The Heteroptera of New Zealand
Part I—Introduction; Cydnidae; Pentatomidae
[Read before the Auckland Institute, October 31, 1951; received by Editor, November 9, 1951]
This is intended as the first of a series of papers on the systematics of the New Zealand Heteroptera. A key is included to the families known to be represented in this country; there follow synonymic lists and keys to the adults of the recorded Cydnidae and Pentatomidae. In subsequent papers it is hoped to present similar keys and lists for the other families of this group, together with descriptions of new species.
A new subgenus and species and a new subspecies of Pentatomidae are described and the problems of speciation and relationships involved are discussed. Of this family, twelve species (one with three subspecies) are known to occur in New Zealand. Three species—Nezara viridula (Linn.), Cuspicona simplex Walker, and Antestia orbona Kirkaldy—are comparatively recent introductions, the first being now cosmopolitan and the other two Australian. Of the apparently indigenous forms, four—Glaucias amyoti (White), Dictyotus caenosus (Westwood), Germatulus nasalis nasalis (Westwood), and Occhalia consocialis (Boisduval)—are widely distributed in New Zealand and are found also in Australia, the first also in the Kermadecs and the last widespread through the Pacific. The endemic species and subspecies are: Oncacontias vittatus (Fabr.), Rhopalimorpha obscura White, R. lineolaris Pendergrast, R. (Lentimorpha) alpina sp. nov., Cermatulus nasalis turbotti Woodward, C. nasalis hudsoni subsp. nov., and Hypsithocus hudsonae Bergroth. The first three species have a wide distribution, while the other forms appear to be very restricted, C. nasalis turbotti being insular (Three Kings Islands) and the other three alpine. Following Kirkaldy (1909 a and b) and Myers and China (1928), these extremely doubtful records of exotic species, none of which has been subsequently recorded from this country, are omitted from the New Zealand list:Calliphara imperialis (Fabr) [Queensland], Scutiphora pedicellata (Kirby) [Australia and New Guinea], Dicmenia immarginata (Dallas) [Australia], and Sciocoris helferi Fieber [South Europe, Persia, Turkestan].
Of the three species of Cydnidae recorded from this country, Choerocydnus nigrosignatus Buch. White is endemic. Pangaeus scotti Signoret is doubtfully endemic, not having been recorded subsequent to its description, while I have seen no specimens in New Zealand collections, but it is included here tentatively. Philapodemus australis (Erichson) occurs also in the Australian and Oriental regions.
For the photographs I am indebted to Mr. S. A. Rumsey, of the Plant Diseases Division, D.S.I.R., Auckland. The type specimen of Rhopalimorpha (Lentimorpha) alpina subgen. and sp. nov. was one of a series of insects on loan from the Auckland Museum to the Plant Diseases Division, Auckland, and was labelled “n.sp.?” by Mr. D. Spiller, of the latter institution. I wish to thank Mr. Spiller for drawing my attention to this unique and interesting specimen, and Dr. G. Archey, Director of the Auckland Museum, and Mr. E. G. Turbott, Ornithologist and Entomologist at the Museum, for the opportunity of working on it. For other valuable help received I also wish to express my gratitude: to Dr. R. A. Falla, Director of the Dominion Museum, Wellington, for the opportunity of examining specimens of Hypsithocus hudsonae Bergroth and Cermatulus nasalis
[Footnote] * Now at Department of Entomology, University of Queensland.
hudsoni subsp nov., and of describing the latter; to Dr. Falla and Mr. R. K. Dell for the facilities and assistance they kindly gave me when working in the Dominion Museum; to Dr. W. Cottier, of the Plant Diseases Division, Auckland, for the gift of several specimens of Antestia orbona Kirkaldy and for his kind permission to list this species in the present account; to Mr. T. G. Campbell, of the Division of Entomology, C.S.I.R.O., Canberra, Mr. G. Mack, Director of the Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Mr. A. Musgrave, of the Australian Museum, Sydney, and Mr. F. A. Perkins, of the University of Queensland, for the opportunity of examining Australian material, and particularly of Eupolemus and Cermatulus; to Mr. T. G. Campbell for the loan of interesting Australian material of Cermatulus; to Dr. R. A. Cumber, of the Entomological Research Station, Nelson, for the gift of a specimen of the orange form of Nezara viridula (Linn.) and for donations of other Pentatomids and much hospitality and valuable assistance on collecting trips; to Mr. A. W. Parrott, Curator of Insects. Cawthron Institute. Nelson, for notes on the literature; and to Dr. Archey and Mr. Turbott, of the Auckland Museum, for the loan of various specimens.
Key to Families of New Zealand Heteroptera (Adults)
The Hemiptera are distinguished from all other insects by the form of the mouth-parts. which are piercing and sucking and consist of bristle-like maxillary and mandibular stylets held in a longitudinally grooved rostrum derived from the labium, which itself is not piercing or sucking and is apically narrowed and not labellate and in repose is usually bent back and held beneath the head or body; palps absent or vestigial; labrum short, not piercing or sucking. The Heteroptera differ from the Homoptera in the following respects wings, when present, usually overlapping behind; fore-wings, when fully developed, in the form of hemelytra, with the basal region usually coriaceous and the apical region membranous (in the Cryptostemmatidae the corrum and membrane are not or are imperfectly differentiated and in the Henicocephalidae the hemelytra are membrenous throughout); with a sclerotized gular plate, so that frons and clypeus are usually dorsal or anterion and not deflected strongly to face ventrally (exceptions in New Zealand are the Corixidae and Notonectidae. with a certain amount of ventral flexure); base of rostrum usually not touching anterior coxae and never appearing to arise between them; pronotum large. In Gymnocerata brachypterous adults are to be distinguished from nymphs by the absence of dorsal abdominal scent gland openings and the presence of the gland apertures on the venter of the thorax. The nymphs are always without ocelli, but the adults of some (e. g., all Miridae) also lack these structures. Usually the adult has three tarsal segments and the nymph two, but in some groups (e.g., Acanthosomatinae) there are only two in both adults and nymphs. The extent of development of the external genitalia in the nymphs is variable. The adults of all New Zealand Pentatomidae have five antennal segments, the nymphs only four. The hemelytra of brachypterous adults often have a reduced membrane, never present on the wing-pads of nymphs.
In this and subsequent keys, length, unless otherwise stated, is the total straight body length from apex of head to tip of abdomen (or of closed hemelytra when these surpass the abdomen)
|1. Antennae concealed under head, shorter than head, aquatic (all under-water forms)||Cryptocerata||19|
|Antennae exposed and visible from above, as long as or longer than head; terrestrial or semi-aquatic (never under-water)||Gymnocerata||2|
|2. Abdomen not clothed beneath with a silvery, velvety pubescence: terrestrial or riparian||3|
|Abdomen clothed beneath with a silvery, velvety pubescence; inhabiting surface of water||17|
|3. Scutellum large, reaching to or surpassing posterior end of clavus; body ovoid or shield-shaped, not extremely flattened||4|
|Scutellum smaller. not reaching to posterior end of clavus, or if reaching to this point. then body greatly flattened; form variable||5|
|4. Tibrae with haiis but without long, strong, lateral spines (“shield-bugs”, “stink-bugs”)||Pentatomidae|
|Tibiae armed with numerous long, strong spines (“burrowing bugs”)||Cydnidae|
|5. Ovoid, greatly flattened, ectoparasitic; hemelytra vestigial; no ocelli; rostrum and tarsi 3-segmented (“bed-bugs”)||Cimicidae|
|Not with the above combination of characters||6|
|6. Mesopleura and metapleura each of only one plate; hemelytra without a cuneus||7|
|Meso- and metapleura each divided into several plates; hemelytra with a triangular cuneus divided off from apical end of corium by a transverse “fracture”||13|
|7. Tarsi usually 3-segmented; if 2-segmented, body never extremely flattened nor hemelytra with fine raised reticulation||8|
|All tarsi 2-segmented; either with body extremely flattened or with fine raised reticulation on hemelytra||14|
|8. Base of rostrum straight and in repose held close to ventral surface of head||9|
|Base of rostium strongly curved away from vential surface of head and even in repose not held close to it||11|
|9. Legs long and very slender, with femora apically clavate; body narrow, linear, antennae very long, slender, and elbowed; the single N. Z. species brachypterous (“stilt-bugs”)||Berytidae|
|Legs, body, and antennae moderate; femora not apically clavate, most macropterous, some brachypterous||10|
|10. Membrane of hemelytron with no more than 5 longitudinal veins; antennae inserted below line between centre of eye and apex of face; N.Z. species small, rarely longer than 7 mm., sometimes brachypterous||Lygaeidac|
|Membrane of hemelytron with numerous (more than 3) longrtudinal veins, most of which branch from a common vein parallelling distal margin of corrum, antennae inserted on or above line between centre of eve and apex of face; 3 introduced species only recorded, all macropterous and more than 7 mm in length||Coreidae|
|11. Head strongly globular behind eyes and extending beyond them on each side. hemelytra entirely membranous, with large cells Head not strongly globular behind eyes and not extending to their level: hemelytia not entirely membranous||Henicocephalidae (Enicocephalidae)||12|
|12. Ocelli behind eyes, or absent, head longer than broad: eyes remote from pronotum, body more or less elongate, not avoid||13|
|Ocelli between eyes, head, with eyes, broader than long, eyes close to pronotum, body ovoid, riparian (“shore-bugs”)||Saldidac|
|13. Rostium long, 4-segmented; ocelli present behind eyes; legs and antennae slender but not unusually long||Nabilac|
|Rostrum very short, 3-segmented; N.Z. species without ocelh and with legs and antennae extremely long and slender (all except fore-legs longer than body)||Reduidae|
|14. Hemelytra with a raised lace-like reticulum and lacking a clavus: pronotum produced behind, entriely covering scutellum, third antennal segment several times as long as second, fore-legs inserted on posterior margin of prosternum; abdomen not extending beyond sides of hemelvtia; macropterous (“lace-bugs”)||Tingidae|
|Hemelytia without lace-like reticulation; scutellum large and exposed; all antennal segments short, third subequal to second; fore-legs inserted on dise of prosternum; commonly beneath bark; body greatly flattened and abdomen extending considerably beyond sides of hemelvtra; sometimes brachvpterous (“fla [ unclear: ] bugs”)||Aradidac (including Brachyrhynchinae)|
|15. Hemelytra without a wide and well-defined embolium; if an embolar region is present it is very narrow and linear or not demarcated towards apex (“plant-bugs”, “leaf bugs”)||Miridae|
|Hemelytra with a wide and well-defined embolium marked off along costal portion of corium||16|
|16. Antennae of moderate length, without long hairs (except in one introduced species), third and fourth segments together not longer than first and second; hemelytron with very well defined membrane (“flower-bugs”)||Anthocoridae|
|Antennae long, all segments clothed with long hairs, longest on third and fourth segments, which are long and slender, easily broken off, and together about twice as long as first and second; hemelytron almost uniformly fuscous, without well-defined membrane||Cryptostemmatidae|
|17. Antennae 5-segmented; legs not greatly elongated; N.Z. forms not exceeding 4 mm. in length; both macropterous and brachypterous forms occurring, the latter by far the more numerous||Veliidae|
|Antennae 4-segmented; legs slender and greatly elongated; length over 6 mm.||18|
|18. Body linear; head very elongate and much prolonged in front of eyes, many times longer than wide, and widened towards apex; posterior femora not extending beyond end of abdomen; freshwater; slow-moving (“water-striders”)||Hydrometridae|
|Body not linear; head short and at least as wide across eyes as long; posterior femora extending far beyond end of abdomen; the one N.Z. species marine. rarely encountered; rapid swimmers (“water-skaters”)||[ unclear: Gerridae ]|
|19. Rostrum evident, segmented; pronotum overlapping head; fore tarsi not flattened, middle tarsi of only moderate length; dorsal surface strongly arched; abdomen keeled beneath; swimming back downwards (“back-swimmers”)||[ unclear: Notoncctidae ]|
|Rostium concealed by the large clypeus and apparently unsegmented; head overlapping pronotum; fore-legs short, with tarsi flattened as palae; tarsi of mid-legs with extremely long slender claws; dorsal surface not strongly arched; abdomen not keeled beneath; swimming back upwards (“water-boatmen”)||[ unclear: Corixidae ]|
Descriptions of New Pentatomidae
All the measurements given are the maximum flat measurements for the parts concerned, in the case of podomeres excluding the joint membranes.
Genus Rhopalimorpha Dallas, 1851
Type: Rhopalinorpha obscura A. White in Dallas, 1851
Lentimorpha subgen. nov.
Body rather broadly ovoid (in female, less than twice as long as wide across abdomen), with abdomen wider than pronotum; width of head across eyes about 1·35 times length; first antennal segment well surpassing apex of head, second segment shorter than third; bucculae long, reaching almost to base of head; rostrum of four segments, the first reaching about ¾ of the way to base of head, second reaching anterior coxae, third reaching middle coxae, and fourth segment reaching posterior coxae; pronotum with posterior half of disc more finely and sparsely punctate than elsewhere, anterior angles acute and produced, base in front of scutellum rather shallowly but definitely concave, postero-lateral margins nearly straight; scutellum rather finely and sparsely punctate, usually with more
than one puncture width between adjacent punctures; ventral surface of thorax only shallowly and sparsely punctate; mesothoracic carina well developed, platelike, highest between anterior coxae, where it extends ventrad well beyond base of trochanters; legs proportionately longer than in subgenus Rhopalimorpha (body only 1 ½ times as long as hind femur and tibia together); abdomen markedly concave, both above and below, at about level of scutellum apex; anterior abdominal spine moderately strongly developed, nearly straight, reaching midcoxae; the female with a pair of conspicuous dark ovoid patches on both 6th and 7th abdominal sterna, the 7th sternum broadly rounded and non-carinate, with its posterior margin very broadly excavated, and the anterior genital valves flat, with posterior margins nearly straight.
Type species: Rhopalimorpha (Lentimorpha) alpina sp. nov.
Lentimorpha resembles the typical subgenus Rhopalimorpha Dallas in the general form of the pronotum (not strongly declivous and not strongly arched between or behind posterior angles, so that the “hunch-backed” appearance of many Acanthosomatinae is lacking; sides straight or nearly straight; anterior margin broadly excavated; posterior angles broadly rounded, not prominent, not produced appreciably beyond abdominal margins); in the body being more or less ovoid, not definitely shield-shaped; tylus longer than juga, with apex broadly rounded; hemelytra barely surpassing apex of abdomen; spout of metathoracic scent-gland orifice developed as a large plate raised above general ventral surface and with outer and posterior margins free; the posterior connexival angles of the 7th abdominal segment in the female not produced back as acute spines; the anterior abdominal spine not strongly curved towards apex; and in the abdominal venter not being definitely carinate throughout its length.
These characters are shared with the allied Australian genus Eupolemus Distant, but in the genus Rhopalimorpha the pronotum is even flatter, with the sides not strongly reflexed, the sides of the head are much less strongly arcuate and concave, and the plate of the metathoracic scent-gland orifice is much broader (antero-posteriorly).
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Lentimorpha differs from Rhopalimorpha in the more robust and broader ovoid form of the body; in the proportionately shorter head [width: length = 1.35 (1.1–1.25 in Rhopalimorpha)]; in having the first antennal segment well surpassing head and second segment shorter than third; the longer bucculae; the rostral segments extending proportionately further back, as described above (in Rhopalimorpha first segment extends only about 5/8 of way to base of head, second and third segments do not reach anterior and middle coxae respectively, and fourth segment reaches only to middle coxae); the pronotum with anterior angles not rounded, but acut and produced, and the base concave; the punctation of pronotal disc, scutellum, and thorax beneath finer, sparser, and more obscure, the much larger and expanded mesothoracic carina, the larger abdominal spine (not reaching middle coxae in Rhopalimorpha); the proportionately longer odoriferous plates and legs; and, in the female, the presence of conspicuous dark patches on both 6th and 7th abdominal sterna, the 7th sternum being without carina and very broadly excavated behind, and the anterior genital valves flat, not sulcate, their inner margins not raised.
Rhopalimorpha (Lentimorpha) alpina sp. nov. Figs. 5, 29, 30, 42.
♀. Length: 10·7 mm. Width: of abdomen, 5·8 mm.; of pronotum (between posterior angles), 5·2 mm. Colour: Body and appendages more or less uniformly ochreous, except for the darker brown dorsal punctures, tarsi, and apices of tibiae and claws, the pink ocelli, the reddish-brown eyes and abdominal venter, and the brownish-black apex of rostrum; no median pale line on pronotum or scutellum. Head: Tylus with only a few obscure, very shallow punctures; rounded apex projecting beyond juga. Rest of dorsal surface rugose, rather shallowly and sparsely punctate. Apices of juga well rounded, not forming acute angle at junction with tylus. Width across eyes 1.3 times length (47:36). Interocular space 3. 5 times as wide as eye (30:8 5). Ventral surface impunctate. Maxillary plate process a rather narrow shelf, reaching antennal base, not toothed nor much expanded. Bucculae long, reaching almost to base of head, behind level of posterior margins of eyes. Rostrum reaching hind coxae, first segment reaching to posterior ¼ of head, second to fore coxae, third to middle coxae; proportionate length of segments I-IV, 20:22:24:19 Antennal segments I-IV, 18:18:22:30; first segment well surpassing head. Thorax: Pronotum 2.6 times as wide across posterior angles as long (95:36), proportionate anterior width 50; moderately coarsely punctate, except on posterior part of disc, where punctures are shallower and sparser; calli confluent; postero-lateral margins very shallowly sinuate; base widely and rather shallowly concave. Scutellum with apex acute; length : anterior width : 58 : 50; rather finely and sparsely punctate. Mesothoracic carina reaching to anterior end of fore coxae and surpassing apex of second rostral segment, anteriorly expanded, extending ventrad well beyond base of trochanters. Ventral surface of prothorax very inconspicuously punctate, with punctures fine, shallow and sparse, and almost concolorus with general surface. Plate of metathoracic scent-gland orifice rather long, length (from outer end to mesial apex of orifice) over three times greatest width (20:6); ochreous, with margins pale and reflexed and a more or less well defined submarginal brownish-black line; broadest near the outer end, which is widely rounded; posterior margin nearly straight, only slightly and widely convex. Both anterior and posterior free lips of orifice prominent, the former the larger; apex of orifice continued mesially beyond their junction as a well-defined groove. Metathoracic evaporating area large, extending well beyond outer margin of plate and reaching close to lateral margin of segment, pale ochreous, very finely granular, with irregular folds; rest of metathoracic venter only shallowly, sparsely, and inconspicuously punctate. Mesothoracic evaporating area large, colour and texture as for metathoracic area, and with irregular folds; its posterior division occupying nearly half length of segment and with a deep transverse sulcus margined by a strong, rounded ridge; its lateral division reaching almost to anterior margin of segment; mesothoracic venter in front of posterior division impunctate. Legs impunctate, moderately long; body 1.5 times length of posterior femur and tibia together (198.133). Corium and cuneus rather finely and shallowly punctate; hemelytral membrane markedly declivous. Abdomen: Venter strongly convex, shining, reddish-brown, impunctate, finely and reticulately rugulose. Dorsal surface, so far as seen, dark brown. Anterior spine rather stout at base, elongate conical, reaching to anterior margin of mid-coxae and just in front of posterior end of thoracic carina. Connexivum moderately well developed, projecting slightly beyond sides of closed hemelytra. Postero-lateral
17–18: Ventral view of half of head, Cydnidae.
19–23: Ventro-lateral view of head, Pentatomidae.
17. Choerocydnus nigrosignatus Buch. White. 18. Philapodemus australis (Erichson). 19. Oechalia consocialis (Boisduval) [Asopinae]. 20. Cermatulus nasalis nasalis (West-wood [Asopinae]. 21. Glaucias amyoti (A. White) [Pentatominae]. 22. Dictyotus cacnosus (Westwood) [Pentatominae]. 23. Antestia orbona Kirkaldy [Pentatominae]. b.l., lett buccula; b.r., right buccula; j., jugum; l., labrum; r.l., first segment of rostrum; t., tylus. All × 24.
24. Philapodemus australis (Erichson) [Cydnidae], ventral view of meso- and metathorax. 25. Choerocydnus nigrosignatus Buch. White [Cydnidae], ventral view of meso- and metathorax. 26. Oncacontias vittatus (Fabr.) [Acanthosomatinae], ventral view of meso- and metathorax 27. Rhopalimorpha (Rhopalimorpha) obscura A. White [Acanthosomatinae], ventral view of meso- and metathorax, with anterior abdominal spine. apex of rostrum, and part of prothorax. 28. R. (Rhopalimorpha) lincolaris Pendergrast [Acanthosoma tinae], as for 27. All × 24.
29. Rhopalimorpha (Lentimorpha) alpina subg and sp. nov. [Acanthosomatinae]. ♀ holotype, ventral view of meso- and metathorax 30. R. (Lentimorpha) alpina, ♀ holotype; a.s., anterior abdominal spine, r., apex of rostrum; t.c., thoracic carina, with bases of 2nd and 3rd right legs 31 Oechalia consocialis (Boisduval) [Asopinae], ventral view of metathorax and part of mesothorax. 32. Cermatulus nasalis nasalis (Westwood) [Asopinae], ventral view of metathorax. All × 24 Granular evaporating areas stippled.
36. Cuspicona simplex Walker [Pentatominae], ventral view of meso- and metathorax.
37. Hypsithocus hudsonac Bergroth [Pentatominae], ventral view of metathorax.
38. Anteslia orbona Kirkaldy [Pentatominae], ventral view of meso- and metathorax.
39. Dictyotus caenosus (Westwood). [Pentatominac], ventral view of meso- and metathorax. All × 24. Granular evaporating areas stippled.
40. Nezara viridula (Linn.) [Pentatominae], ventral view of meso- and metathorax. Evaporating areas stippled. 41–44 Ventral view of ♀ terminalia, half shown. 41. Oncacontias vittalius (Fabr.) [Aeanthosomatinae], with the dark patches of abdominal sterna VI and VII. 42. Rhopalimorpha (Lentimorpha) alpina subgen and sp nov. [Acanthosomatinae], ♀ holotype, with patches of abdominal sterna VI and VII 43. Occhalia consocialis (Boisduval) [Asopinae]. 44. Cermatulus nasalis nasalis (Westwood) [Asopinae]. 45. Anlestia orbona Kirkaldy [Pentatominae]. All × 24.
46–50: Ventrial view of ♀ terminalia, half shown. 51–57. Ventrial view of ♂ terminalia, half shown. 46 & 54. Glaucias amyoli (A. White) [Pentatominae]. 47 & 55. Nezara viridula (Linn.) [Pentatominae]. 48 & 56. Cuspicona simplex Walker [Pentatominae]. 49. Hypsithocus hudsonae Bergroth [Pentatominae]. 50 & 57. Dictyotus caenosus (Westwood) [Pentatominae]. 51. Oncacontias vittatus (Fabr.) [Acanthosomatinae]. 52. Oechalia consocialis (Boisduval) [Asopinae]. 53. Cermatulus nasalis nasalis (Westwood) [Asopinae]. (In 51 & 55, aedeagus partly exserted.) All × 24.
apex of seventh segment of ♀ a rounded right angle. A pair of conspicuous, dark, ovoid patches on each of sixth and seventh sterna of ♀, both close to posterior margin of former, the anterior pair the larger. ♀ with seventh sternum broadly convex, not at all carinate, its posterior margin very broadly excavated; anterior genital valves flat, obliquely rugulose, with inner margins not elevated, disc not longitudinally sulcate, and posterior margins nearly straight.
Locality: McKinnon Pass, Southland, S. Island; 28.xii.1919; 1 ♀; from C. E. Clarke coll.
Holotype: In collection of Auckland Museum.
Discussion: The erection of a new subgenus on the basis of a single specimen is done with a certain amount of reluctance. However, the set of diagnostic characters distinguishing it from the other known species of Rhopalimorpha is so marked as in my view to justify the separation. On the other hand, it seemed desirable to emphasize the undoubtedly close relationships of Rhopalimorpha and Lentimorpha, and their probable common origin within New Zealand, by treating the latter as of subgeneric status, rather than at this stage to split off a monotypic genus. This is especially so since in several features alpina more closely resembles lineolaris Pendergrast than the latter does obscura White. Such characters are: the plate of the metathoracic scent-gland orifice, the mesoand metathoracic “evaporating areas”, and the punctation of the posterior division of the metathoracic venter. In the rather broad ovoid form of the body, in the broad, low carina of the seventh abdominal sternum of the ♀, the shape of its posterior excavation and of the genital valves, and to a lesser extent in the development of the abdominal spine and mesothoracic carina, lineolaris is intermediate between the other two species.
Alpina is undoubtedly more closely allied to lineolaris than to obscura But in a consideration of affinities, these resemblances have to be weighed against the set of characters in which alpina differs from both these other species. (See p. 303.) Some of these characters are not evident at all in either lineolaris or obscura; others (the intermediate features listed above) represent tendencies shown to a minor degree in lineolaris but in alpina developed to an extent that gives this species a highly distinctive facres. In trying to decide what has been the main line of evolution, i.e., whether in most respects alpina has diverged from a lineolaris-like form or whether lineolaris and obscura are to be derived from a species showing many of the characters of alpina, it is necessary to decide, as far as possible, which features, apart from those common to all three species, may be regarded as ancestral for the genus. For data there are available the characteristics of allied genera like Eupolemus, due allowance being made for divergence within such a genus, and those of other more “typical” Acanthosomatine genera. On this basis the weight of evidence supports the view that, of the three species of Rhopalimorpha, alpina has retained ancestral characters to the greatest degree. Subject to the qualifications shortly to be made, these might include the form of the seventh sternum and genital valves and the presence of two pairs of sternal patches in the female, the large abdominal spine and mesothoracic carina, and, possibly, the acute anterior pronotal angles. At the same time, many of the characters distinctive of the subgenus Lentimorpha must be regarded as secondary acquisitions. The discovery of further species of either group would no doubt throw more light on the evolutionary trends involved.
The occurrence of such species, if they were annectent, might invalidate division of the genus or necessitate re-estimation of the subgenera; if they were not, the subgeneric distinctions might be accentuated. A study of the male genitalia of alpina is most desirable. It would appear, however, that the effect of the topographical and climatic isolation to which alpina has been subjected has been in two directions: the conservation of certain relic features and the development of divergent characters not shared either by related genera or by the other species of Rhopalimorpha.
The case against generic separation of Lentimorpha seems to me to be as follows: (a) The presence in all three species of Rhopalimorpha of common features not found in the closely allied genus Eupolemus. (b) The affinities already discussed between alpina and lineolaris. (c) The considerable intrageneric variation which may occur among Pentatomidae in such characters as size of anterior abdominal spine and mesothoracic carina, and development of the ventral thoracic punctation and of the sternal patches of the female. Until more is known of the detailed anatomy of members of the subfamily and of probable phylogenetic lines within it, it is difficult, in some cases, to judge which features should be regarded as relatively archaic, and to eliminate the possibility of convergence. For example, in “typical” Acanthosomatinae a large abdominal spine and mesothoracic carina and the presence of conspicnous (? sensory) patches on both sixth and seventh abdominal sterna of the female seem characteristic, but the variability of these structures within otherwise apparently compact genera has already been indicated. The genus Eupolemus, in which all these characters vary, is a case in point A large thoracic keel, e.g., might be regarded as a common ancestral characteristic of Eupolemus and Rhopalimorpha, but with a tendency to reduction already established before separation of the genera, the extent of reduction varying in different species of both. The specific appearance of many of these features is the expression of a stage in a trend, which may often be older than the species involved, rather than a clear-cut positive or negative character. Similarly, reduction of either or both pairs of sternal patches of the female has occurred apparently independently in different species of Eupolema and Rhopalimorpha In E. picturatus, e.g., only the pair on the seventh sternum is apparent, while in E. insularis neither pair is obvious. Pendergrast (unpublished; see p. 316) has shown that in R. lineolaris and R. obscura a specialized cuticular region exists on the seventh sternum probably comparable to that on the sixth, but unlike the latter not sharply differentiated from the general surface. Examination of intact specimens indicates that a similar condition probably holds in Eupolemus spp. The relative conspicuousness of these areas, though it may in some instances be useful in helping to evaluate evolutionary trends, can in itself scarcely be considered a character of major systematic importance.
It is the writer's opinion that, if alpina is to be separated generically, then so should obscura and lineolaris; that is, that depending on the taxonomic value accorded to the difference between them, either all three species should be relegated to the one genus or each should be placed in a different, at present monotypic, genus.
By analogy, the apparent importance of isolation in the differentiation of alpina suggests a means whereby obscura and lineolaris might have diverged by
separation of the ancestral population into two geographically isolated regions, with a later coming together as two distinct species. Without some such period of separation it seems difficult to account for the evolution of two endemic species which at present occur together on the same food-plants and are both widely distributed through much the same areas (Pendergrast, 1950, p. 34). Such separation might have been due to geological changes or to different and geographically distant colonizations of this country by the parent species. The greater differences evident in alpina might be due to longer or more complete isolation, and in part to their correlation with adaptive changes in an environment very different from that shared by the lowland species of Rhopalimorpha. The distribution of the food-plants may well have played a part in accentuating the isolation of alpina. Both obscura and lineolaris feed on sedges and grasses, particularly the seed-heads, and while nothing is yet known of the feeding habits of alpina, it may be assumed that the common ancestral form of the three species was also vegetarian and probably with similar preferences. Since lowland foodplants of this kind are usually separated by extensive forest and scrub belts from the grasslands and bogs of the “subalpine” zone, this in itself would involve a more complete habitat isolation than between R. obscura and R. lineolaris or between the alpine and lowland subspecies of a predacious bug like Cermatulus nasalis (p. 308). If alpina were shown to have different feeding habits from the other two species of Rhopalimorpha, this divergence, initiated perhaps as a result of isolation, would itself provide a further isolating factor.
Genus Cermatulus Dallas, 1851
Type: Aelia nasalis Westwood, 1837
Cermatulus nasalis hudsoni subsp. nov. Figs. 15, 33.
Length of the three ♀ ♀ seen: 8·5 mm., 9.75 mm., 10 mm. Width: across abdomen, 5.1 mm., 5.6 mm, 6.0 mm.; between posterior pronotal angles, 4.3 mm., 4.9 mm, 5.8 mm. Colour as in typical nasalis, except that apex and antero-lateral corners of scutellum are pure yellow or cream, instead of yellowish- or orange-brown One of the two specimens from Arthur's Pass is a melanic form, appearing to the naked eye almost completely black except for the paler markings on antennae, sides of pronotum, and anteriorly and apically on scutellum. Both above and below, the black infuscations have invaded and almost entirely replaced the testaceous ground colour; the tarsi and the dorsal surface of all femora are almost wholly black (A very similar melanic form of the subspecies nasalis (♂) was collected by the author from the sand-dune area behind the beach at Foxton, Manawatu (28.1.1951). Apart from the brown apex and anterior angles of the scutellum, the only appreciable colour differences is in the lighter brown corium.) Head: Juga rather less widened anteriorly than in nasalis, so that more of the antero-lateral curved margin is lateral and less anterior, punctures rather fine. Each eye rather narrower than in nasalis in proportion to interocular space (about ⅓–7.5, 22; 8.25 .. 25; 8.5:.24). Antennae proportionately shorter than in nasalis, barely half as long as body, segments II:III = 1·7–1.8 and IV:III = 1.4–1.5. Thorax: Pronotum deeply punctate, but punctures finer than in nasalis; sides nearly straight, slightly sinuate near middle, with anterior half more or less crenulate and the anterior angles very shortly produced
and bluntly rounded; posterior angles rounded, not or scarcely projecting beyond bases of hemelytra, less angled and less prominent than in nasalis, and width between them less in proportion both to median length and to anterior width (between outer bases of anterior processes) (post. W.: L. = 2.1; post. W.: ant. W. = 2.1–2.2); disc between posterior angles rather shallowly convex, main anterior part of disc not forming a plane at a marked angle to posterior part, and whole pronotum thus flatter and more gradually and evenly rounded than in nasalis and less prominently declivous in front. Punctation of ventral surface of metathorax deep but rather fine; adjacent punctures rarely touching, mostly with at least one puncture width between them. Scutellum and corium more finely punctate than in nasalis. Membrane of hemelytra strongly declivous, only very shortly surpassing apex of abdomen Legs proportionately rather shorter than in nasalis (posterior tibia 0.62–0.65 times as long as corium in hudsoni, 0.70–0.76 times in nasalis). Abdomen very finely punctate beneath.
Types: In G. V. Hudson Collection, Dominion Museum, Wellington Holotype ♀ (10u) and 1 paratype ♀ (10v) from Arthur's Pass, Southern Alps, S. Island, 20.1.1940; 1 paratype ♀ (10w) from near Hermitage, Mount Cook, S. Alps, S. Island, 28.1.1945.
Close to Cermatulus nasali nasalis (Westwood), but readily distinguished at first sight by its much more smoothly rounded appearance, both in outline and in surface view, and its smaller size, and, in detail, by the proportionately shorter antennae, by the flatter, less declivous, and more finely punctate pronotum, with the posterior angles more rounded and less projecting and the width between them proportionately less, and by the fine, well-separated punctures of the undersurface of the metathorax.
The chief characters distinguishing the third New Zealand subspecies, turbotti, from nasalis and hudsoni, are given in the key. Through the courtesy of Mr. T. G. Campbell, of the Division of Entomology, C.S.I. R. O., Canberra, the author has been able to examine a specimen of another, as yet unnamed, subspecies from Mt. Rufus, Tasmania It is thought advisable to add here a preliminary list of common features by which all three subspecies already named differ from this alpine Tasmanian form: postero-lateral angles of pronotum more or less rounded, never produced into acute spines; without a distinct transverse ridge just behind calli: spout of metathoacic scent-gland orifice, including posterior edge, thick and much raised above general surface; the granular, impunctate evaporating area in front of spout deeply and sharply transversely grooved, and the evaporating area behind spout large and conspicuous; posterior part of the two ventro-lateral plates formed by the 8th abdominal tergum of the ♀ not strongly deflexed.
Discussion: There is no obviously clear-cut spacial discontinuity between the ranges of nasalis and hudsoni; isolation would seem rather to have arisen through adaptation of the latter to a distinct, subalpine set of habitat factors, topographically determined. (The case of hudsoni thus presents some interesting differences from that of the insular subspecies turbotti (Woodward, 1950, pp. 29–30), in which there are no such obvious differences in habitat from that of nasalis, to which the insect might become adapted, and in which, on the other hand, there is clear-cut geographical isolation. In the evolution of both hudsoni and turbotti, relative smallness of population may have to be taken into account,
but would seem to be of greater importance in the latter, where other factors are not so apparent.)
With a physiological and bionomic adaptation of this kind, it might be expected, though it is not yet known, that there is an intermediate zone in which both subspecies might survive, although presumably not so successfully as in the habitats to which they are respectively more perfectly adapted. The fact that what must be the comparatively small population of hudsoni has maintained its integrity as a structurally distinct form in its present known range, seems to indicate that differentiation has proceeded so far that interbreeding with the much larger adjacent population of nasalis either no longer occurs to any great extent or, if it still does, the hybrids are either sterile or are selectively climinated (possibly involving semigeographic speciation of Mayr). A knowledge of the distributional range of the two subspecies in alpine and subalpine regions, and of their bionomics, physiology, and internal anatomy, is highly desirable, and would no doubt throw light on the mechanisms of speciation involved. In cases like this, while the structural differences may be apparently “neutral” or non-adaptive and perhaps to be accounted for by “genetic drift” in a relatively small population, the possibility must be considered of their being genetically correlated with the adaptive physiological differences that must occur. On the other hand, this is not to exclude the possibility of “drift” and adaptation being involved together, since the isolation of a population by means of physiological and bionomic adaptation might lead subsequently to “drift” in structural characters.
The writer originally described turbotti as a species, but has since had the opportunity of examining a larger series of Cermatulus, including Australian material, and, with a wider experience of the degree and kind of variation involved, now considers that this and the other forms which can be separated from typical nasalis are best regarded as subspecies. So far as is shown by the material yet to hand, these forms are morphologically quite distinct, each being characterized by a group of constantly correlated structural features and readily identifiable from single individuals. The differences between them are, in fact, of the kind which have often been used to separate closely related species of insects, and no doubt some workers will prefer to regard these forms as such. In the absence of any universally applicable and universally acceptable definition of a species and subspecies—which is perhaps not possible—no absolute values can be attached to these terms, and the subspecies or incipient species of one person will be the species of another Both forms are well-established stages in the process of speciation which cannot be sharply delimited.
It seems to the writer desirable to make appropriate use of these two available taxonomic categories as an aid in expressing probable relationships and degrees of divergence, in a similar way to which genera and subgenera can be used at a higher level. In the present instance the most natural grouping appears to be to place the four known nasalis-like forms, which are obviously all closely related and at an early stage of divergence, as subspecies. To refer them to separate species would be to obscure, on the one hand, this relationship and, on the other, the much greater differentiation between the Australo-New Zealand group and pulcher, the New Guinea species. The former interpretation would seem also to accord better with the present-day dynamic trend in systematics, and with the concept of the polytypic species and the geographic race or subspecies, as elaborated by Mayr and others.
In both Australia and New Zealand the most widely distributed and the typical (morphologically as well as taxonomically) subspecies is nasalis, and this would seem to represent or to have diverged but little from the ancestral form, from which the others have been derived. With some features a two-directional divergence is apparent from the norm. For example, in hudsoni the pronotum has become smoother both in outline and in surface aspect, whereas in turbotti and the Tasmanian form from Mt. Rufus it has become more irregular. With the inheritance of a similar initial gene complex, it has been possible, up to a point, for the last two subspecies to develop independently along parallel lines. But in other respects different mutations have survived, so that a good set of correlated structural characters distinguish these two forms and, as indicated above, turbotti in several features more closely resembles the other two subspecies. As pointed out in an earlier paper (Woodward, 1950), nasalis is itself a variable form, but this variation has been channelled into speciation only where comparatively small populations have become isolated, either geographically, as with the insular turbotti, or topographically, as with hudsoni. To our present knowledge, speciation has not been initiated in this genus within a continuous large population. Even when, as between Australia and New Zealand, there has been separation of two large populations for at least as long as between some of these smaller ones, subspecies have not developed. Here, despite isolation, size of population seems to have prevented or delayed “genetic drift” and the establishment of correlated structural divergences.
The alpine and subalpine Heteroptera in New Zealand, and particularly in the south-western part of the South Island, would no doubt amply repay a thorough investigation, such as has not yet been given them. Interesting new species and subspecies are to be expected, especially of brachypterous or ground-frequenting groups such as the Lygaeidae, and perhaps also of groups such as the Miridae, which may well have members restricted to alpine plants. A large proportion of endemic forms would probably be found in these regions, parallelling the endemism of alpine plants in this country. Besides factors of isolation, proximity to earlier Antarctic connexions might have to be considered in the case of some species, such as the rather aberrant Hypsithocus hudsonae (see Bergroth, 1927, p. 672).
Keys to the Cydnidae and Pentatomidae of New Zealand (Adults)
Complete descriptions or redescriptions are not given, but references to them are included in the synonymic lists and the keys have been made fairly full, so that these, together with the figures, should usually serve to check the species listed against possible new species or new introductions. In most cases more critical specific features have been included than those used in descriptions of the older species.
The Cydnidae (“burrowing bugs”) may be distinguished from all other families of Heteroptera by the following combination of characters terrestrial; scutellum large, reaching to or exceeding posterior end of clavus; body ovoid, not extremely flattened; tibiae with numerous long spines.
|1. Small (4–5 mm. long); light brown, marked with black on median band on head, on calli and two spots behind them, three patches on base of scutellum and one at apex, and spots on corium; coarsely punctate over whole dorsal surface||Choerocydnus nigrosignatus Buch. White (Figs. 2, 17, 25)|
|Larger (6–7 mm. long); colour not as above; punctation of most of dorsal surface fine and sparse||2|
|2. Brown; pronotum with a transverse groove delimiting a distinct anterior border; if really a N.Z. species, rare||Pangaeus scotti Signoret|
|Black; pronotum without such a distinct anterior groove and border; common||Philapodemus australis (Erichson) (Figs. 1, 18, 24)|
The distinguishing features of the Pentatomidae (“shield bugs”, “stink bugs”) are those of the Cydnidae, except that the body may be either shield-shaped or ovoid and the tibiae lack the long lateral spines. In identifying abdominal sterna it should be remembered that the first sternum is usually completely hidden by the metasternum and the 2nd and 8th sterna are reduced.
Key to Subfamilies
|1. Tarsi with 2 segments; abdomen beneath with an anterior, forwardly directed spine and mesothorax with a median keel (Figs 27–30)||Acanthosomatinae|
|Tarsi with 3 segments (second short); abdomen with or without a ventral spine and mesothorax with or without a median keel||2|
|2. Bucculae elongate (Figs. 21–23), ending behind or near level of posterior margin of eye and far behind base of antennifer, with first segment of rostrum usually lodged for whole length in groove between them (in Antestia extending behind them for no more than ⅓ its length); rostrum slender||Pentatominae|
|Bucculae short (Figs. 19, 20), ending well in front of level of posterior margin of eye and not behind base of antennifer, with first segment of rostrum very stout and extending freely and conspicuously behind them; rostrum stout||Asopinae|
Keys to New Zealand Species
Species marked (*) are known to be or most probably have been introduced since the advent of the European.
|1. Body shield-shaped; pronotum strongly declivous, giving a “hunch-backed” appearance, ventral abdominal spine very long, strongly curved in front, and reaching or surpassing anterior coxae, mesothoracic keel very large and expanded, extending forward to anterior end of prothorax, well in front of fore coxae; length about 11 mm.||Oncacontias vittatus (Fabr.) (Figs. 6, 26, 41, 51)|
|Body more or less ovoid; pronotum not strongly declivous and body not “hunch-backed”; ventral abdominal spine smaller, not strongly curved in front, and not reaching anterior coxae; mesothoracic keel smaller and less expanded, not extending forward well in front of fore coxae||Rhopalimorpha Dallas||2|
|2. Anterior angles of pronotum rounded, not produced; anterior abdominal spine very short, not surpassing posterior margin of mid-coxae; mesothoracic keel low, ridge-like, not notably expanded towards front, and not reaching in front of apex of second rostral segment; second antennal segment longer than or about as long as third; rostium reaching middle coxae; punctation of venter of prothorax conspicuous, coarse, and dark; species widespread; length, 6.5–9 mm||subgenus Rhopalimorpha Dallas||3|
|Anterior angles of pronotum acute and produced; anterior abdominal spine longer, reaching to anterior margin of midcoxae; mesothoracic keel higher, plate-like, notably expanded towards front, and passing anterior to apex of second rostral segment; second antennal segment shorter than third, rostrum reaching posterior coxae; punctation of venter of prothorax|
|inconspicuous, fine, shallow, and almost concolorous with general surface; known distribution restricted, alpine||R. (Lentimorpha) alpina sp. & subg. nov. (Figs. 5, 29, 30, 42)|
|3. Apex of scutellum acute; abdomen with a well-developed connexivum, extending well beyond margins of closed hemelytra; maxillary plate processes small, tubercle-like, not reaching antennal base; plate of metathoracic scent-gland orifice broadest near middle, posterior margin strongly convex, ventral surface nearly flat; metathoracic evaporating area small, scarcely surpassing outer margin of plate||R (Rhopalimorpha) obscura A. White (Figs. 3, 27)|
|Apex of scutellum widened and rounded, abdomen without a well-developed connexivum, scarcely projecting beyond margins of closed hemelytra; maxillary plate processes larger, shelf-like, reaching close to antennal base, where expanded, plate of metathoracic scent-gland orifice broadest near outer margin, posterior margin scarcely convex, ventral surface strongly convex; metathoracic evaporating area large, extending well beyond outer margin of plate||R (Rhopalimorpha) lineolaris Pendergrast (Figs 4, 28)|
|1. Posterior angles of pronotum projecting as large spines, posterior angles of connexivum in each segment produced backwards as small black spines; apex of scutellum narrowly rounded; mesosternum with strong median groove, without median keel; metathoracic scent-gland orifice slit-like, inconspicuous, without any raised plate; anterior abdominal spine large, reaching to middle coxae; rostrum reaching only to middle coxae; length, 11–12 mm.||Oechalia consocialis (Boisduval) (Figs. 7, 19, 31 43, 52)|
|Posterior angles of pronotum not spined in N.Z. forms, posterior angles of connexivum projecting but not produced back as spines; apex of scutellum broadly rounded; mesosternum without median groove, with low median keel; metathoracic scent-gland orifice conspicuous, its spout continued on to a prominent raised plate, anterior abdominal spine small, not reaching to anterior end of hind coxae; rostrum reaching to hind coxae; length of ♀, 85–15 mm.||Cermatulus nasalis (Westwood)||2|
|2 Sides of pronotum straight or nearly straight, if somewhat sinuate in middle then posterior half in line or nearly in line with anterior half; N. Z. specimens without metallic greenish reflections; disc of tylus with well-defined punctures; sides of posterior half of basal rostral segment not greatly flattened, usually strongly convex||3|
|Sides of pronotum strongly sinuate in middle, posterior half projecting outward at a marked angle to anterior half, with metallic greenish or bronzy reflections on dorsal surface of abdomen, disc of mesosternum, and usually on dorsal surface of head, pronotum and scutellum; disc of tylus with few, shallow or obsolete punctures; sides of posterior half of basal rostral segment strongly flattened or even concave; anterolateral margin of juga with most of the curve lateral and without the nearly transverse anterior margin of subsp. nasalis and apex of head thus less bluntly and more narrowly rounded (Fig. 9), apex of scutellum off-white or creamish-yellow; recorded only from the Three Kings Island, N. Z.||C. nasalis subsp. turbotti Woodward (Figs. 9, 34)|
|3. Pronotum with main anterior part sloping down on a markedly different plane from that of posterior part, and thus appearing rather strongly declivous in front; posterior pronotal angles moderately prominent and projecting notably beyond bases of hemelytra; apex of head broadly and rather bluntly rounded, with anterior margin of juga nearly transverse (Fig 8); apex of scutellum brown or orange-brown; punctation of pronotum deep and coarse; in ♀, width of pronotum between posterior angles 2.3–2.45 times median length, post. W. : ant. W = 2.4–2.55 (in ♂, 2.2–2.3 and 2.3–2.4); punctation of ventral surface of metathorax coarse, in posterior division adjacent punctures touching or less than one puncture width apart; antennae more than half as long as body (c 0.6 times); length of ♀ 10.5–12.5 mm., of ♂ 9–10 mm.; widespread||C. nasalis subsp. nasalis (Westwood) (Figs. 8, 20, 32, 44, 53)|
|Pronotum with main anterior part not forming a markedly different plane from that of posterior part, and thus flatter, more gradually curved, and not appearing strongly declivous in front; posterior pronotal angles not prominent, not or scarcely projecting beyond bases of hemelytra; apex of head moderately broadly rounded; apex of scutellum yellow or cream; punctation of pronotum deep but comparatively fine; in ♀, width of pronotum between posterior angles 2.1 times median length, post. W. ant. W. = 2.1–2.2; punctation of ventral surface of metathorax deep but rather fine, adjacent punctures rarely touching, mostly with at least one puncture width between them, antennae shorter, barely half as long as body, length of ♀, 8.5–10 mm, of restricted alpine distribution||C. nasalis hudsoni subsp. nov. (Figs. 15, 33)|
|1. Juga (lateral lobes of face) considerably longer than tylus (median lobe) and wholly or largely enclosing it in front||2|
|Juga about as long as tylus and not enclosing it in front||3|
|2. Body and legs black, body with margins narrowly tawny, widest above on abdomen second and third antennal segments subequal in length; anterior angles of pronotum widely raised and alate: known only as a brachypterous alpine form, without ocelli; length about 9 mm.||Hypsithocus hudsonae Bergroth (Figs. 16, 37, 49)|
|Brown, connexivum with transverse black bar at anterior and posterior margin of each segment; second antennal segment much longer than third, anterior angles of pronotum not widely raised and alate, fully winged, membrane of hemelytra reticulately veined; with ocelli; common and generally distributed, length, 8–10 mm.||Dictyotus caenosus (Westwood) (Figs 12, 22, 39, 50, 57)|
|3. Green (one uncommon colour form of Nezara viridula is orange, overwintering forms more or less brown); connexivum without large black markings, at most with a small black spot at posterior angle in each segment, rostrum not or scarcely extending on to abdomen, abdominal sterna without large black punctures; metathoracic evaporating areas only weakly rugulose, of uniform colour, normally yellowish-green; posterior margin of spout of metathoracic scent-gland orifice gradually curved or nearly straight||4|
|Brown, with a conspicuous pale band along each side of pronotum; connexivum with large, irregular, dark patches|
|rostrum very long, extending well back on to abdomen; in addition to ordinary punctation, a series of very large black punctures near posterior margins of 2nd to 6th abdominal sterna; meso- and metathoracic evaporating areas strongly rugose, reddish-brown mottled with black; spout of metathoracic scent-gland orifice with posterior margin strongly incurved about halfway from base, apical half much narrowed; length about 9 mm||Antestia orbona Kirkaldy* (Figs. 14, 23, 38, 45)|
|4. Large (length 14–16 mm); posterior angles of pronotum rounded and not produced; ventral thoracic keel very low, ridge-like, only slightly notched behind; abdominal spine convex on ventral surface; posterior margin of 7th abdominal sternum in ♀ roundly, and rather shallowly excavated; posterior margin of 9th abdominal sternum in ♂ deeply excavated between the lateral lobes||5|
|Smaller (length 9–11 mm.); posterior angles of pronotum acute and produced; ventral thoracic keel large, high, platelike, deeply cleft behind to receive anterior abdominal spine, which is flattened on ventral surface; posterior margin of 7th abdominal sternum in ♀ very deeply and almost squarely excavated; posterior margin of 9th abdominal sternum in ♂ not deeply excavated, with a median lobe extending further back than lateral lobes||Cuspicona simplex Walker* (Figs. 13, 36, 48, 56)|
|5. Dorsal surface shining, punctures remote, those of pronotum shallow, irregular, and confused with rugulae; head impunctate but transversely rugose; scutellum with apex broadly rounded and without any pale or black spots on anterior margin; spout of metathoracic scent-gland orifice produced as a long ridge ending near antero-lateral angle of segment; posterior margin of 9th abdominal sternum in ♂ concave between lateral lobes, which are strongly sinuate behind and bilobed; posterior margin of each anterior genital valve in ♀ strongly convex||Glaucias amyoti (A. White) (Figs. 11, 21, 35, 46, 54)|
|Dorsal surface dull, closely punctate, especially on pronotum and scutellum; head closely punctate, not distinctly transversely rugose; scutellum with apex more narrowly rounded and with three small yellowish spots on anterior margin and a small black spot on each anterior angle; spout of metathoracic scent-gland orifice ear-shaped, short, apex distant from lateral margin of segment; posterior margin of 9th abdominal sternum in ♂ convex between lateral lobes, which are not sinuate behind and are subtriangular; posterior margin of each anterior genital valve in ♀ nearly straight or slightly concave||Nezara viridula (Linn.)* (Figs 10, 40, 47, 55)|
Synonymic Lists of New Zealand Cydnidae and Pentatomidae
Reference to introduced species (marked *), particularly in the case of Nezara viridula, has had to be selective. Works quoted are those including descriptions or original synonyms, New Zealand records, or information on anatomy, life-history, or bionomics; further references will be found in their bibliographies.
Genus Philapodemus Kirkaldy
Hahnia Ellenreider, 1862, Natuurk. Tijdschr. Ned. Ind., 24: 139.
Philapodemus Kirkaldy, 1910, Canad. Ent., 42: 8 (new name for Hahnia Ellenreider, preoccupied by Hahnia Koch, 1841, Die Arachniden, 8 (3): 62.
Philapodemus australis (Erichson)
Cydnus australis Erichson, 1842, Arch. für Naturg, 8. 275, 276.
Hahnia australis (Erichson) Dallas, 1851, List Hem. Ins. Brit. Mus., pt. 1: 116. Buch. White, 1878, Ent. mon. Mag., 14. 275. Kirkaldy, 1909, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 41: 25. Myers, 1922, N.Z. Journ. Sci. Tech., 5 (1): 4; 1926, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 56: 458, 462, 510 (biology, distribution). Tillyard, 1926, Ins. Aust. N.Z.: 148; pl. 12, f. 7. Myers and China, 1928, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist, (10) 1: 379.
Aethus leptospermi A. White in Dallas, 1851, List Hem. Ins. Brit. Mus., pt. 1: 119. Walker, 1867, Cat. Spec. Het. Hem. Coll. Brit. Mus., pt. 1, 162. Butler, 1874, Voy Erebus and Terror, Zool., pt. 2, Ins.: 25; pl. 7, f. 3. Hutton, 1874, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 6. 170.
Aethus australis (Erichson) Walker, 1867, op. cit., pt. 1. 162.
Geotomus leptospermi (White) Hutton, 1898, Trans. N. Z. Inst., 30: 172; 1904, Index Faun. Nov. Zeal.: 221.
Geobia australis (Erichson) Froggatt, 1902, Agr. Gaz N. S. W., 13: 318, pl. 2, f. 29 (Horvath's determination).
Genus Choerocydnus A. White
Choerocydnus A. White in Grey, 1841, Journ. Two Exped. N.W. and W. Australia, 2: 472.
Genotype: Choerocydnus foveolatus A White, 1841, ibid
Choerocydnus nigrosignatus Buch. White.
Choerocydnus nigrosiqnatus Buch White. 1878, Ent mon Mag., 14: 275–276 Hutton, 1898, Trans. N. Z. Inst, 30 172 (Choenocydnus, in error); 1904, Index Faun Nov. Zeal, 222. Kirkaldy, 1909. Trans. N. Z. Inst., 41: 25 (nigrosignata).
Chaerocydnus nigrosignatus Buch. White, Myers, 1922, N.Z. Journ. Sci. Tech, 5 (1): 4; 1926, Trans N.Z. Inst., 56: 458, 462, 510 (localities) Tillyard, 1926, Ins Aust. N. Z., 148. Myers and China, 1928, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (10) 1: 379.
Genus Pangaeus Stal
Pangaeus Stål, 1862, Stettiner ent. Zeit., 23: 95.
Pangoeus Stål, Signoret, 1882 Ann Soc. cut. France. (6) 2. 244–245; pls 8. 9.
Pangaeus scotti Signoret.
Pangoeus scotti Signoret, 1882. op cit., (6) 2: 259; pl. 9, f. 117. Hutton. 1898, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 30: 172; 1904, Index Faun. Nov. Zeal, 221.
Pangaeus scotti Signoret, Kirkaldy, 1909, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 41 25. Myers, 1926, op. cit., 56: 458. Myers and China, 1928, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (10) 1. 379.
Genus Rhopalimorpha Dallas
Rhopalimorpha Dallas, 1851, List Hem. Ins. Brit. Mus., pt. 1: 197, 293.
Rhopalomorpha Mayr, 1868, Reise Novara, Zool., 2 (2), Hem.: 74.
Stål, 1876, Svensk. Ak. Handl., 14 (4): 109, 111.
Genotype: Rhopalimorpha obscura A. White, 1851.
Subgenus Rhopalimorpha Dallas, 1851 (see p. 303 above)
Type R. obscura A. White, 1851.
Rhopalimorpha obscura A. White.
Rhopalimorpha obscura A. White in Dallas, 1851, List Hem. Ins. Brit. Mus., pt. 1: 293. Walker, 1867, Cat. Spec. Het. Hem. Coll. Brit. Mus., pt. 2: 376. Butler, 1874, Voy. Ereb. and Terror, Zool., pt. 2, Ins., 26; pl. 7, f. 8 Hutton, 1874, Trans. N. Z. Inst., 6: 170. Buch. White, 1878, Ent. mon Mag., 14: 276–277 (R. similis Mayr a synonym). Hutton, 1898, Trans. N. Z. Inst, 30: 171; 1904, Index Faun. Nov. Zeal., 221. Alfken, 1904, Zool. Jahrb. Abth. Syst., 19. Kirkaldy, 1909, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 41: 24; 1909, Cat. Hem (Het.), 1 169. Myers, 1921, N.Z. Journ. Sci. Tech. 4 (5): 265–266 (feeding habits); 1922, op. cit, 5 (1): 3–4; 1924, Rec. Cant. Mus., 2 (4) 172–3, 175–6 (synonymises ignota Hutton with this sp.); 1926, Trans. N. Z. Inst., 56: 456, 457, 462, 502–505; pl. 85, f. 5; pl 86, f. 1; text f. 22, 23; (partim); (life-history, bionomics, dist.). Tillyard, 1926, Ins. Aust. N.Z., 148; f. Q4. Myers and China, 1928, Ann. Mag. nat Hist, (10) 1 379. Pendergrast, 1950, Rec. Auck Inst. Mus., 4 (1): 31–34; f. 1 (distinguishes from lineolaris).
Rhopalimorpha similis Mayr, 1865, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges Wien, 14: 912 Hutton, 1898, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 30: 171 (“may be distinct”). Kirkaldy, 1909, Cat. Hem. (Het.), 1 169. Howes, 1914, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 46 100.
Rhopalimorpha similis Mayr, 1868, Reise Novara, Zool., 2 (2), Hem. 74–76; pl. 2, f. 14.
Rhombocoris similis (Mayr) Walker, 1867, Cat. Spec. Het. Hem. Coll. Brit. Mus., pt. 2. 312. Hutton, 1874, Trans. N. Z. Inst, 6: 170.
Rhopalimorpha ignota Hutton, 1898, Trans. N. Z. Inst., 30: 159. Kirkaldy, 1909, Trans. N. Z. Inst., 41 24; 1909, Cat. Hem. (Het.), 1: 169. Tillyard, 1926, Ins. Aust. N.Z., 148.
Rhopalimorpha lineolaris Pendergrast.
Rhopalimorpha obscura White, Myers, 1926 (partim), Trans. N. Z. Inst., 56 (see above obscura).
Rhopalimorpha lineolaris Pendergrast, 1950, Rec. Auck Inst. Mus., 4 (1): 32–34; f. 2–4.
(Papers by Mr. J. G. Pendergrast are being prepared for publication, describing the genus and redescribing obscura, describing and distinguishing the nymphal stages of R. obscura and R. lineolaris and giving additional information on the biology and distribution of the species and dealing with the anatomy of the adults. He draws adequate attention for the first time to the setose sternal patches of the ♀♀ of Acanthosomatinae and the maxillary plate processes of this subfamily, and points out the probable sensory nature of the former.)
Subgenus Lentimorpha nov. (see above, p. 302)
Type: Rhopalimorpha (Lentimorpha) alpina sp. nov. (see above, p. 304).
Figs 5, 29, 30, 42.
Genus Oncacontias Breddin
Oncacontias Breddin, 1903, S. B. Ges naturf Freunde Berlin 1903: 219.
Genotype Oncacontias brunneipennis Breddin, 1903 = Cimer vittatus Fabr., 1781.
Onacontias vittatus (Fabricius)
Cimex vittatus Fabricius. 1781, Spec. Ins., 2: 349; 1794, Ent. Syst., 4 104; 1803, Syst. Rhyng, 165.
Acanthosoma vittata (Fabr.) Dallas. 1851, List. Hem Ins. Brit Mus, pt. 1: 307 (vittatum). Walker, 1867, Cat. Het. Hem. Coll. Brit. Mus., pt. 2: 398. Butler, 1874, Voy Ereb. and Terror, Zool., pt 2, Ins.: 26; pl. 7, f. 1 (vittatum). Hutton. 1874, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 6: 170. Distant, 1900, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (7) 6: 227.
Anubis vittatus (Fabr.) Hutton, 1898, Trans N. Z. Inst., 30: 171: 1904, Index Faun. Nov. Zeal, 221.
Oncacontias brunneipennis Breddin, 1903, S.B. Ges naturf. Freunde Berlin, 219.
Oncacontias vittatus (Fabr.) Kirkaldy, 1906, Trans N.Z. Inst., 38 61; 1909, op. cit, 41: 24; 1909, Cat. Hem. (Het.), 1: 172 (vittata). Myers, 1922, N.Z. Journ. Sci. Tech., 5 (1): 4; 1926, Trans. N.Z. Inst, 56: 457, 461, 462, 505–509; pl. 86, f. 2. 3;
text f. 24–26 (life-hist., bionomics, dist.). Myers and China, 1928, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (10) 1: 379.
Genus Oechalia Stål
Oechalia Stål, 1862, Stettiner ent. Zeit., 23; 93; 1864, Hem. Afr., 1: 63; 1870. Enum. Hemipt., 1. 58. Blackburn, 1889, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., (2) 3: 343. Kirkaldy, 1902, Fauna Hawaii, 3 (2): 171; 1909, Proc. Hawaii. ent. Soc., 2 (2): 82, pl. 2; 1910, Fauna Hawaii., 2 (6): 533. Schouteden, 1906, in Genera Insectorum, fasc. 52: 75. Usinger, 1941, Proc. Hawaii. ent. Soc., 11 (1) 67–71 (very full redescription).
Genotype: Arma schellembergii (Guérin) (as schellenbergi) = Pentatoma consociale Boisduval:
Subgenus Oechalia Stål, Kirkaldy
Oechalia Stål, Kirkaldy, 1909, Proc. Hawaii. ent. Soc., 2 (2); 83 (typical subgenus)
Type: Arma schellenbergi (Guérin) = Pentatoma consociale Boisduval.
Oechalia consocialis (Boisduval)
Pentatoma consociale Boisduval, 1835, Voy. Astrolabe, Ent. pt. 2: 630; pl. 11, f. 9.
Pentatoma schellembergii Guérin, 1838, Voy. Coquille, Zool., 2: 166; pl. 11. f. 9.
Arma schellembergi (Guérin) Dallas, 1851, List. Hem. Ins Brit. Mus., pt. 1: 98. Stål. 1862. Stettiner ent. Zeit., 23:93 (schellenbergi). Walker, 1867, Cat. Spec. Het. Hem. Coll. Brit. Mus, pt. 1, 140 (schellenbergi). Hutton, 1874, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 6: 169 (schellenbergii). Froggatt, 1897, Agr. Gaz. N.S.W., 8. 100–101; f. 2 (silbellanbergi, in error).
Rhaphigaster perfectus Walker, 1867, Cat. Spec Het Hem. Coll. Brit. Mus., pt. 2. 371.
Oechalia schellembergii (Guérin) Mayr, 1868, Reise Novara, Zool., 2 (2), Hem.: 32 (schellenbergi). Butler, 1874, Voy. Erebus and Terror, Zool., pt. 2, Ins.: 25; pl. 7. f. 2 (schellenbergii). Hutton, 1898, Trans. N. Z. Inst, 30: 169; 1904, Index Faun. Nov Zeal., 221. Froggatt, 1907, Austral. Ins., 330; pl. 32, f. 11 (-i).
Occhalia consocialis (Boisduval) Stål, 1870, Enum. Hemipt., 1: 59. Schouteden, 1907. in Genera Insectorum, fasc. 52: 75; pl. 5, f. 12. Froggatt, 1907, Austral. Ins., 330; pl. 32, f. 11. Kirkaldy, 1909, Trans N. Z. Inst, 41: 23–24; 1909, Proc. Hawaii. ent. Soc., 2 (2): 82, 83–84; pl. 2; 1909, Cat. Hem. (Het.), 1: 25, 381. Myers, 1922, N.Z. Journ. Sci. and Tech, 5 (1): 3; 1926, Ins. Aust N.Z., 148. Myers and China, 1928, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (10) 1: 378. Usinger, 1941, Proc. Hawaii. ent. Soc., 11 (1): 74–75 (very full redescription; distribution). Smith, 1944, Queensl. Agric. Journ., 59 (6) (life-history).
Acchalia schellembergi (Guérin) Froggatt, 1902, Agr. Gaz. N. S.W., 13: 320; pl. 2, f. 36.
Genus Cermatulus Dallas
Cermatulus Dallas, 1851, List Hem. Ins. Brit. Mus., pt. 1. 106.
Genotype: Aelia nasalis Westwood, 1837.
Cermatulus nasalis (Westwood)
Aelia nasalis Westwood. 1837, Cat. Hem. Coll. Hopc. 1. 32.
Asopus nummularis Erichson, 1842 Arch. fur. Naturg. 8: 276.
Asopus nummularis Herrich-Schaeffer. 1844. Wanzenart. Ins, 7: 114, f. 776 (as new species).
Cermatulus nasalis (Westwood) Dallas, 1851, List Hem. Ins. Brit. Mus., pt. 1. 106; pl. 2, f. 3) (attributes to Hope). Mayr, 1868, Reise Novara, Zool 2 (2), Hem., 33 Butler. 1874, Voy Erebus and Terror. Zool., pt. 2. Ins. 25; pl. 7, f. 4 Hutton. 1874, Trans N. Z. Inst. 6: 169, 1898, op. cit. 30: 170. 1904, Index Faun Nov. Zeal, 221. Hudson, 1892. Man. N. Z. Ent, 121, pl. 20. f. 6, 6a. Froggatt, 1902. Agr. Gaz.
N.S.W., 13: 320; pl. 2, f. 28. Schouteden, 1907, in Genera Insectorum, 52: pl. 5, f. 6. Kirkaldy, 1909, Cat. Hem. (Het.), 1: 26; 1909, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 41: 24. Myers, 1922, N.Z. Journ. Sci. Tech., 5 (1): 3, 4; 1926, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 56: 456, 461, 462, 489, 490–494; pl. 83, f. 6, 7; pl. 84, f. 1; text f. 10–13 (life-history, bionomics, dist.). Tillyard, 1926, Ins. Aust. N.Z., 148; pl. 12, f. 10. Myers and China, 1928, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (10) 1: 378.
Asopus binotatus Walker, 1867, Cat. Spec. Het. Hem. Coll. Brit. Mus., pt. 1: 144 (recorded from Brazil. in error, according to Kirkaldy, 1909 [Cat.]).
Rhaphigaster pentatomoides Walker, 1867, op. cit., pt. 2. 370. Hutton, 1874, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 6: 170.
Cermatulus nasalis subsp. nasalis (Westwood, 1837)
Cermatulus nasalis (Westwood, 1837); with synonymy as above. Woodward, 1950, Rec. Auck. Inst. Mus., 4 (1): 26–29, f. 2 (distinguishes from turbotti).
Cermatulus nasalis subsp. turbotti Woodward.
Cermatulus turbotti Woodward, 1950, op. cit. 24–26, 29–30; f. 1.
Cermatulus nasalis hudsoni subsp. nov. (See above, p. 307.) Figs. 15, 33.
Genus Glaucias Kirkaldy
Zangis Stål, 1867, Öfvers. Vetensk Akad. Forh. Stockholm, 24: 514; 1876, Svensk. Vet. Handl., 14 (4): 93.
Amblybelus Stål, 1876, loc. cit. (not Montrouzier, 1864).
Glaucias Kirkaldy, 1908, Entomologist, 41: 124 (new name for Zangis Stål, preoccupied by Zangis Gistl, 1848, Nat. Thierr, 8).
Genotype: Rhaphigaster amyoti A. White.
Glaucias amyoti (A. White)
Rhaphigster amyoti A. White in Dallas, 1851, List Hem. Ins. Brit. Mus., pt. 1: 278. Walker, 1867, Cat. Spec. Het. Hem. Coll. Brit. Mus., pt. 2: 369. Hutton, 1874, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 6: 170 (amoyti Dallas, in error).
Zangis amyoti (White) Stål, 1867, loc. cit. Myers, 1926, Trans. N. Z. Inst., 56: 457, 462, 488, 489, 495–498; pl. 84, f. 2; pl. 85, f. 1–3; text-f. 14–17 (life-hist., bionomics, distr.). Myers and China. 1928, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (10) 1 378.
Rhaphigaster prasinus Walker, 1867, op. cit.: 354. Hutton. 1874, op. cit. 170. Not Cimex prasinus Linn., 1761. Not Nezara prasina Mulsant and Rey, 1866 = Nezara viridula (Linn.).
Nezara amyoti (White) Hutton, 1898, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 30: 170 (amoyti, in error): 1904, Index Faun. Nov. Zeal., 221 (amoyti, in error). Kirkaldy, 1906, Trans. N.Z. Inst, 38: 61.
Nezara prasina Hutton, 1898, op. cit.: 171; 1904, op.: cit 352 Not Cimex prasinus Linn., 1761. Not Nezara prasina Mulsant and Rey, 1866 = Nezara viridula (Linn., 1758).
Nezara viridula Kirkaldy, 1909, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 41: 24. Not Cimex viridulus Linn., 1758; this and earlier records mistaken, based on the misidentification by Walker (1867): see above and Nezara viridula (Linn.).
Glaucias amyoti (White) Kirkaldy, 1909, Trans. N. Z. Inst. 41: 24; 1909. Cat. Hem. (Het.), 1: 125. Myers, 1921, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 53: 257; 1922, N.Z. Journ. Sci. Tech., 5 (1): 4 Tillyard, 1926, Ins Aust. N. Z., 148. Chadwick, in MS, submitted to Roy. Zool. Soc. N. S.W.
Genus Nezara Amyot and Serville
Nezara Amyot and Serville, 1843, (partim) Hist. nat. des. Ins., Hémipt., in Roret's Suite à Buffon, 143. Bergroth, 1914, Ann. Soc. ent. Belg., 58: 24–26. Freeman, 1940, Trans. R. ent Soc. Lond., 90 (12): 351–356 (full redescription and separation from allied genera; see for fuller synonymy).
Genotype: Cimex smaragdulus Fabricius, 1775 = Cimex viridulus Linn., 1758; fixed by Kirkaldy, 1903.
Nezara viridula (Linnaeus)
Cimex viridulus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10), 1 444.
Cimex smaragdulus Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Ent., 711.
Cimex torquatus Fabricius, 1775, op. cit, 710.
Cimex transversus Thunberg, 1783, Diss. Ent. Nov. Ins. Sp. 2: 40.
Cimex variabilis Villers, 1789 (partim), Linn. Ent., 1: 505.
Cimex spirans Fabricius, 1798, Ent. Syst, Suppl., 533.
Cimex viridissimus Wolff, 1802, Icones Cimicum, 2: 55; pl. 6, f. 52.
Pentatoma torquata (Fabr.) Latrerlle, 1804, Hist. nat. Crust. Ins., 12: 190.
Pentatoma flavicollis Palisot de Beauvois, 1805, Ins. rec. en Afr. et en Amér., 185; pl. 11, f. 5 (flavicornis in plate).
Pentatoma smaragdula (Fabr.) Dufour, 1833, Recher. Hemipt., 157.
Rhaphigaster smaragdulus (Fabr.) Herrich-Schaeffer, 1835, Nomen. Ent, 1 57.
Rhapigaster torquatus (Fabr.) Herrich-Schaeffer, 1835, loc. cit.; 1839, Wanzenart. Ins, 4: 100.
Pentatoma oblonga Westwood, 1847, Cat. Hem. Coll. Hope, pt. 1: 37.
Pentatoma unicolor Westwood, 1837, op. cit., 38.
Pentatoma berylina Westwood, 1837, ibid.
Pentatoma subsericea Westwood, 1837, ibid.
Pentatoma leit Westwood, 1837, ibid.
Pentatoma 3-punctigera Westwood, 1837, ibid.
Pentatoma proxima Westwood, 1837, ibid.
Pentatoma chinensis Westwood, 1837, ibid.
Pentatoma chloris Westwood, 1837, ibid.
Pentatoma chlorocephala Westwood, 1837, op. cit, 39.
Pentatoma propinqua Westwood, 1837, ibid.
Cimex hemichloris German, 1837, Rev. Ent., 5. 166.
Nezara smaragdula (Fabr.) Amyot and Serville, 1843, op. cit. (Hist. nat.), 143.
Nezara approximata Reiche and Farimaire, 1849, Voy cn Abyssin., Hemipt., 3 443.
Pentatoma plicaticollis Lucas, 1849, Hist. nat. des. Anim. artic., 3: 87; pl. 3, f. 9.
Rhaphigaster subsericeus (Westwood) Dallas, 1851, List Hem. Ins. Brit. Mus., pt. 1: 275.
Rhaphigaster orbus Stål, 1853, öfv. Kongl. sv. Vet. Akad. Förhandl., 10: 221.
Nezara viridula (Linn.) Stål, 1865, Hemiptera Africana, 1: 193–194. Distant, 1880, Biol. Centr-Amer., Rhynch., 1: 78 (synonymy). Kirkaldy, 1909, Cat. Hem. (Het.), 1. 117, 381 (synonymy, dist.). Paishley, 1915, Psyche, 5 (5): 107 (distinguished from related spp.). Froggatt, 1916, Agr. Gaz. N. S. W., 27 (9): 649–650, 1 pl. (life-hist Australian record). Jones, 1918, U.S. Dept. Agr. Bull., 689: 1–27, f. 1–14 (life-hist and biol.). Myers, 1926, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 56: 488, 498–499 (points out the probable identity of Walker's specimens (1867) with Zangis amyoti (White)). Tillyard, 1926, Ins. Aust. N.Z., 149; 41, f. A20. Myers and China, 1928, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (10) 1: 384 (Walker's specimens in Brit. Mus. examined and shown to be all Zangis amyoti (White); pointed out that there is no evidence N. viridula (Linn.) occurred in N.Z. up to time of writing). Miller, 1931. Dept Agr. Straits Settl. & Fed. Malay States Sci Ser, no. 5 38–53, f. 34–42 (host-plants, 1-hist., refs to lit.) Malouf, 1933, Bull. Soc. ent. Egypte, 17: 96–119, 7 pls., 1 f. (internal anatomy). Zeck, 1933, Agr. Gaz. N.S.W., 44: 591–594; 675–682 (life-hist., etc.) Freeman, 1940, Trans R ent. Soc. Lond. 90 (12): 351, 353, 354, 356, 372, 357–360, f. 1, 8, 13, 21, 22 (redescription of sp and vars, localities; synonymy) Gellatley, 1949, Agr. Gaz. N.S.W, 60 (9): 458 (control by sprays). Ent. branch, Dept. Agr, N. S. W. 1949. op. cit. 60 (2): 96–97 (life-hist; control). Cumber, 1949, N. Z. Journ. Agr, 79 (6): 563–564, figs. (record of occurrence in N. Z., life-hist., feeding, parasites, localities). 1951, N.Z. Journ Sci Tech., 32B (5): 30–37 (biol. of sp. and parasite). Everett, 1950, N. Z. Journ Agr., 80 (2): 145–146 (spread in N.Z.) Chadwick, in MS., submitted to Roy. Zool. Soc. N. S. W. (history of distribution in Australia; differences from other Aust Pentatomids)
Nezara prasina Mulsant and Rey; 1866. Hist. nat. des. Punaiscs de Fr., 1 295.
Pentatoma vicaria Walker. 1867, Cat. Spec. Het. Hem. Coll. Brit. Mus., pt. 2: 303.
Nezara viridis Scott, 1874. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (4) 14. 290.
Genus Dictyotus Dallas
Dictyotus Dallas, 1851, List Hem. Ins. Brit. Mus., pt. 1: 139.
Stål, 1867, öfv. Kongl. Vetens Akad. Forhandl., 24, 505.
Genotype: Dictyotus affinis Dallas, 1851 = Pentatoma roei Westwood, 1837
Dictyotus caenosus (Westwood)
Pentatoma caenosa Westwood, 1837, Cat. Hem. Coll. Hope, 1: 42.
Pentatoma vilis Walker, 1867, Cat. Spec. Het. Hem. Coll. Brit. Mus., pt. 2: 309. Hutton, 1874, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 6: 170. Buch. White, 1878, Ent. mon. Mag., 14: 276.
Pentatoma tibialis Walker, 1867, loc. cit.
Dictyotus polysticticus A. White in Dallas, 1851, op cit., 141 (-ica). Walker, 1867, op. cit., pt. 1. 180. Butler, 1874, Voy. Erebus and Terror, Zool., pt. 2, Ins.: 26; pl. 7, f. 5. Hutton, 1874, Trans. N.Z. Inst, 6: 170; 1898, op. cit., 30: 170.
Dictyotus vilis (Walker) Hutton, 1904, Index Faun. Nov. Zeal., 221.
Dictyotus caenosus (Westwood) Van Duzee, 1905, Bull. Amer. Mus., 21: 201. Kirkaldy, 1909, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 41: 24; 1909, Cat. Hem. (Het.), 1: 43. Myers, 1922, N.Z. Journ. Sci. Tech., 5 (1): 3; 1926, Trans N.Z. Inst, 56: 457, 462, 489, 499–501; pl. 84, f. 3; pl. 85, f. 4; text-f. 18–21 (life-hist., bionomics, distr.). Tillyard, 1926, Ins. Aust. N.Z., 148. Myers and China, 1928, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (10) 1. 378.
Genus Hypsithocus Bergroth
Hypsithocus Bergroth, 1927, Trans N. Z. Inst, 57: 671.
Genotype: Hypsithocus hudsonae Bergroth
Hypsithocus hudsonae Bergroth
Hypsithocus hudsonae Bergroth, 1927, Trans. N. Z. Inst., 57: 672–673 (Hynsithocus, in error.) Myers and China, 1928, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (10) 1: 378.
Genus Cuspicona Dallas
Cuspicona Dallas, 1851, List Hem. Ins. Brit. Mus., pt. 1: 296.
Stål, 1867, öfv. Kongl. sv. Vet. Akad. Forhandl. 24: 521, 1870. op. cit., 28: 637 (Cuspicora, in error); 1876. Svensk. Vet. Handl, 14 (4): 102.
Genotype: Rhynchocoris thoracica Westwood, 1837
Cuspicona simplex Walker:
Cuspicona simplex Walker, 1867, Cat. Spec Het. Hem. Coll. Brit Mus, pt. 2: 388. Tryon, 1889, Rep. on Ins. Fungus Pests, no. 1: 185: Froggatt. 1902, Agr. Gaz. N.S.W., 12 (12): 1596; pl. 5, f. 8 (host-plants, damage), 1907, Austr. Ins.: 329. pl. 31, f. 8. Kirkaldy, 1909, Cat. Hem. (Het.), 1: 142, 381 (synon; distr.). Sloan, 1941, Queensl. Agr. Journ., 56: 277–294. Spiller and Turbott, 1944, Rec Auck. Inst. Mus., 3 (1): 79–80 (first N. Z. record host-plants).
?Cuspicona virescens Tryon, 1889, op. cit, 189 [Kirkaldy (1909) queries identity with C. virescens Dallas, 1851].
Genus Antestia Stål
Antestia Stål, 1864, Hemiptera Africana, 1: 200, 82: 1867. Öfvers. Vetensk Akad. Forhandl, 24: 514; 1876, Svensk. Vet. Handl, 14 (4): 95.
Genotype. Pentatoma maculata Dallas, 1851 = Antestia lymphata Kirkaldy, 1909 (new name)
Antestia orbona Kirkaldy
Pentatoma pallipes Dallas, 1851, List Hem. Ins. Brit. Mus.; 1: 239 (not of Westwood, 1837).
Antestia orbona Kirkaldy, 1909, Cat. Hem. (Het.), 1: 130. new name for P. pallipes Dallas, preoccupied.
(Material, collected near Hastings in March, 1950, and determined by Mr. A. Musgrave, of the Australian Museum, Sydney, was kindly supplied by Dr. W.
Cottier, of the Plant Diseases Division, D.S.I.R., Auckland, who is preparing a detailed record of the species.)
Bergroth, E., 1927 Hemiptera Heteroptera from New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, pp. 671–685.
Kirkaldy, G. W., 1909a. A List of the Hemiptera (excluding Sternorrhyncha) of the Maorian Subregion, with Notes on a few of the Species. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 41, pp. 22–29.
Kirkaldy, G. W., 1909b Catalogue of the Hemiptera (Heteroptera), Berlin, F. L. Dames.
Mayr, E., 1942. Systematics and the Origin of Species, New York, Columbia Univ. Press
Myers, J. G., and China, W. E., 1928. A list of New Zealand Heteroptera with the description of a remarkable green Aradid representing a New Genus. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10), vol. 1, pp. 377–394.
Pendergrast, J. G., 1950 The genus Rhopalimorpha Dallas (Hemiptera-Heteroptera) with a Description of a New Species Rec. Auck. Inst. Mus., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 31–34.
Pendergrast, J. G., 1952. Studies on the Biology of Pentatomid Bugs of the Genus Rhopalimorpha Dallas (Heteroptera). Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z, vol. 80, pt. 2, pp. 143–153.
Woodward, T. E., 1950. A New Species of Cermatulus Dallas from the Three Kings Islands, New Zealand (Heteroptera; Pentatomidae). Rec. Auck. Inst. Mus., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 24–30.