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Volume 80, 1952
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New Zealand Hepaticae (Liverworts)—VII
A Review of the New Zealand Species of the Genus Lophocolea With Notes on Chiloscyphus

[Read before the Hawke's Bay Branch, October 3, 1951, received by Editor, November 26, 1951]


Introductory remarks on the variableness of the species; key to 31 species; descriptions of same, including 2 Tasmanian species recently detected in New Zealand, L. amplectens and L. paucistipula, and 2 new species described in Latin, L. innovata Hodgson sp. nov. and L. fiordlandiae Hodgson sp nov., and one new variety, L. helmsiana var subparallela Hodgson var. nov, 2 new combinations, L. stronglyophylla (Tayl.) Hodg. comb. nov., and L. turgescens (Tayl.) Hodg. comb. nov.; 12 species of Stephani's definitely reduced to synonymy, also 7 of Herzog's, 1 of Schiffner's and 1 of Pearson's. Notes on Chiloscyphus and Heteroscyphus, with correction of errors in a former paper on Chiloscyphus, and new localities of rare species Thirty-five figures Types of new species in Herbaria of E. A. Hodgson and K. W. Allison.

It is with much trepidation that one undertakes the revision of a genus such as Lophocolea, and one encounters expected difficulties almost from the outset. In New Zealand the species are so variable and in such a fluid state, and the interrelations within certain groups are so manifest, that with the Old World conception of a species being what it is, it is no wonder that the number of described species has reached at least 50, not including those already synonymized by Mitten. With the number reduced to 31, as in this paper. it is hoped that the position is now less confused.

One notices early on a seeming tendency in the leaf-apices for the teeth to disappear. Even in L. bidentata, with 2 long, attenuated laciniae, there are instances in which one or even both of these have become obsolete. The matter of disappearing stipules is another difficulty, which appears to bring one subsection of the genus close to Jungermannia One wonders, too, why in some instances small cells are mixed with larger ones. as though the plant might be in process of changing from one to the other, and there seems to be no fixed rule for uniformity of cell-size in one particular species As in Plagiochila, there are numerous types of cells throughout the genus.

The originals of 9 of the species were from Auckland or Campbell Islands, collected by Sir Joseph Hooker, and to recognize the same species from the mainland, one has to allow for poor development and for possible geographical differences. The same may be said of species whose originals were from Tasmania or Australia.

Though widely distributed throughout the world, there are comparatively few species in the Northern Hemisphere, whereas in South America, Australia and New Zealand they are very numerous. L. Rodway describes 44 Tasmanian ones, but admits that they might not all be good species.

Lophocolea differs from the related genera Chiloscyphus and Mylia (Harpanthaceae) in its triangular-prismatic perianths, but this mark of distinction is sometimes hard to recognize.

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Stephani has divided the genus into 3 sections, Integrifoliae, Bidentes and Heterophyllae, with numerous subdivisions in each section, with which I have not bothered.

Genus Lophocolea Dumort

Jungermannia Sect. Lophocolea Dumort., Syll. Jung., 1831.

Lophocolea Dumort., Rec. d'Obs., 1835.

Plants minute to large, mostly on earth, but sometimes on rotting logs or rock, whitish, yellowish, or olive-green; aquatic forms dark-green to blackish, sometimes brownish, mostly soft and flaccid. Stems subsimple or irregularly branched, branches arising from the ventral angle of the leaves, mostly creeping, occasionally suberect. Leaves succubous, inserted nearly longitudinally in the majority of cases, ± decurrent antically, bifid or subtruncate or rounded, with margins occasionally dentate. Stipules commonly present, usually bifid with a lateral tooth, connate on one side with the leaf, but less often free, or connate on both sides. Cells very diverse in type. Inflorescence terminal on the main stem or branches, subfloral innovations sometimes present. Involucral leaves resembling those of the stem, but larger and often more dentate. Perianth normally oblong, trigono-prismatic, the keels sometimes winged or toothed, mouth not narrowed, trilobate, with the lobes usually toothed. Calyptra free. Capsule longly pedicelled. Androecia intercalary on the stem or long branches, but not unknown on short spicate branches. Perigonial bracts with an inflated antical lobule, antheridia single.

Key to Species

1. Leaves with apices both entire and bidentate, the majority entire in type and L. meridionalis, the majority bidentate (on fertile stems) in L. grandistipula, etc.; stipules large, inclined away from the stem with upper portion of segments curved inwards, sometimes gemmiferous, pale-green to whitish; Heterophyllae L. novae zelandiae
Leaves with apices either entire or bidentate (broadly speaking) 2
2. Leaf apices entire; Integrifoliae 3
Leaf apices bidentate (generally speaking), sometimes tridentate in L. innovata; Bidentes 13
3. Stipules present 4
Stipules obsolete or nearly so, except in the reproduction portion of the stem 11
4. Plants robust, leaves dark green to blackish, lingulate, subaquatic, rarely fruiting 1L. planiuscula
Plants very small to robust, leaves mostly pale-green or brownish ovate, oblong or rotund 5
5. Stipules large and broad with a well-developed lateral segment, connate on one side with leaf, dorsal margin longly decurrent 6
Stipules with lateral segment small or absent 7
6. Leaves with dorsal margin and apex usually recurved, often strongly scented, common L. heterophylloides
Leaves with a very broad base, margin may be flatter, stipules usually very large and compound with 2 lateral segments on both sides L. dalliana
7. Stipules smaller, connate on both sides to leaf, one side perhaps more narrowly, leaves often secund, more than 1 mm. long mostly ovate L. australis
Stipules free, leaves less than 1 mm long except sometimes in L. notophylla 8
8. Small, leaves oblong-quadrate, pale-green or whitish, stems may be erect and tufted, stipules bifid to middle, segments long and narrow L. calcarea
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Mostly golden or dirty brown, leaves subglobose, stipules as broad as long or almost so, margins curved 9
9. Stems to 5 cm., leaf margins decurved forming convex leaves L. notophylla
Stems to 1 cm, leaf-margins not decurved 10
10. Plants small to very small, leaves almost circular, cells large, perianth inflated L. stronglyophylla
Plants small, creeping, leaves concave, cells large with nodulose trigones, perianth mouth 3-lobed L. turgescens
11. Plants small, leaves irregular-oblong, cell lumina rounded, distinct and clear, in rows, small at the apex, increasing in size towards the base F. fiordlandiae
Leaves subrotund 12
12. Plants small, leaves concave, less than 1 mm. long L. zotovn
Stems to 6 cm., leaves more than 1 mm. long, ± aquatic, ventral margin of leaf ampliate L. paucistipula
13. Margins of leaves normally dentate or ciliate, leaves papillose in varying degrees 14
Margins of leaves entire except for an occasional ventral tooth, papillae absent 18
14. Slender, leaves broadly connate with the stipules, papillae mostly absent L. aculeata
Leaves with stipules free on one side (mostly quite free or rarely connate on both sides in L. leucophylla) papillae plentiful (except in L. variabilis) 15
15. Plants mostly creeping on rotting wood, small, leaves ovate, densely muricate, less than 1 mm. long, marginal teeth consisting of 2-celled papillae, stipules bifid L. muricata
Plants medium to robust, pale-yellow to whitish, leaves 1 mm. or more long, broadly ovate to ovate-triangular, stipules broad with 4 or more teeth or segments 16
16 Leaves subtriangular, very convex, stipules quadrate-rounded, usually strongly decurved, multi-toothed or spinose L. leucophylla
Leaves broadly ovate, dorsal margins sloping, apices decurved, stipules 4-fid 17
17. Margins spinulose to strongly toothed, papillae large and plentiful L. villosa
Leaf-apices variable, margins little toothed, papillae scarce L. variabilis
18. Leaves opposite, mostly crowded, apical leaf laciniae close together, stipules very broad (except in L. pallida), broadly connate with the leaves (except in L. spinifcra) 19
Leaves subalternate, apices not so narrow, stipules connate with leaves on one side only, but sometimes on both sides in L. helmsiana and L. biciliata 21
19 Leaves triangular-ovate, stipules with a shallow or lunate sinus and a lateral segment, sometimes monoicous L. pallida
Stipules very broad and reniform, leaves very densely crowded 20
20 Plants small, golden, leaf broadly triangular with bicuspidate apex, stipules with 3 or 4 teeth, all in one with the leaves L. fulva
Plants fairly robust, pale-green to whitish, leaves oblong-ovate with biciliate apices, stipules with 6 triangular spinose lobes L. spinifera
21. Leaves shiny, sometimes tri-lobed, lobes triangular, perianth widelv campanulate, appearing lateral by reason of innovations L. innovata
Leaves bidentate, perianth typical with 3 sides 22
22. Sinus reaching ⅓–½ the length of leaf excluding hair-points of apical laciniae 23
Depth of sinus less than ⅓ the length of the leaf, except perhaps in L. decurrens 24
23. Catenulate, pale-brown, leaves ascending, concave, broadly ovate, somewhat rigid, lobes broadly lanceolate, sinus obtuse L. amplectens
Leaves pale or hyaline, may be remote, usually convex with margins decurved, oblong-ovate to rectangular, sinus sometimes angular, laciniae with long spiniform hair-points L. bispinosa
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24. Leaves broadly ovate, rounded to the apex, stipules 4-fid 25
Leaves shaped otherwise except sometimes in L. biciliata 26
25. Leaves ca 1 mm. long, margins plane, cells uneven (in type) L. subporosa
Leaves more than 1 mm. long, dorsal margin recurved, apices irregular, but mainly with 2 short teeth L. insularis
26. Small to medium, leaves oblong-ovate to oblong-triangular, stipules 2-fid, or 2-fid with a lateral tooth 27
Robust. leaves and stipules shaped otherwise 28
27. Usually creeping on wood, cells large and mostly clear L. lenta
Basal dorsal margin bending at an obtuse angle and longly decurrent otherwise similar to lenta L. decurrens
Often in tree-fern bases, leaves oblong-triangular, not flat, opposita (in type), but sometimes sub-alternate, somewhat shiny. cells with contents adhering to the walls L. helmsiana
28 Leaves widely variable in shape even on the same plant, but mainly broad to subcircular, apex biciliate or shortly bidentate or even entire, glossy greenish-brown (when dry), large cells, stipules comparatively small, segments lanceolate with a lateral tooth, perianth large and lamellate, rarely smooth L. biciliata
Plants whitish to subhyaline, dorsal margin long and sloping, laciniae setaceous, stipules large 29
29 Leaves rhomboid with basal ventral margin inflexed, cells small, stipules large and irregularly lacerate (in type), perianth not known L. inflexifolia
Monoicous, leaves obliquely ovate-triangular, stipules 4-fid, middle segments long and spinitorm, perianth without lamellae, often appearing lateral L. bidentata

Lophocolea novae zeelandiae (L. et L.), Syn. Hep.

Jungermannia novae zeelandiae L. et L. in Lehm., Pug. p. 33, 1834.

Lophocolea novae zeelandiae, Syn. Hep., p. 168. 1844; Fl. Nov. Zel, ii. 135, 1855; Handb. N. Z. Fl., ii, 510. 1867, Steph, Spec. Hep., iii, 112, 1909; Rod, Papers & Proc Roy Soc. Tas, 42, 1916.

L. grandistipula Schiff in Die Forschungrcise S. M. S. “Gazelle”, iv Theile. Bot. p. 12, 1889; Spec Hep iii, 112, 1909.

L. kirkii Steph., Spec. Hep, iii, 104. 1909.

L. rotundistipula Steph, Spec. Hep, iii, 112, 1909.

L. meridionalis Steph, Spec. Hep, iii, 113, 1909.

Mitten also reduces the following syonyms of Taylor's to this species. Loph. qrisea (Tayl.), Syn. Hep., p. 169; Loph. inalis (Tayl.), ibid, p. 701; Loph. sabuletorum (Hook.), ibid., p. 697; Jung. subintegra Tayl, Lond. Journ of Bot., 1844, p. 477, Lejeunea subintegra (Tayl), Syn. Hep, 376; Loph. subviridis (Tayl.), ibid, p. 699.

Plants small to fairly large, very variable, pale to whitish, sterile stems often, and fertile ones occasionally, with gemmiferous leaves. Stems 1–3 cm., little branched, fertile stems shortened, sometimes with a subfloral innovation, stolons sometimes present bearing curious, remote little leaves with uneven margins and apices. Leaves of fertile stems oblong-ovate to broadly ovate from a broad base, obliquely spreading, apices variable, entire, retuse or more usually bidentate, with lobes short or traingular-acuminate or truncate, or occasionally with a third tooth, convex with margins strongly recurved; leaves of sterile stems very variable, ligulate, rounded or retuse, to broadly ovate, margins often uneven to erose, apices also irregular with protruding cells, apical teeth occasionally even branched. Cells hyaline, as small as 12μ, at the apex of large leaves, usually larger to 30μ on narrower leaves, trigones small. Stipules variable, usually very large on sterile stems, ovate, with apices incurved towards the stems, bifid to ½, segments broad with a small lateral tooth, and apices triangular or triangularacuminate, on fertile stems increasing in size upwards, with the sinus becoming

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smaller. Invol. leaves much larger than the cauline, innermost the largest, broadly ovate, convex, shortly bifid, lobes triangular to lanceolate, sometimes crisped. Invol. stipule very large, similar to the leaves, apices often reflexed to cucullate. Perianth large, keels slightly winged, deeply 3-lobed, mouth toothed, sometimes quite jagged. ♂ bracts tightly packed, with basal parts often obscure.

This is a very variable species, but its whitish colour, sometimes gemmiferous leaves, convex, obliquely spreading, together with the generally large, obliquely spreading stipules are characteristic. “An extremely variable plant common in all the Antarctic Islands”, is a note in the Flora Novae Zelandiae.

On earth, clay, sand, silt, etc., from the following places:

North Island: Auckland, 6118 Bot. Div. Herb., T. Kirk; Waipoua H1615, Rotorua District, H3570, H3344, 3510, 3649, Mt. Messenger, 4576, H3522, K. W. A; base of Coromandel Pen., H5222, H5221, H5223, J. M. Mitchell; Mt. Ruapehu, 3657, 4310, Wairoa 5222, G. O. K. S.; Kaimanawas 4,500 ft., 1102, 1105, 1014, Rangitikei V., 1012, Mt. Egmont, 3,000 ft., 3648, 1338, 6,000 ft., 1246, Pohangina V, 2928, 4376, S. Ruahines, 803, A. P. D; N. Ruahines, 4133, Oroua V., 2984, H. M. H.; Warpawa R. (Ruahines) 4459, 4410, 4166, A. L. H.; Oroua V. near Apiti, Ohau-iti R., 7095, V.D. Z.; Waikarcmoana, 2042, N. J. Butler; 4413, 3659, 4292, E. A. H.; 4340, 2981, Mrs H. jeffreys, Wairaumoana, 191, Mrs. G. O. K. Sainsbury; Waikare-lti, on wood, 631, Mt. Maunganui, 4568, 14 specimens from hills near Wairoa, E. A. H.; descent of Mt Te Wana, 4465, Maungapohatu, 4312, B. Teague, Toa Toa (B of Plenty), 3650, Mrs. Haskell; near Tinui (Wairarapa), R. W. Hewitt, Wilton's Bush (Wellington), 3658, 4464, 3656, R. Mason; Kaimanawas, 5,000 ft, 5963, 5971 (very large), A. P. D. Dec 1950.

South Island: Wakari (Dunedin), 3498, Field Club, per E. Campbell; Dunedin and surrounding district, H1392, H1382, H1388, H1379, H1371, H1383, K. W. A.; Maungatua, 3,000 ft., 5280, W. M.; Abbott's Hill, 24749 Bot. Div. Herb., L. Manapouri to Willmott Pass, H838, H837 approaching Loph. okaritana, G. Simpson, Caswell Sound, 5283, 5277, V. D. Z. Five-Finger Peninsula, Fiordland Excursion 4375, H. H. Allan.

A fragment of the type from Dusky Sound, coll. Menzies, is in the Hooker Herbarium at Kew.

Lophocolea planiuscula (Tayl.), Syn. Hep.

Jungermannia planiuscula Tayl., Lond. Journ of Bot, 1844, p. 382; Fl. Ant, ii, 156, 1847.

Lophocolea planiuscula, Syn. Hep., p. 165 1844; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 510, 1867; Spec. Hep., iii, 87, 1909; Rod, Papers & Proc Roy Soc. Tas, 1916.

Chiloscyphus lingulatus Col, Trans. N. Z. Inst., 21 61, 1888.

Lophocolea unduliflora Gottsche ms, Steph., Spec Hep, vi. 298. 1924.

Plants in sprawly patches on earth, rock or logs in wet or submerged places, dark green to almost black, sometimes brownish, fertile stems uncommon, not so flaccid Stems procumbent, 3–5 cm, dark, irregularly branched. Leaves dark green, crumpled when dry, a little imbricate, plano-distichous, to 1.5 mm. long, ca 1 2 mm wide, lingulate. margins fairly parallel, dorsal a little decurrent. Apices rounded, sometimes retuse Cells ca 20μ at apex increasing to ca. 40μ at base, ± opaque. Stipules comparatively small, oblong-ovate, bifid to ⅓–½, segments lanceolate, acuminate, sometimes with a lateral tooth, often reflexed Invol leaves obovate-oblong sometimes undulate, invol. stipule large, oval-rotund,

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shortly bifid. Perianth fairly large, slightly winged, 3-lobed, mouth crenateundulate. ♂ bracts spreading, entire.

Stephani describes a species named “Chiloscyphus ligulatus” Col.; the name is “C. lingulatus” and the plant is Lophocolea planiuscula. Type in Colenso's collection, Dominion Museum.

North Island: Waitangi Valley, 4173, V. W. L.; Erua (near National Park), H193, Coromandel H106, L. B. M.; near Atiamuri, H470, H3706, K. W. A.; Mt. Maungapohatu, fruiting, 4449, G. O. K. S.; 8 specimens Wairoa County, including Mahia, 4171, and Morere Bush, 4285, both fruiting, E. A. H.; Waikaremoana, 12, E. A. H., 4315, Mrs. H. Jeffreys, 3446, A. L. H.; Taupo Plain, 4170, E. S. West; Otupae (N.W. Ruahines), 2750, 2751, E. A. H.; 616, 4232, A. L. H., 3679, 3667, H. M. and A. P. D.; Dannevirke, a1698, also 2188 Herb. Col.; Ruamahanga V., 4231, Mt. Bannister, 4836, Mt. Hector, 4,200 ft., 7681, Wairongomai, 1181, V. D. Z.; Manawatu G., 561, Kapakapanui, 892, A. P. D.; W. of Silverstream, 2887, H. M. H.; Eastbourne, 2893, N. J. Butler; Wilton's Bush (Wellington), R. Mason.

South Island: Mt. Arthur, 246, G. O. K. S.; Red Hills (Marlborough), 4171, J. H. McMahon; near Cass, University Hut (Nth. Canterbury), 4159, H. M. H.; near Berwick, H854, near Outram, H1363 in part, K. W. A.; Glory Harbour (Stewart Is.), 310, W. M.; Auckland Is., “Cape Expedition” 1944–1945.

Type from Auckland Island, coll. Hooker.

Lophocolea heterophylloides, Syn. Hep.

L. heterophylloides Nees in Syn. Hep, p. 156, 1844; Fl. Not Zcl, ii, 135, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 509, 1867; Spec. Hep., iii, 110, 1909; Rod., Papers & Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., 1916; Pears., Univ. Cal. Pub. Bot., x, 1923.

Jung. canaliculata Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot., p. 563, 1844.

Chiloscyphus canaliculatus, Syn. Hep, 710, 1847.

Lophocolea canaliculata, Spec. Hep., iii, p. 86, 1909.

Plants medium, dioicous, common, variable, in varying shades of green often drying to whitish, fragrant, forming dense patches on wood, earth, stones or rocks. Stems 1–3 cm., creeping, with numerous rhizoids, branched, branches sometimes short, sub-erect with a tufted effect. Leaves imbricate, sub-alternate to 1.3 mm., ovate to rounded-ovate, apices decurved, obtuse or round, lower leaves usually retuse to shortly bi-lobed, lobes triangular, ventral margin often a little more arched than the dorsal. Stipules connate on one side with leaf, bifid, segments lanceolate-acuminate, sometimes hamate, each with a smaller lateral segment. Cells ca. 20μ with rounded lumen or hexagonal with minute trigones, walls sometimes thickened Invol. leaves mostly entire, uppermost stipule only shortly bifid, with a lateral tooth. Perianth large, firm, triquetrous, mouth 3-lobed, lobes variously irregularly laciniate-toothed. ♂ plants fairly common, bracts terminal in few to many pairs.

Var. crassiflora Pearson is described as having a perianth 3–4 cells thick near the base, and large 6–7 toothed stipules.

It is my considered conclusion that Mitten was right in reducing Lophocolea canaliculata to this species. The thin, narrow perianth drawn by Stephani (who reinstated the species) is on a small stem, but a typical broader one is also present in the packet.

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The sometimes convex, dorsal leaf margins, sloping to a decurved, usually entire leaf-apex is the distinguishing characteristic of this species.

Very common in the North Island, and probably in the South, but only a small proportion of the specimens have perianths.

Also from the following islands: Rangitoto, 4869, 4871, L. H. Millener; on ground and stones by storm petrel's burrow, Noises Is., Hauraki G., B. Molesworth; Gt. Barrier, 3437, R. Medway; on earth at edge of bush, Waiheke Is., 5059, E. A. H.; Stewart Is., on sandy coastal banks, 586, forest trees, 503, on log by old mill, 653, W. M.; Campbell Is., “Cape Expedition”; on Poa litorosa tussocks, 2565, G. E. Du Rietz.

Reported by Stephani to be common in New Zealand, Australia and Tasmania. Type from Swan R., W. Australia, leg. Drummond.

Lophocolea dalliana Steph.

Lophocolea dalliana Steph., Spec. Hep., iii, 85, 1909.

Plants fairly large, pale, soft. Stems to 3 cm., branched a little, or with several branches from the base, suggesting a somewhat tufted habit. Leaves alternate, ovate to broadly ovate, a little imbricate, near 2 mm. long, base ca. 2 mm. broad or a little more, margins entire, dorsal long and sloping, a little decurrent, ventral somewhat arched, apex broadly obtuse; cells 20–25μ at the leaf-apex, basal a little bigger, trigones none. Stipules large, bifid, segments lanceolate, a little diverging, setaceous, connate on one side with leaf, often with 2 smaller lateral segments or spines.

The soft, flaccid leaves with long dorsal margins characterize this species. There are connecting forms between it and L. heterophylloides, of which it might be a form, induced by moist conditions. The Stewart Island plant has some leaves with apices very shortly bidentate, as in L. insularis.

North Island: Near Aniwaniwa Falls, L. Waikaremoana, 229, Mrs. H. Jeffreys; swampy ground near Atiamuri, H3435, K. W. A.; Pohangina Valley, 318, A. P. D.

Stewart Island In manuka, Rakiahua Flats, 727, W. M.

The type was collected by Dall, locality not stated.

Lophocolea australis (Tayl.) Mitt.

Jungermannia australis Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot., 1844, p. 383; Fl. Ant., ii, 156, 1847.

Chiloscyphus australis, Syn Hep., p. 189, 709, 1844–1847.

Lophocolea australis Mitt., Fl. Tas., ii, 226, 1860; Hook. f., Handb. N.Z. Fl. ii, 510, 1867; Steph, Spec. Hep., iii, 85, 1909.

Lophocolea multipenna in part (Tayl.), Syn. Hep, 699, 1847.

Leioscyphus australis Steph., Spec. Hep, iii, 262. 1909.

Plants dioicous, in depressed cushions or creeping through other bryophytes, variable, usually dark brown. Stems to 6 cm, but usually shorter, simple or sparingly branched, flexuous, sometimes with repeated innovations, rhizoids numerous in tufts. Leaves subopposite, imbricate, ovate, usually secund, ventral margin arched, dorsal straighter, apices variable, obtuse or shortly 2–3 toothed, 1.1 mm. long, 1.1 mm. wide at base; cells 30–40μ, large and smaller intermixed, trigones large, acute Stipules bifid to ½ or more, segments with a lateral tooth, connate with leaf on one side and narrowly on the other. Invol. leaves in 3 pairs increasing in size upwards, appressed, entire, the inmost subrotund Invol. stipule bifid to ½, segments with one lateral tooth, parallel or diverging Perianth

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variable, normally large, 2 ½-3 mm., flat with the third side narrow and folded in, sometimes cylindrical and chiloscyphold, occasionally lamellate, obscurely 3-lobed, mouth entire or toothed.

The variability of the perianth, perhaps due to the great age of the species, is misleading as to genus, but in the present stage at any rate, it is nearest to Lophocolea. The brown, ovate, generally entire leaves with large cells and trigones will help in its identification. It differs from Chiloscyphus beckettianus (syn. Loph. piliflora St.) in the large cells, and in the stipules being bifid and not conspicuously connate with the leaves.

Loph. multipenna (Tayl.) Syn. Hep. This type now consists of two species, Loph. pallida Mitt. and Loph. australis The Handbook gives the mixture as Leioscyphus chiloscyphoideus and Loph. pallida. Mylia chiloscyphoideus (Ldbg.) Herz. is a South American plant, first described as a Plagiochila. Perhaps the Handbook is not entirely wrong in referring “Lophocolea multipenna” to Leioscyphus chiloscyphoideus. Perhaps our New Zealand and subantarctic plants with their obscurely lophocoloid perianths are either ancrent or advanced forms of this species. We certainly have one specimen (Allison 395) with a flat, compressed, bilipped perianth, which differs in no other visible respect from Loph. australis.

It might be mentioned here that for Lophocolea multipenna Stephani describes the second plant in the mixture, Mitten's Lophocolea pallida.

North Island: Te Matawar. 6686, 6668, V. D. Z.; Kapakapanui, 3,500 ft. (Tararuas), 876, beech forest, Kaimanawas, 3,000 ft, 978 in part, A. P. D.

South Island: Arthur's Pass, 3411, Milford Track, 1625, F. McDonald; Avalanche Peak, 29, W. M.; amongst Dicranoloma menziesii cushion, Hukawai (Reefton), H702, M. J. Conway; ground amongst ferns (perianth chiloscyphoid), Hari Hari (Westland), H4780, J. B. Langridge; near Fox Glacrer, 3410, Mrs. Knight; Silver Peak (Dunedin), 24691, Doubtful Sound, 3408, 3413, head of L. Manapouri, H897, 36668, G. Simpson; on rock, Mt. Watkm, 348, G. Simpson and J. S. Thomson.

Stewart Island: On ground in Miss Baker's Bush, 447, composite bryophyte cushion, Pryse's Peak, 464, logs and trees, Port Pegasus (perianth chiloscyphoid), 2789, W. M.

Campbell Island 3 gatherings. J. H. Sorensen; Auckland Island 3 gatherings, 62, 64, 74, from Riksmuseum Herb., G. E. Du Rietz; Antipodes Is. 9 Riksmuseum Herb., G. E. Du Rietz.

The types were from Auckland and Campbell Islands, collected by Hooker. Pieces of these were formerly sent by Dr. Marshall Howe, from the Mitten Herbarium.

Lophocolea calcarea Steph.

Loph. calcarea Steph, Spec Hep., iii, 109, 1909.

Loph wairoae Herz., Trans Roy. Soc. N.Z., 65, 354, 1935.

Loph novae zelandiae (Nees), Syn. Hep., Hodgson, Svensk Bot. Tids., Bd. 42, H.3, 1948.

Plants small, lowly tufted, usually pale to whitish, brownish when dried, mostly sterile, ♂ plants perhaps more common that the ♀. Stems ½-1 cm., filiform, sub-simple, prostrate or decumbent. Leaves alternate, explanate or conniving, oblong-elliptic, to 0 5 mm. long, apices very variable, entire, obtuse, or

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retuse, with a shallow sinus to shortly bifid, lobes rounded or obtuse. Stipules free, bifid to the middle, segments narrow, with or without a lateral tooth, apices incurved. Cells 20–30μ, pellucid, trigones small or absent. Invol. leaves larger than the cauline, margins a little undulate, entire or shortly bi-lobed with lobes obtuse, stipule shortly bifid, lobes a little converging, acute. Perianth large for the size of the plant ca. 2 mm., acutely triquetrous, ¼-⅓ tri-lobed, lobes a little undulate, sub-crenate to variously toothed ♂ bracts occupying most of the stem, crowded, entire, reflexed.

Plants often have stolon-like branches on which all the leaves are small and bifid.

There is a fairly common species of Chiloscyphus very similar to Lophocolea calcarea, but a little larger and darker, with leaf-apices more consistently rounded. Fruiting specimens of this plant were discovered by K. W. Allison, Aug. 1947, H1405, and L. J. Jack, Oct. 1950, H5410, at Horse Range, N. of Palmerston (Otago), thus conclusively separating it from L. calcarea.

Occasionally this plant comes very close indeed to Loph. perpusilla (Tayl.).

There is only one species of this little Lophocolea, and Herzog's L. wairoae cannot be maintained.

The contents of Stephani's packet received from Geneva are fragmentary, but consist of two species. the little one which is described, and a much larger one, resembling a form of L. biciliata. His drawing appears to represent the leaves of the larger one with the stipules of the smaller one.

North Island: In damp spot by Maungapoike Road, 49, I. Powdrell; on rock, Maungapoike Falls, 4447, bank in bush, Maungapoike Falls, 5300, clay bank near sea, Rotonui, 5302, on rock under manuka by Mohaka R., 4232, 4397, all Wairoa County, hillside by Heri-Heri Stream (Havelock North), 183, 5301, side of creek, Kahuranaki (Central Hawke's Bay), 179, Esplanade Bush (Palmerston North), all coll E. A. H.; damp roadside bank, in shade, Mt. Messenger, 5303, shady bank, south of Raetihi, 2969, K. W. A.; Tinui (Wairarapa), 2979, 1563, R. W. Hewitt; South Ruahines, 806, 817, Manawatu Gorge, 571, Akatarawa V., 937, A. P. D.; Mangarewa Gorge (between Rotorua and Tauranga), H4923, L. J. Matthews, on wet papa in shade, Whakamahia, 4624, G. O. K. S.; damp banks, Ruakituri river-bed, 2965, 4195, Whakamahia, at foot of tree, 5302, type of L. wairoae, E. A. H.

Other localities. Nugget Point, 24708, G. Simpson; Ocean Beach, 363, sandcovered rocks, Port Pegasus, 550, both Stewart Is., W. M.; The Snares, 57241, F. Newcombe; Antipodes Island, 814, L. Cockayne, wrongly identified as L. pallida Mitt; on ground, in tussock country, Antipodes, 2587, packet 9, G. Einar Du Rietz; Campbell Is., 1555, 1388, R. L. Oliver; bush above Musgrave Peninsula, Auckland Is, 4385, R. L. Oliver (“Cape Expedition”).

The type was collected by Colenso on limestone rocks, locality not stated.

Lophocolea notophylla (Tayl.) Hodgson.

Jungermannia notophylla Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot, 1844, p. 376; Fl Ant, ii, 1847.

Chiloscyphus notophyllus, Syn. Hep, p. 710; Spec. Hep., iii, 234, 1909.

Lophocolea okaritana Steph., Spec. Hep, iii, 85, 1909.

Lophocolea notophylla (Tayl.) Hodgson, Trans. Roy. Soc. N. Z., 78 499, 1950.

Plants pale, straw-coloured or dull green, pulvinate, aquatic and water-worn specimens hard to identify. Stems to 5 cm., mostly simple, but occasionally

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fasciculately branched, sometimes flaccid. Leaves imbricate to densely so, obliquely spreading, well rounded, to 1 mm. long, but often shorter, narrowed to the base, sides of leaf normally decurved, making the leaf very convex, entire. Stipules ovate, or rounded ovate, emarginate or slightly truncate with acute angles, often convex like the leaves, very variable in size, from ¼ to almost equalling the leaves, insertion arched. Cells small, rarely more than 20μ, trigones variable, minute to confluent, walls thickened in aquatic forms. Invol. leaves convex, longer than the cauline, upper margins undulate, apex shortly bifid. Stipules narrow ovate, shortly bidentate. Perianth long, strongly 3-keeled, narrowed to the mouth, mouth shortly 3-lobed, lobes variously toothed.

Normally this species is quite distinct with its pale colour, long simple stems, rounded, entire leaves decurved at the sides, and the ovate almost entire stipules. Although there is no specimen of Taylor's type in either the Hooker or Mitten Herbarium, with which to compare the mainland plant, Lophocolea okaritana St., I believe that they are the same specres, especially as Stephani himself identified one gathering of Kirk's from Okarito as Jung. notophylla. Lophocolea otiphylla (Tayl.) from Cape Horn, cannot be far removed from it.

North Island: Kaimanawas, 4,000 ft., 1109, A. P. D. (probably); Mt. Egmont, H3692, L. B. M. (stems short).

South Island: L. Roto-iti (Nelson), 33 in part, B. M. Kidson; on rock in watercourse with Andreaea, Otira, 45, W. M; with Distichophyllum, on earth in heavy bush, Franz Josef Glacier, H1369, L. M. Allison; head of L. Manapouri, H898, Mt. Maungatua, 24692, G. S.; Okarito, 4863, Bot. Div. Herb., T. Kirk, sub nomine Jung. notophylla, probably the type of Loph. okaritana St., Regina V., South Westland, 4,000 ft., B. Teague; Revolver Cove, 158, Haulashore Cove, 4390, Fiordland Excursion, Jan -Feb. 1946. per H. H. Allan; on rocks and banks, Stewart Island, 416, 512, 536, 542, 2616, 5336, W. M.

Judging by the drawing in Bastow's Plates of Tasmanian Hepaties, Loph. austrigena (Tayl.) Syn. Hep, of Tasmania, appears to be the same thing.

The type, sterile, was from Auckland Is., coll. Hooker.

Lophocolea stronglyophylla (Tayl.) comb. nov.

Junger manma stronglyophylla Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot.; 1844, p. 369; Fl Ant, ii, 146, 1847.

Alicularia stronglyophylla, Syn. Hep, p. 619. 1847.

Leioscyphus stronglyophylla, Handb N.Z. Fl, ii. 508, 1867; Spec Hep., iii, 220, 1909.

Plants minute to small in tufted or closely creeping mats, bright green when fresh, usually in a damp place (local specimens). Stems 0.5–1.5 cm., simple or branched, erect and tufted or procumbent Leaves 0.3–0.9 mm., loosely imbricate to imbricate, entire, subeircular often margined, erecto-patent sometimes secund, mostly coneave Stipules oblong-ovate, bifid, or shortly truncate with the corner angles produced. Cells variable, ca. 20–25μ, appearing large in such small leaves, pellucid or with contents round the walls, walls often thick, sometimes sinuous, trigones small or large. Invol leaves ovate, larger than the caulme, concave, stipules rectangular-oblong. bifid Perianths often with innovations below, cylindrical, sometimes inflated, mouth entire to crenate, 3-lobed, the dorsal ridge showing up plainly ♂ bracts crowded on the upper halves of stems, entire.

The usually small size, round leaves with typical cells and large trigones (as a rule), mark this species. Except for the stipules, sterile stems might be

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mistaken for Jungermannia inundata. Lophocolea zotovii differs in the minute cells and practically absent stipules, but there are plants which could be assigned to either species, which is not very satisfactory.

Mitten saw the perianth as 2-lipped, but it may have been pressed into that shape.

North Island: On rock in stream, with water trickling over it, Waipoua Forest, H679, shady gorge, H3369, on rock in shady creek, near Atiamuri, H388, on shady bare rock in gully, E. of Waiotapu V., 4301, on rocky bank, Kamgaroa Plains, 5556, damp bank on roadside, Mt. Messenger (Taranaki), 4382, K. W. A.; calcareous sandstone (or limestone) pillar, near Mt. Maungapohatu, H3412, G. O. K. S.; stream bank, Kaimanawa Range, 1043, 1066. A. P. D., on wet banks and side of drain, “Kiwi” (Wairoa), 4235, 4153, 2853, 4152, 3507, 4454, 3509, side of gorge. Otupae (N. W. Ruahmes), 3508, E. A. H.; Mt. Egmont, 4236, G. O. K. S. Tinui (Wairarapa), 1603, R. W. Hewitt; Northern Ruahines, 1559, H. M. H.

South Island: On earth, Port Lyttelton Hills, 6160, P. Sainsbury; in damp earth by scattered manuka, Signal Hill (Dunedin), H1412, K. W. A.; Campbell Island, J. H. Sorensen, “Cape Expedition”, 3406. Also from head of Hollyford R., 2,000 ft, among stones, Doubtful Sound area, W. M., Feb. 1951 (7620).

The type was from Auckland Is., coll. Hooker. Also on the Kew sheet is a form with very minute leaves from Campbell Is., also collected by Hooker, which was made a variety by Taylor.

Lophocolea turgescens (Tayl.) comb. nov.

Jungermannia turgescens Tayl, Lond. Journ. of Bot, 1844, p. 376; Syn. Hep., 671, 1847.

Leioscyphus turgescens, Handb. N. Z. Fl., ii, 508, 1867; Steph., Spec. Hep., 30, 1909.

Lophocolea crassiretis Herz., Trans. Roy. Soc. N. Z., 65, 354, 1935.

Plants closely creeping on bark, or compactly tufted on earth, golden-brown, shining, small. Stems to 1 cm., prostrate and intermingled or sub-erect, little branched. Leaves alternate, a little imbricate, sub-erect, concave, reniform, nearly twice as broad as long, ca. 0.7 mm. × 0.4 mm., when flattened, restricted at the dorsal base, forming a sinus. Cells ca 20μ, characteristic, with walls greatly thickened, forming large trigones, often confluent, lumina sub-stellate with contents. Stipules variable in shape. free, obovate to sub-quadrate, truncate with corners dentiform, or emarginate to shortly bifid. Invol. leaves larger, entire, stipule entire or crenate. Perianth cylindrical. angles quite obsolete, mouth 3-lobed, entire or a little crenate.

This species agrees in every respect with Leioscyphus turgescens in Herb. Mitten.

The Handbook places this species in the genus Leioscyphus (Mylia), describing the perianth as “truncate, compressed”, while the Synopsis it as “postea cylindrico-compressum” The natural shape is certainly cylindrical, with a 3-lobed mouth, the latter doubtless influencing Herzog to describe it as a Lophocolea, where it appears better suited than in Mylia.

North Island: On bark. Te Matawai (Tararuas), 6644, 3/6/32, V. D. Z., type of Lophocolea crassiretis Herz.; on bark, Southern Ruahines, 805, 763, 783, 767 (probably all the same gathering). Oct. 1946, A. P. D; stream bank, Kaimanawas, 4,500 ft, 1055. Jan. 1947, seepage amongst rocks, Mt Egmont, 4387, Dec. 1948, A. P. D.

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South Island: Governor's Bush (Mt. Cook), 4998, Jan. 1934, G. O. K. S.; epiphyte on 178 (Schistochila), Hari Hari (Westland), H3061, coll. J. B. Langridge.

The type was from Auckland Island, on earth near the summit of a hill, coll. Hooker.

Lophocolea fiordlandiae sp. nov.

Sterilis, parva, pallide-olivaceo-viridis, terricola, depresso-caespitans. Caulis ad 1 cm. longus, ad 0·15 mm. latus, validus, arcte repens, subsimplex, flexuosus, rhizoidibus numerosis. Folia caulina succuba, vix imbricata, oblique secunda, antice decurrentia, oblonga vel ovato-oblonga, 0.5 mm longa, marginibus strictis, interdum parum arcuatis, apicibus variabilis, truncato-lunatis, obtusis vel retusis. Amphigastria bifida ad ca. ½, sinu obtuso, laciniis parum divergentibus incumis saepe desunt vel squamiformia. Cellulae apicales 10μ, basales ad 20μ.

Plants sterile, small, in a depressed mat, pale-olive-green. Stems simple or a little branched, mostly ca 1 cm. long to 0.15 mm. wide, flexuous. intricate, dccumbent, rhizoids numerous. Leaves succubous, mostly and obliquely secund, scarcely imbricate, oblong to oblong-ovate. 0.5 mm. long, margins straight, or a little arched dorsal decurrent. Apices irregular, truncate-lunate, obtuse or retuse. Stipules sometimes well developed, bifid to about ½, sinus obtuse, segments diverging and incurved, slender, but may be absent or very difficult to detect. Cell cavities rounded, clear, all separate, ± in rows. from 10μ in the upper portion of the leaf, as in Plagiochila fuscella, becoming more oblong or quadrate to 20μ, resembling those of a Bazzania.

As there is no sign of any inflorescence in the gathering, it is not certain that this is a Lophocolea, but it is very small for a Chiloscyphus, and does not seem to be a Saccogyna.

From Caswell Sound, Fiordland, collected by V. D. Zotov, 5235, Mar. 27, 1949. No. 5253, Herb. E. A. H.

Lophocolea zotovii Herz.

Lophocolea zotovii Herz., Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 65, 354. 1935.

Plants in matted tufts, green drying to brown, from wet habitats. Stems ca. 2 cm., suberect, a little branched, stoloniferous, stolons with minute leaves. Leaves remote or a little imbricate, alternate, spreading, to suberect, almost round, very concave, entire, insertion subtransverse. Cells small at apex of leaf, ca. 12μ, larger towards the base. obscure. Stipules mostly absent, or extremely hard to pick up, “parva, appressa, remota, libera, sublinearia, ultra medium bifida, laciniis angustis subsetiformibus, porrectis, sinu angustissime rimaeformi.” Invol. leaves larger. entire. Invol. stipule narrow, oblong, bifid to ½, segments narrow. lanceolate-acuminate. Perianths with a longish neck, faintly 3-keeled, mouth 3-lobed. ♂ bracts in few pairs at or near the apex of the stem.

Though the types of L. zotovii and L. stronglyophylla differ reasonably enough, there are difficult intervening specimens which could be assigned to either.

North Island: Seepage amongst rocks, ca. 6,000 ft., Mt. Egmont, A. P. D., 1244. Dec. 13, 1948; Northern Ruahines, H. M. H., Jan 1948 (probably).

The type. No. 7499, Bot. Div. Herb, from watercourse on Mt. Hector (Tararuas), ca 4,300 ft, V.D.Z., 31/12/33.

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Lophocolea paucistipula Rodway.

Loph. paucistipula Rod., Papers & Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., 1916.

Plants erect and densely tufted or more usually sub-aquatic and loosely pulvinate, brownish or dark olive-green to blackish, rarely fruiting. Stems 3–6 cm., simple or a little branched. Leaves to about 1.2 mm., crowded and imbricate in tufted specimens, but usually only sub-remote to a little imbricate, sub-erect or obliquely spreading, rounded, margins entire, sometimes undulate, dorsal a little decurrent, ventral arched at the base, and overlapping the stem. Stipules oblong and shortly bidentate when present, but mostly absent (except in the region of reproduction) or reduced to a small scale. Cells rather opaque, ca. 25μ, rounded-hexagonal, trigones small. Invol. leaves similar to the cauline, but larger and somewhat narrowed to the apex. Invol. stipule narrow-oblong, shortly bidentate, margins often dentate Perianth “narrow campanulate, ½ exserted, trigonous, .. mouth broad with 3 broad unarmed lobes”. In the Maungatua specimen, the perianths are inflated with the mouth a little and bluntly toothed, but in the Atiamuri specimens they are narrowed to the apex with the lobes entire.

This species is distinguishable from L. planiuscula by the general absence of stipules and the ampliate ventral leaf margin. According to Rodway it is allied to Loph. austrigena (Tayl) Syn. Hep., from Tasmania (Rodway), Fuegia and Falkland Is.

No. 5937 from Mokai Patea has stipules either absent, or long and very slender.

Most of the plants now placed here were originally thought to be Jungermannia rotata Tayl. But the discovery of perianths and the examination of Rodway's type show that this is not so.

North Island: Sandy stream edge in shade, Waipoua Forest, H706, shady, sandy creek banks near Atiamuri, H385, H386, H387, 6297, K. W. A.; in creek bed, Mt. Ruapehu, 349, G. O. K. S.; stream bank, Kaimanawas, 4,500 ft., 1064, Mokai Patea (Ruahmes), ca. 5,000 ft., 5918, 5937, A. P. D.; Kaimanawas, 5,000 ft., 5969, 5977, A. P. D.

South Island: Forming cushions on shingle and rock, headwaters, Akatore Stream, South of Dunedin, H1039, stream-bed in bush on rock, Mt Cargill, ca. 1,700 ft., edge of pool in open, ca. 4,300 ft, Rock and Pillar Range, H5255, K. W. A.; Doubtful Sound, 5600, in bog, Mt. Maungatua, 3,000 ft., 5264, 5265, W. M.

Stewart Island: On rocks, Staircase Falls, Paterson's Inlet, 437, on stones near stream in forest, Glory Harbour, 311, on rocks in stream bed. Kaipipi Rd., 420, W. M.; on log by waterfall, Glory, C. Smith, 10, comm A. D. Banwell.

The type was from Cradle Mountain, Tasmania, leg. Rodway, 117 Herb. Rodway.

Lophocolea aculeata (Mitt.) Hodgson.

Chiloscyphus aculeatus Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel. ii. 140, 1855, Hook. f., Handb. N. Z. Fl., ii, 515, 1867.

Lophocolea leucophylla Steph., Spec. Hep, iii, 263, 1909.

Plants dioicous, smallish, pale, often creeping on other bryophytes, variable. Stems 1–2 cm., sometimes a little flexuous, or curved at the apex, somewhat branched. Leaves opposite with dorsal bases in each pair connate, imbricate,

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ovate, flat in the type fragment, but more often convex with recurved margins, apex bi-spinose, sinus obtuse of varying width and depth, dorsal margin with 1 or 2 spines, ventral bi- or trispinose, papillae mostly absent. Stipules subquadrate with 4 equal spines, broadly connate with the leaves, usually flat, sometimes subcucullate as in L. Leucophylla. Cells 20–30μ, sometimes reaching 40μ, irregular as to size, trigones also irregular. Perianth barely 2 mm., strongly 3-keeled, keels sparsely spinose, spines from a broad base, as also in the involucral leaves. Stipules with a lateral spine, confluent with the invol. leaves. Androecia intercalary and apical on the stems.

The perianth is described (for the first time) of a specimen from heavy bush, amongst clumps of Schistochila and Leucobryum on forest floor, Waipoua Forest, H744. This specimen also has the dorsal margins multidentate as in L. leucophylla, but the stipules are strongly connate with the leaves on both sides, which seems to me a good distinguishing mark between the species, and Stephani was probably not quite right in making L. aculeata a synonym of L. leucophylla.

North Island: Rotten log in bush, Waipoua Forest, 4655, K. W. A.; on Leucobryum candidum, Waipoua Forest, 4615, M. A. Baker; in bush, Omahanui (Wairoa), ca. 1,500 ft., R. Lane.

South Island: Road bank with mosses, Otira Gorge, H76, L. B. M.; Doubtful Sound, 1549, G. S.; roadside bank with Symphyogyna sp., etc., Mt. Hercules, South Westland, 4987, W. M.

Stewart Island: 1580, Mrs. J. D. Smith; logs in forest, Pryse's Peak, 518, forest floor, Port Pegasus, 487, W. M.; on ground in Metrosideros umbellata, Auckland Islands, 2333, G. E. Du Rietz.

Type on Hypopterygium concinnum, New Zealand, leg Mr. Heward.

Lophocolea muricata (Lehm.), Syn. Hep.

Jungermannia muricata Lehm, Linnaea, iv, p. 363.

Lophocolea muricata, Syn. Hep., 169, 1844; Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 138, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii. 511, 1867; Spec Hep., iii, 116. 1909.

Plants dioicous or monoicous, pale or dull green, often with pale tips, small, occasionally extremely minute, almost always creeping on dead or rotting wood or bark. Stem ½-2 cm., a little branched, with rhizoids and often hard to detach from the substratum. Leaves imbricate, sub-horizontal to obliquely spreading, ca. 0.7 mm., ovate, usually convex with decurved apices, ventral margin usually arched more than the dorsal, apices sub-entire to bidentate, sinus shallow to obtuse; margins and usually both dorsal and ventral surfaces armed on the upper portion at any rate with 2-celled papillae; cells porose, sometimes quadrate. ca. 18–20μ, basal larger with or without trigones. Stipules free on one side, bifid, segments acuminate to setaceous, 2 or more marginal spines, cells more rectangular than those of the leaves and without papillae. Invol. leaves similar to, but not much larger than the cauline, stipule larger, 4-fid. Perianth conspicuous, broadly 3-keeled, sometimes tumid, papillose, mouth 3-lobed, spinulose with marginal papillae. Androecia in few pairs on shortish branches when monoicous, ramose when dioicous.

This species is easy to recognise by its papillose surfaces combined with its small size, but the correct placing of forms intermediate between this and L. villosa is a matter of opinion. Generally speaking, its bifid stipules, flatter leaf-margins and smaller size, will serve to distinguish it from that species.

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North Island: Common on rotting logs in bush.

South Island: Lake Manapouri to Wilmott Pass, G. Simpson; in bush, Town Belt, Dunedin, H1389. H1393, on bark in beech forest, Maungatua Range (Dunedin), H1394, on rotten wood on forest floor, Flagstaff Hill (Dunedin), H1395, K. W. A.; logs in forest, Port Pegasus, Stewart Island, W. M., 472.

Common throughout the Southern Hemisphere. South American plants collected by Spruce were monoicous.

Lophocolea leucophylla (Tayl.), Syn. Hep.

Jungermannia leucophylla Tayl. in Herb. Greville (Tasmaman plant).

Lophocolea leucophylla, Syn. Hep, p. 155, 1844 (Tasmaman plant).

Jungermannia leucophylla Tayl. Lond. Journ. of Bot., 1844, p. 384 (Auckland Is. plant); Fl Ant., 11, 137, 1847.

Chiloscyphus leucophyllus, Syn. Hep. p. 181, 1844.

Lophocolea leucophylla, Fl. Nov. Zel., ii. 138, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl, ii, 510, 1867; Spec. Hep, iii, 117, 1909; Rod, Papers & Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas, 1916.

Plants dioicous, usually whitish, pale brown or straw-coloured, or dingy green, medium to robust, variable, rarely fruiting. Stem from about 3–8 cm., little branched. Leaves imbricate. often crowded and less decurren on shorter stems, papillose, sub-triangular, convex, usually with recurved margins, apex very narrow from a broad base, bidentate, dorsal margin usually toothed towards the base, ventral somewhat undulate, toothed to spinose. Stipules moderately large, quadrate-rounded, strongly decurved to sub-cucullate, multi-toothed or spinose, one side usually free, the other slightly connate with the leaf. Cells ca. 20μ, with one papilla, trigones small, or larger with larger cells. Invol. leaves and stipule large, all confluent. Perianth 5 mm., mouth and keels dentate or spinous-dentate, the third side sometimes folded in, which doubtless explains the Synopsis description of “compresso bilabiato”. ♂ bracts shorter than the leaves, termmal on stem and branches (in plants seen).

In the first of the Synopsis descriptions L. leucophylla is described as having bifid stipules This is doubtless a mistake, as a note by Gottsche, following the second description is to the effect that Taylor had written to say that both the Tasmanian and Auckland Is. plants were the same specres. This was accepted by the authors of the Synopsis, who made the two synonymous.

A specimen from Ligar's Gully, coll. Kirk, 4892, appears to be entirely without papillae. This is unusual.

North Island: Growing on clay bank near Russell, 1554, Russell-Whangarer Rd., 1,100 ft, 1543, V. W. L.; Opepe Bush, near Taupo, 4426, damp bank near Atiamuri, 1553, dry shady bank in manuka country, E of Taupo, 2,240 ft., 4193, shady bank, Mt. Messenger (Taranaki), 400 ft., 1552, K. W. A.; Globe Hill (Tawhai), 2064, M. J. Conway; stream bank, Kaimanawas, 4,500 ft., 1103. bog on north side of Mt. Egmont, ca. 3,000 ft., 3666, Manawatu Gorge, 545, Mangaroa (Wellington), 49, A. P. D; on earth in bush, Waikaremoana, 2,000 ft, 4292, Mrs H. Jeffreys, 21, 2980, E. A. H., 2087, N. J. Butler; bush near Whenuakura (Patea), ca. 700 ft., A. L. H.; on sandstone, R. Mangatawhati, a696, Colenso; Butterfly Creek (Eastbourne). 1608, W. M.

South Island Kenepuru, 4146, J. H. McMahon; near Greymouth, H. M. H.; on ground, margin of beech forest, Arthur's Pass, 63, W. M.; forest above Routeburn huts, 17031, V. D. Z.; roadside bank, South Westland, 4951, rocky face of

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waterfall, Martin's Creek, (Stewart Island), 2643, W. M.; Poa litorosa tussock slope, among Scirpus aucklandicus, Campbell Island, 2563 Riksmuseum, G. Einar Du Rietz; Auckland and Campbell Is., “Cape Expedition”.

According to the descriptions in the Handbook and in Species Hepaticarum, L. leucophylla has opposite leaves which are broadly connate with the stipules. But Taylor's description in the Flora Antarctica speaks of one, “una”, with this characteristic. I have the following 4 specimens like this, which in addition have entire or subentire leaves. But papillae are mostly present, and the general appearance is that of L. leucophylla.

Edge of bog, summit of Mt. Maungatua, Dunedin, 5552, W. M. (1950); in sand, 5172, and in grass, 5271, Expectation Stream, Caswell Sound, V. D. Z. (1949); Campbell Is., 3407, J. H. Sorensen (1946).

Lophocolea villosa Mitt. ex Steph.

L. villosa Mitt., Ms., Steph., Spec Hep, vi, 299, 1924.

Plants dioicous, medium to sub-robust, pale, dull green to dingy brown, in flattened loose or compact mats, in the North Island usually under manuka. Stems to 3 cm., branched, sometimes with subfloral innovations. Leaves imbricate, concave, broadly ovate, obliquely spreading ca. 1 mm. long, apices decurved, shortly bidentate, ventral margin arched, margins spinulose, sometimes toothed as well; dorsal surfaces papillose, ventral less so. Cells ca. 20–25μ, mostly with a single high papilla. Stipules wide, free or slightly connate with the leaf on one side, 4-fid, the lateral segments smaller, the middle ones finely acuminate, basal portion sparsely papillose, margins all spinulose. Invol. leaves large, sub-circular, very concave, margins and bidentate apices everywhere irregularly toothed and spinulose. Perianth soft, sparsely papillose, 2 ½ mm. long × 2 mm broad, keels irregularly toothed, mouth deeply 3-lobed, margins of lobes irregularly laceratetoothed. ♂ bracts in pairs, terminal on stems.

This species differs from L. muricata in its larger size and 4-fid stipules, and perhaps more concave leaves and flattened, broad perianth. Viewed dorsally, with its bidentate apices decurved and hidden, it has the appearance of a papillose L. heterophylloides.

L. cinerea Herz. from dead wood in bush, Terapatiki, near Waikaremoana, 297, E. A. H., is a form with shorter, more compact branches, with more crowded leaves, and papillae less frequent in places I really do not think it is distinet enough to be a separate species.

North Island: Natinal Park in Nothofagus cliffortioides forest, H192, L. B. M.; near Huka Falls, 4161, A. L. H.; from Taupo-Rotorua district on dry banks under manuka, H3647, H540, H3652, H3649, H3653, H3646, rotten log in Otanepu Bush, ca. 2,200 ft., H3648, swampy ground under manuka, near Atiamuri, H3650, dry ground under manuka, Pongakawa R. (B. of Plenty), H3651, all coll K. W. A.; open space on ground, Ngamoko Track (Waikaremoana), 1531, E. A. H.

South Island: On rotten log in bush above Leith Valley to Waitati (Dunedin), H910, in bush on earth or wood, Town Belt, Dunedin, H4885, shady earth, hill between Otokia and coast, south of Dunedin, H3656, under spruce in Conical Hill Plantation, near Tapanui, H3657, K. W. A.; School Creek, Wakari (Dunedin), 4293, Field Club, per E. Campbell; Pine Hill (Dunedin), 5547, W. M.

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The type was collected by Colenso.

Lophocolea variabilis Steph.

Lophocolea variabilis Steph., Spec. Hep., iii, 110, 1909.

This species much resembles L. heterophylloides in habit and appearance, but differs in the irregular leaf-apices, and in the leaf margins being shortly, sometimes sparsely toothed; also in the occasional presence of papillae, showing an affinity with L. villosa. There are intermediate forms between L. insularis and this species.

North Island: On rotten log in bush, Waipoua Forest (near to L. variabilis, and with larger cells resembling those of L. australis), H753, low flat with scattered manuka, near Rangitaiki R. (Rotorua region), H541, under manuka near Atiamuri, H61, K. W. A.; Keri-Keri lower falls (Bay of Islands), 4461, V. W. Lindauer; open patch by Ngamoko Track, Waikaremoana, 393, base of tree in kanuka grove, Kiwi Station (Wairoa), 443, E. A. H.; form approaching L. insularis, E side of Rimutakas. ca. 500 ft., 2820, A. P. D.; National Park, 4425, A. L. H.

South Island: School Creek. Wakari (Dunedin), 4160, Field Club, per E. Campbell; from bog 3,000 ft., Maungatua (Otago), 5255. W. M.; under beech near outlet from L. Te Anau, ca. 670 ft., H1416, K. W. A.

The type was from Mt Eden, Auckland. coll T. Kirk.

Lophocolea pallida Mitt.

Lophocolea pallida Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel, ii, 135, 1855, Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 509, 1867; Spec. Hep., iii, 115, 1909.

Lophocolea triangulifolia Steph., Journ. Linn. Soc., Bot., 29, 270, 1892; Spec. Hep., iii, 96, 1909.

Lophocolea erectifolia Steph., Journ Linn. Soc., Bot, 29, 269, 1892; Spec Hep, iii, 95, 1909.

Lophocolca trialata, G., Spec. Hep., iii, 92 (as regards N. Z.), 1909.

Plants polyoicous, often pale, sprawly, usually on rotting wood or tree-fern bases. Stems elongate to 4 cm., when sterile, intricately branched when fertile, with an innovation below the perianth. Leaves opposite, contiguous to densely imbricate, plano-distichous to obliquely spreading with the upper ones convex, broadly triangular-ovate to oblong-ovate, margins sub-straight, apex of varying width, ⅕ to ⅓ the width of the base, variable, but mostly obliquely truncate and bidentate, the ventral tooth usually bigger than the dorsal, sometimes entire, obtuse or acute. Stipules connate with the leaves, bifid with 2 lateral segments, sinus shallow. Cells 30–40μ, with contents adhering to the walls, otherwise pellucid, trigones present, sometimes confluent. Invol. leaves increasing in size upwards, conforming with the cauline, but with the ventral margin incurved, thus appearing more narrowly triangular in proportion to the size. Invol. stipules usually connate with the leaves, ovate, ¼-⅓ bifid, segments sparsely toothed. Perianth narrow-oblong, tapering to the mouth, to 5 mm. long, triquetrous or 3-winged, wings strongly toothed to crenate. Mouth 3-lobed, irregularly and strongly spinous-toothed, apical spines longer Androecia on special branches or terminal on otherwise leafy branches, bracts oblong, erect to spreading-decurved, shortly bidentate.

The triangular-ovate, opposite, often crowded leaves, with connate stipules, are the characterstic of this species, together with the tapering perianth appearing lateral as well as terminal, and the ofttimes monoicous inflorescence.

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Lophocolea tenax Steph., Spec. Hep., vi, 296, 1924, I have not seen, but the drawing shows the stipules as very broad.

North Island: Pools Gully (Russell) with Trichocolea sp., 563, Horokino Bush (Mangapehi), 2877, V. W. Lindauer; Waipoua Forest, on rotten logs, H710, H1621, H751, H1620, on treefern bases, H747, H1623, rotten stump on forest floor above Murupara, H599, rotten log in bush, Mangaiti, H3641, base of treefern caudex, Puaiti Bush, H543, between Rotoehu and coast, H3645, on earth, Rainbow Mountain, H5129, K. W. A.; Nihotapu V., in bush under wet conditions, H3371, E. D. Hatch; on tree-fern, Waitakere, E. D. Swanberg; a1701, a1646, Herb. Colenso; on rotting logs in bush, Waikaremoana, 2991, 2989, 2995, 2988, 2987, E. A. H.; Ohau-iti R., 7275, 7252, V. D. Z.; Pohangina V., 322 in part, A. P. D.; Mt. Egmont, 4335, G. O. K. S.

South Island: Near Greymouth, 2985, H. M. H; Te Teka (Westland), A. Knight; very rotten log in beech forest. E face of Maungatua Range, H1395, H1396, K. W. A.

Stewart Is., on treefern. 2989, Mrs J. D. Smith; on decaying timber, 453, W. M. The Snares, 37242, F. Newcombe. Auckland Is., bush above Musgrove Pen., 5555, R. L. Oliver, “Cape Expedition”.

The type was collected in the Auckland Province by Dr. Sinclair.

Lophocolea fulva Steph.

Lophocolea fulva Steph., Spec. Hep., vi, 273, 1924.

Plants small, sterile, yellow-brown. Stems 1 cm. or a little more, a little branched. Leaves crowded, obliquely spreading, ca. 1 mm. long, but some stems have smaller leaves, broadly triangular with an occasional ventral tooth, base ca. 1 mm broad, apex narrow, bicuspidate. Stipules rounded with 3 or 4 usually small teeth, so broadly connate as to be all in one with the leaves, with an intervening undulation or fold. Apical cells irregular, ca. 20μ, gradually increasing to the base, trigones also variable, acute, cuticle smooth.

There is a plant from Campbell Is., leg. J. H. Sorensen, 3407 Herb. E. A. H., which, in its rounded, broadly connate, shortly toothed stipules, suggests L. fulva, but in other respects, including size, it resembles L. leucophylla. This may represent an undescribed, new species.

The type is presumably from Auckland Is., leg. Cockayne, of which there is a duplicate in the Auckland Muscum, so identified by Stephani. In Species Hepaticarum, Stephani gives Australia also as a locality and mentions it first.

Lophocolea spinifera (Tayl.), Syn. Hep.

Jungermannia spinifera Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot., 1844, p. 380; Fl Ant., ii, 155, 1847.

Lophocolea spinifera, Syn. Hep, 163, 693; Fl. Nor. Zel, ii, 137, 1855; Handb. N. Z. Fl, ii, 511, 1867; Spec. Hep., iii, 93, 1909.

Plants medium, dioicous, whitish or pale green, rarely pale brown, loosely intricate. Stems to about 3 cm; prostrate, somewhat curved at apex, little branched, canaliculate. Leaves opposite, densely crowded, crecto-patent, convex with recurved margins. oblong-ovate, apex decurved, narrow, biciliate with an obtuse, sometime deep sinus, margins entire except for an occasional ventral tooth, dorsal decurrent. Stipules very wide, reniform with 6 triangular spinose lobes. Cells pellucid, ca. 30μ, trigones medium, no papillae. Invol. leaves dentateciliate, specially on the ventral margin, stipules taller than broad, apex and

– 347 –

upper half of margins spinose-ciliate. Perianth 4 mm., deeply keeled, mouth dentate-lacerate. ♂ bracts to 20 pairs, squarrose, acute or bidentate.

This species can be recognized by its very broad triangular-lobed stipules and densely crowded bicilate leaves.

What might be a cross between L. leucophylla and L. spinifera, mixed with L. spinifera, is from head of L. Manapouri, H893, G. S.

North Island: Headwaters Rangitikei Gorge, 2848, headwaters R. Waiotaka (Kaimanawas), 3591, Ohakune Track (Mt. Ruapehu), 3–4,000 ft., H. M. H; on logs, edge of L. Waikare-iti, 3,000 ft., 4582, 2992, 2993, E. A. H; common on banks, Northern Ruahines, 4247, 4370, H. M. H.; Waimaka Str. (Ruahines), 2897, A. L. H.; Otupae (N.W. Ruahines), 3517, H. M. and A. P. D.; S. Ruahines, 779, Pohangina V., 386, Kapakapanui (Tararuas), 3,600 ft., 830, 825, 836. A. P. D.; log in forest, Mt. Holdsworth, ca. 2,600 ft., 2538, N. J. Butler.

South Island Damp log near waterfall, Arthur's Pass, 128, common on beech logs, and bases of Nothofagus cliffortioides, covering wet logs by square yard, Upper Bealey Forest, 116, W. M.; near L. Harris, in part, 17083, V. D. Z.; Freeman R. (L Manapouri), H893, G. S.; Milford Track, 1626, F. McDonald; roadside bank, South Westland, 4955, W. M.; Caswell Sound Expedition, per V. D. Z.

Type from Auckland Is., leg. Hooker.

Lophocolea innovata Hodgson sp nov.

Planta parva, nitida, dense caespitosa, fusca. Caulis ad 1 cm., cum brevibus sub-flore saepe repetitis innovationibus Folia caulina parum imbricata, recta patula ca. 1 mm., ovato-quadrata, bi- aliquando tri-lobata, lobis triangularibus, acutis vel obtusis, tertio minore vel solum dente, marginibus curvato, praecipue ventralo Amphigrastria libera, profunde bifida, segmentis lanceolatis, divergentibus, sinu lunato Cellulae 30–40μ, trigonis nullis. Folia floralia majora, subrotundata, marginibus grosse dentatis, amphigastria anguste oblongo-ovata, parvo laterale dente, breve bifido, sinu obtuso, laciniis triangularibus. Perianthia parva, subcampanulata, trilobata, emersa, marginibus dentatis.

Plants small, brown, shining or spotted, densely tufted, perianths upright, plentiful Stems to 1 cm., with numerous short sub-floral innovations (hence the name). Leaves ca. 1 mm, ovate-quadrate with the ventral margin more arched than the dorsal, apices bilobed, sometimes with a smaller lobe or tooth, on the ventral margin near to the extremity of the leaf, occasionally retuse, lobes triangular, usually about equal in size, acute or rarely obtuse. Stipules free, deeply bifid, segments lanceolate, diverging, sinus obtuse to lunate. Cells 30–40μ with contents adhering to thick walls. Invol. leaves larger rounder, in several pairs enveloping the perianth, margins ± dentate. Invol. stipule narrow oblong-ovate with a very small lateral tooth, bifid to about ⅓, segments straight or divaricating, triangular. Perianth small, emersed, with only undeveloped archegonia, subcampanulate, faintly 3-angled, 3-lobed, sometimes deeply, lobes with toothed margins. Androecia not seen.

The shiny, 2-lobed (rarely 3-lobed) leaves make this species easy of recognition except for a certain resemblance to Chiloscyphus triacanthus, but that species has longer leaves and the apical appendages longer and more slender. I am indebted to Mr. Allison for pointing out that the perianths are not truly lateral,

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but have innovations arising from the vicinity of the involucral stipule, sometimes from the axil itself.

North Island: Stream bank, Kaimanawas, 4,500 ft., 1056, 1058, A. P. D., Jan. 1947; on calcareous sandstone rock pillar, called Te-Tara-a-Tu, Mt. Maungapohatu, H3411, G. O. K. S., 9/1/46; Wairaumoana (Waikaremoana), 194A, Mrs. G. O. K. Sainsbury, Mar. 1930; damp bank, shady side of gorge, Otupae, N.W. Ruahines, 1611, 4192, 4199, E. A. H., 1637, A. P. and H. M. Druce.

South Island: Tableland Track, Mt. Arthur (Nelson), 244, G. O. K. S., Feb. 1930.

The type, No. 4192, chosen on account of the abundance of perianths, is in Herb. E. A. Hodgson and K. W. Allison. The species was first collected by G. O. K. Sainsbury a month earlier than Mrs. Sainsbury.

Lophocolea amplectens Mitt.

Lophocolea amplectens Mitt., Fl. Tas., ii, 226, 1860; Steph., Spec. Hep, iii, 57, 1909: Rod., Papers & Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., 1916.

Plants small, closely matted, light brown Stems mostly less than 1 cm., little branched except for innovations, procumbent. Leaves varying in size on different stems, scarcely imbricate, set at an acute angle on the stem, insertion almost transverse, concave to conduplicate, slightly incurved, 0·3–0.5 mm., ca. ⅓ bilobed, lobes broadly triangular, subacute, sinus broad, obtuse to deeply lunate. Stipules smallish, slightly connate on one side, ca. ⅔ bilobed, lobes narrow-triangular, with a lateral tooth on stems with larger leaves, more slender where the leaves are small. Cells 20–25μ, cavities rounded, marginal row slightly larger, trigones present and distinct. Invol. leaves and stipules all closely imbricate as in L. bispinosa, and deeply cleft with narrow lanceolate lobes, with margins sometimes recurved. Perianths sometimes with several and repeated innovations, small, only 1 mm. in length, 3-angled with one or two intermediary ridges, mouth irregularly dentate.

This species differs from L. bispinosa in the erecto-patent, concave, sometimes conduplicate leaves, with ± transverse insertion, and obtuse to sub-acute apices of the lobes. There are 3 gatherings of this Tasmanian species not previously reported from New Zealand. They are, on ground, near Hermitage, Mt. Cook, 492, G. O. K. S., Jan. 1934; shady bank overhung by tussocks on south side of ridge, Silver Peak Range, ca. 2.000 ft., 29/12/47, H1413, on bare rock, sheltered by tussock, on slope of Flagstaff Hill, Dunedin, ca. 1,800 ft, H5200, 21/1/50, K. W. A. I also have it in a manuscript list of hepatics collected by the Cape Expedition in the subantarctic islands, but have no duplicate with which to check it, but I think it would be correct.

The type was from Tasmania.

An additional locality is, among stones, head of Hollyford R., 2,000 ft, Doubtful Sd., Feb. 1951, W. M. (6705).

Lophocolea bispinosa (Tayl.), Syn. Hep.

Jung. bispinosa Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot., 1844, p. 378; Fl. Ant., ii, 154, 1847.

Lophocolea bispinosa, Syn. Hep, p. 162; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 511, 1867; Spec Hep., iii, 102, 1909.

Lophocolea perpusilla (Tayl.), Syn. Hep.; Rod., Pap & Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., p. 49, 1916.

Lophocolea mittenii Steph., Spec. Hep., iii, 108, 1909.

Lophocolea minuta Pears., Univ. Cal. Pub. Bot., 10, 317, 1923.

Lophocolea curvifolia Herz., Trans. Roy. Soc., N.Z., 65, 353, 1935,

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Plants common, small, pale to hyaline, loosely caespitose, often mixed with other bryophytes on banks, in grass, etc., extremely variable. Stems filiform, fertile ones erect or ascending, microphyllous branches with remote bifid leaves very often present, 1–2 cm. Leaves sub-remote or loosely spreading, but on some stems closely imbricate and erecto-patent, plane or convex, ovate-oblong to rectangular, 1 ½ to twice as long as broad, ⅓–½ bifid, not, or rarely, narrowed at the apex, apex truncate-emarginate, sinus lunate or angular, lobes from a triangular base, acuminate to longly and narrowly so, often diverging; margins fairly parallel, but the ventral may be somewhat arched, dorsal sometimes a little decurrent, as in the type. Stipules free, spreading, often incurved, usually 4-fid, with the exterior segments smaller and spiniform, the middle ones longer and narrow-lanceolate. Cells very variable ca. 18–25μ, obscure or pellucid, with rounded cavities and sub-confluent trigones, or sub-quadrate with small trigones, marginal row often considerably larger. Invol. leaves in 2–3 pairs, increasing in size upwards, convex, crowded in a dense head, the innermost pair deeply bifid, segments linear, setaceous, prettily curved, margins entire or dentate. Stipules quadri-laciniate with apices longly setaceous. Perianth shortish, narrow, triquetrous, shortly tri-lobed, lobes irregularly laciniate. ♂ bracts erecto-patent, crowded on the upper half of the stems, bispinose and little different from the lower leaves.

Loph. perpusilla, reduced to this species by Mitten, is a tiny plant, with the corner angles of the leaves shortly produced or truncate.

Loph. mittenii is the form common on the mainland, with leaf-segments more longly produced than in the type.

Loph. curvifolia is very small, so called because the lower basal margin is incurved as in Loph. inflexifolia.

Loph. minuta is a small form with narrowish, deeply bifid leaves with a rounded sinus.

I do not find it possible to fit into the descriptions of these “species” the many varied forms of this complex group. For instance:

No. 3464, from Waikaremoana, has very large stipules, oblique and recurved as in Loph. novae zelandiae, with narrowish, deeply bifid leaves with segments converging, while leaves on other stems match Taylor's type very well.

No. 3512, from Wilkin R., Otago, coll. G. Simpson, has the leaf and stipule segments exceedingly longly tapering and spiniform.

No. 1617, from Milford Track, coll. F. MacDonald, has all the margins finely recurved.

The incurving of the ventral margin is very noticeable in a larger, very spiniferous specimen with minute cells from Mt. Maungatua, 5256, W. Martin.

None of the published descriptions mentions the marginal row of enlarged cells which is so often present, though hardly so in Taylor's plant.

The type was from Campbell Island, collected by Hooker.

Lophocolea subporosa Mitt.

Loph. subporosa Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 137, 1855; Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii. 509, 1867. Spec. Hep, iii, 97, 1909.

Plants small, dull green, creeping on wood, or forming loose mats on earth. Stems 2–3 cm., subsimple or well branched. Leaves imbricate, alternate. ca. 1 mm.

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long including the laciniae, and ca. 0.9 mm. broad, broadly ovate to sub-rotund, narrower on the branches (in the type). Margins arched, dorsal a little less than the ventral and a little decurrent; apex bidentate, sinus lunate, laciniae rather abruptly narrowed from a broad triangular base. Stipules small to medium, 4-fid, the 2 middle segments longer and wider, free on one side. “Perianthio prismatico, anguli dorsali alato, ala denticulata, ore laciniis obtusiusculis integris denticulatis, foliis involucralibus conformibus, parum latioribus, margine dorsali ventralique parce dentatis, amphigastrio subelliptico bidentato, lateribus remotiuscule dentatis, basi angustate coalito.”

In describing this species, Mitten adds the following note: “Near as this small species unquestionably is to Loph. diademata (= Loph. lenta), in size and habit, it appears to differ in its thicker and more rigid texture, its wider and less deeply emarginate leaves and in the undivided and obtuse laciniae of the perianth.” The trouble is, however, that it is quite within the ambit of the versatile Loph. lenta to show rounded leaves with others not so rounded, and identification then becomes purely a matter of opinion. However, there are plants with the majority of the leaves very broadly ovate, excluded from Loph. insularis by their small size and plane dorsal margins, which could, I think, be called Loph. subporosa. One from Huka Falls (Taupo). 3437, coll. H. M. H., has very rounded leaves with the apical teeth broadly acute, and small cells. No. 57247 from The Snares, coll. F. Newcombe, has the laciniae obtuse with a shallow sinus, and is quite distinct from the stems of Loph lenta with narrower leaves and attenuated laciniae, also present in the tuft.

The type was collected by Dr. Sinclair.

Lophocolea insularis Steph.

Loph. insularis Steph., Spec. Hep., in, 105, 1909.

This species appears to be closely related to L. heterophylloides, differing in the apices of the leaves, which instead of being obtusely rounded are irregular in shape, but mostly with short triangular lobes separated by a ± lunate sinus. It has the same appearance and habit of growth of L. heterophylloides and is likely to be passed over as that species.

North Island: Great Barrier Island, R. Redway, 4156; damp log on bush floor, Waipoua Forest, H1622, under manuka, E. of Waiotapu V., ca. 1,700 ft., H3361, H3393. K. W. A.; on log in bush, Ohuka (Wairoa), 4156, E. A. H.; Otupae (N.W. Ruahines), 1595, A. P. and H. M. D.; Mangaroa, 691, A. P. D.

The type was from Great Barrier, collected by T. Kirk.

Lophocolea lenta (Tayl.), Syn. Hep

Jungermannia lenta, Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot., 1844, p. 379, Fl Ant, ii, 154, 1847.

Lophocolea lenta, Syn. Hep., p. 162, 1844; Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, p. 136, 1855; Hand. N.Z. Fl, ii, p. 511, 1867; Spec. Hep, in, 103, 1909, Rod., Pap & Proc. Roy Soc. Tas, p. 49, 1916.

Lophocolea diademata (Tayl.), Syn. Hep, Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel, ii. 1855.

Lophocolea secundifolia (Tayl.), Syn. Hep., Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel, ii, 1855.

Lophocolea perpusilla (Tayl.), Syn. Hep, 163, 1844.

Lophocolea knightii Steph., Spec. Hep., iii, 104, 1909.

Lophocolea goebeliana Steph, Spec Hep., iii, 106, 1909.

Plants common, small, variable, yellowish or dull green, mainly creeping on logs and bases of trees, but also terrestrial, forming loose or compact mats Stems to 3 cm., but usually shorter, specially if fertile, subsimple to intricately branched,

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rhizoids often plentiful. Leaves imbricate, bidentate, oblong, oblong-ovate to broadly ovate, or oblong-triangular, plano-distichous or dorsally secund, to 1 mm. long, including the laciniae, margins straight or a little arched, dorsal a little decurrent; apex bidentate, lobes triangular-lanceolate, acuminate, usually parallel, sinus rounded. Stipules simply bifid as in the type, or with a lateral tooth, bifid from about ½–¾, segments lanceolate-acuminate, diverging. Cells 30–40μ, walls thick, trigones very small or absent. Invol. leaves longer than the cauline, concave, oblique, bifid, segments triangular-acuminate, margins usually entire. Invol stipule ovate to elliptic, deeply bifid, segments narrow, usually a lateral tooth present. Perianth oblong-prismatic, well exserted, triquetrous to 3-keeled or winged, keels usually toothed, deeply 3-lobed, lobes longly toothed, apices bifid, segments narrow, setaceous. ♂ bracts crowded, bifid or entire, sometimes merging from one to the other on the same stem, pairs numerous, usually squarrose.

Loph. perpusilla (Tayl.) Syn. Hep. is a diminutive form, having stolon-like stems with tiny bifid leaves mixed with the others. Many of the leaf-segments are obtuse, the cells large. A compact mat of this form, and whitish, No. 4392, similar to Taylor's, was collected on Campbell Island by R. L. Oliver, of the “Cape Expedition”, but one occasionally meets with this diminutive form mixed with ordinary stems of L. lenta. Mitten reduced it to Loph. bispinosa, but stated elsewhere in the Flora Novae Zelandiae that perhaps it might be added to L. diademata and Loph. secundifolia as a synonym of L. lenta. This I have now done.

Leaves on the main stems often approach those of Loph. bidentata.

Loph. beckettiana St., Spec. Hep., vi, p. 263, is probably this species, but the packet thus labelled contains a pure clump of Lepidozia gottscheana.

A common species in both islands.

The type was from Auckland Is., coll. Hooker, but as mentioned by Stephani, the stems are etiolated and elongate.

Lophocolea decurrens Herzog.

Loph decurrens Herz., Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 65, 352, 1935.

Plants small, pale or whitish on bark. Stems simple except for some short microphyllous branches. Leaves imbricate, oblong-triangular, dorsally secund, complicate, abruptly widened at the base and longly decurrent, apices bifid to about ⅓, laciniae narrowly triangular-acuminate, curved, conniving, sometimes forming almost a circle with the sinus. Stipules bifid to the middle, shortly connate with the leaf on one side, segments narrowly triangular, basal portion sub-entire Cell cavities to 35μ, trigones small ♂ bracts in few pairs at the ends of the stems; antheridia large to 0.2 mm. in diameter.

I have no perianths to describe.

This species is nearest to Loph. lenta, differing mainly in the much widened and longly decurrent leaf-base, 1.1 mm. wide according to Herzog's measurement But the great difficulty is to separate the dorsal faces and make the leaves lie explanate, so that one can see these antical bases. In the Arthur's Pass specimen the sudden downward bend of the dorsal margin is even more marked than in the type, and the leaf-laciniae are longer.

There are, of course, connecting forms between this and Loph. lenta.

– 352 –

South Island: Arthur's Pass, 4444, F. Macdonald; on rotten log in bush, Mt. Cargill (Dunedin), 1,600 ft., H4684, K. W. A.

The type was from Tableland Track, Mt. Arthur, Nelson, 1578, G. O. K. S.

Lophocolea helmsiana Steph.

L. helmsiana Steph., Spec. Hep., iii, 94, 1909.

Plants olive to yellowish-green, often shiny, mostly on tree-ferns and rotting wood. Stem seldom more than 2 cm., variously branched, often with a sub-floral innovation. Leaves opposite, a little imbricate, ca. 1 ½ mm. long, base about 2 ½ times as wide as apex, margins incurved but unevenly, giving the leaves a twisted look, but fairly straight when flattened. Apex bispinose, sub-truncate, lobes unequal, the dorsal one the smaller, longly acuminate, sinus widely lunate to sub-acute. Stipules small, connate with leaves, sometimes more narrowly on one side, rarely free, bifid to below the middle, sinus acute, segments longly acuminate, with or without a lateral tooth. Cells rather less than 30μ, thickish or with contents round the walls. Invol. leaves a little longer than the cauline, shortly bifid, segments longly acuminate, sinus narrow, dorsal margin unidentate, ventral with few or many spinous teeth. Stipule about half the size of the leaves, broadly ovate, shortly bifid, bis-bifid or margins plurispinose, usually connate on both sides with leaves. Perianth ca. 2 mm., terminal on both branches and stems, deeply 3-lobed, apices of lobes narrowly bifid, margins variously spinoselacinulate.

This is a good species with its oblong-triangular leaves, narrower than in L. pallida with cells less pellucid and stipules smaller, but, even so, one is sometimes puzzled by near resemblances.

North Island: Base of tree on humus, 626, on log in bush by Ruakituri R., 435, E. A. H.; base of shady rock near Atiamuri, H538, fern-tree trunk, Puaiti Bush, H3439. rotten log in forest, H616, tree-fern caudex between L. Rotoehu and coast, H3379, H3406, K. W. A.; rotten log in bush, Whenuakura (Patea), 2978, Waitomo with Bazzania tayloriana, 4579, A. L. H.; on clay bank in Danthonia, Terrace End (Palmerston North), 2736, V. D. Z.; stream bank (clay), in forest, Eastbourne, 3172, N. J. Butler; Otupae, N.W. Ruahines, 3519, A. P. and H. M. D.

South Island: Bush above Leith Valley Saddle (Dunedin), H1399, K. W. A.

Stewart Island: Track to Tin Range, Pegasus, 2774, 2773, W. M.; tree trunks, Oban, 493, W. M.

The type was from the South Island, coll. Helms.

Var. subparallela var. nov.

Caulis ad 4 cm., simplex vel parum ramosus Folia sub-recte-patula, vix contigua, 1·35 mm. longa × 0.5 mm. lata, marginibus subparallelis, laciniis triangulare-setaceis, sinu profunde lunato. Amphigastria ad 0.8 mm. longa, apice ad ⅔ emarginato-bispinosa, utrinque anguste coalita, spinis divergentibus.

If this is not a separate species, then it is to Loph. helmsiana that it appears to belong, but its narrow leaves, mostly all separate, and nearly at right angles to the stem, give it an individuality that is at once noticeable.

The type is in Kirk's collection, from Thames, No. 6017, Bot. Div. Herb. Other specimens are: On Trichomanes frond with Radula levieri, shady stream bank, Waipoua Forest, H670 p.p., 10/4/44; sandy and shady creek bank in Waipoua Forest, 5573, K. W. A., 23/11/44.

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Unless otherwise stated, the figures represent the ventral surfaces.
Figs 1–3—L. noiae zelandiae
Fig. 4—L. planiuscula
Fig. 5—L. calcarea
Fig. 6—L. dalliana
Fig. 7—L. australis
Fig. 8—L. hetrophylloides
Fig. 9—L. turgescens
Fig. 10—L. stronglyophylla
Fig. 11—L. notophylla
Fig. 12—L. zotovii (dorsal)

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Fig. 13—L. paucistipula (dorsal)
Fig. 14—L. paucistipula (ventral)
Fig. 15—L. pordlandiae
Fig. 16—L. aculeata
Fig. 17—L. spinifera
Fig. 18—L. muricata
Fig. 19—L. leucophylla
Fig. 20—L villosa
Fig. 21—L. pallida
Fig. 22—L variabilis
Fig. 23—L. decurrens (dorsal)
Fig. 24—L. fulva

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Fig. 25—L. innovata
Fig. 26—L. helmsiana
Fig. 27—L. lenta
Fig. 28—L. subporosa
Fig. 29—L. biciliata
Fig. 30—L. bispinosa
Fig. 31—L. insularis
Fig. 32—L. bidentata
Fig. 33—L. inflexifolia
Fig. 34—L. amplectens
Fig. 35—L. helmsiana var subparallela

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Lophocolea biciliata (Tayl.) Mitt.

Jung. biciliata Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot., 1845, p. 84.

Chiloscyphus biciliatus, Syn. Hep., p. 707, 1847.

Lophocolea biciliata, Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 137, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 509, 1867; Spec. Hep., iii, 94, 1909; Rod., Pap. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., p. 48, 1916.

Loph. granditexta Steph., Spec. Hep, iii, 106, 1909.

Loph. aucklandica Steph., Spec. Hep., vi, 261, 1924.

Loph. subscorpionifolia Herzog, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 65, 350, 1935.

Loph. lamellicalyx Herzog, ibid., p. 351.

Loph. multialata Herzog, ibid., p. 351.

Plants variable, common, often sterile, mostly large, in depressed mats on earth or rotting logs, often glistening. Stems to 3 cm., simple or branched, branches often with smaller and narrower leaves. Leaves contiguous to closely imbricate, alternate to sub-opposite, large to 2 mm. long, broadly ovate to sub-circular, apex shortly bifid, but sometimes rounded and entire, sinus shallow of varying widths, teeth ciliform, but sometimes much shorter; ventral margin usually strongly arched, dorsal usually fairly straight. Stipules free or connate on one side, rarely on both sides, bifid, segments lanceolate, sometimes setaceous, diverging, with a basal lateral tooth, small in comparison with the leaves. Cells 30–45μ, pellucid, trigones small to medium. Invol. leaves, more or less conforming with the leaves, but larger, sub-circular, shortly bifid to sub-entire. Perianth to very large, maybe to 6 mm., 3-winged, usually with lamellae between the wings, the third side may be narrower and folded in, 3-lobed, mouth sub-entire to strongly toothed.

This species varies considerably in appearance, but generally speaking it can be recognized by the very broad, often glistening leaves, and, of course, by the lamellate perianth when this present.

In Loph aucklandica the leaves are crowded, while in L. lamellicalyx, besides being crowded, they are described as “late ovata, brevissime bifida”. In L. multialata, the leaves are opposite, and in L. subscorpionifolia they are described as “laxe imbricata” and “subrectangulari-ovata”. In another form from Caswell Sound area, coll. V. D. Zotov, 5326, the apical teeth are short and very close together on some of the leaves. In a specimen from Banks Peninsula, H. M. H., 4325, the perianths are smooth, while at Atiamuri gathering, coll. K. W. A., H3581, has perianths both smooth and lamellate. Other specimens have many of the leaves entire. To try to maintain these and other forms, even as varieties, leads to confusion.

Mitten who correctly removed sterile plants from Chiloscyphus to Lophocolea, helpfully comments as follows in the Flora Novae Zelandiae: “.. It approaches in size the larger forms of L. bidentata, but has wider leaves with more ciliiform teeth, and a thinner more vitreous (glassy) texture. More perfect specimens of this plant would probably exhibit the stipule combined on both sides with the subjacent leaves …”

I find that this species is liable at times to be confused with Chiloscyphus allodontus. Stephani and Rodway appear to have confused it with the large soft form of Chiloscyphus coalitus.

My specimens from all parts of the North Island number nearly 100; from the South Island, the localities are as follows, with some characteristic habitats.

Tokaka Hill (Nelson), 3470, Mrs. Haskell; Maruia Springs (Nelson), 315, J. H. McMahon; Banks Peninsula, 4288, 4325, 4283, H. M. H.; Milford Track,

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F. McDonald; dry, little-shaded bank on coast, Otago Peninsula, H1415, damp ground at edge of bog, Mt. Maunganui, H851, shady rock in stream, Trotter's Gorge, H1403, under open manuka, near Herbert, H1416, on logs and earth in bush above Leith Stream, H904, damp, shady roadside, North-East Valley (Dunedin), H5311, steep bank above high-tide, Brighton, H1380; sheltered cove on coastal cliff, Taieri Mouth, H1390 and H1345, shady bank, bush gully, base of Flagstaff Hill, H1418, on rotten stump in bush, Catlins District, H5141, creek bank in bush gully. Waitati, 5089, K. W. A.; logs in bush near Riverton rocks, 5542, W. M.; Campbell Is., 3415, J. H. Sorensen.

The type was from New Zealand, the collector not stated.

Lophocolea inflexifolia Steph.

Lophocolea inflexifolia Steph., Spec. Hep., vi, 248, 1924.

Plants sterile, medium to large, usually pale sub-hyaline, soft. Stem to 3 cm. (Stephani gives 6), simple or with few, long branches, some with larger leaves than others. Leaves a little imbricate, horizontally spreading, with the ventral margin folded over at the base, arched a little, dorsal margin long, sloping; ca. 1.4 mm, excluding the apical setas, base ca. 1·4 mm. wide, excluding the folded-in portion, apex ¼–⅓ the basal width, sinus sublunate, laciniae acuminate, attenuated, parallel, converging or diverging. Cells small, 20μ, interspersed with somewhat larger ones, basal larger. Stipules large, bifid, segments broad, lacerate, setaceous.

Not one of the commoner species, but can be recognized by its inflexed ventral margin, rhomboid leaves with small cells, and large lacerate stipules, though strange to say, the Marlborough plant has small stipules. Though nearest to L. bidentata in appearance, the inflexed basal ventral margin is reminiscent of some forms of L. bispinosa.

North Island: In grass, Otupae, N.W. Ruahines, 1533, A. P. and H. M. D.

South Island: Kelly's Hill, Westland, 1574, S. Berggren, 1874, comm. W. E. Nicholson; damp bank above alpine stream, amongst mosses, Rock and Pillar Range (Otago), H5257, K. W. A.; Marlborough, 243, J. H. McMahon; Hermitage, Mt. Cook, G. O. K. S. (probably); edge of bog, summit of Mt. Maungatua, 5552, W. M.

The type was from Pain's Limestone Hill. Wairarapa, 209, leg. W. Gray, ex Herb. Rev. D. Lillie.

Lophocolea bidentata (L.) Dum.

Jungermannia bidentata Linn., Sp. Pl., ii, 1598, 1753.

Loph. bidentata Dum., Rec. d'Obs., p. 17, 1835., Syn. Hep., p. 159; Fl. Nov. Zel., ii. 137, 1855; Handb. N. Z. Fl., ii, 510, 1867; Rod., Pap. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., p. 49, 1916.

Loph. recurvifolia (Tayl.), Syn. Hep. (New Zealand); Loph. leptantha (Tayl.), Syn. Hep. (Cape Horn); Loph. divaricata (Tayl.), Syn. Hep (Cape Horn); Loph. alternifolia (Tayl.), Syn. Hep. (New Zealand); Loph. textilis (Tayl.), Syn. Hep. (Falk and Is.); Mitten, Fl. Nov. Zel., ii. 137, 1855.

Loph. fusca Steph., Spec. Hep., ii, 97, 1909.

Loph. scorpionifolia Steph. Spec. Hep., iii, 108, 1909.

Plants monoicous, robust, pale or brownish, loosely to intricately caespitose, or straggly, very often in grass, or under fern and scrub, cosmopolitan. Stems to 4 cm., much branched, with branches of varying length. Leaves distant to imbricate, whitish, ca. 1.2 mm. long, excluding the laciniae, asymmetric, obliquely

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ovate with a long insertion, ventral margin arched, dorsal long, straight or with an inward curve; apex truncate or with a lunate, or more rarely bluntly angled, sinus, ca. ½–⅓ the width of the base, laciniae somewhat abruptly narrowed, subsetaceous. Stipules varying in size, free on one side, 4-fid, the middle sinus as broad or broader than the stem, the middle segments straight, attenuated and spiniform, the lateral smaller but spiniform Cells rounded-hexagonal, pellucid, sometimes with chlorophyll round the walls, 25–35μ (in L. fusca), trigones wanting or small. Invol. leaves erect and convex, otherwise differing little from the cauline Perianth often appearing lateral owing to innovations, large to 4 ½ mm. long, triangular-prismatic, deeply 3-lobed, apex of lobes coarsely spinousdentate, margins dentate ♂ bracts sub-erect on branches, often terminal, in few or many pairs, smaller than the cauline leaves, antheridia appear to be not always present.

It appears to have been Mitten who first recognized Taylor's sub-antarctic and New Zealand species as L. bidentata. Stephani does not record it from New Zealand, but comparisons have been made, and Mitten's determination appears satisfactory. Moreover, the late Mr. W. E. Nicholson did not dispute it. The European state, however, is dioicous, but a smaller, closely allied plant called Lophocolea cuspidata or sometimes var cuspidata is monoicous. One cannot be sure that all our fertile plants are monoicous, but the majority of them definitely are.

In the Dunedin plants, an apical tooth on some of the leaves is obsolete.

North Island: Bank of stream. Hunua Ranges, H366, margin of tarn with Sphagnum, Mt. Hikurangi, 4,350 ft., H148, L. B. M., Maungaturuturu V. (National Park), 4428, G. O. K. S., 18 specimens from Rotorua-Taupo, Atiamuri districts, rotten log in bush between the coast and L. Roto-iti, H3430, K. W. A.; under fern and scrub, Maori land, Wairoa County, 4355, 4446, 2904, roadside cuttings in grass, Ohuka, 4593, 4149, in grass, shady hillsides, Kiwi Valley, 2871, 2869, 43, 444, E. A. H.; Otupae Range (N. W. Ruahines), 4595, H. M. H.

Other localities: Near Cass Hut (North Canterbury), 4185, H. M. H.; head of L. Manapouri to Wilmott Pass, 5068, G. Simpson, in grass under light manuka, base of Maungatua Range, H1391, on rotten willow logs on swampy ground, Otokia (Dunedin), H1371 in part, K. W. A., No. 2 Camp, Auckland Island, 4373, 1560, 4581, E. G. Turbott (“Cape Expedition”), Macquarie Is., 4607. R. Kenny, ex Melbourne Nat. Herbarium.

A world-wide species.

Additional Notes

Four species of Stephani's not already mentioned are L. cheesemanu, L. kaalaasu, L. petriana, and L. zurnii

The packet of L. cheesemanii seen was from Herb. Beckett, 255, and may not have been Stephani's type It is a very small bidentate specimen. Stephani's drawing of L. cheesemanu shows the perianth with very broad, strongly toothed wings. This is sometimes seen in L. lenta

The packet labelled L. kaalaasii was Kirk's No 440 It is similar to L. grandistipula Schiff. and L. kirku St, varietal forms of L. novae-zelandiae. It is doubtful if this is the type.

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The packet of L. petriana was collected by Petrie, 1898, and probably is the type. A very likely identification of this is L. subporosa Mitt.

L. zurnii was not seen. From the drawing and description one concludes that it is L. helmsiana, with stipule segments having a lateral tooth.

A curious little plant which appears to be a Lophocolea was collected on Olearia lacunosa, slopes of Mt. Alpha, 3,900 ft., Tararuas, by A. P. Druce, Jan. 1948 (7047). It is extremely minute, with leaves 0 1–0·15 mm. long, and with terminal capitate strings of gemmae. It is faintly suggestive of L. bispinosa.

Further Notes on Chiloscyphus

I am thankful to have this opportunity to correct and amend as follows the paper on Chiloscyphus, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 1944, pp. 27–52, written during the war when types were not available.

In Hepaticae Species Novae, 1885–1896, Stephani states that Chiloscyphus oblongifolius (Tayl.), Syn. Hep., is a form of Chilo. coalitus. I now have reason to believe that is correct. It is certainly very similar to Chiloscyphus colensoi Mitt., which I treated as a synonym, but it has the stipules connate to the leaves on both sides as in C. coalitus. I regret this mistake, and am very pleased to re-install Mitten's Chiloscyphus colensoi.

Chiloscyphus chlorophyllus (Tayl.) St., C. menziesii Mitt., C. bidentatus St.

With many more specimens to hand, there is now no doubt in my mind that these three are one and the same species, as was formerly suspected, and in future will be referred to as C. chlorophyllus.

Chiloscyphus normalis (Steph.) Hodgson.

Types from Stephani's Herbarium show that Chiloscyphus beckettianus, Lophocolea piliflora, and Lophocolea normalis are all the same species. As it was therefore not correct to apply Stephani's name of Lophocolea normalis to a certain species of Chiloscyphus, I would suggest now that the name of Chiloscyphus normalis, which is quite suitable (meaning, set at right angles) be retained for the species described under that name, p. 34, but that the reference be changed from C. normalis (St.) Hodgson to C. normalis Hodgson.

Chiloscyphus retusatus (Tayl.) Syn. Hep.

Mention of this species was formerly omitted. According to the Synopsis, it was from New Zealand, but there is no specimen at Kew, and the fragment from Mitten's collection was labelled as from Falkland Is. The Handbook places it in Leioscyphus (Mylia). The Synopsis description points to it being the species now known as Chiloscyphus compactus, but without Taylor's original specimen nothing can be done about it.

Chiloscyphus argutus Nees.

This, a common species in the South Pacific Islands, was collected from Raoul Is., Kermadecs, by A. C. S. Wright (1949), Nos. 67002, 67006, 67008, 67009, Bot. Div. Herb. I have as yet seen no specimen from the mainland, though Stephani gives sub-tropical New Zealand as a locality.

Additional localities for species are as follows:

C. multispinus Hodgson and Allison : Little Akatarawa V., 751, H. M. H. (1945); Steep gully side under manuka, near Herbert, North Otago, H5371, K. W. A. (1950); Auckland Island, “Cape Expedition”.

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C. cuneistipulus St.: Auckland Islands, “Cape Expedition”.

Chiloscyphus erraticus Hodgson and Martin: In humus, Antipodes Islands, E. G. Turbott, 26563, p.p, Auckland Museum (1950).

C. compactus Col.: On earth, Three Kings Islands, 5563, M. Holdsworth (1951); turf, Great Is., Three Kings, E. G. Turbott, 22011, Auckland Museum (1946); Campbell Is., 3408, J. H. Sorensen (1946).

C. polycladus Mitt.: Auckland Islands, G. Einar Du Rietz (1927).

The following New Zealand species of Chiloscyphus were included in Heteroscyphus, a genus published by Schiffner for species of Chiloscyphus having small perigonial bracts with antheridia on short branches, instead of normally sized bracts intercalary on main stems and branches: C. colensoi, C. coalitus, C. cuneistipulus, C. fissistipus, C. triacanthus, C. chlorophyllus, with C. sinuosus and C. billardieri as probabilities. As already pointed out, Heteroscyphus cannot be maintained in New Zealand, because there are numerous instances in which the androecia are exhibited in both forms in the one species, though this is not allowed for in Corda's original definition of the genus Chiloscyphus.


Grateful thanks are hereby extended to the following: To the Hawke's Bay Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand, for procuring for the library a copy of Dr. Stephani's Species Hepaticarum in a complete set of six volumes; to Sir Edward Salisbury, of Kew, for the loan of numerous types, including that of the very old Lophocolea novae zelandiae, collected at Dusky Sound in 1791; to Prof Dr. Charles Baehni, of the Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, Geneva, for the loan of numerous packets, including types, from Stephani's herbarium; to Dr. Roger, of New York Botanical Gardens, for the loan of type fragments of Leioscyphus chiloscyphoideus, Lophocolea pallida, and Chiloscyphus retusatus; to Dr. Barber, of the Tasmanian University, for pieces of Lophocolea amplectens and Lophocolea paucistipula; to Mr. A. D. Banwell for a copy of Schiffner's description and drawing of Lophocolea grandistipula; to Dr. Herman Persson, of the Riksmuseum. for a copy of Stephani's drawing of the same (not the type); to Dr. Falla, of the Dominion Museum, for permission to include mention of Lophocoleas collected by the “Cape Expedition” on Auckland and Campbell Islands; to Mr. K. W. Allison for the loan of his entire collection of Lophocoleas; and to Mr. Martin for specimens collected on recent excursions.

Literature Consulted

Casares-Gil, Ant, 1919 Flora Iberica, Briofitas (Pt 1) Hepaticas Museo Nacional de Cencias Naturales, Madrid

Gottsche, C. M., Lindenberg, J. B. G. et Nees ab Essenbeck. 1844–47. Synopsis Hepaticarum. including Supplement, Hamburg

Herzog, Th, 1935. Descriptions of New Species of New Zealand Hepatics Trans. Roy. Soc. N. Z., vol. 65, p. 350

Hooker, J. D, 1867 Handbook of the New Zealand Flora, vol. 2. London.

Macvicar, S. M., 1927. The Students' Handbook of British Hepatics London

Mitten, W., 1855. Flora Noιae Zelandiae, vol. 2

— 1860. Flora Tasmaniac

Pearson, W. H., 1923 Notes on a Collection of New Zealand Hepaties, Univ. Cal. Pub. Bot, vol. 10, p. 317.

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Rodway, L., 1916 Tasmanian Bryophyta, vol. ii, Hepatics. Papers & Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., Hobart.

Schiffner, V., 1910. über die Gattungen Chiloscyphus und Heteroscyphus n gen. Osteιreichischen botanischen Zeitschrift, Nr 5. Wien.

Sim, T. R., 1926. The Bryophyta of South Africa Trans. Roy Soc. South Africa Capetown.

Spruce, R., 1848–62. Hepaticae Amazonicae et Andinae. Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh.

Stephani, Fr., 1892. Colenso's New Zealand Hepaticae. Journ Linn. Soc. Bot., vol. 29, pp. 263–280.

— 1909. Species Hepaticarum, vol. 3. Geneva.

— 1924. Species Hepaticarum, vol. 6 Geneva.

— 1885–96. Hepaticae Species Novac. (Reprints from Hedwigia.)

Icones Hepaticarum. Unpublished hand-drawings of Species.

Taylor and Hooker, 1847. Flora Antarctica, vol. 2.


Since writing the above, it has been my good fortune to examine specimens of Lophocolea and Chiloscyphus, collected by Dr. S. Berggren in New Zealand in 1874, and recently sent to me from the Museum at Lund, Sweden. The collection contains the following species of Lophocolea In the cases of L. Helmsiana, L. innovata, L. inflexifolia, L. Dalliana, L. paucistipula, L. insularis (possibly), the names were bestowed on types collected at a later date.

L. Helmsiana, 4039, 4026, 3936, 4029, 3719.

L. pallida, 3725, 4090, 4087.

L. innovata, 3794.

L. lenta, specimens very numerous.

L. biciliata, 4025, 4023, 4000, 3782.

L. bispinosa, 3792a, 3808, 3175.

L. inflexifolia, 3808, 3714.

L. Novae Zelandiae, 3818, 3810, 3753, 4086.

L. subporosa, 3811.

L. bidentata, 3792, 3780.

L. notophylla, 3717.

L. insularis, 3779, 4068.

L. paucistipula, 3704.

L. stronglyophylla, 3708.

L. amplectens, 3791.

L. muricata, 3781.

L. australis, 3943.

L. Dalliana, 4091.

L. heterophylloides, specimens very numerous.