flagstaff (W.B.); Mt. Cargill (D.P.); Fergusson's Creek (H.H.A.); Maungatua, Silver Peaks, Mihiwaka (G.S.); Maungatua, Mt. Cargill (K.W.A. & W.M.).

Dioranoweisia antarctica (C.M.) Par. On rocks. Not common. Leith Valley, North-East Valley (W.B.); Akatore-Waihola Rd. (G.S.); Waipori R. (W.M.).

Dicranum aucklandicum Dix. On rocks and in rock crevices. Not common. Flagstaff (W.B.); Mt. Cargill (W.M.).

D. pumilum Mitt. Rocks in stream-bed. Very rare. Waipori R. near Powerhouse (K.W.A.). This is the first discovery of the species since Hector first detected it in Otago nearly a century ago.

Distichophyllum microcarpum (Hedw.) Mitt. Wet forest soils, on roots, and on streambanks and stones in forest. Not common. Morrisons’ Creek (G.S.); waterfall, Waitati (S. & T.); Taieri Mouth, Maungatua (W.M.).

D. pulchellum (H. f. & W.) Mitt. On soil and logs in forest. Common. Pine Hill and Mt. Cargill (D.P. & S. & T.); Waitati (G.S.); Town Belt, Leith Valley, Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

D. rotundifolium (H. f. & W.) Broth. On forest soils, litter, and rotting logs. Uncommon.

Ditrichum brevirostrum (R. Br. ter.) Broth. On earth and on rock. Rare. Near Clarendon and Berwick (K.W.A.).

D. elongatum (H. f. & W.) Mitt. Clay banks and rotten rock. Not rare. Dunedin, 1891 (D.P.); Dunedin, Berwick (K.W.A.); Akatore-Waihola Rd. (G.S.); Mt. Watkin, Mt. Cargill, Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

D. flexifolium (Hook.) Hpe. Clay banks. Common. Morrison's Creek, Maungatua, Verterburn (G.S.); Taieri Mouth, Mt. Cargill (W.M.)

D. punctulatum Mitt. Clay banks and rotten rock. Not uncommon, but local. Mt. Cargill (W.M.).

Drepanocladus adunous (Hedw.) Moenk. Swampy places. Not common. Maungatua (W.M. and K.W.A.); Mt. Cargill (W.M.).

D. fluitans (Hedw.) Warnst. Swamps and bogs. Not common. Maungatua (G.S., W.M., L. Cranwell); Mt. Cargill (W.M. & K.W.A.)

D. uncinatus (Hedw.) Warnst. On trees and in bogs. Uncommon. Maungatua (W.M.).

Echinodium hispidum (H. f. & W.) Jaeg. Forest floor, stones, roots, and stream banks. Common. Dunedin (S.B. & L.L.); Morrison's Creek, Abbot's Hill, Wickliffe Bay, Leith Valley (G.S.); Town Belt, Bethune's Gully, West Taieri, Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

E. umbrosum (Mitt.) Jaeg. On forest soils. Rare. Swampy Hill (W.M.); Mt. Cargill (K.W.A.).

Encalypta vulgaris Hedw. Grassy hillsides and soil overlying rock. Rare. Berwick (K.W.A.); Maungatua (W.M.).

Entodon truncorum Mitt. Waipori Gorge, Fraser's Gully (K.W.A.).

Eriodon oylindrotheca (Dix.) Dix. & Sainsb. Stones and logs in forest. Rare. North-East Valley (D.P.) det. H. N. Dixon.

Eriopus apiculatus (H. f. and W.) Mitt. Sandy and clay banks on coastline. Rare. Akatore Stream, Brighton (K.W.A.).

E. cristatus (Hedw.) Jaeg. Stream banks and stones in stream bed in forest. Scarcely common. Mt. Cargill (D.P. & W.M.); Town Belt and Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

E. flexicollis (Mitt.) Jaeg. Wet rocks in stream bed; also on horizontal limb of forest tree—an unusual station. Dunedin (H. & B.); Pine Hill (D.P.); Town Belt, Taieri Mouth, Waipori Gorge (W.M.).

Erythrophyllum recurvirostrum (Hedw.) Jenn. [= Didymodon rubellus (Hoffm.) B. & S.]. Near stream, Rare, Evansdale, Akatore (K.W.A.).

– 444 –

Eurhynchium aspcripes (Mitt.) Dix. Stream banks and emergent stones in forest streams. North-East Valley (D.P.); Dunedin (S.B.); Abbot's Hill, Morrison's Creek (G.S.); Town Belt, Bethune's Gully (W.M.); Dunedin (K.W.A.).

E. austrinum (H. f. & W.) Jaeg. Stones in running water. Not common. North-East Valley (D.P.); Maungatua (K.W.A.); Maclaggan Street, Dunedin, Bethune's Gully, Town Belt (W.M.); Maori Road, Dunedin (K.W.A.).

E. muriculatum (H. f. & W.) Jaeg. Logs, stones, and branches in forest. Common. Dunedin (L.L. & S.B.); Town Belt, Otago Penl., West Taieri, Saddle Hill, Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

E. praclongum Hobk. On forest soils, rocks, and logs, and in lawns. Common. Golf Links, Roslyn (G.S.); Dunedin-Milton (K.W.A.); Bethune's Gully, Town Belt (W.M.).

Fabronia australis Hook. On rocks, willows, and poplars. Not common. Otokia, Berwick (K.W.A.); Silverstream (W.M.).

Fissidens anisophyllus Dix. Moist stream banks in forest. Rather rare. Coastal cliff, Taieri Mouth, and Town Belt (K.W.A.); Town Belt (W.M.).

F. asplenioides (Swartz.) Hedw. Moist banks. Not very common. Dunedin (H.N.D.); near Outram, Flagstaff (K.W.A.); Waipori Gorge (W.M.).

F. campyloneurus C.M. et Beck. Moist banks in forest. Not rare. Dunedin (S.B. and D.P.); Pine Hill (W.B.); Leith Valley (D.P.); Waitati, on mud (S. & T.); Sandymount (W.M.).

F. dealbatus H. f. & W. Moist stream banks in forest. Rare. Town Belt (K.W.A.); Newington Avenue (W.M.).

F. inclinabilis C.M. et Dix. Moist stream banks. Rather rare. N.E.V. (D.P.); Anderson's Bay (W.M.); Outram, Botanical Gardens (K.W.A.).

F. leptocladus C.M. et Rodw. Moist banks in forest. Common. Dunedin (S.B.); Town Belt, Anderson's Bay, Waipori, Maungatua (W.M.).

F. leptocladus var. cheesemanii (C.M.) Dix. Moist banks in forest. Dunedin-Milton, Akatore (K.W.A.).

F. rigidulus H. f. & W. On rocks submerged in forest streams. Common. Chain Hills (L.L.); Maungatua, Morrison's Creek (G.S.); Leith Valley, Bethune's Gully, Waipori R. (W.M.).

F. taylori C.M. Rare. Bethune's Gully, ridge above Otokia (K.W.A.).

F. tenellus H. f. & W. Stream banks. Not common. Dunedin (S.B.); Leith Valley (J. M. Mitchell and W.M.); Ravensbourne, Akatore, Signal Hill (K.W.A.).

F. vittatus H. f. and W. Stream banks. Has been found only on outskirts of the Dunedin sub-district as at Strath-Taieri and Herbert.

Funaria glabra Tayl. On earth. Very rare or extinct in this area. Dunedin (S.B.).

F. hygrometrica Hedw. On earth and rocks in the open and on logs. Very common. North-East Valley (D.P. and L.L.); Morrison's Creek (G.S.); Tomahawk, Leith Valley, Taieri Mouth, Brighton Reserve (W.M.).

Glyphothecium alare Dix. et Sainsb. On forest trees and shrubs. Rare. Akatore (K.W.A.).

G. sciuroides (Hook.) Hpe. On bark of forest trees. Uncommon. Akatore (K.W.A. and W.M.): Maungatua (W.M.).

Goniobryum sub-basilare (Hook.) Lindb. On tree ferns and rotting logs or forest floor. Not uncommon. Pine Hill, North-East Valley (D.P.); Abbot's Hill (G.S.); Leith Valley, Mt. Cargill (W.M.).

Grimmia apocarpa Hedw. Common on schist and volcanic rocks. Abbot's Hill (G.S.); Akatore, Maungatua, Saddle Hill, Flagstaff, Mt. Watkin (W.M.).

G. apocarpa var. rivularis (Webb. et Mohr.). Common in running streams. Herbert-Balclutha (K.W.A.); Leith Valley, Waipori R. (W.M.).

G. apocarpa form epilosa. On rocks, but not common. Dunedin (D.P.); Saddle Hill (W.M.).

G. campestris Burch. On rocks. Uncommon. Mt. Watkin (S. & T. & W.M.).

G. inaequalis Dix. et Sainsb. On rocks. One locality only. Mt. Watkin, 1,400 ft. (G.S., K.W.A., and W.M.).

G. pulvinata (Hedw.) Sm. var. africana (Hedw.) Dix. [= G. pulvinata Sm. var. obtusa (Brid.) B. & S.] On dry rooks. Common. Mihiwaka, Mt. Watkin,

– 445 –

Waitati, Morrison's Creek (G.S.); Otago Penl., Flagstaff, Swampy Hill, Mt. Cargill, Bethune's Gully (W.M.).

G. pulvinata Sm. var. basaltica (Mitt.) Dix. Not recently seen. On basaltic rocks. Dunedin (L.L.).

G. trichophylla Grev. On rocks. Common. Dunedin (Robt. Brown); Maungatua, Abbot's Hill, Mt. Watkin (G.S.); Mt. Cargill, Flagstaff, Otago Penl. (W.M.).

Gymnostomum calcareum Bry. Germ. On calcareous sandstone and on brick wall. Mornington (K.W.A.).

Hedwigia albicans (Web.) Lindb. Rocks in open situations. Not uncommon. Berwick (K.W.A.); Flagstaff, Saddle Hill, Maungatua, Mt. Watkin (W.M.).

Hedwigidium imberbe B. & S. Rocks in open. Very rare. Mt. Watkin, 1,500 ft. (S. & T.).

Hennediella macrophylla (R. Br. ter.) Dix. On earth and clay banks. Rather uncommon. Maungatua, Pine Hill (W.B.); Maungatua, Green Island, Saddle Hill, Otago Penl. (W.M.); Botanical Gardens (K.W.A.).

Holomitrium perichaetiale (Hook.) Brid. Forest trees and peaty soils. Not common. Mt. Cargill (D.P.); Swampy Hill. Mt. Cargill, Maungatua (W.M.).

Homalia falcifolia (H. f. & W.) H. f. & W. Rocks and tree bases in forest. Rare. Leith Valley (W.M.).

H. pulchella H. f. & W. Usually on roots of forest trees or on stones. Fairly common. Mt. Cargill (Auckl. Museum); Waitati (S. & T.); Swampy Hill, Flagstaff, Leith Valley, Waipori Gorge, Town Belt (W.M.).

Hygrohypnum sp. Morrison's Creek (H.H.A.); Leith Valley, 800ft., on wet rocks (G.S.).

Hymenodon piliferus H. f. & W. On tree ferns and on trees. Common. Leith Saddle (G.S.); Dunedin (D.P.); Taieri Mouth, Leith Saddle, Otago Penl. (W.M.).

Hymenostomum patulum (Knight.) Dix. On clay soils. Uncommon. When not fruiting scarcely distinguishable from Weisia viridula. Dunedin, Blueskin (S.B.); Wickliffe Bay (G.S.); Taieri Mouth [?] (W.M.).

Hypnodendron arcuatum (Hedw.) Mitt. On damp forest soils and on stream banks. Common. Dunedin (L.L.); Leith Valley, Town Belt, Waipori, Taieri Mouth, West Taieri (W.M.).

Hypopterygium concinnum (Hook.) Brid. On earth, rocks, tree bases, and lianes in forest. Very common.

H. filiculaeforme (Hedw.) Brid. Wet areas on forest floor, more rarely on decaying logs. Morrison's Creek (D.P. & G.S.); North-East Valley (D.P.); Taieri Mouth, Swampy Hill, Mt. Cargill (W.M.).

H. novae-seelandiac C.M. Wet forest floor, logs, stones, and tree bases. Very common.

H. novae-seelandiae var. nudicaule Dix. Wet forest floor. Not common. Blueskin, Purakanui (S.B.); Waitati (G.S.).

H. setigerum (P. Beauv.) H. f. & W. On decaying logs. and wet forest floor. Dunedin (L.L.); Swampy Hill, Mt. Cargill, Taieri Mouth, Bethune's Gully (W.M.).

Isopterygium limatum (H. f. & W.) Broth. Rocks and forest tree trunks. Rather uncommon. Signal Hill (D.P.); Akatore, Waipori Gorge (K.W.A. and W.M.).

Lembophyllum clandcstinum (H. f. & W.) Lindb. Rocks and tree trunks. Abundant.

L. divulsum (H. f. & W.) Lindb. Usually deemed only a form of L. clandestinum. South of Taieri Mouth (K.W.A.); Black Head (W.M.).

Leptobryum pyriforme (Hedw.) Schimp. Damp banks. Rare. Pine Hill (W.B.).

Leptodon smithii (Dicks.) Mohr. On forest tree trunks and on rocks. Common. North-East Valley (D.P.); Wickliffe Bay (G.S.); Town Belt, Waipori Gorge, Taieri Mouth, Highcliff, Mt. Cargill (W.M.).

Leptostomum inclinans R. Br. Common on trees and rocks in montane and subalpine stations. Maungatua, Mt. Watkin, Leith Saddle, Silver Peaks (S. & T.); Chain Hills, Saddle Hill, Mt. Charles (W.M.).

– 446 –

L. macrocarpum (Hedw.) R. Br. Rather rare on tree trunks in full light. Taieri Mouth (W.M.); Saddle Hill (W.M., sen.); Taieri Mouth, bush above Leith Saddle (K.W.A.).

Leptotheca gaudichaudii Schwaegr. Forest floor and suhalpine rocks. Scarcely common. Maungatua, Silver Peaks, Morrison's Creek, on tree ferns (G.S.); Maungatua, Waipori Gorge (W.M.).

Lepyrodon australis Hpe. On beech and other tree trunks. Not common. Leith Saddle on dead-fall (G.S.); Abbot's Hill (G.S.), Saddle Hill, Swampy Hill (W.M.).

L. lagurus (Hook.) Mitt. On subalpine rocks. Not common. Abbot's Hill (G.S.); Maungatua (G.S. & W.M.); Leith Saddle (K.W.A.).

Leucobryum candidum (Brid.) H. f. & W. Forest floor and tree bases. Not very common. Dunedin (L.L.); Taieri Mouth, Swampy Hill, Flagstaff, Mt. Cargill (W.M.).

Macromitrium erosulum Mitt. Tree trunks in forest. Common. Swampy Hill (D.P.); Mihiwaka, Mt. Cargill (G.S.); Mt. Cargill, Flagstaff, Maungatua, Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

M. eucalyptorum Hpe. & C.M. On forest tree trunks. Common. Dunedin (W.B.); Wickliffe Bay, Mt. Watkin (G.S.); Bethune's Gully, Maungatua, Taieri Mouth, Highcliff (W.M.).

M. gracile (Hook.) Schwaegr. On forest tree trunks. Hardly common. Taieri Mouth, Mt. Cargill (W.M.).

M. gracile var. retusum (H. f. & W.) Sainsb. Common on forest trees. Pine Hill (D.P.); Maungatua, Pine Hill (W.B.); Bethune's Gully, Taieri Mouth, Maungatua, Waipori Gorge (W.M.).

M. grossirete C.M. Tree trunks and shrubs. Uncommon. Pine Hill, Maungatua, Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

M. ligulare Mitt. Forest tree trunks. Fairly common. Dunedin (D.P.); Maungatua (W.B.); Pine Hill, Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

M. longirostre (Hook.) Schwaegr. Coastal rocks. Uncommon. Black Head (W.M.).

M. longirostre var. caducipilum (Lindb.) Martin. Rocks and forest trees. Not very common. Wickliffe Bay (G.S.); Akatore. Maungatua, Otago Penl., Waipori, Mt. Cargill (W.M.); Akatore (K.W.A.).

M. orthophyllum Mitt. On upland trees and shrubs. Uncommon. Mt. Cargill, Pine Hill, Maungatua, Taieri Mouth (W.M.); Mt. Cargill, Akatore (W.M.).

M. pusillum Mitt. Plants so named in N.Z. are M. ligulare (G.O.K.S. in letter to writer). Wickliffe Bay (G.S.).

M. weymouthii Broth. Forest tree trunks and on shrubs. Not common. Silver Peaks (G.S.); Maungatua (W.M.).

Mielichhoferia eckloni Hornsch. On banks. Rare. Pine Hill (W.B.). Waipori Gorge (W.M.).

M. tenuiseta (Hook.) Jaeg. Clay banks and river banks. Rare. Waitati and Berwick (K.W.A.).

Mniobryum albicans (Wahl.) Limpr. [= Pohlia wahlenbergia (Web. et Mohr) Andr.] Wet wood and soil. Maungatua, near Berwick, Fraser's Gully (K.W.A.).

Mniodendron comosum (Labill.) Lindb. Forest floor. Rare. Dunedin (L.L.); Swampy Hill (W.M.).

Muelleriella crassifolia (H. f. & W.) Dus. Coastal rocks. Rare. Akatore (K.W.A. & W.M.).

Neckera brownii Dix. Forest tree trunks. Not rare. Waipori Gorge, Otago Penl., Mt. Cargill (W.M.); Waipori Gorge (K.W.A.).

N. hymenodonta C.M. Forest tree trunks and lianes. Very common. Abbot's Hill (G.S.); Leith Valley, Mt. Cargill, Otago Penl., Akatore, Saddle Hill, Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

N. laevigata H. f. & W. Forest tree trunks. Not uncommon. Green Island Bush (W.M., sen.); Saddle Hill. Signal Hill (D.P.); Leith Valley, Pukehiki, Mt. Cargill (W.M.).

Oligotrichum tenuirostre (Hook.) Jaeg. Peaty subalpine soils, Dunedin (S.B.).

– 447 –

Orthodontium sulcatum H. f. & W. On forest soils and logs. Not common. Leith Valley (D.P.); Ravensbourne (P.M.); Pine Hill (W.M.).

Orthorrhynchium elegans (H. f. & W.) Reichdt. Forest tree trunks. Common Pine Hill (D.P.); Dunedin (G.S.); Akatore, Taieri Mouth, Swampy Hill, Mt. Cargill (W.M.).

Orthotrichum beckettii C.M. On shrubs and trees. Rare. Mt. Cargill, Sullivan's Dam (K.W.A.).

O. calvum H. f. & W. Trees in open situations. Not rare. Near Berwick, Leith Valley (K.W.A.).

O. cyathiforme R. Br, ter. Trees in open stations. Uncommon. Botanical Gardens (W.B. and D.P.).

O. graphiomitrium C.M. & Beck. On shrubs. Rather rare. Leith Valley (D.P.); Pine Hill (W.M.).

O. hortense Bosw. Trees in open. Not common. Mt. Watkins, 1,700 ft. (S. & T.); Taieri Plain (W.M.).

O. lanoifolium R. Br. ter. On shrubs. Not common. Berwick (K.W.A.); Maungatua (W.M.).

O. pulvinatum R. Br. ter. On rocks. Moderately common. Pine Hill (W.B.); Saddle Hill and Coastal Hills (W.M.).

O. sainsburyi K. W. Allison. Fairly common on shrubs. Foothills Allanton-Milton (K.W.A.); Saddle Hill (W.M.).

O. tasmanicum H. f. & W. On shrubs and lianes. Not rare. Pine Hill (W.B.); Abbot's Hill (G.S.); Saddle Hill, Pine Hill, Waipori Gorge (W.M.).

Papillaria crocea (Hpe.) Jaeg. Branches of forest trees. Uncommon. Saddle Hill (L.L.); Saddle Hill, Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

P. flavo-limbata (C.M. et Hpe.) Jaeg. Forest trees. Not common. Pine Hill (D.P.); Taieri Mouth, Pukchiki, Mt. Cargill (W.M.).

P. flexicollis (Tayl.) Jaeg. On forest trees. Not common. Saddle Hill, Mt. Cargill (W.M.).

Philonotis australis (Mitt.) Jaeg. On wet banks and in swamps. Not common, Silverstream Valley, Scratchback Hill (G.S.); Town Belt, Mt. Watkin, Maungatua (W.M.).

P. australis v. surculigera. Swampy ground. Rare. Mt. Watkin (W.M.).

P. scabrifolius (H. f. & W.) Jaeg. Wet ground. Rare. Maungatua (W.M.); Flagstaff, near Otokia (K.W.A.).

P. tenuis (Tayl.) Jaeg. Stream banks and marshy ground. Common. Maungatua (S. & T. & W.M.); Otago Penl., Town Belt (W.M.).

Physcomitrium conicum Mitt. Spoil from drains and damp, bare ground. Berwick (K.W.A.).

Pleuridium arnoldii (R.Br. ter.) Par. Subalpine soils and bush margin. Not rare. Swampy Hill (D.P.); Swamphy Hill and Flagstaff (K.W.A. & W.M.); Maungatua (W.M.).

P. nervosum (Hook.) Par. Bare consolidated ground. Near Berwick, Flagstaff (K.W.A.).

Pogonatum subulatum (Menz.) Brid. Clay banks. Not very common. Mt. Cargill (Auckland Museum); Mt. Cargill, Pukehiki, and Green Island Bush (W.M.).

Pohlia oruda Hedw. Clay and rocky banks. Uncommon. Outram (K.W.A.).

P. nutans (Hedw.) Lindb. Peaty, subalpine soils and swamps. Not rare. Kaikorai Valley (P.M.); Maungatua (L.L., G.S., K.W.A., & W.M.); Swampy Hill (W.M. & K.W.A.).

P. tasmanica Broth. Peaty subalpine soils. Rare. North-East Valley, Pine Hill (D.P.); Maungatua (S. & T.).

P. tenuifolia H. f. & W. Rare. Pine Hill (D.P.); Dunedin (S.B.); Logan Point, Taieri Road (K.W.A.).

Polytrichadelphus magellanicus (Hedw.) Mitt. On clay banks and slips. Locally common. Morrison's Creek (S. & T.); Maungatua (W.M.).

Polytrichum commune Hedw. In swampy areas. Moderately common. Flagstaff (H.H.A.); Mihiwaka (G.S.); Maungatua—leaves nearly entire (G.S. & W.M.).

– 448 –

P. juniperinum Willd. On peaty soils, and soil overlying rocks. Silver Peaks (G.S.); Swampy Hill, Maungatua, Kaikorai Mouth, Saddle Hill (W.M.).

Pottia longifolia R. Br. ter. On consolidated bare ground. Rare. On garden path, Green Island (W.M.).

P. serrata R. Br. ter. Bare soil in grassed areas. Uncommon. Otokia, Akatore (K.W.A.); Town Belt (W.M.).

P. stevensii R.Br. ter. Grassed areas. Not common. Waverley (W.M. sen.); near Dunedin (W.B.); Momona (K.W.A.).

Pseudodistichium buchanani (R.Br. ter.) Dix. Subalpine herb-field. Rare. Mt. Cargill (K.W.A.); Taieri Mouth (K.W.A.).

Psilopilum australe (H. f. & W.) Jaeg. Subalpine peaty soils. Uncommon. Maungatua (W.M. & K.W.A.); Silver Peaks (K.W.A.).

P. bellii Broth. Pine Hill, Mt. Cargill (W.B.); Leith Saddle (K.W.A.).

Pterygophyllum dentatum (H. f. & W.) Mitt. On rotting logs in forest. Not common. Waverley, 1850 (W.M. sen.); Blueskin (S.B.); Leith Valley (D.P.); North Taieri Bush (G.S.); Taieri Mouth, Swampy Hill (W.M.); Waitati, Otokia, Waipori Gorge (K.W.A.).

P. dentatum var. robustum (H. f. & W.) Dix. Wet places near streams in forest. Leith Saddle (K.W.A.); Town Belt, Mt. Cargill, Swampy Hill, Bethune's Gully, Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

P. quadrifarium (Hook.) Brid. Stream margins and wet soils and rotting logs in forest. Common. Mt. Cargill, Mihiwaka (G.S.); Pine Hill, Mt. Cargill, Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

Ptychomnion aciculare (Brid.) Mitt. In forests on soil, stones, logs, and trees. Common. Dunedin (S.B.); Flagstaff, 1889 (T. Kirk); Silver Peaks, Morrison's Creek (G.S.); Mt. Cargill, Swampy Hill, Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

Rhacomitrium crispulum (H. f. & W.) H. f. & W. Rocks in the open. Common. Flagstaff (T. Kirk); Maungatua, Silver Peaks, Mt. Cargill, Mt. Watkin, Leith Stream (G.S. & W.M.).

R. lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. var. pruinosum (C.M.) H. f. & W. On peaty subalpine soils and in rock pockets. Not rare. Maungatua, Silver Peaks, Lee Stream, Mt. Watkin (G.S.); Maungatua, Mt. Watkin (W.M.).

R. ptychophyllum Mitt. On peaty soils and on rocks. Not uncommon. Summit of Maungatua (L.L. & W.M.).

Rhacocarpus australis (Hpe.) Par. Peaty soils on Maungatua. Common. Maungatua (K.W.A. & W.M.).

Rhacopilum cristatum H. f. & W. Probably synonymous with R. strumiferum. Uncommon. Dunedin, Blueskin (S.B.); West Taieri (G.S.).

R. robustum H. f. & W. Forest floor and stones. Dunedin (S.B.).

R. strumiferum C.M. Damp forest soils, roots, banks. Blueskin (S.B.); Mt. Cargill, Flagstaff, Swampy Hill, Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

Rhizogonium bifarium (Hook.) Schimp. On decaying logs. Very common. Dunedin (L.L.); Abbot's Hill (G.S.); Mt. Cargill, Swampy Hill, Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

R. distichum (Sw.) Brid. On logs in forest. Common. Mt. Cargill (D.P.); Silver Peaks (G.S.); Mt. Cargill, Swampy Hill (W.M.).

R. mnioides (Hook.) Schimp. Stream margins in forest. Not uncommon. Morrison's Creek (D.P.); Silver Peaks (G.S.); Fergusson's Creek (H.H.A.); Waipori Gorge, Maungatua (W.M.).

R. novae-hollandiae. On logs and peaty soils. Common. Leith Valley (D.P.); Mt. Cargill (F.S.); Mt. Cargill, Swampy Hill (W.M.).

R. pennatum H. f. & W. On tree ferns mainly. Fairly comomn. Look-out Point, Mt. Cargill (G.S.); Swampy Hill (W.M.).

R. pennatum var. aristatum (Hpe.) Dix. On tree ferns. Mt. Cargill (D.P.) det. Dixon; Mt. Cargill (W.M.).

Rhynchostegium laxatum (Mitt.) Par. Logs, tree branches, and stones on forest floor. Common.

R. peracuminatum Dix. et Sainsb. Rocks and logs on forest floor. Not common. Bethune's Gully (W.M.); Evansdale, Dunedin, Waipori Gorge (K.W.A.).

– 449 –

R. tenuifolium (Hedw.) Jaeg. Logs and tree branches in forest. Pine Hill (W.B.); Blueskin, Dunedin (S.B.); Opoho Creek (D.P.); Abbot's Hill (G.S.); Waitati, on moist ground (G.S.).

Sohlotheimia brownii Brid. Forest tree trunks. Uncommon. Maungatua (W.B.); Taieri Mouth, Akatore, Maungatua, Mt. Cargill (W.M.).

Sciadocladus kerrii (Mitt.) Jaeg. Forest floor in wet places. Mihiwaka (S. & T.); Morrison's Creek, Mt. Cargill (G.S.).

S. menziesii (Hook.) Lindb. Wet places on forest floor. Mt. Cargill (D.P.), fruiting; Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

Sematophyllum amoenum (Hedw.) Dix. Logs and branches of forest trees. Common. Morrison's Creek (G.S.); Flagstaff, Swampy Hill, Mt. Cargill, Town Belt (W.M.).

S. contiguum (H. f. & W.) Jaeg. On stones in forest. Rather uncommon. Blueskin (S.B.); Opoho Creek (D.P.); Waitati c.f. (S. & T. & K.W.A.); Wickliffe Bay (G.S.); Bethune's Gully (W.M.); Mornington (K.W.A.).

S. tenuirostre (Hook.) Dix. On well-lighted emergent rocks in running streams. Not rare. Leith Stream, 800 ft. alt. (G.S.); Waipori R. (W.M.).

Sphagnum antarcticum Mitt. Subalpine bogs. Common. Maungatua (G.S. and W.M.).

S. falcatulum Besch. Common in subalpine bogs. Maungatua, Swampy Hill (G.S. & W.M.).

S. leionotum C.M. Common in subalpine bogs and swamps. Maungatua (G.S. & W.M.).

Stereodon chrysogaster (C.M.) Mitt. Roots, branches, and trunks of forest trees; rocks and soil on forest floor. Common. Chain Hills (L.L. & H. & B.); Abbot's Hill, Mihiwaka, Mt. Watkin, Lee Stream in grassland (G.S.); Swampy Hill (W.M.).

S. cupressiforme (Hedw.) Mitt. Abundant on rocks and banks in open, in scrub, and on forest trees.

S. cupressiforme var. filiformis Brid. On willows and on forest trees where water runs down. Common. Morrison's Creek (G.S.); Maungatua, Swampy Hill, Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

Tayloria octoblepharis (Hook.) Mitt. On forest floor. Rare. Leith Valley (D.P.); Waitati (G.S.); Taieri Mouth, Mt. Cargill (K.W.A.).

T. purpurascens (H. f. & W.) Broth. On forest floor. Rare. Swampy Hill (D.P.); Signal Hill, Mt. Cargill (K.W.A.).

Tetraphidopsis pusilla (H. f. & W.) Dix. Lianes and branches of forest trees. Not common. Waipori Gorge (K.W.A. and W.M.); Leith Valley, Otago Penl. (W.M.).

Thamnium latifolium (Bry. Jav.) Par. var. elongatum Dix. Rocks in streams. Recorded by S. Berggren without specific habitat as from Dunedin. Not subsequently seen.

T. pandum (H. f. & W.) Jaeg. Common in streams. Near Berwick, Maungatua (K.W.A.); Leith Stream, West Taieri (W.M.).

T. pumilum (H. f. & W.) Par. Stones in stream-bed. Very rare. Waipori R. (K.W.A.).

Thysanomitrium leptodus (Mont.) Dix. On clay soils. Not common. Considered by Sainsbury as a form of Campylopus clavatus. Maungatua, Waitati (G.S.).

Thuidium denticulosum (Mitt.) Jaeg. Recorded by S. Berggren and not seen since.

T. furfurosum (H. f. & W.) Jaeg. In grass, on forest floor, stones, and logs. Dunedin (S.B.); Waitati, Wickliffe Bay, Maungatua (G.S.); Town Belt, Taieri Mouth, Otago Penl. (W.M.).

T. laeviusculum (Mitt.) Jaeg. Common on damp forest floor and stones. Silver Peak (G.S.); Swampy Hill, Flagstaff, Mt. Cargill, Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

T. sparsum (H. f. & W.) Jaeg. In lawns and on roots and stones in forest. Dunedin, Blueskin (S.B.); Otago Penl., Leith Valley, Saddle Hill (W.M.).

Tortella calycina (Schwaegr.) Dix. Edges of subalpine pools. Not common. Maungatua (S. & T.).

– 450 –

Tortula abruptinervis Dix. On willows. Uncommon. Otokia (K.W.A.); Botanical Gardens (W.M.).

T. atrovirens (Sm.) Lindb. [Now listed as Desmatodon convolutus (Brid.) Grout.] On rocks. Rare. Pine Hill (W.B.), 1877; Aramoana, Merton, Outram (K.W.A.); Green Island (W.M.).

T. bealcyensis R.Br. ter. On trees and shrubs. Uncommon. Near Berwick (K.W.A.).

T. flavinervis Dix. Peaty soil overlying rock. Akatore Hills (G.S.); near Berwick, Otokia, Brockville Rd., Dunedin (K.W.A.).

T. muralis Hedw. On concrete and calcareous sandstone. Common. Pine Hill on chimneys (W.B.)—first record in Australasia; Flagstaff (H.H.A.); Waitati (S. & T.); Dunedin (W.M.).

T. papillosa Wils. Mainly on willows. Not very common. Near Dunedin (R. Brown); Taieri Plain (K.W.A. & W.M.).

T. phaca (M. f. & W.) Dix. on rocks. Not common. Berwick (K.W.A.); Green Island Bush, Saddle Hill (W.M.). T. submutica from Anderson's Bay is only T. phaea.

T. princeps De Not. On rocks, logs, etc. Common. Dunedin (L.L.); Waitati, on dry soil (K.W.A.); Maungatua, Akatore Hills (G.S.); Blueskin (S.B.).

T. serrulata Hook. & Grev. On willows. Not rare. Otokia, Berwick, Silverstream (K.W.A.); Taieri River bank (W.M.).

T. tenella Broth. Not common. Near Berwick, Mt. Watkin (K.W.A.).

Trachyloma planifolium (Hedw.) Brid. Forest tree trunks and lianes. Not common. Mt. Cargill (P.P. & W.M.); Dunedin (L.L.); Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

Tridontium tasmanicum Hook. On stones and in mud by streams, stream banks, etc. Not very common. Dunedin (S.B.); Leith Stream (W.M.); Evansdale, Maungatua, Woodhaugh Gardens (K.W.A.).

Triquetrella curvifolia Dix. & Sainsb. On grassy slopes. Rare. Berwick (K.W.A.)—first record for South Island.

T. papillata (H. f. & W.) Broth. On rocks, in pasture, scrub, grass, etc. Comparatively uncommon. Akatore (W.M.); Outram, Otokia Hills (K.W.A.).

Ulota breviseta Malta. Twigs and branches. Not common. Near Dunedin (K.W.A.); Pine Hill (W.M.).

U. lateciliata Malta. Twigs and branches. Uncommon. Pine Hill (W.M.); near Dunedin (K.W.A.).

U. lutca Mitt. Twigs and branches. Not common. Near Dunedin (K.W.A.).

U. viridis Vent. On tree trunks. Rare. Pine Hill (W.M.); near Dunedin (K.W.A.).

Weisia viridula Hedw. Banks and clay soils. Not very common. Leith Valley, North-East Valley (W.B.); Waitati, Mt. Watkin (G.S.); Maungatua, Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

W. viridula var. gymnostoma Dix.

Weymouthia cochlearifolia (Schwaegr.) Dix. On trees and branches. Common. Leith Valley, Mt. Cargill (D.P.); Leith Saddle, Morrison's Creek (G.S.); Saddle Hill, Taieri Mouth, Swampy Hill, Pukehiki (W.M.).

W. cochlearifolia var. billardieri (Hpe.) Dix. As above. Less common. Morrison's Creek, Mihiwaka (S. & T.); Taieri Mouth (W.M.).

W. mollis (Hedw.) Broth. On trees and shrubs. Common. Mihiwaka, Morrison's Creek (S. & T.); Mt. Cargill (G.S.); Saddle Hill, Taieri Mouth, Waipori Gorge, Swampy Hill, Pukehiki (W.M.).

Zygodon intermedius B. & S. On trees. Not common. Leith Valley (S. & T. & W.M.); Akatore Hills (G.S.).

Z. menziesii (Schwaegr.) W. Arn. On rocks. Not frequently seen. Akatore, on rocks (W.M.); Larnach's Castle (K.W.A.).

Z. minutus C.M. et Hpe. On Ngaio bark. Rare. Otago Heads (K.W.A.).

Z. rufescens (Hpe.) Broth. On willows. Rare. Otokia (K.W.A.). First occurrence in South Island.

– 451 –

Literature Consulted

Allison, K. W. A., 1949. Description of a New Species with Notes and Localities for Some Otago and Southland Mosses. Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 77, 278–283.

Beckett, T. W. Naylor, 1892. Description of New Speices of Musci. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 25, 289–296.

—— 1892. On some Little Known New Zealand Mosses. Ibid., 25, 297–302.

—— 1893. On some Little Known New Zealand Mosses. Ibid., 26, 277–288.

—— 1893. On Four New Species of New Zealand Mosses. Ibid., 26, 274–276.

—— 1896. On New Zealand Mosses. Ibid., 29, 441–445.

—— 1898. Some Recent Additions to the Moss Flora of New Zealand. Ibid., 31, 426–437.

Brown, Robert, 1894. Notes on New Zealand Mosses: Genus Grimmia. Ibid., 27, 409–421.

—— 1894. Notes on New Zealand Mosses: Genus Orthotrichum. Ibid., 27, 422–446.

—— 1897. Notes on Genus Tortula. Ibid., 30, 390–409.

—— 1898. Notes on New Zealand Musci. Ibid., 31, 437–442.

—— 1898. Notes on New Zealand Musci. Ibid., 31, 442–470.

Dixon, H. N., 1913–1928. Studies in the Bryology of New Zealand. Bull. N.Z. Inst., No. 3, pts. 1–6.

—— and Bartrum, E. B., 1937. S. Berggren's New Zealand Mosses. Botaniska Notiser, Lund, 63–83.

Hooker, J. D., 1867. Handbook of the New Zealand Flora, Pt. 2. London.

Lindsay, Lauder, 1868. Contributions to New Zealand Botany.

Sainsbury, G. O. K., 1935. Vegetative Reproduction in New Zealand Mosses. Jour. and Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., 69 86–104.