Sir William Blaxland Benham, K.B.E., F.R.S., (1860–1950)
In the face of the indelible personal impressions left by a friendship of some forty-four years, it is very difficult to write objectively about Sir William Benham; but, fortunately, I have also other sources from which to compile this notice; and my thanks are due to Miss Marion Fyfe, his Senior Lecturer in Zoology, for the use of a personal record left her by him; to Professor J. S. Tennant, of Nelson, who held the fort until Sir William's arrival in New Zealand in 1898; to Mr. J. W. Hayward, Registrar of Otago University, who made the University records available; and to Mr. L. W. James, Registrar of Marlborough College, England, for information on Sir William's school days. Other records are expected from England, but, as they have not come, I feel that further delay in issuing this notice is unwarranted.
In any attempt to review the life of this great man, one becomes involved in the zoological history of the past one hundred years; because, not only did Sir William's career cover that century (except for the first decade of it), but also he became an eminent disciple of the Darwin-Huxley influence which he carried to New Zealand, and so maintained at Otago the tradition already founded by his famous predecessor, T. J. Parker, himself a pupil of Huxley. That these influences remained deep rooted was to be seen (if in nothing else) from his habit of periodically and alternately hanging over his mantelpiece at the Museum the portraits of Darwin and Huxley; when asked why he did not hang them side by side and be done with it, he replied that, as man was blessed with only one digestive tract, he could not possibly eat, much less digest, two solid meals simultaneously.
Sir William was born (the sixth in a family of seven) on March 29, 1860, at Isleworth, Middlesex, just at the moment when Darwin's Origin of Species was yet hot from the press, and when the controversy (largely led by Huxley) was raging around it; it is not suggested that this in any way disturbed Sir William at the time, but it serves to fix the period. He knew nothing of his forebears beyond his paternal grandfather who had been a publisher in partnership with Reeve of Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, and who published a variety of books on Natural History—a noteworthy point, perhaps; his father, “Edward Benham (baptised ‘Ebenezer', but changed his name) was a London Solicitor” and President of the Metropolitan and Provincial Law Association at the time of his death in 1871; his mother, Mary Anne Shoppee, of Uxbridge, died in 1900. Sir William claimed that none of his “relations were in any way noteworthy nor took part in public life—just ordinary, fairly prosperous folk of the professional class”, and that he “was brought up in a happy and healthy environment in a large house with extensive grounds of about three acres at Syon Lodge, Isleworth, adjacent to the Duke of Northumberland's house”; he did not recall any circumstances or influence affecting his later history as a zoologist, none of his family or ancestors having been interested in science. Nevertheless, his childhood background would tend to direct him into some intellectual channel.
His schooling commenced in 1867 at a grammar school at Coleshill, Warwickshire, under the Rev. W. Banks; in 1871, the year of his father's death, he transferred to a school at Ewell, near Epsom, and thence to a small school at Meriden, Warwickshire (W. Carles)—a preparatory institution for boys about to enter the Public Schools.
In September 1874, he entered Marlborough College, his memories of which were to remain amongst his happiest, as revealed by a letter written to the College in his latter years His house was C1, part of the old building once the mansion of the Seymour family and later the famous Castle Inn. He remained there for seven terms, leaving in December, 1876 During six of these terms he received promotion and finished in the Lower V.
We should note that he was a member of the College Natural History Society, which was the first of its kind in any school and flourished under the Rev. T. A. Preston—it continues to flourish. The activities of the Society were wide. In spite of the fact that Sir William disclaimed having been influenced by any of his teachers in any way in his choice of what was ultimately to become his life work, and though there is no record of his having done anything to have his name mentioned in the proceedings of the College Society, it is quite reasonable to believe (very young though he was) that the beginning of his zoological bent had its roots somewhere in that Society, which was of high standard and still is; because later, when the opportunity came and after he had felt his way about, he succumbed to the zoological spell readily enough.
At Marlborough he took classics, as well as chemistry and physics, under Mr. Rodwell (the only science taught), “not for any interest”. he averred, “but because thereby I escaped having to do Latin verse! As at that time I intended to enter the Indian Civil Service as an engineer. I took various extra subjects, such as mechanical drawing. German, etc.”, and “was well grounded in Latin and Greek, ignorant of History, English Literature and Grammar, with a smattering of French Grammar and elementary Mathematics”: he won no scholarship at any time in his career.
His training in drawing is reflected by the clearly detailed (often artistic) illustrations in his publications; he always stressed the value of what he called “good pictures”; he would carefully ink in a line, and then, aided with a lens, go over it and fill in the irregularities with a fine pen. His knowledge of Latin, Greek and German became invaluable to him and his students in later years. His confessed ignorance of English literature and grammar is not to be taken seriously, or, if it is, then he obviously rectified it. On the other hand, there is possibly some truth in the smattering of elementary mathematics, when one recalls his efforts to balance his petty cash! Nevertheless, his school record. though seemingly commonplace, is what we find often enough in the histories of so many famous people.
On leaving school in 1876, he lived with his family in London whilst being coached for the Indian Civil Service; but this plan was eventually abandoned, and he commenced study to become an analytical chemist at University College, Gower Street; after two or more years, however, this also was abandoned, and he turned to Geology (under Bonney) in its place as a third subject for the B.Sc., but. as there were no laboratory or museum facilities at University College, he transferred to the Imperial College (then the School of Science and Art), where he studied under Judd and Cole. His other subjects were Botany (Scott and Vines) and Zoology under Ray Lankester. whose influence shaped his career. He graduated B.Sc. at London University in 1883.
It was of that period he claimed, “I had found my real interest in Zoology, in which I received much encouragement from Ray Lankester; and after acting as Junior Demonstrator, he appointed me as a senior assistant after A. G. Bourne had been appointed to a Chair of Zoology in a university in India”; that was
in 1886, when he also became Lecturer in Zoology at Bedford College for Women in London, a position he held until 1898, when he left for New Zealand.
So it is that we find Sir William not only launched on his zoological career, but also with the fundamental training in Geology and Botany which enabled him, as Professor of Biology at Otago, to carry on the teaching of Palaeontology until Dr. P. Marshall (Professor of Geology) took over the subject some time about 1907, and of Botany until 1923, when Dr. J. E. Holloway became lecturer in that subject. Though naturally very interested in Palaeontology, Sir William had very little leaning toward Botany beyond what was required for the needs of the curriculum.
Whilst yet a student, Sir William made a study of the male organs (then unknown) of Limulus, living material having been secured from the Westminster Aquarium; the result was his first publication in 1883, inaugurating that long series of outstanding zoological publications which regularly appeared, and which fittingly closed simultaneously with his life by the issue of his last paper in the very month of his death. We would note that, though Sir William usually used his initials “W.B.” we find “W.B.S.” on this first publication, the “S.” representing “Shoppee” after his mother. He sent a copy of his Limulus paper to Sir Richard Owen—that man with the “surgical smile” (Emerson), the sweetness of which reminded Jane Caryle of sugar of lead—whose memoir was the only source of knowledge of the animal at that time.
In 1885 Sir William commenced his life work on the structure of earthworms. upon which he became such a world authority; on his original studies he graduated D. Sc. in 1887. The British Museum provided him with material from all parts of the world, and so quickly did he came to the fore that he was invited to contribute the account on “Polychaet Worms” in the Cambridge Natural History, which remains the only detailed monograph on the subject in the English language, while a little later he contributed, at Lankester's request, to the latter's Treatise on Zoology, part IV, “Platyhelmes, Mesozoa and Nemertinea”. Indeed, so authoritative did his work become, that many of his published drawings of worms and other animals are reproduced in several standard zoological books by English. German and French authors.
After graduating, Lankester advised him to study the field of karyokinesis then being developed by Prof. Wilhelm Fleming at Kiel; this he did for some weeks, “but rather to Lankester's disappointment I did not pursue this work. It did not appeal to me as did that of work on larger material”, a turn of mind which is obvious in the range of subjects dealt with in his publications; I think the smallest was an insect larva, but the largest were certainly whales, about which he became very enthusiastic for a time in his seventies, though he eventually reverted to his worms, apropos which he said, “If one's fickle enough in youth to forsake one's first love, one returns to it in old age—for it will claim you in the end!” Such characteristic humour frequently cropped out, and he appreciated it in others even though he was the object of it—except when derisive; for example, when someone placed an almost spherical quartz pebble in a cage of tuatara lizards which he had under observation in the hope of securing the egg, he was far from pleased; on the other hand, when one of his early students met him after many years and said, “Every time I turn up a worm in the garden I see your face”. he was highly delighted with the rather naif bon-motism.
On April 24, 1899, at St. Paul's Church, Camden Town, he married Beatrice Eadie, daughter of John Eadie, a London merehant. She died in 1909—a great loss to Sir William and to all who had the pleasure of knowing her; she was very considerate and helpful to the younger fry, especially to those making their first appearance before the Otago Institute, when she would restore what remained of their courage.
In 1890 Ray Lankester was appointed to the Chair of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford, and Sir William accompanied him to take up an appointment as Aldrichian Demonstrator in that subject; it was during that period that Sir William took his M.A. in 1897, “by decree of convocation”. In the same year Professor T. J. Parker, of Otago University, died, and Sir William applied for the vacant Chair of Biology and the Curatorship of the Museum; he was supported by eulogistic testimonials from several renowned zoologists, the consensus of opinion being that no worthier successor could be had to follow the distinguished Parker. On March 10, 1898, Cabled advice from London stated that Sir William had been selected; and it is of interest that Prof. G. Vines, one of the appointing commission, drew the attention of the Otago University Council to the wisdom of creating two chairs—Botany and Zoology—not to eventuate, however, until 1951. A letter written by Sir William at that time was legible, presenting none of the difficulties so characteristic in later years when a typewriter was given him, it is said—hopefully (by the University Council, perhaps)—though I am sure all his correspondents were pleased when he discarded the machine in favour of the pen; however, toward the close of his life, his writing tended to revert to the early style.
Sir William sailed for New Zealand by the s. s. Kaikoura on March 31, 1898, being thirty-eight years of age virtually to the day. Prof. J. S. Tennant, who acted during the interregnum, gives the following excellent picture of Sir William on handing over to him in May, 1898: “I found Benham a cheery young man, dapper, frank, and intensely intersted in everything I had to show him. Nothing escaped him, and I felt he could look after himself and manage even the toughest medical student”; and later, “in 1908 I was with him for two weeks on the Auckland Islands, and there he was a general favourite Two of our colleagues were rather pompous know-alls, and Benham delighted to draw them out (often further than they could safely go). On the other hand, he was most kind and helpful to all the younger men.” So there was the man we came to know—indefatigable, genial, energetic, kindly, and yet masterful as the occasion arose; a man of definite views, yet with a tolerance; a compact man (physically and mentally), exhibiting nothing of absent-mindedness—real or false; short of stature and rapid in gait.
He took up his work with zest. In the Museum one of his first acts was to plan for its future development, and using as a foundation the material provided by his distinguished predecesors (Hutton and Parker, respectively), he built up over the years a museum of Comparative Anatomy unrivalled in New Zealand, and considered by competent observers to be comparable with the Oxford Museum of Comparative Anatomy; on the other hand, he be no means neglected the ethnological side. He was a stickler for public order in the Museum and even proposed that a policeman be on duty; in a letter to the University Council he considered that the Janitor (Mr. James Mackenzie) was becoming old and who “in a few years will be too feeble to exert any sort of influence on noisy
youths”—yet that janitor (a feature of the museum) managed quite well until he retired twelve years later of real old age.
Sir William was a fluent and quite informal speaker, whether on the platform or in conversation; he drew upon an orderly mind stored with knowledge as wide as it was deep in understanding; his induction from observed phenomena followed each step to his conclusion: indeed, he always claimed that Logie should have its place in any scientific training—a report, shortly before his death in 1950, on the identity of an earthworm, was an example of precise syllogistic reasoning. He was a great techer, and his lectures were a model; he impressively led his students (in whom he took a personal interest) through the rise of the animal kingdom, the whole plan of creation unfolding His flair for holding the attention of the most irresponsible student (more or less) was doubtless an important influence in the well-known orderliness of his classes; but the greatest influence. I am sure, was the universal respect in which he was held—as a man of integrity and of high standing in the scientifie world, to say nothing of his forcefulness, which sometimes was rendered the more potent by a barbed subtlety not quite obseured under the cloak of courtesy; but if he had caused hurt (and not necessarily unwittingly) he could in many kindly ways make amend so long as he had not to deal with a fool—whom he could suffer neither gladly nor sadly.
Quite apart from his teaching and Museum duties, he led a very full life. He was unremitting in his original researches; and the attached list of his publications (none a pot-boiler) reveals the scope of his interests, while many of them give one an insight into his outlook. When dealing with subjects beyond the scope of his own speciality (earthworms), it was characteristic of him to reveal his modesty and think of others; for example, when examining the viscera of the rare Notornis, he did as little damage as possible, because “I have no special knowledge of bird anatomy” and the specimen might pass “into the possession of a competent ornithologist”; again, he would frankly confess his uncertainty in a field comparatively new to him, as with certain echinids when “a recent discussion as to the proper names of cidarids warns me, an outsider, to beware of rushing in where Baxter, Clark, Mortensen, and others have trodden”; though he would console himself with that, “after all, names are only labels, and need not have any meaning”, but could be of use “for the purpose, at any rate, of reference”, so long as they were accompanied by good descriptions and “pictures”; and when he made a mistake he did not fear to make a handsome admission of it, a trait seen to advantage in what he referred to as “a Confession of Errors”, where “one little error in life, one little sin if you like, leads one into further errors” Frequently, too, his conversational style would creep into his writings to bring to the reader an intimately personal touch, sometimes enhanced by a rather unorthodox title, such as “A couple of abnormalities”
In the administrative affairs of the University he played an influential part. his “wide experience, sound judgement and impartiality of outlook, giving added weight to the opinions he expressed.” He was Chairman of the Professorial Board from 1904–1907. Professorial Representative on the Otago University Council 1914–1930, Dean of the Arts and Science Faculty 1920–1926, and Member of the New Zealand University Senate 1912–1924.
His activities in wider fields were many and varied; from the time of his arrival in New Zealand he took a leading part in the Otago Institute, giving long serive on the Council, and was President and represented the Institute
on the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute for several years; he was President of Section D of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science at Hobart in 1902; he delivered many public lectures and served on the Committee of the Workers' Educational Association; he was a member of the Subantarctic Expedition in 1907, and one of the sub-editors of the Reports; a member of the London Eugenics Society Council, and founder and President of the New Zealand Society, “which collapsed in 1915 owing to the war then raging” (he explained, not without humour); a member and sometimes leader of the Dunedin Naturalists' Field Club (though he denied being a naturalist); he was a member of the Cawthron Commission in 1917 to draw up the original scheme for the functioning of the Cawthron Institute, and he delivered the Annual Cawthron Memorial Leeture in 1918; President of the New Zealand Institute (now Royal Society of New Zealand) 1917–1918; for many years a member of the Portobello Marine Research Station and Chairman of the Board from 1926–1948; as Secretary he was very active in organising, planning, and raising funds for the Hocken Wing to the Museum, and was Chairman of the Hocken Library Committee, 1934–1936; he served several years on the Council of the Overseas League; he was an original member, and Preident for two years. of the Otago University Club, in which he was a well-known figure frequently seen at the billiard table; and if any other diversity of interest in this great man is to be recorded, he was a regular and enthusiastic patron of the motion picture theatres for many years, and Patron of the Film Society.
His public honours were:
(1902) Corresponding Member of the Royal Society of Tasmania.
(1907) Fellow of the Royal Scoeity, London.
(1911) Hutton Memorial Medal (on the first occasion of the award).
(1919) Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand (one of the original Fellows).
(1935) Hector Memorial Medal.
(1937) Emeritus Professor of Biology, Otago University (he retired in 1936).
(1937) Hon. D.Sc., New Zealand University.
(1937) Coronation Medal.
(1939) Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.
Such is something of the man, a great figure in a great generation of zoologists; and inscribed in the Archives of the University of Otago is found: “His vigour and originality of mind, his high ideals and his devotion to the advancement of knowledge, have ensured a powerful influence on the University and general community. His kindly and gracious personality has won the warm regard and affection of all who knew him, and his name will long be remembered in the University he adored”. He died on August 21, 1950.
1883. On the testis of Limulus. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., (2) 2: 362–366.
1886. Studies on earthworms.—i. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 26: 213–302.
— Studies on earthworms.—ii Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 27: 77–108.
1887. Studies on earthworms.—iii. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 27: 561–572.
— Recent researches on earthworms. Rept. Brit. Assn., 1887, pp. 749–750.
1888. British earthworms. Nature, 38: 319.
— Note on a new earthworm. Zool. Anz., 1888, p. 72.
1889. The anatomy of Phoronis australis. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., (2) 30: 125–158; (also J. Roy. Micr. Soc., 6: 740–741).
1890. “Atrium” or “Prostate”. Zool. Anz., 13: 368–372.
— The genera Trigaster and Benhamia. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 6: 414–417.
— An attempt to classify earthworms. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 31: 201–315.
1891. Note on a couple of abnormalities. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7) 7: 256–258; (abstract in J. Roy. Mior. Soc., 1891, p. 328).
— The nephridium of Lumbricus and its blood supply; with remarks on the nephridia in other Chaetopoda. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 32: 293–334.
— Report on an earthworm collected for the Natural History Department of the British Museum by Emm Pasha in Equatorial Africa J. Roy. Micr. Soc., 1891, pp. 161–168.
— Notes on some aquatic Oligochaeta. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 33: 187–218.
1892. Descriptions of three new specres of earthworms. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, pp. 136–152.
— Notes on two acanthodiilord earthworms from New Zealand. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 33: 289–312.
— A new English genus of aquatic Oligochaeta (Sparganophilus) belonging to the family Rhinodrilidae. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 34. 155–179.
— An earthworm from Ecuador (Rhinodrilus ccuadoriensis n.sp). Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) 9: 237–246.
— Note on the occurrence of a freshwater nemertine in England. Nature, 46: 611.
— British earthworms. Nature, 47: 102.
1893. Description of a new species of Moniligaster from India Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 34: 361–382.
— Note on a new species of the genus Nais Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 34: 383–386.
— The post larval stage of Arenicola marina. J. Mar. Biol. Assn., 3: 48–53.
1894. A description of the cerebral convolutions of the chimpanzee known as “Sally”; with notes on the convolutions of other chimpanzees, and two orangs. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., (2) 37: 47–86.
— Notes on a particularly abnormal vertebral column of the bullfiog; and on certain other variations in the Anuran column. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1894, pp. 477–481.
— On Benhamia caecifera n.sp. Proc. Phys. Soc. Edinb., pp. 31–35.
— Notes on the clitellum of the earthworm. Zool. Anz., 17: 53.
— On the blood of Magelona. Rept. Brit. Assn., Oxford, p. 696.
— On the classification of the Polychaeta Rept. Brit. Assn., Oxford, pp. 696–697.
1895. Male of Apus. Nature, 53. 175.
— Some Javan Perichaetidae. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) 16: 40–50.
1896. On Kynotus cingulatus, a new species of earthworm from Imerina in Madagascar. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 38: 445–463.
— The blood of Magelona. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 39 1–18.
— Fission in Nemertines. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 39: 19–32.
— The male of Apus cancriformis. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 17. 120–122.
— Some earthworms from Celebes. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) 18: 429–448.
— Earthworms and streamworms; review of Beddaid's monograph on the Oligochaeta. Nature, 53: 74–75.
— Archiannelida, Polychaeta, Myzostomaria. In the Cambridge Natural History, 2: 241–344.
1897. New species of Perichaeta from New Britain and elsewhere; with some remarks on certain diagnostic characters of the genus. J. Linn. Soc. Lond., 26: 198–225.
1899. Notes on the internal anatomy of Notornis Proc. Zool. Soc., Lond., 1899. pp. 88–96.
— Notes on the fourth skin of Notornis. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 31: 146–150.
— Notes on certain of the viscera of Notornis. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 31: 151–156.
— Balanoglossus otagoensis n.sp. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 42: 497–504.
— A re-examination of Hutton's types of New Zealand earthworm. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7) 3: 136–141; (also in Trans. N. Z. Inst., 31 156–163).
— Phosphorescent earthworms. Nature, 60: 591.
1900. Zoological results of trawling trials off the coast of Otago. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 32: 1–3.
— Note on Cordyceps Sinclairii Berkeley. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 32: 4–8.
— Note on the occurrence of the genus Balanoglossus in New Zealand waters. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 32: 9–10.
— The structure of the rostellum in two new species of tapeworm from Apteryx. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 43: 83–96.
1901. The Platyhelmia, Mesozoa, and Nemertini. In E. Ray Lankester's A Treatise on Zoology.
1901. On the larynx of certain whales (Cogia, Balaenoptera, and Ziphius). Proc. Zool. Soc., Lond., 1901, 1: 278–300.
— On the anatomy of Cogia breviceps. Proc Zool. Soc., Lond, 1901, 2: 107–134.
— Heteropleuron hectori, the New Zealand Lancelet. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., (2) 44: 273–280.
— The coelomic fluid in acanthodrilids. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., (2) 44: 565–590.
— On the New Zealand Lancelet. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 33: 120–122.
— An account of Acanthodrilus uliginosus Hutton. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 33: 122–129.
— On some earthworms from the islands from around New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 33: 129–144.
1902. Note on the osteology of the short-nosed sperm-whale Proc. Zool. Soc., London, 1: 54–62.
— Note on an entire egg of a Moa, now in the Museum of the University of Otago. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 34: 149–151.
— An account of the external anatomy of a baby Rorqual (Blaenoptera rostrata). Trans. N.Z. Inst., 34: 151–155.
— Notes on Cogia breviceps, the lesser Sperm-whale Trans. N.Z. Inst., 34: 155–168.
1903. The geographical distribution of enrthworms and the palaeogeography of the Antarctic Region. Presidential address. Rep. Australas. Assn., 1902, pp. 319–343.
— On the eggs of the Moa. Ibis, 1903, pp. 632–634.
— On the remains of a gigantic fossil Cirripede from the Tertiary Rocks of New Zealand Geol. Mag., (4) x, (3), pp. 110–119.
— On some new species of aquatic Oligochaeta from New Zealand. Proc. Zool. Soc., Lond., 1903, ii. 202–232.
— Note on a neglected Tasmanian earthworm. Rep. Australas. Assn., 10: 383.
— On an new spectes of earthworm from Norfolk Island Trans. N.Z. Inst., 35: 273–274.
— On an earthworm from the Auckland Islands—Notiodrilus aucklandicus. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 35: 275–277.
— On the old and some new species of earthworms belonging to the genus Plagiochacta. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 35: 277–290.
1904. The sipunculids of New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 36: 172–184.
— On a new species of leech (Hirudo antipodum) recently discovered in New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 36: 185–192.
— A note on the Oligochaeta of the New Zealand lakes. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 36: 192–198.
— On an apparently new species of Regalecus (R. parkri). Trans. N.Z. Inst., 36: 198–200.
— On some edible and other new species of earthworms from the North Island of New Zealand. Proc. Zool. Soc., Lond., 1904, 2: 220–263.
— On some new species of the genus Phreodrilus. Quart J. Micr. Sci., 48: 271–298.
— On a new species of the genus Haplotaxis, with some remarks on the genital ducts of Oligochaeta. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 48: 299–322.
— Phylum Annulata, in Hutton's Index Faunae Novae Zealandiae, pp. 276–285.
1905. Some earthworms from the North Island of New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 37: 281–285.
— On the Ohgochaeta of the Southern Islands of the New Zealand Region. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 37: 285–297.
— Earthworms from the Kermadecs. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 37: 298–299.
— Note on the occurrence of the foraminiferan genus Ramulina in the New Zealand waters. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 37: 300.
— Further notes on the sipunculids of New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 37: 301–308.
— The aquatic larva of the fly Ephydra. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 37: 308–312.
— Notes on some nudibranch molluses from New Zealand Trans. N.Z. Inst., 37: 312–320.
— Presidential address of the Otago Institute. Proc. N.Z. Inst., 37: 613–614.
1906. On a new species of Sarcophyllum from New Zealand. Zool. Anz., 31: 66–67.
— Carnivorous habits of the New Zealand Kea parrot. Nature, 73, no. 1902, p. 559.
— The olfactory sense in Apteryx. Nature, 74, no. 1914, pp. 222–223.
— Additional notes on the earthworms of the North Island of New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 38: 239–245.
— On a large pterotrachaeid from the Pacific Ocean. Trans N.Z. Inst., 38: 245–248.
— An account of some earthworms from Little Barrier Island. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 38: 248–256.
1907. Notes on the flesh-eating propensity of the Kea (Nestor nolabilis). Trans. N.Z. Inst., 39: 71–89.
— New Zealand ctenophores. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 39: 138–143.
— Two new species of leech in New Zealand Trans. N.Z. Inst., 39: 180–192.
1907. On a new species of pennatulid (Sarcophyllum bollonsi). Trans. N.Z. Inst., 39: 193–195.
— On the Oligochaeta from the Blue Lake, Mount Kosciusko. Rec. Austr. Mus., 6: 251–264.
— The evolution of the elephant. Proc. N.Z. Inst., 39: 547–548.
1908. An erioneous echinodermal identification. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8) 1: 104–108.
1909. Report on the Polychacta of the Sub-antarctic Islands of New Zealand. Sub-antarct. Isls. N.Z., 1: 236–250.
— Report on the Oligochaeta of the Sub-antarctic Islands of New Zealand Sub-antarct. Isls. N.Z., 1: 251–294.
— The echinoderms, other than holothurians, of the Sub-antarctic Islands of New Zealand. Sub-antarct. Isls. N.Z., 1: 295–305.
— Hydromedusae and Scyphomedusae from the Auckland and Campbell Islands. Subantarct. Isls. N.Z., 1: 306–311.
— Preliminary report on two Hirudinea from the Sub-antarctic Islands of New Zealand Sub-antarct. Isls. N.Z., 1: 372–376.
— Annelida and Sipunculoidea, New Zealand Government Trawling Expedition, 1907. Rec. Cant. Mus., 1: 71–82.
— Echinoderma, Scientific results of the New Zealand Government trawling expedition 1907. Rec. Cant. Mus., 1: 83–116.
1910. The discovery of Moa-remains on Stewart Island. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 42: 354–356.
1911. Stellerids and echinids from the Kermadec Islands. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 43: 140–163.
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1914. The nomenclature of the birds of New Zealand: being an abstract of Matthews and Iredale's “Reference List.” Trans N.Z. Inst., 46: 188–204.
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1919. On the occurrence of two unusual blood-vessels in Hyla aurca. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 51: 30–34.
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1927. Polychaeta. Brit. Antarct. “Terra Nova” Exped., 1910, Nat. Hist. Rep., Zool, 7: ii. pp. 47–182.
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1929. The pelagic Polychaeta. Brit. Antract. “Terra Nova” Exped., 1910, Nat. Hist. Rep., Zool., 7, iii, pp. 183–201.
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1930. Another specimen of the oar-fish (Regaleus). N.Z. J. Sci. Tech. 11: 428.
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1935. A reptilian jaw from Kakanui, South Island, New Zealand. Trans. Proc. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 65: 232–238.
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1937. Fossil Cetacea of New Zealand. ii. On Lophocephalus, a new genus of Zeuglodont Cetacea. Trans. Proc. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 67: 1–7.
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1945. An earthworm with four penes, Conicodrilus genus novum. Trans. Proc. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 75: 23–28.
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1885 (with Lankester and Beck). The muscular and endoskeletal systems of Limulus and Scorpio. Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., 11: 311–384.
1900 (with Thomson and Malcolm). Introduction to “An account of a large branchiate polynoid from New Zealand, Lepidonotus giganteus Kirk.” Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1900, pp. 974–986.
1906 (with Dunbar, W. J.). On the skull of a young specimen of the ribbon-fish Regalecus. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 2: 544–556.
1913 (with Cameron, Gladys). The nephridia of Perieodrilus ricardi and P. montanus. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 45: 191–198.
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