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Volume 81, 1953
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The Royal Society of New Zealand

Annual Meeting of The Council, Held 19th May, 1953 Minutes

The Annual Meeting of the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand was held on Tuesday, 19th May, 1953, in the Council Room, Victoria University College, Wellington, commencing at 10 a.m.

The Honourable Minister of Scientific and Industrial Research had accepted an invitation to be present at the initial stages of the meeting, but at the last moment was detained by an early meeting of the Executive Council.

His message conveyed his best wishes for a successful meeting and his sincere regret at his inability to be present. He also stated that he hoped to bring before Cabinet in a few days the financial needs of the Society.

On the motion of Dr. Falla, seconded by Dr. Salmon, it was resolved that the Hon. Minister be thanked for his good wishes.

Roll Call. The following responded to the roll call:—President—Dr. W. R. B. Oliver; Vice-Presidents—Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Dr. D. Miller; Government Representatives—Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. Oliver, Dr. G. Archey, and Mr. Callaghan; Auckland Institute Representative—Professor L. H. Briggs; Wellington Branch Representatives—Dr. M. A. F. Barnett and Professor L. R. Richardson; Canterbury Branch Representatives—Mr. C. E. Fenwick, Mr. B. W. Collins (Observer); Otago Branch Representatives—Professor W. E. Adams and Mr. O. H. Keys; Hawke's Bay Branch Representative—Mr. J. D. H. Buchanan; Nelson Institute Representative—Dr. D. Miller; Southland Branch Representative—Dr. H. H. Allan; Co-opted Member—Dr. J. T. Salmon; Hon. Treasurer—Mr. S. Cory Wright; Fellows' Representative—Professor F. G. Soper.

Apologies. His Excellency the Governor-General, Sir Willoughby Norrie, conveyed through the Official Secretary his acceptance of the office of Patron of the Society, and regretted that owing to his being in residence in Auckland in May he would be unable to be present at the annual meeting of the Council.

Mr. A. T. Pycroft, a representative of the Auckland Institute, apologised for absence on account of the illness of his wife.

Dr. R. S. Allan also wrote apologising for absence on account of a sudden attack of influenza.

Professor C. A. Cotton, the newly elected representative of the Fellows, regretted that he would be in Auckland during the vacation.

Observer. The Canterbury Branch had asked permission for Mr. B. W. Collins to sit in for Dr. Allan. The President welcomed Mr. Collins to the Council as an observer.

Her Majesty's Coronation. On the motion of Mr. O. H. Keys, seconded by Dr. G. Archey, it was unanimously resolved to forward to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II a loyal message on the occasion of her Coronation.

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President's Remarks. The President, Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, referred to the death of Dr. T. A. Jaggar, late of the Vulcanological Observatory at Hawaii and of Mr. Henry Woods for many years Curator of Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge. These were both Honorary Members of the Society.

Dr. Oliver referred, also, to the loss the Society had suffered by the death of Professor I. L. G. Sutherland, Professor of Philosophy at Canterbury University College and an authority on the Maori people. Major G. A. Buddle, a member of the Auckland Institute, whose interest lay in natural history, particularly in birds. Mr. F. G. Gibbs, a member of the Nelson Institute for over 50 years, and well-known throughout New Zealand in educational and scientific circles. His chief interests were astronomy, geology, and botany. Mr. W. C. Davies, also a member of the Nelson Institute, and for many years Curator of the Cawthron Institute Museum. His photography of scientific subjects was outstanding. Dr. E. R. Cooper, a member of the Wellington Branch and head of the Dominion Physical Laboratory, and Mr. William Jones, another member of the Wellington Branch, and latterly Director of the D.S.I.R. Oceanographic Observatory. He was a Government representative on the Carter Observatory Board.

The Council stood in respect to the memory of all these Members and Honorary Members.

In his opening remarks, the President briefly mentioned the fact that 1953 is a Jubilee year of the reconstituted Society.

He reviewed subjects which had been in the forefront of the minds of the Council—namely, the spreading of scientific interest by the formation of new societies such as the entomological and ecological societies, both very active; the possibility of the formation of new branches at Hamilton and Rotorua; of the association of the Royal Society with societies of allied interests in connection with which he announced that it is proposed to hold in June a meeting of representatives of all interested societies; of the status of Fellows and their impact on the scientific life of the Dominion; of National Collections, a report of which was before the meeting; National Parks and the newly established National Parks Authority; and of the Proceedings of the Seventh Pacific Science Congress, the volumes of which had been completed or were nearing completion.

New and Retired Members. Dr. Oliver stated that he had hoped to extend a welcome to Professor C. A. Cotton who, at the last Standing Committee meeting, had been elected a representative of the Fellows in place of Dr. Marwick, who had resigned from the Council. He paid a special tribute to the work done by Dr. Marwick over a long period on the Council. He had rendered great service in many ways, especially as Honorary Editor of the Transactions.

Notices of Motion were called for and handed in to be dealt with later in the meeting.

Hector Award. Dr. Oliver read the following report of the Hector Award Committee, of which he was convener:—

“At the last Annual Meeting, Mr. A. W. B. Powell and I were appointed members of the Hector Award Committee, with power to co-opt. one other. We duly co-opted Dr. J. Marwick, a recipient of the Hector Award for Geology, whose main interest is Palaeontology, that is a zoological subject.

“After considering carefully the work of all New Zealand zoologists who were eligible for the award, we unanimously recommended that the Hector

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Award and Prize in zoology for 1953 be granted to Dr. L. E. Richdale, for his researches in bird behaviour.

W. R. B. Oliver, Convener.”

The recommendation of the Committee was adopted.

Amount of Prize. After some discussion, introduced by Dr. Archey, on the state of the Hector Fund, it was resolved, on the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Professor Richardson, that the amount of the prize be £50 as usual.

Hutton Award. The President read the following report of the Hutton Award Committee:—

“I have much pleasure in reporting that your Committee set up to consider the candidates for the Hutton Medal Award are unanimous in their recommendation of Dr. J. Marwick for the award on account of his outstanding record in the field of Palaeontology.

David Miller, Convener.”

Fellowship. On behalf of the Fellowship Selection Committee, Dr. D. B. Macleod (Convener), Dr. R. S. Allan, Dr. D. Miller, Dr. H. D. Skinner, and Dr. M. A. F. Barnett, the following report was received:—

“On behalf of the Fellowship Selection Committee we have pleasure in recommending the election of Dr. L. Bastings and Professor B. J. Marples.

M. A. F. Barnett
David Miller.”

The recommendation was adopted.

Fellowship Rules. Considerable discussion took place on the Notice of Motion proposed by Professor Briggs and seconded by Dr. Archey—

“That the first paragraph of Fellowship Rule No. 5 be amended by the addition of the words‘ but that this restriction shall not apply in the case of persons who during the qualifying period have resided over twenty-five miles from the headquarters of a Branch’.”

Dr. Oliver reported on behalf of a sub-committee set up by the Standing Committee to consider the opinions of Member Bodies on two suggested amendments to the Rule. The sub-committee recommended removing all restrictions as to length of time of membership. Dr. Falla moved and Mr. Callaghan seconded the sub-committee's recommendation. After some further discussion the following amendment, proposed by Mr. Keys, seconded by Professor Adams, was carried:—

“That Rule 5 be amended by adding the following words: ‘provided that this Rule shall not debar the election of a non-member by the unanimous resolution of Council upon special recommendation in an exceptional case and provided the non-member is residing in New Zealand.’”

Vacancies in Fellowship. On the motion of Professor Briggs, seconded by Dr. Archey, it was resolved that three Fellows be elected in 1954.

Resignation of Fellows. The Otago Branch had asked for a ruling on the tenure of Fellowship in the case of a member elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand and shortly afterwards leaving New Zealand and resigning from membership of his Branch. This matter had been referred to the Member Bodies for opinion, and the replies received were read to the annual

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meeting. After commenting on the reply received from the Nelson Philosophical Society, Dr. Miller moved, and it was carried—

“That Fellowship of the Royal Society of New Zealand is bestowed as a personal honour which should not be subject to any conditions after it has been bestowed.”

Election of Honorary Members. Eight nominations were received from Member Bodies for the three vacancies. Professor Briggs and Dr. Barnett were appointed Returning Officers in the absence of Mr. Pycroft.

The voting resulted in Sir John Cockroft, Dr. N. A. Mackintosh, and Dr. J. B. Conant being elected.

Vacancies in Honorary Membership. Two vacancies, due to the death of Dr. T. A. Jagger and of Mr. Henry Woods, were declared.

Vote of Thanks. On the motion of Mr. Callaghan, the Hector and Hutton Award Committees and the Fellowship Selection Committee were thanked for their work.

Deputation to Hon. Minister. Dr. Archey reported on the deputation to the Hon. Minister which had taken place on the 20th April. He said the Minister had been most sympathetic towards the Society's request for a substantial increase in its grant to meet the pressing needs of publication and library maintenance. The Hon. Minister also gave it as his opinion that the Society should be placed on an independent financial status and that it should not be subject to the D.S.I.R. An illuminating graph prepared by Professor Richardson, showing the limiting effect of the Society's grant on its publications had been very useful in the deputation. Copies of the graph were distributed.

The result of the deputation was not yet known.

The lunch adjournment was then taken, the visiting members being the guests of the Wellington members.

Afternoon Roll Call was the same as in the morning session.

Report of the Standing Committee For The Year Ended 31st March, 1953.

Meetings. Five meetings of the Standing Committee were held during the year, the attendance being as follows:—

Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, President, Wellington. 5; Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Vice-President, Wellington, 4; Dr. H. H. Allan, Wellington, 4; Dr. M. A. F. Barnett, Wellington, 5; Mr. S. Cory Wright, Wellington, 3; Dr. R. A. Falla, Wellington, 5; Professor L. R. Richardson, Wellington, 3; Dr. J. T. Salmon, Wellington, 5.

Council. There have been no changes in the Council personnel during the past year. The secretary of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research has intimated that the names of Dr. G. Archey and Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Government nominees on the Council, have been recommended to the Hon. Minister for a further term of office.

Publication Matters. Since his appointment as Honorary Editor at the annual meeting last year, Dr. J. T. Salmon has kept the Standing Committee in close touch with publication matters, and has submitted the papers for Volume 81, Parts 1 and 2.

It would appear that the Otago Daily Times Co. is bringing out the quarterly parts more rapidly than has been its custom over the past few years.

Volume 80, Part 1, introducing the new format, appeared in June, 1952, Part 2 in September, and Part 3 and 4 in February. 1953. The new crown quarto size seems to have met with general approval, and it has added only slightly to the cost of production, the additional amount of 4/6 per page of text being offset by the larger amount of print per page in the new size.

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However, the cost of printing was assuming such proportions that at a meeting of the Standing Committee held on the 4th December it was decided that a limit of £1,500 per volume would have to be imposed if the Society would keep within its budget under the present grant of £1,900. Member Bodies were advised accordingly.

Early in the year the Standing Committee discussed the type and the standard of papers appearing in the Transactions, and later, with a view to meeting any criticism on the value of the published papers, the Hon. Editor, Dr. Salmon, assisted by Professor Richardson and others, drew up a descriptive critique of papers published in Volume 79 then completed. This statement made it possible to rapidly assess the worth of these papers and, subsequently, it was presented to the Hon. Minister as a basis in a request for a more adequate grant to enable the continuation of the Transactions.

A request from some users of the Transactions that an abbreviated title with volume number and part be printed on the spine of each volume in order that it be more readily accessible when shelved was considered and referred to the printers for an estimate of the cost involved.

The 1951 N. Z. Science Congress Volume: The publication of this volume was undertaken by a committee of the Canterbury Branch. It comprised 256 pages, and was printed by the Caxton Press, Christchurch, under the editorship of Mr. Maurice A. Black, M.A. It was distributed in March, 1953.

The cost of publishing the volume was met by a special grant of £850 from the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, together with approximately £200, a credit balance from the administration of the 1951 Congress. The Royal Society of New Zealand met the cost of postage on the volumes to the various institutions on its exchange list.

The Wellington Branch asked the Standing Committee to revise the rule that papers being submitted for the Transactions must first be read in whole or by title before a Member Body. It pointed out that this requirement frequently led to unwarranted delay in the publication of a paper. The Standing Committee, while seeing no reason to over-ride the report of the sub-committee set up three years ago to consider the rules on the procedure of submitting papers for the Transactions, decided to refer the matter to the Member Bodies for comment. The replies have not yet been before the Standing Committee.

Society's Publications: There has been quite a demand for the Society's publications during the past year, especially for Hudson's “New Zealand Beetles and Their Larvae,” 27 copies having been sold, bringing the total number sold to date to 75.

The question arises as to whether the price of the remaining 25 copies should be increased.

The same question applies to the Manual and Bulletins, which are priced at an exceedingly low figure in relation to scarcity value.

In addition to the above, three partial sets of Transactions were sold, the total value being approximately £100.

Proceedings of the Seventh Pacific Science Congress: Volumes 1 (Narrative and Official), 3 (Oceanography and Meteorology), and 5 (Botany), have now been published by the Government Printer. The remaining four volumes are all nearing completion, and it is hoped that all the volumes will be printed and distributed before the meeting of the Eighth Pacific Science Congress in November, 1953. The special grant of £8,500 promised by the Government last year has now been paid over to the Society to meet the publishing costs of Volumes 2, 4, 6, 7, and a portion of Volume 5.

Storage of Publications. In view of urgent alterations necessary in the General Assembly Library Buildings, the Society was repeatedly requested to vacate the store-room in the cellar of the building which housed the bulk of the stocks of Transactions. The securing of alternative accommodation appeared to be impossible, and eventually the Clerk of the House, who is Chairman of the Library Committee, made available a smaller room in the basement of Parliament Buildings.

Further, the Assembly Library authorities provided the labour necessary to shift the books, the Society being called upon to pay only the carrier's charges, which amounted to £25.

It was emphasised that this room should not be viewed as permanent accommodation, and indeed the space is inadequate to allow of any system of classification of stocks.

At the same time opportunity was taken to remove to the Society's rooms at the College all stocks of Bulletins, Manual, etc., which were brought to light. Many of these, for many years, had been listed as “out of print,” and a few sets of the Manual of N. Z. Coleoptera

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by Broun are now available as are Bulletins 1, 2 and 3, although there is strange dispacity in the numbers of the parts of these publications.

Deputations to Hon. Minister. Arising out of some comments of the Hon. Minister of Scientific and Industrial Research at the last annual meeting that he should like to be kept informed of the work of the Society, it was agreed at the first Standing Committee meeting after the annual meeting to endeavour to obtain an interview and discuss with the Hon Minister such subjects as had been receiving the attention of the Council, such as the report on Fuel and Power, on National Collections, the National Advisory Council on Conservation. and Financial.

A deputation consisting of Mr. Callaghan, Dr. Archey, Dr. Falla, Dr. Marwick and Professor Richardson met the Hon. Minister on the 3rd July. Mr. Algie stated that his knowledge had been considerably enlarged by the survey presented to him, and although it was then not an appropriate time to ask for a larger grant, he would keep the needs of the Society in view.

At the March meeting of the Standing Committee it was agreed that the time had come for a further approach to the Hon. Minister for a langer grant, and the same deputation under Dr. Archey was asked to draw up a case setting out the Society's in gent needs.

The report of this interview, which was set down for April 20, will be presented to the annual meeting in May.

The Standing Committee was so aware of the importance of keeping the Hon Minister apprised of the work of the Society that it decided to recommend to the Council that it be an obligation of the Standing Committee to arrange an interview after each annual meeting to acquaint the Hon. Minister of matters of importance.

Library. The Library Committee met in July, and on its recommendation the following institutions were added to the Exchange List:—

University of California, Agricultural College, Davis. U.S.A.

  • Palaeontological Research Institute, Ithaca.

  • Bureau of Mineral Resources, Canberra.

  • Osaka City University Polytechnic Institute, Japan.

  • Botyo-Kagaku (Insect Control), Japan.

  • Higher Education and Science Bureau, Japan.

  • Tohoku University, Japan.

  • Univ. Faculdad de Ciencias Exactes, Buenos Aires, South America.

  • Universidad Central, Venezuela.

  • Botanische Gesellschaft, Thuringia.

  • Poznanski Tpwatstwo, Poland.

  • Ustredni Ustav Geol., Czechoslovakia.

  • Acta Societatis Zool., Czechoslovakia.

  • L'Universite de Besancon, France.

  • Societas Zool. Bot. Fennica “Vanamo,” Finland.

  • Real. Acad. de Ciencias Exactes Agronomia Lusitania, Portugal.

  • Memoria do Museo Dr. Alvaro de Castio. Port. East Africa.

  • Bingham Oceanographic Laboratory.

  • Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge.

Seventy-one volumes were bound during the year, the cost per volume being an increase of 5/- since 1950. The balance in the Library Binding Fund is £160.

In order to make more room in the Stack room, a list of some unused medical books which could be more properly used in specialist libraries was submitted to the Standing Committee. The Hon. Librarian and Secretary were authorised to dispose of the books to the best advantage.

Approximately 100 feet of additional shelving in the stack room as well as in the library was authorised, but this has not yet been erected.

Junior part-time assistance in the library was engaged up to December, 1952.

Member Bodies. The following reports and balance sheets have been received from Member Bodies:—

  • Auckland Institute, for the year ended 31st March, 1952.

  • Wellington Branch, for the year ended 30th September, 1952.

  • Canterbury Branch, for the year ended 31st October, 1952.

  • Otago Branch, for the year ended 31st October, 1952.

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  • Hawke's Bay Branch, for the year ended 31st December, 1952.

  • Nelson Philosophical Society and Nelson Institute, for the year ended 31st December, 1952.

  • Southland Branch, for the year ended 31st March, 1953.

An endeavour was made through the Wellington Branch to resuscitate the Manawatu Branch, which ceased to function in 1940. It was reported that a public meeting had been called in Palmerston North with this end in view, but there was little enthusiasm shown, and no one would undertake the responsibility of office. It appeared that there was no possibility of resuscitation of the Branch, and the Standing Committee accordingly took steps to ascertain the position regarding funds and property and the formal winding up of the Branch.

The possibility of a branch of the Royal Society being established in Hamilton (referred to the Auckland Institute for action) at present does not appear hopeful, but there is a project to form a Society of Agricultural Scientists allied in some way to the N. Z. Animal Production Society.

Relation of the Royal Society to Other Scientific Societies. A Sub-committee was set up at the last annual meeting to explore the possibility of a closer association with other scientific societies with a view to enlarging the scope of the Royal Society so that it may speak for all science.

This Sub-committee has had two preliminary meetings and it now proposes to call a conference of representatives of a selected list of societies in June for discussion on the matter.

Fellowship. At the last annual meeting some discussion took place on Rule No 5 governing the election of Fellows and two amendments to the Rule were finally approved for transmission to the Member Bodies for consideration. Of the five Member Bodies which replied, two considered the present rule should stand, two others suggested variations of the amendments, and one gave notice of motion to the next annual meeting of a further amendment to the existing rule.

Vacancies in the Fellowship: Eight nominations for the two vacancies were received from Member Bodies, and voting papers were forwarded to the Fellows on the 12th December, 1952. The result of the voting was subsequently sent to the Fellowship Selection Committee, which will report to the annual meeting.

Fellowship Representation on the Council. The result of the election for two representatives of the Fellows on the Council was placed before the Standing Committee at its meeting on the 1st August, when Professor F. G. Soper and Dr. J. Marwick were duly elected. Dr. Marwick, however, intimated that at present he was unable to act on the Council.

Hector Award. On the 15th July, Professor P. W. Burbidge, Convener of the Hector Award Committee 1952-53, wrote that his committee was “Unanimous in recommending Professor W. E. Bullen, M.A., B.Sc. (N.Z.), M.A. (Melb.), Sc.D. (Cantab.), Professor of Applied Mathematics in the University of Sydney for the award of the Hector Medal and Prize. Professor Bullen's work for the award done while he was Lecturer at Auckland University College was concerned with analysis of seismological records.”

At its meeting on the 1st August, the Standing Committee adopted the recommendation.

The Medal and Prize were presented to Professor Bullen by the President of the Royal Society of New South Wales at a meeting of that Society, the occasion being the commemoration of Great Scientists and therefore a fitting opportunity to recall the life and work of Sir James Hector. Professor Bullen wrote conveying his deep appreciation of the honour the Society had done him, stating, “I am delighted with the Hector Medal, which is beautifully designed.”

Hutton Grants. Applications for Hutton Grants were approved as follows:—

Miss V. Jolly, £90, for apparatus and transport for an investigation on the plankton of New Zealand Lakes.

Mr. B. H. Mason, £100, to defray expenses of a geological survey of the igneous rocks in the inland Kaikoura Mountains.

An application by the Southland Branch for a sum for repairs to the hut erected on Whero Island was not approved, as it was considered that there were funds from another source which could be utilised more justifiably in this direction.

Eighth N. Z. Science Congress. The Auckland Institute wrote giving its opinion that the 1954 Science Congress should be held in Auckland in summer, and suggested 4th to 9th February as suitable dates. This letter was considered at a meeting of the Standing Committee on the 4th March, when there was much opposition to altering the usual date. May had been accepted as the Congress month for many years, and it coincided with the annual

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meeting. The arguments against the change were placed before the Auckland Institute, which subsequently agreed to hold the Congress in May, 1954, details to be decided at the annual meeting.

Overseas Conferences. Eighth Pacific Science Congress: An invitation was received from the Chairman of the Organizing Committee of the Eighth Pacific Science Congress, to be held in Quezon City on the 16th to 28th November, 1953. It was reported that in view of the expense of transport in attending the Congress (£145 single, £261 return), there seemed little possibility of even a small delegation attending.

It was considered most important that the President and the Secretary-General of the Seventh Pacific Science Congress at least should be able to attend as official delegates, and Dr. Falla was authorised to point out to the Government that the prestige of New Zealand called for its representation at the Congress.

A. and N.Z.A.A.S.: The following delegates were appointed to represent the Royal Society at the Sydney meeting of the A. and N.Z.A.A.S. in August, 1952:—Dr. G. Archey, Professor W. N. Benson, and Dr. C. A. Fleming.

International Geographic Conference. Professor C. A. Cotton, Dr. R. Cusman Murphy, and Professor F. J. Turner, now of California, were appointed to represent the Society, but in each case circumstances intervened and prevented attendance.

Council of Scientific Unions General Assembly. Dr. E. Marsden represented the Society at the Sixth General Assembly held in Amsterdam on October 1-3, 1952, and he reported fully on the Proceedings there.

One result of the meeting which affects the Royal Society is a decision to raise the annual subscription of adhering bodies from the present sum of £58 to £70. The Standing Committee did not feel that it could accept this increase without protest, and Dr. Marsden was written to to ascertain what action might be taken.

International Zoological Congress is to be held in Copenhagen, and Dr. Anton Brun intimated that official invitations are being sent through the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Although this invitation has not yet been received, Dr. H. B. Fell, who is proceeding to England and the Continent on Sabbatical leave, has been appointed to represent the Society, and Lieutenant Brian Bary, attached to the naval scientific research department, now stationed in England, has been tentatively appointed subject to the N.Z. Navy giving him leave.

National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum. Mr. H. C. McQueen was nominated as one of the representatives of the Society on the Board of Trustees in place of Professor W. P. Evans, who had resigned, and Dr. C. A. Fleming was nominated for a further term.

Museum Management Committee. Although pressed to reconsider his decision, Professor L. R. Richardson resigned his seat on the Management Committee, and Dr. C. A. Fleming was nominated to succeed him.

Fuel and Power Report. When the deputation which waited on the Hon. Minister on the 3rd July mentioned the Fuel and Power report drawn up by a Sub-committee of the Society under the convenership of Dr. L. Bastings, the Hon. Minister expressed appreciation of the Society's action in preparing a report on such a vital matter, and he stated that the contents of the report were then receiving the attention of the Government. The report appealed to have aroused interest as requests for copies from one or two Government Departments as well as from the Wellington City Council Electricity Department were received.

National Collections. The Exploratory Committee on National Collections was asked to finalise and present its report to the Standing Committee.

Proposed National Trust. A joint committee of interested bodies convened by Dr. Falla was held. A draft bill on Public Reserves, etc., has been received, and will be considered by the Standing Committee in April.

National Parks Act. On the 4th December a letter from the Hon, Minister of Lands intimated that under the National Parks Act, 1952, a National Park Authority was being set up, and Section 4 (f) provides for the appointment of a nominee of the Royal Society of New Zealand.

Dr. W. R. B. Oliver was nominated by the Standing Committee for a seat on the National Parks Authority, and his appointment was gazetted in March, 1953.

The National Parks Authority terminates the Society's representation on the Tongariro National Park Board, and the annual meeting should accord its thanks to Mr. J. H. Rose for ably representing the Society during the last two years.

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White Island. The question of the future preservation of White Island referred to the Standing Committee by the Hon. Minister of Lands for an opinion, was considered, and the principle of White Island being declared a private scenic reserve was approved.

Rutherford Memorial Appeal. The Rutherford Memorial Appeal in New Zealand reached the total sum of £10,000.

The first Rutherford Memorial Speaker was Sir John Cockroft, Director of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell. He arrived from England and spoke to meetings of the Branches held in conjunction with other interested organisations in the centres.

E. R. Cooper Memorial Award. The Standing Committee was approached by the Dominion Physical Laboratory Technical Advisory Committee though the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research to ascertain if the Royal Society would undertake the administration of a proposed memorial award to be established in memory of the late Dr. E. R., Cooper, Director of the Dominion Physical Laboratory. It was agreed to recommend this action to the annual meeting in May.

Carter Observatory Board. The Standing Committee at its meeting in March nominated Dr. M. A. F. Barnett and Dr. G. L. Rogers to represent it on the Carter Observatory Board. Mechaelis Trust. Professor Watson-Munro was nominated to represent the Royal Society on the Mechaelis Trust Award Committee to succeed Professor Florence, who had retired.

Zoological Record. The sum of £15 was contributed to the Zoological Society of London to assist it in the continuation of the publication of the Zoological Record.

Kalinga Prize. Professor C. A. Cotton's name was forwarded to the Committee for this year's award of the Kalinga Prize for Science Writing.

Unesco. The Society's nominees for a term of office on the National Commission of UNESCO were Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, Mr. D. Forsyth, Mr. H. C. D. Somerset, and Mr. A. B. Tennant.

Dr. Oliver moved, Mr. Callaghan seconded the adoption of the report of the Standing Committee.

In speaking to the report, Mr. Callaghan raised the point as to whether Fellows of the Society could not be brought more actively into the work of the Society, and whether a meeting of the Fellows might be arranged. Dr. Archey supported the suggestion of a meeting, and thought it should be possible to arrange one during the 1954 Congress.

Professor Briggs reported on the result of investigations by the Auckland Institute regarding the formation of a Branch of the Society in Hamilton.

A good deal of discussion on the relationship of the Royal Society of New Zealand to other scientific societies took place, Dr. Archey reporting that the sub-committee set up at last annual meeting had decided to hold in June a Conference of representatives of societies which might be interested, and he thought that as many members of the Council as possible should be present as it was possible that some modification of the rules might be necessary. In his opinion societies which publish a scientific journal or proceedings might be looked upon as having sufficient qualification for affiliation. Mr. Callaghan suggested that the June Conference might benefit from an expression of opinion by members. Mr. Keys stated that Societies affiliating with the Royal Society might fall into two groups—Member Bodies and Associate Societies. Professor Briggs said that the Royal Society, as having senior scientific status, should open its doors in order that it might speak for all science.

Finally, on the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Mr. Keys, it was resolved—“That in the opinion of the Council the publication of a scientific journal may be acceptable as a qualification for admission as a Member Body.”

E. R. Cooper Memorial Award. On the motion of Dr, Archey, seconded by Professor Briggs, it was resolved—

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“That in general we accept the principle of administering the E. R. Cooper Memorial Award, and that the details be left in the hands of the Standing Committee.”

The report of the Standing Committee was adopted.

Report of Honorary Treasurer.

I present the Balance Sheet and Statement of Accounts for the year ending 31st March, 1953, showing that the Society has just met expenses so far brought to account, with the Government Grant received last year of £1,900.

This has been possible only because two parts of the Transactions (Volume 80, Parts 1 and 2) have been issued and paid for in the period.

At the beginning of this year, Volume 79, Part 3/4, printed in the preceding year, was charged at £1,050. Three parts of Volume 80, the last a double part, have been printed during the year under review, but the first two parts only had been charged at 31st March, 1953, bringing the total expenditure of £2,107 to be met for printing during the year, thus reducing our credit balance at the end of the year by about £400.

The cash funds available to meet next year's expenses amount to £1,885, which may be adequate to cover the cost of Volume 80 (3/4) and the first two parts of Volume 81 of the Transactions, but a larger Government Grant will be necessary if more parts are to be issued.

The Standing Committee considered that with the present grant the maximum we can spend on publications is £1,500. We are already committed for Volume 80 (3/4), Volume 81 (1) (2) and as these are estimated to cost well over £1,500 we are already overspending our present allocation.

It is therefore necessary to renew our request for a larger Government Grant if we are to continue our present activities.

The Trust Funds continue in a healthy condition. Six hundred pounds worth of Inscribed Stock was purchased to increase the permanent investment for the Endowment Fund.

In the Seventh Pacific Science Congress Accounts, the Government made a special grant of £8,500 to enable the whole set of Proceedings to be published, and these are nearing completion.

The Member Bodies' balance sheets indicate that they are all complying with their financial obligations to the Royal Society or to a Library or Museum.

S. Cory Wright,
Honorary Treasures.

– xi –
The Royal Society of New Zealand.
Statement of Receipts and Payments for the Year Ended 31st March, 1953.
Receipts.
£ s. d.
Balance at 31st March, 1952 3,750 11 8
Annual Government Grant 1,900 0 0
Sales of Publications 158 13 11
Levy: Arrears of Vol. 79 and Vol. 80 439 2 6
Travelling Expenses: Member Bodies' Share 40 12 9
Endowment Fund, Interest 118 5 2
Hutton Memorial Fund, Interest 64 7 5
Hector Memorial Fund, Interest 51 8 11
T. K. Sidey Summer-Time Fund, Interest 25 14 8
Plant Diseases Trust, Interest 19 16 4
Cockayne Memorial Fund, Interest 12 11 6
Carter Library Legacy, Interest 6 18 6
Hamilton Memorial Fund, Interest 2 10 8
Transfer from Trust Funds to General Account 39 2 4
£6,649 16 4
Payments.
£ s. d.
Otago Daily Times Co., Transactions 79 (3/4), 80 (1,2) 2,106 19 9
Salaries (Secretary, Library Assistance) 580 16 6
Travelling Expenses: Members of Council 66 8 4
Stationery 26 3 7
Charges (Telephone, Cartage, Audit, etc) 47 11 10
Subscription to Int. Scientific Unions 58 18 11
Subscription to Zoological Record 15 3 2
Petty Cash (Secretary and Hon. Editor) 30 1 3
Special Grant for 1951 N.Z. Science Con. Vol. 850 0 0
Postages, 1951 N.Z. Science Con. Vol. 21 14 8
Binding Library Books 88 15 0
Editor's Honorarium 50 0 0
Hector Prize and Charges 51 5 2
Hutton Grants 35 1 8
Endowment Fund: Interest Invested Ins. Stock 582 0 0
Trust Funds Audit Fee 3 0 0
Interest paid direct to Trust A/cs. 138 6 0
Transfer from General A/c. to Trust A/cs. 12 10 0
Balance as Under 1,885 0 6
£6,649 16 4
£ s. d.
Bank of New Zealand 333 12 3
Less Unpresented Cheque 50 0 0
283 12 3
Post Office Savings Bank 1,592 1 1
Cash in Hand 0 10 0
Petty Cash in Hand 8 17 2
£1,885 0 6

S. Cory Write,
Honorary Treasure

– xii –
The Royal Society of New Zealand.
Statement of Assets and Liabilities at 31st March, 1953.
Liabilities.
£ s. d.
Hector Memorial Fund, Capital Account 1,184 18 1
Hector Memorial Fund, Revenue Account 34 9 7
Hutton Memorial Fund, Capital Account 1,506 8 6
Hutton Memorial Fund, Revenue Account 355 2 6
T. K. Sidey Summer Time Fund, Capital Account 557 1 6
T. K. Sidey Summer Time Fund, Revenue Account 95 16 9
Plant Diseases Trust, Capital Account 542 13 5
Plant Diseases Trust, Revenue Account 177 11 7
Cockayne Memorial Fund, Capital Account 249 12 0
Cockayne Memorial Fund, Revenue Account 110 5 7
Hamilton Memorial Fund, Capital Account 83 4 6
Hamilton Memorial Fund, Revenue Account 2 1 1
Carter Library Legacy, Capital Account 162 19 0
Carter Library Legacy, Revenue Account 55 4 6
Endowment Fund, Capital Account 2,636 2 5
Endowment Fund, Revenue Account 159 2 0
N.Z. Science Congress Fund 100 0 0
Research Grants Fund 35 0 10
Library Binding Fund 160 13 0
Publication Expenses Fund 283 12 7
Accounts in Credit 4 16 1
Balance of Assets over Liabilities 1,436 6 6 £9,933 2 0
Assets.
£ s. d.
Hector Memorial Fund: Ins. Stock (Face Value, £1,250) 1,184 18 1
Hector Memorial Fund P.O.S.B. Account 34 9 7
Hutton Memorial Fund: Ins. Stock (Face Value, £1,570) 1,506 8 6
Hutton Memorial Fund: P.O.S.B. Account 355 2 6
Hutton Memorial Fund: Owed to R.S.N.Z. A/c 1 0 0
Summer-time Fund: Ins. Stock (Face Value, £510) 500 2 6
Summer-time Fund: P.O.S.B. Account 152 15 9
Plant Diseases: Ins. Stock (Face Value, £500) 500 0 0
Plant Diseases: P.O.S.B. Account 220 5 0
Cockayne Fund: Ins. Stock (Face Value, £260) 249 12 0
Cockayne Fund: P.O.S.B. Account 110 3 7
Hamilton Fund: Ins. Stock (Face Value, £60) 60 0 0
Hamilton Fund: P.O.S.B. Account 25 5 7
Carter Legacy: Ins. Stock (Face Value, £160) 162 19 0
Carter Legacy: P.O.S.B. Account 55 4 6
Endowment Fund: Ins. Stock (Face Value, £2,670) 2,636 2 5
Endowment Fund: P.O.S.B. Part General A/c. 159 2 0
Sundry Debtors 293 10 6
Bank of New Zealand 283 12 3
Post Office Savings Bank 1,432 19 1
Cash in Hand 0 10 0
Petty Cash in Hand 8 17 2
£9,933 2 0
Property Assets: Estimated and Insured Value. Estimated Value. Insured Value.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
Library and Stack Room, Victoria University College 11,592 12 0 4,500 0 0
Furniture 95 12 6 40 0 0
Stock in Storeroom, Parliament Buildings 500 0 0
Carter Library, Dominion Museum (jointly owned with Museum) 500 0 0

The Audit Office, having examined the balance sheet and accompanying accounts required by law to be audited, hereby certifies them to be correct.

C. J. Atkin,
Controller and Auditor-General

– xiii –
The Royal Society of New Zealand.
Statement of Income and Expenditure For The Year Ended 31st March, 1953.
Expenditure.
£ s. d.
To Printing Transaction, Vol. 79 (3/4), 80 (1,2) 2,106 19 9
" Salaries (Secretary, Library Assistance) 580 16 6
" Stationery 26 3 7
" Annual Subscription Inter. Scientific Unions 58 18 11
" Subscription Zoological Record 15 3 2
" Charges and Petty Cash (Administration) 99 7 9
" Travelling Expenses (Members of Council) 25 15 7
" Editor's Honorarium 50 0 0
" Library Binding Fund Allocation 50 0 0
" N.Z. Science Congresses Allocation 50 0 0
" Balance 1,436 6 6
£4,499 11 9
Income.
£ s. d.
By Balance at 31st March, 1952 1,811 18 7
" Annual Government Grant 1,900 0 0
" Levy, Volume 80 441 1 0
" Sales of Publications 230 10 9
" Interest on Endowment Fund voted to General Purposes, Annual Meeting, 20/5/52 110 18 11
" Trust Funds Administration Expenses 5 2 6
£4,499 11 9
By Blance £1,436 6 6
By Balance £1,436 66
– xiv –

The Royal Society of New Zealand.
Trust Funds for the Year Ended 31st March, 1953.

Hector Memorial Fund.

Dr.
£ s. d.
To Prize (Professor Bullen) and Engraving Medal 51 5 2
" Administration Expenses 1 10 0
" Balance 1,219 7 8
£1,272 2 10
Cr.
£ s. d.
By Capital Invested 1,184 18 1
" Balance Revenue A/c., 31/3/52 35 13 10
" Interest 51 8 11
£1,272 2 10
" Balance, Capital Account £1.184 18 1
By Balance, Revenue Account. £34 9 7

Hutton Memorial Fund.

Dr.
£ s. d.
To Grants 35 1 8
" Administration Expenses 1 10 0
" Balance 1,861 11 0
£1,898 2 8
Cr.
£ s. d.
By Capital Invested 1,506 8 6
" Balance Revenue A/c., 31/3/52 327 6 9
" Interest 64 7 5
£1,808 2 8
By Balance, Capital A/c £1,506 8 6
By Balance, Revenue A/c. £355 2 6

T. K. Sidey Summer-time Fund.

Dr.
£ s. d.
To administration Expenses 1 10 0
" Balance 652 18 3
£s. s.8 d.3
Cr.
By Capital Invested and in P.O. 554 £ s. 10 0. d
" Balance Revenue A/c., 31/3/52 74 3 7
" Interest Revenue Account 24 3 2
" Interest Capital Account 2 11 6
25 14 8
£654 8 3
By Balance, Capital Account £557 1 6
" Balance, Revenue Account £95 16 9

Plant Diseases Trust

Dr.
£ s. d.
To Administration Expenses 0 7 6
" Balance 720 5 0
£720 12 6
Cr.
£ s. d.
By Capital Invested and in P.O.S.B. 542 13 5
" Balance Revenue Account, 31/3/52 158 2 0
" Interest 19 16 4
£720 12 6
By Balance, Capital Account £542 13 5
" Balance, Revenue Account £177 11 7
– xv –

Cockayne Memorial Fund.

Dr.
£ s. d
To Administration Expenses 0 7 6
" Balance 359 17 7
£360 5 1
Cr.
£ s. d
By Capital Invested 249 12 0
" Balance Revenue Account, 31/3/52 98 1 7
" Interest 12 11 6
£360 5 1
By Balance, Capital Account £249 12 0
" Balance, Revenue Account £110 5 7

Carter Library Legacy.

Dr.
£ s. d
To Administration Expenses 0 15 0
" Balance 218 3 6
£218 18 6
Cr.
£ s. d.
By Capital Invested and in P.O.S.B. 162 19 0
" Balance Revenue Account, 31/3/52 49 1 0
" Interest 6 18 6
£218 18 6
By Balance, Capital Account £162 19 0
" Balance, Revenue Account £55 4 6

Hamilton Memorial Fund.

Dr.
£ s d
To Administration Expenses 0 7 6
" Balance 83 5 7
£85 13 1
Cr.
£ s d
By Capital Invested and in P.O.S B. 81 19 2
" Balance Revenue Account, 31/3/52 1 3 3
" Interest, Revenue Account 1 5 4
" Interest. Capital Account 1 5 4
2 10 8
£85 13 1
By Balance, Capital Account £83 4 6
" Balance, Revenue Account £2 1 1

Endowment Fund

Dr.
£ s. d
To Administration Expenses 1 15 0
" Interest Invested 582 0 0
" Allocation to Revenue Annual Meeting, 30/35/52 110 18 11
" Balance 2.795 4 5
£3,489 18 4
Cr.
£ s. d.
By Capital Invested 2,129 2 3
" Capital Invested Inscribed Stock, 1952 582 0 0
" Balance Revenue Account 31/3/52 660 10 9
" Interest 118 5 2
£3,489 18 4
By Balance, Capital Account £2,636 2 5
" Balance, Revenue Account £159 2 0
– xvi –

The Royal Society of New Zealand.
The Seventh Pacific Science Congress.
Statement of Receipts and Payments For the Year Ended 31st March, 1953.

Receipts.
£ s. d.
Balance at 31st March, 1952 1,589 15 3
Special Grant for Publishing Proceedings 8,300 0 5
Sales of Volume 1. Proceedings 85 1 0
Cheque Re-credited 0 10 6
£10,175 6 9
Payments.
£ s. d.
Government Printing Office: Proceedings Vol. 3 1,217 9 6
Government Printing Office: Reprints 51 7 8
Postage on Volume 3 55 14 4
Cartage on Packages to G.P.O 3 2 6
Pegasus Printing Co,: Progress Payment 500 0 0
Photo-Engravers Ltd.: Blocks Zoology Volume 15 6 1
Business Editor's Express 1 17 6
Imprest Account—Petty Expenses 11 19 3
Charges: Bank, Audit 4 7 0
Balance as Under 8,351 2 2
Cash in Hand, Auckland Account 3 0 9 £10,175 6 9
£ s. d.
Bank of New Zealand 8,411 14 5
Less Unpresented Cheques (£51 7s 8d, £15 6s 1d) 66 13 9
8,345 0 8
Cash in Hand 6 1 6
£8,351 2 2

S.Cory Wright,
Honorary Treasurer
.

– xvii –

Mr. Cory Wright spoke to his report, drawing attention to the fact that the Society was over-spending in publishing on the present grant. Unless the grant was increased it would be necessary to restrict the amount on publishing to £1,500 per volume, annually.

He moved that the amount of £118 accrued interest in the Endowment be allocated to General Purposes As an amendment, Dr. Archey moved that an amount of £100, the current year's interest, be allocated to General Purposes. The amendment was carried.

On the motion of Professor Richardson, seconded by Professor Adams, it was resolved—

“That the Publication Expenses Fund become immediately available for current publication expenses.”

On the motion of Mr. Cory Wright, seconded by Mr. Callaghan, the report and Balance Sheet were adopted.

Report of the Honorary Editor.

Volume 80 of the Transactions has been printed and distributed. It is the first volume to be issued in the new crown quarto size, and with Part 4 the matter on the back cover was revised and brought up to date.

The printing of Volume 81 is now in hand, and the various amendments to the title page suggested by Dr. Oliver in his report last year will be adopted with the issue of Part 1 of this volume.

Council members will notice that Volume 80 contains two sets of Proceedings, the first in Part 1, dealing with the annual meeting of 1951, while the second, in Part 3/4, deals with the annual meeting of 1952. This has arisen through the policy of bringing the printing of the Transactions up to date. Volume 81 will contain the Proceedings of the 1953 annual meeting, and thereafter Proceedings should appear normally in each volume.

It is now many years since the Royal Society issued a Bulletin, and I would like to suggest that some long term financial provision be established for the future publication of Bulletins.

J. T. Salmon Editor.

On the motion of Dr. Salmon, seconded by Mr. Keys, the report of the Honorary Editor was adopted.

Report of the Honorary Librarian.

The past year has seen the additional limited shelving heavily encroached on, and an order for further shelving was not filled, so that the library work has become increasingly difficult.

There is in view the opportunity to introduce about 200 feet of further shelving which will utilize all remaining space in the present quarters, and gives us no more than three years' operations in present quarters, but it is confidently expected that further additional space will become available in that period.

The annual intake and inter-loans arrangement and control of the library generally now warrants a full-time librarian.

The Library Committee approved this year the addition of nineteen further exchanges.

Consideration has been given to the distribution to more suitable libraries of a limited number of holdings which are outside the scope of our library. This promises to free some 20 feet of shelving.

L. R. Richardson,
Honorary Librarian.

On the motion of Professor Richardson, seconded by Dr. Falla, the report of the Hon. Librarian was adopted.

– xviii –

Report Of Representatives On The National Art Gallery And Dominion Museum Board Of Trustees

The Board met three times during the year. The proposals for the completion of the National War Memorial are under consideration by the Government.

The Dominion Museum continues to fill an important place in the community, particularly from the educational point of view.

Important accessions have been made and new displays have been opened in the exhibition halls. But the fundamental functions of the Museum as a repository for national collections have been increasingly handicapped by shortage of professional curators. This is largely due to the arbitrary pegging of staff to the establishment in 1950-51, when the Museum was seriously understaffed. The efficient maintenance of research collections in botany, zoology, ethnology, and geology, amassed since the Colonial Museum was founded 88 years ago, is the Museum's first obligation to the nation's scientific well-being. Adequate care requites a minimum of ten professional officers with the assistance of at least an equal number of skilled technicians. The present staff comprises four professional officers (two vacancies) and seven technical officers, not all of whom are engaged on the care of collections. There is no professional officer in charge of the plant collections, and only one junior officer in entomology, to cater for the many overseas and local botanists and entomologists, amateur and professional, from university departments and Government research units, who wish to use the Museum's collections in these groups. This deficiency in professional curators is emphasized with the object of drawing the attention of the Committee on National Collections of the Royal Society of New Zealand to a situation which, unless remedied, must inevitably lead to curtailment of the Museum's service to research workers if not to deterioration of research collections.

C. A. Fleming,
H. C. Mcqueen
,
Representatives of the Society on the Board of Trustees.

The report of the Society's representatives, Dr. C. A. Fleming and Mr. H. C. McQueen, was adopted. In reply to a question by Mr. Callaghan on a statement in the report regarding the inadequacy of the staffing in the Dominion Museum, Dr. Falla replied that the question of staffing was at present receiving the attention of the Museum Management Committee.

National Collections.
Report by the Sub-Committee: Dr. J. Marwick (Convener), Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, Dr. H. H. Allan, Dr. D. Miller.

The National Collections comprise objects and specimens of national interest and importance, chiefly in Natural History (Botany, Geology, Zoology), Ethnology, History, Technology, Ceramics, and Fine Arts.

This report is concerned chiefly with Natural History Collections.

The purpose of making and preserving these collections is the conservation and extension of knowledge. This is divided into two main spheres of activity.

(1)

Educational—the extension of the knowledge of individuals;

(2)

Research—the extension of the sum of knowledge of mankind.

1. Educational Collections: Educational collections are for display. They are mostly in Museums and Universities, and some small ones are in schools. A concise statement on Museum Collections, equipment, finance, etc., is contained in W. R. B. Oliver's Dominion Museum Booklet, 1944, “N.Z. Museums, Present Establishment and Future Policy.”

Educational collections have been the concern of the recently constituted Art Galleries and Museums Association of New Zealand. The existence of this organization covers the ground from the educational viewpoint.

2. Research Collections: These form an important part of the equipment necessary for workers in Natural Science and are the main concern of this report.

Subjects chiefly: Botany (including Palynology), Geology (including Palaeontology), Zoology (including Entomology).

Purposes: Accurate classification of animals, plants and minerals is necessary for understanding our environment and applying our knowledge to practical problems of Agriculture and Industry. In Botany, Zoology, and Palaeontology, this study, called Systematics, formed

– xix –

the main part of these sciences during their early development covering much of the nineteenth century. In the early part of this century, systematics tended to be neglected during the rapid rise of the experimental side of biology—e.g., Genetics; but in recent years, renewed attention has been given to accurate classification in order that the knowledge gained in the laboratory should be securely based and can be extended to and in turn be illuminated by the study of organisms in their natural habitats.

Good examples of the necessity for accurate systematics were given by H. H. Allan in his Hudson Lecture (1951), N.Z. Science Review, 9, 24-30.

Chief Kinds of Research Collections: Research Collections are of two kinds:

(1) Reference Collections. Comparative material to enable ready identification of specimens, separation of new forms, study of relationships of different species, etc., and their evolutional history, study of the faunas and floras characterising different geological stages, and so on. They are also of educational use to advanced students and to visiting scientists. They should be as completely representative as possible.

(2) Type Collections: These comprise the original material on which the names of species have been founded. They form the ultimate appeal as to the basis of a specific name, and should be handled only by specialists.

Where lodged: Auckland, Dominion, Canterbury and Otago Museums. Cawthron Institute, D.S.I. R. Branches (chiefly Botany Division, Geological Survey, Mycology Section, Soil Bureau), Universities, and private collections.

Requirements of Research Collections: Research Collections should be housed adequately so that the individual specimens are immediately available to the research worker. This means suitable and sufficient cabinets and adequate curating staff, so that (1) specimens are kept in the best possible physical condition, (2) classifying and labelling are kept abreast of modern developments and (3) no risk of confusion in identity can arise.

Type specimens, being irreplaceable, need extraordinary care: they should not be included in ordinary reference collections, but should be segregated in special type collections and should have a minimum of handling. Their physical condition should be carefully watched, and all precautions taken to preserve as many of the original characters as possible. Every care must be taken to prevent damage or loss by fire, earthquake, or other violence.

Nevertheless types cannot carry out their true function unless they are readily available to specialists, so that security and utility must go hand in hand.

A considerable proportion of the types of New Zealand animals and plants are not in this country. The different groups, of course, differ widely in this respect, for example, many of the basic Insect Collections are scattered in different institutions of the United States, Britain and Europe. Types of the most common Mollusca are in the British Museum, some in Paris, while many types of fossils are in the Natural History Museum of Vienna (Plants, Foraminifera, Polyzoa, Mollusca).

Duplicate specimens, authentically identified from direct comparison with the types (homoeotypes, isotypes) could be obtained for many of these by sending material for that purpose. Casts also can be taken of such specimens as are amenable to this treatment. Compensation for the work required could in many cases take the form of exchanges of New Zealand specimens. Individual workers have, on their own initiative, obtained many such duplicates, but only a very small proportion of the types housed overseas are represented in this way.

The systematic classification of plants and animals is not a static arrangement. No final system or set of names is likely to be devised because ideas on taxonomy develop with the extension of knowledge. Consequently the application of systematics must march with the times and revisions of groups are continually necessary.

The geographic isolation of New Zealand is, of course, reflected in its peculiar flora and fauna, which therefore possess a very high percentage of endemic forms. The result is that botanists and zoologists of this country cannot, to any great extent, use the particular classifications of their neighbours, but must work out suitable ones for themselves. This is no hardship to those fortunate enough to be able to devote their time to these interesting problems. But it is a hardship to the scientific effort of New Zealand which must suffer because of the relatively small number of workers available for this branch of science. Such workers are all the more necessary in a young country which, as regards its natural history, is still in the pioneering and discovery stage.

– xx –

Many groups of organisms are badly in need of revision, but only a small proportion of them can be properly attended to, and these are generally done under high pressure, in time snatched from other jobs.

The nature of the work is such that it is in general beyond the ability of a tyro and requires years of specialized scientific experience based on a sound training. The number of such fully qualified systematists working full-time on the National Collections is woefully small. Further, their time is not used to the best advantage because, generally, insufficient technical help is provided.

The recruiting and training of technical assistants require attention. At the present time there is a tendency for these jobs to be filled by University students working part time. This is no doubt advantageous to the students, but it presents disadvantages to the job. The continual turn-over of labour means more demands on the already harassed systematist's time, and there is no building up of experience and skill such as there is with a man devoting his life work to a particular technology. A closer liaison with Technical Colleges from this point of view may be worth considering.

More advantages could be gained from the National Collections of New Zealand if cooperation between the main Museums and D.S.I.R. were strengthened. The Museums are on the whole better housed than D.S.I.R. branches, and so offer greater security for collections; but they must not be regarded merely as cold stores for specimens. Systematics must have their reference collections and library at hand for time is always at a great premium, and working conditions should ensure a minimum of its waste. Some D.I.S.R. systematists, for instance, might profitably be gathered under the aegis of the Dominion Museum, and additional systematists could be appointed to the Museum staff. The resulting enrichment of both collection and library facilities would have distinct advantages.

Recommendation. The Committee unanimously recommends that an attempt should be made to secure adequate funds for the attraction and support of sufficient staff at the different institutions concerned.

(1)

To maintain the existing collections in good condition.

(2)

To add to them.

(3)

To make a concerted attempt to have as complete a duplicate collection as possible of types that are housed overseas.

(4)

To monograph the different groups.

(5)

To arrange for the evacuation and care of important material during periods of emergency.

Describers of new species should be urged to provide as sample material as possible, certified as conforming to the type or holotype, paratypes, cotypes, isotypes.

A list should be prepared of institutions to which duplicate type material should be sent—e.g., for Botany, Kew, Smithsonian Institution, Museum of Natural History, Paris.

Finally, it is emphasised that the preservation and building up of National Collections are essential to the progress of scientific effort in the Dominion, and this is largely a matter of finance. The funds available for the curation of these collections are quite inadequate to deal with the problem properly.

J. Marwick

, Courener
Exploratory Committee on National Collections.

The report of the Exploratory Committee was considered, and after some discussion it was moved by Dr. Miller, seconded by Professor Briggs, and carried—

“That the report be received and the recommendations adopted, and that the report be circulated to all concerned, including Art Galleries and the Museums Association”

After further discussion, in which Professor Richardson stated that the report of the Exploratory Committee should be tied up with the report of the representatives of the Board of Trustees of the National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum which pointed out how inadequate was the staffing at the Dominion Museum. On the motion of Professor Richardson, seconded by Mr. Callaghan, it was resolved—

– xxi –

“That the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand should urge the immediate appointment of a senior entomologist and a senior botanist at the Dominion Museum.”

In supporting Professor Richardson's statements, Dr. Archey pointed out that the Museum workers by their enthusiastic work had built up the present situation, which required more and more staff and much better accommodation and equipment.

On the motion of Dr. Salmon, seconded by Mr. Callaghan, it was resolved—

“That the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand, recognising that the museums of New Zealand are gravely handicapped in fulfilling their scientific obligations to the community through lack of finance, urges upon the Government and local bodies concerned the immediate necessity of increasing their financial support of these institutions.”

It was resolved to send a copy of this resolution to the Rt. Hon. the Prime Minister and to the Institutions concerned.

Report Of Representative On Great Barrier Reef Committee

One meeting of the Committee was held in 1952 (October 3). It was attended by the Governor of Queensland.

A report that the coral on Low Island was dying was discussed. Mr. Jamieson, the light-keeper, was present at the meeting, and explained that about three years ago there was an extraordinarily strong northerly wind, which brought up a lot of silt, and 6—8 weeks afterwards coral on the north and east sides of the island was found to he dead. Little short shoots of coral were now starting to grow again. The Committee agreed to ask Professor Whitehouse to take an expedition to Low Island next August.

Dr. Hill reported on the progress made for erecting a stores hut on Heron Island. The difficulties about making coral brick foundation on ground honeycombed by muttonbirds and overlying loose foraminal sand were pointed out by Dr. Marks, and wood was suggested instead. Concrete can be made with coral sand and salt water as two of the ingredients. A committee was given power to proceed with the building.

Donations amounting to £3,154 have been received for the Heron Island Marine Biological Research Station, and there was a Government subsidy of £3,750 and £750 per annum to come.

W. R. B. Oliver

,
Representative Royal Society.

On the motion of Dr. Oliver, the Society's representative on the Committee, the report was adopted.

Report Of Representative On National Parks Authority

The first meeting of the National Parks Authority was held on April 15, 1953. The Hon. Minister of Lands, Mr. E. S. Corbett, addressed the meeting. The discussions that took place were mainly concerned with the future policy of the Authority.

Subjects that were considered included the appointment of Boards, standard form of By-laws, suggestions for new National Parks (Tararua Range, Urewera, Lake Rotoiti and vicinity in Nelson District) boundary adjustments to existing parks, rangers and access roads.

W R. B. Oliver

,
Representative Royal Society.

On the motion of Dr. Oliver, the Society's representative on the National Parks Authority, the report was adopted.

The Royal Society Of New Zealand And National Parks

1. Now that a National Parks Authority has been established (April. 1953) under the National Parks Act of 1953, and the Royal Society is represented thereon by the President, it will be desirable that the Society do all in its power to assist the Authority and the Boards of the five National Parks—Tongariro, Egmont, Abel Tasman. Arthur Pass and Sounds-

– xxii –

Fiordland, referred to in the Act. In particular the Society might be expected to provide guidance regarding the scientific features of whatever policy or policies of development are adopted in connection with these five National Parks. As it is unlikely that the scientific aspects of any Park can be considered apart from other aspects, the Society's guidance must be expected to extend beyond the scientific field, though this must be its primary interest.

2. If it is agreed that the Royal Society has a responsibility associated with National Parks, then some early consideration should be given to defining the nature and extent of this responsibility. The National Parks Authority and the Boards are charged with the formulation and execution of a scheme for the preservation and development appropriate to each of the National Parks. Their powers and responsibilities are set out in the 1953 Act, and it would seem that the Royal Society could fill a valuable role by providing service on the scientific aspects of any conservation or development scheme. The terms of the Act make provision for the Authority and the Boards to establish Committees, employ staff, and make payments in order to carry out their allocated functions.

3. In order to focus attention on what help the Society can provide, the Tongariro National Park might be selected for consideration. In view of what has already happened there, and also by the references made to it in the Act, it is obvious that the Tongariro National Park Board's policy of development will be dominated by preservation and recreational interests. It therefore seems desirable that a policy for scientific development should early be formulated to work in harmoniously with the broader plan of development which the Board will inaugurate.

4. Protection and definition of boundaries are a primary requirement of any National Park, and the Tongariro National Park is in need of attention in this respect. Its 149,383 acres, plus some 945 acres in three isolated blocks, lie within irregular boundaries which for the most part can only be ascertained by reference to a map. On the spot there are very few marks to indicate the boundaries of the Park. Two main highways adjoin or intersect the Park, and other roads are planned. The task of even defining the boundaries by a series of beacon posts is a formidably costly one, and still more so will be the cost of erecting the fencing which will be necessary for proper preservation. The perimeter of the Park is some miles in length and though natural features and adjoining owners at present do provide some protection, provision of fencing over very rough terrain will inevitably prove very costly. There are some sections of the perimeter where proper protection by fencing will be imperative. This reference to fencing and definition of boundaries is only one of the tasks facing the Authority and the Board and shows the need for preparation of a long-term plan of development extending over many years to attain the objective of a National Park properly established. As the Board will be expected to do its tasks on meagre funds the rate of progress seems likely to be inevitably slow.

5. It is reasonable to anticipate that the Authority and the Park Board will endeavour to form a picture of what the Park will be like when fully developed and then with the help of meagre funds draw up a long-term plan to attain to this objective. The scientific interest of the Park should be an important part of this plan. The question therefore arises as to whether these scientific interests are actually known. If not, then, should not an attempt be made to define them, so that a plan for attaining a scientific objective for the Park be formulated?

Should the Society call upon botanists, zoologists, geologists, and physicists, as the principal groups concerned, to undertake a task which would involve such matters as:

(1)

Demarcation of localities which should at once be strictly protected and reserved for scientific or historical purposes.

(2)

Planning for general scientific studies which might embrace extensive portions or the whole of the Park area.

(3)

Planning of selected areas designed to provide educative material for visitors to the Park.

In 1908 Dr. Leonard Cockayne carried out a detailed ecological study of the then Tongariro National Park, in which he dealt with other scientific matters not of a botanical nature. Professor R. Speight contributed a chapter dealing with the geology of the area.

6. The Tongariro National Park is probably sufficiently rich in scientific features of a botanical, zoological, and geological nature to merit consideration being given to the appointment of a residential scientific curator. The holder of this position could undertake investigations in his own particular field, guide other scientists working in the area, and be available to advise the Authority and the Park Board on matters concerned with the development of the Park.

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7. As there is a real need for educating public opinion in the proper appreciation of National Parks, and as one of the ways of doing this is by means of arousing scientific interest more widely among visitors, the Society might well give active support to the provision of areas laid out in a way which would serve scenic, artistic and scientific purposes.

8. As the five National Parks are located in districts where Branches of the Royal Society are established, should each Branch be asked to devote some constructive attention to the scientific aspects of the National Park located in its district and assist the Park Board accordingly?

5th May, 1953.

F. R. Callaghan

.

In presenting his report, Mr. Callaghan stated that in 1949 the Standing Committee has discussed the supervision and demarcation of national parks and a sub-committee had been set up by the Standing Committee to bring down a report. The sub-committee interviewed the Lands Department, and it was ascertained that a National Parks Act was then being drafted.

The sub-committee was appointed to remain in office as a watching committee. No further action had been taken, and the National Parks Authority was now established. In his opinion the Royal Society could do much to assist the National Parks Authority in an advisory capacity in the manner outlined in his report.

Mr. Callaghan moved the following motion, notice of which had been given earlier in the meeting—

“That in order to ensure that the scientific interests of the National Parks receive due attention:

“(1) Surveys of the scientific features of each Park be planned for;

“(2) The attention of each Branch be directed particularly to the parks located in its district.

“(3) The appointment of scientific members to each of the National Park Boards be urged upon the Authority.”

This motion was seconded by Dr. H. H. Allan and carried. Discussion on the subject continued, Dr. Salmon stating that the Automobile Association might co-operate in the marking of boundaries and roads and exits in the Tongariro National Park, The Abel Tasman Park might present difficulties in this direction. He moved, Mr. Keys seconded, and it was carried—

“That the Council of the Royal Society recommends to the National Parks Authority that the assistance of the Automobile Associations be sought in having all roads entering and leaving the various National Parks adequately sign posted as an initial step in demarcating the boundaries of these Parks.”

The discussion on the report continued, Mr. Fenwick stating that Mr. Callaghan's report was welcome as something constructive. Professor Briggs suggested a good deal could be done to emphasise the scientific importance of the Parks by films prepared by the N.Z. Film Unit in conjunction with botanists, zoologists, and geologists. Professor Soper said there seemed to be a real need to preserve the scientific aspects of the Parks and not allow them to develop merely into sports grounds.

Dr. Oliver stated that the National Parks Authority would welcome any suggestions (in fact it had asked for them) in the administration of the Parks under its authority.

Dr. Falla said there was need for a trained scientific service in the Parks' wardens,

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Dr. Archey said the Society would find the Hon. Minister in charge was in sympathy with many of the views expressed. He thought the Report should be referred to the Conservation Committee.

Dr. Oliver seconded the adoption of the report presented by Mr. Callaghan, and it was carried. It was further resolved that the Report be forwarded to the National Parks Authority and to the Conservation Committee, and that the President, the Society's representative on the Authority, be given a watching brief.

Mr. Callaghan said that the National Park Boards were being set up and the Society should ask its Branches to nominate suitable representatives who would watch the scientific interests.

As the matter was an urgent one, certain names were suggested to Dr. Oliver as being suitable in this connection.

Report Of Representative On Royal New Zealand Institute Of Horticulture

Conference. The Institute held its annual conference in Wellington in February, 1953, along with the conferences of other horticultural bodies and various horticultural activities, including a successful national flower show in the Wellington Town Hall.

Membership and Finance. The number of members decreased slightly during the year, from 2,194 to 2,020, but income exceeded expenditure by £762, and the Institute is in a sound position.

Publications. The Institute continues to publish its Journal as part of the monthly “New Zealand Gardener.” Some District Councils have issued small publications.

A book of horticultural judging rules has been prepared by the Institute, and published by A. H. and A. W. Reed.

On the occasion of Arbor Day, the Institute distributed a small pamphlet on tree planting.

Mr. M. J. O'Sullivan, of Auckland, has prepared a comprehensive history of the Institute. publication of which is being considered.

Objectives. The Institute is still considering its objectives, and suggested changes in its organisation and role in horticulture. This topic was discussed at the Annual Conference, and is to be further considered by the relevant Committee, of which I am a member.

Some members have drawn attention to the national organisation of the Royal Society of New Zealand as a possible model, but no decisions have been made.

Representation. The Institute was represented by several members at the 13th International Horticultural Congress held in London in September, 1952. It has also been represented at various local and national discussions on matters affecting horticulture.

The Institute's renewed request for direct representation on the National Parks Authority was unsuccessful.

Members also expressed disappointment that the Institute was not granted a representative on the recently established Waipouna Forest Sanctuary Advisory Committee, as they claimed that the Institute had advocated the policy which was adopted in relation to Waipoua Forest.

Preservation of Native Plants. The Institute established close liaison with the Lands and Survey Department, and has provided lists of nominees for appointment as Honorary Inspectors in several districts, to assist in the preservation of native plants in scenic reserves.

Plant Raisers' Award. The Institute has established a Plant Raisers' Award, to be awarded to the raiser of any noteworthy plant which is new to horticulture and a distinct advance or improvement. It is proposed that the award take the form of a bronze medal, and the first two recipients have been approved—viz., Mr. George Clark and Miss Jean Burgess.

Examinations. I have continued to serve on the Institute's Examining Board and on its Committee of Moderators. During the year 53 students were examined in 98 papers.

H. D. Gordon

,
Royal Society's representative on Dominion Council of the Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture.

– xxv –

On the motion of Professor Richardson, seconded by Mr. Fenwick, the report by Professor H. D. Gordon, the Society's representative on the Royal N.Z. Institute of Horticulture, was adopted.

Report Of Representative On New Zealand Oceanographic Committee

The Committee has continued to function as outlined in my report to the last Annual Meeting of the Council of the Royal Society, and has met twice during the past year.

The Committee has circulated lists of oceanographic publications received in exchange for its publications, reports and news sheets on overseas and local research, narratives prepared by New Zealand oceanographers who accompanied H.D.M.S. “Galathea” in New Zealand waters, lists of equipment held by New Zealand institutions and of vessels available for oceanograph research.

Liaison with overseas institutions was effected by discussions with Dr. G. L. Kesteven (Secretary, Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council). with Dr. F. W. G. White (C.S.I.R.O., Australia). and with Messis G. M. Rayner and D. J. Rochford (Gronulla). The Committee nominated three New Zealand oceanographers to serve on a UNESCO Advisory Panel on Oceanography, and agreed to act as the New Zealand national group for deliberation on names of ocean bottom features in terms of the principles adopted by the International Committee on the Nomenclature of Ocean Bottom Features (Monaco, 1952).

An application for a research grant, recommended by the Committee in 1952, was not approved by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research.

C. A Fleming

,
Royal Society's Representative on New Zealand Oceanographic Committee.

On the motion of Mr. Keys, seconded by Dr. Salmon, the report by Dr. C. A. Fleming, the Society's representative on the Oceanographic Committee, was adopted.

Reports Of Hutton Grantees

Mr. J. D. Campbell was granted £20 for research in New Zealand Triassie and Jurassic Brachiopoda in 1951. He reported on the 27th April that collecting of Mesozoie Brachiopoda from localities near Nelson was carried out during May, 1952. In January, 1953 collections were made from a new locality near Ethelton, North Canterbury, and from Southland localities. His expenses of approximately £10 were incurred in these three expeditions.

Mr. V. J. Cook was granted £30 for research on Cyperaceae in 1949. He reported on the 20th April that a paper on N. Z. Scupus and Carex had been presented for publication in the Transactions. An amount of £l 10s 6d was expended in typing the paper.

Mr. Maxwell Gage, who in 1951 was granted £25 for research on the glaciers of Canterbury and Westland, is at present on leave in the United States.

Miss V. H. Jolly was granted £90 for an investigation of the plankton of New Zealand lakes. She is at present on a field trip and will furnish a report as soon as she returns to Dunedin.

Miss Jolly reported on the 5th May that the field work for which the Hutton Grant was made is still in progress. Four trips have been concluded, and it is expected to make a further trip in August to obtain winter records. Lakes Te Anau, Manapouri. Wakatipu (two stations). Moke, and Wanaka have been sampled at two-monthly intervals Lake Hayes has been sampled more frequently.

Work has included.

(1)

Net collections of Phytoplankton and Zooplankton.

(2)

Bottom sampling at various depths with a Petersen grab.

(3)

Temperature records at vertical levels.

(4)

Light penetration measured by Secehi disc.

(5)

Water samples taken for chemical analysis.

(6)

Shore collections of larger organisms.

(7)

Some soundings in lakes which have not previously been surveyed.

Equipment bought includes materials for nets, lines, ropes, buoys, glassware, etc. The sea anchor made from canvas bought out of funds was unfortunately lost during a storm at Lake Te Anau. Otherwise equipment is in good order and still in use.

“I wish to take this opportunity of expressing my appreciation to the Royal Society of New Zealand for this generous grant, without which this field work could not have been undertaken.”

– xxvi –

Grantee's expenses to date total £65 19s 2d for travelling expenses and equipment.

Professor B. J. Marples, who in 1945 was granted £20 for research on vertebrate paleontology, reported on the 4th May that he had done no field work during 1952-53, but a Palaeontological Bulletin of the N.Z. Geological Survey has been published. Much of the material described in this Bulletin was collected with the assistance of the grant in previous years, and it is acknowledged in the Bulletin.

On the motion of Professor Richardson, seconded by Dr. H. H. Allan, the reports of the Hutton research grantees were received.

Report Of Representative On Medical Research Council

As the Council's representative on the Medical Research Council, I have pleasure in submitting my report for the past year.

A report of the work of the Medical Research Council during its first year has been published. Expenditure on research for the year totalled £36,906, of which £22,385 represents salaries and £8,219 the cost of equipment and laboratory improvements. It has been possible to make a substantial contribution to the funds of the N.Z. Branch, British Empire Cancer Campaign Society. The full-time research staff comprises 6 medically qualified officers, 14 other professional officers and 18 technicians. Two research fellowships have been awarded for research within New Zealand. Research papers published during the year included 15 in Clinical Medicine, 7 in Dentistry, 11 in Neuro-physiology and Neuropathology, 8 in Endocrinology, 4 in Nutrition, and 7 in Microbiology. All the research committees inaugurated in 1951 have continued to function vigorously during 1952; and in addition, plans are in train for the establishment of a Toxicology Research Unit. Further, a medical officer has been brought from overseas to superintend the research work sponsored by the Council in the Island Territories.

During my tour of duty overseas, I was granted leave of absence by the Council from its two meetings in 1952. (Professor Richardson acted as an observer on you Council's behalf at portion of the meeting of May 22.) I took the opportunity, while in London, of discussing aspects of Medical Research Council's functions with the Secretary of the U.K. Medical Research Council. I also spent some time with Medical Research Council officers of the Industrial Health Research Unit at the London School of Hygiene, and with the Radio-biological Research Unit at Harwell.

The project for a pilot survey of Social Medicine mentioned in my report for last year has been carried through to completion by the Department of Psychology at Victoria University College. A copy of the report is being forwarded to your Council by the Social Science Section of the Wellington Branch, with the approval of the Professor of Psychology and of Mr. Douglas Robb, surgeon, of Auckland, who pioneered the idea of such an investigation. It is suggested that your Council should forward the document to the Hon. Minister for Health, with its endorsement; and this step, I am assured, will meet with the approval of all concerned.

L. Bastings


Royal Society's Representative on Medical Research Council.

On the motion of Professor Richardson, seconded by Mr. Fenwick, the report by Dr. Bastings, the Society's representative on the Medical Research Council, was received.

A project entitled “Consumer Use of the Medical Practitioner,” undertaken at the instigation of the Wellington Branch of the Royal Society by the Psychology Department of Victoria University College was before the meeting. Professor Richardson outlined the action which had led up to the undertaking, stating that the Department wished it to be clearly understood that the work was merely a pilot survey of one aspect of our medical services, that it had been restricted by limited finance and time and numbers of available interviewers, and that if necessary or advisable the survey could be extended and developed over a wider field. He moved that the Report be taken as read, received, and sent to the Minister of Health with the approval of the Society. It was the first really scientific study carried out in this direction, and it had worked out very

– xxvii –

satisfactorily. Dr. Archer said he doubted whether the Society should signify its approval of the project without having carefully studied its findings. Mr. Keys moved an amendment, which was seconded by Professor Adams, and carried—

“That the report be received and submitted to the Medical Research Council for submission with its comments to the Hon. Minister for Health.”

Report By Dr. L. Bastings On Rutherford Memorial Appeal

I am pleased to be able to report to the Council that the Rutherford Memorial Appeal in New Zealand closed at £10,000, made up as follows:—

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

£
Auckland 1,717
Palmerston North 225
Wellington 2,334
Nelson 1,132
Canterbury 2,560
Otago 1,150
Southland 75
Government Subsidy 801
£10,000

Sir Henry Tizard, Chairman of the London Committee, has addressed to me a letter of appreciation of New Zealand's efforts, in which he thanks all those who shared in the organisation of the appeal.

L. Bastings

,
Chairman, Wellington Committee and Convener Standing Committee's Delegation.

Dr. Bastings reported on the result of the Rutherford Memorial Appeal in New Zealand. This was received, and Dr. Bastings was thanked for his efforts in connection with the Appeal.

Report Of Representatives On Carter Observatory Board

Board. The constitution of the Board at the end of the year (31st March. 1953) was as follows:—Royal Society Members: Dr. M. A. F. Barnett. Mr. C. G. G. Berry; Wellington City Council Members: Mr. E. P. Norman (Chairman). Mr. M. A. Castle; N.Z. Government Members: Mr. R. G. Dick, Mr. R. C. Hayes, Professor F. F. Miles (Deputy Chairman).

The Board suffered a great loss in its membership by the death of Dr. E. R. Cooper and of Mr. W. M. Jones.

Educational Work. The Observatory was opened to the public regularly on Friday evenings from February to December, when telescope demonstrations and lectures were given as well as the exhibition of scientific films. In addition, there were many special evenings arranged, and the total attendance for 57 sessions was 2,109.

In this department of the Observatory's activities, a considerable amount of time has been spent on secretarial, editorial and general work for the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand.

Solar Work. Regular routine observations of sunspots have been continued and reported to the appropriate authorities.

Spectrohelioscope observations have not been as continuous as formerly owing to instrumental defects and the absence of the Director.

Auroral Work. This has been continued as previously, although the decline in activity due to low sunspot activity has confined most of the reporting to the Sub-Antarctic stations. The advent of radio-telephone communications with Campbell Island has rendered observations made there of more immediate value than previously.

There is growing world-wide interest in the work being performed by the Observatory in this subject, and the indications are clear that there will be heavy demands in the future for the accumulated data.

Planetary Observations. During the apposition of Mars, 63 observations represented by drawings and notes, were made on 25 nights. The observations are in process of reduction and study.

– xxviii –

Occultations. Observations of occultations made in New Zealand up to the end of 1952 were partially reduced and forwarded to the Royal Greenwich Observatory.

Overseas Visits. As a Martin Kellogg Fellow of the Lick Observatory of the University of California, the Director spent from July to December in the United States of America. Research work was undertaken at the Lick Observatory on radial velocities and photoelectric magnitudes. Visits wore made to the Mount Wilson and Mount Palomar Observatories, Harvard Collage Observatory, the U.S. Naval Observatory, Chabot Observatory, Griffith Observatory, and the Air Force Cambridge Research Centre.

During the Director's absence, Mr. R. C. Hayes supervised the work of the Carter Observatory.

Mechaelis Memorial Prize. The Director was awarded the Mechalelis Memorial Prize and Medal by the University of Otago.

Visitors. A visit was paid by their Excellencies, Lord and Lady Freyberg, on 17th April, 1952, when a telescope demonstration was given.

On the 21st July 1952, Mr. J. A. Ratcliffe, of Cambridge University, visited the Observatory, and after examining the solar and auroral work, commented very favourably on their value.

General. From the large numbers of miscellaneous enquiries, it is obvious that the Observatory is also performing a practical public service. Information has been supplied to the press, radio, legal firms, police, architects, calendar printers and Government Departments whenever requested.

By virtue of the continuous relations with individuals and institutions within the Dominion, as well as a large number overseas, the Observatory's activities are by no means local.

M. A. F. Barnett

,

C G. G. Berry

,
Representatives of the Royal Society of New Zealand on the Carter Observatory Board.

On the motion of Dr. Barnett, the report of the representatives on the Carter Observatory Board was adopted.

Dr. Barnett stated that Mr. Berry, who had been the Society's representative on the Board over a long period, had resigned. It was agreed that a letter of thanks be sent to Mr. Berry.

Fuel and Power Utilization Report.

On the motion of Mr. Keys, seconded by Professor Adams, it was resolved—

That the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand requests the Government to appoint forthwith the working party attached to the Treasury as recommended in the Report on Fuel and Power dated May, 1951. The Council records its regret at the apparent lack of progress made so far in investigating this important matter.”

Science Congress, 1954. Dr. Archey suggested alternative dates for the 1954 Science Congress, to be held in Auckland. Dates including a week-end seemed to be favoured, and it was tentatively agreed that the Congress be held on Thursday-Tuesday, 13th-18th May, 1954, the annual meeting of the Council to be held on Wednesday, 12th May.

Notornis. Dr. Miller stated that he considered it would be a gracious gesture and would further scientific knowledge if a pair of live notornis were sent to the Zoological Society of London. He moved, and Dr. Salmon seconded—

“That a move be made towards presenting live specimens of Notornis to the Zoological Society of London.”

Dr. Archey spoke against the motion, stating that there is as yet no evidence that the bird is in sufficient numbers to warrant it being disturbed. Mr. Cory Wright and Mr. Fenwick supported Dr. Archey. After giving a brief survey of the present position of the Notornis population and the conditions under which

– xxix –

they survive, Dr. Falla moved an amendment, which was seconded by Mr. Cory Wright, as follows—

“That the Society considers that any proposal to export living specimens of Notornis abroad is premature in the present state of our knowledge of the status of the species.”

The amendment was then put and carried and became the substantive motion, which was carried.

Submission of Papers for the Transactions. The Wellington Branch had suggested an amendment to the rule requiring papers for the Transact ions to be read in full or by title before Member Bodies, maintaining that the rule made for much delay in the handing in of papers, and that it was an unnecessary provision. Some Member Bodies supported the suggestion, others considered the rules brought down by the sub-committee some years ago satisfactory. Professor Briggs, supported by Dr. Archey, considered that papers should be sent direct to the Secretary, who should acknowledge them, the date of receipt being the official date for publication purposes. The papers should then be passed on to the Editor for publication in the usual way. After some discussion it was resolved that this suggestion be submitted to the Standing Committee and the Member Bodies and Notice of Motion given to the next annual meeting of any amendments to the Rules required.

Eighth Pacific Science Congress. A Notice of Motion proposed by Mr. Fenwick and seconded by Mr. Buchanan, was discussed—

“That the Royal Society urge the Minister in charge of Scientific and Industrial Research to seek Government support to and finance for an official delegation of not less than eight members to the Eighth Pacific Science Congress and the Fourth Far Eastern Prehistoric Congress in the Philippines, in November, 1953.”

Dr. Falla outlined the action that had been taken in asking the Government for assistance to send a delegation, stating that two or three would be attending under a UNESCO grant or as delegates from Government Departments to other Conferences being held in Manila at the same time. Therefore it had been deemed advisable, in view of the Society's request for a substantial increase in its grant to ask for assistance for only a small delegation of approximately four. The Council endorsed the action taken by the Standing Committee and by Dr. Falla in his approach to the Hon. Minister. In view of this information Mr. Fenwick and Mr. Buchanan withdrew their motion.

Standing Committee Meeting. The Standing Committee had discussed the matter of an after annual meeting interview with the Hon. Minister to inform him on matters of moment arising from the annual meeting, and it had been considered that a more effective approach would be to invite him to a Special Standing Committee meeting with an appropriate agenda. On the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Dr. Salmon, the Standing Committee's proposal was endorsed.

Electron of Officers.

Presidents. Dr. W. R. B. Oliver (re-elected).

Vice-Presidents: Mr. F. R. Callaghan and Dr. D. Miller (re-elected).

Hon. Editor: Dr. J. T. Salmon (re-elected).

Hon. Treasurer: Mr. S. Cory Wright (re-elected).

– xxx –

Hon. Librarian: Professor L. R. Richardson (re-elected).

Hon. Returning Officer: Mr. A. T. Pycroft (re-elected).

Co-opted Member: Dr. J. T. Salmon (re-elected).

Representative Royal N.Z. Inst. Horticulture: Professor H. D. Gordon (re-elected).

Representative Great Barrier Reef Committee: Dr. W. R. B. Oliver.

Representative N.Z. Oceanographic Committee: Dr. C. A. Fleming.

Electron of Committees.

Hector Award Committee: Dr. W. R. B. Oliver (Convener), Dr. H. H. Allan, and Dr. G. H. Cunningham.

Fellowship Selection Committee: Dr. R. S. Allan (Convener), Dr. D.

Miller, Dr. H. D. Skinner, Dr. M. A. F. Barnett, Professor F. G. Soper. Library Committee: Professor L. R. Richardson, Dr. J. Marwick, Professor.

C. A. Cotton, Dr. J. T. Salmon.

Conservation Committee: Dr. W. R. B. Oliver (Convener), Dr. G. Archey,

Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Dr. C. A. Fleming, Dr. J. T. Salmon, Mr. N. H. Taylor.

Nominations Committee: Dr. W. R. B. Oliver (Convener), Mr. F. R.

Callaghan, Dr. G. Archey, Dr. R. A. Falla. Professor W. N. Benson, Dr. H. H. Allan.

Research Grants Committee: Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. J. Marwick, Dr. D. Miller.

National Collections. Dr. J. Marwick (Convener), Dr. W. R. B. Oliver,

Dr. H. H. Allan, Dr. D. Miller.

Votes of Thanks were accorded to Victoria University College, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, for the use of the Council Room, to the Press, and to the Secretary.

On the motion of Dr. Archey, a cordial vote of thanks was extended to Dr. Oliver, President, and Chairman of the meeting.

Travelling Expenses to be paid.

The meeting closed at 6 p.m.

Confirmed.
June 12, 1953.
(Signed)

W. R. B. Oliver

, President.

– xxxi –

Reports Of Member Bodies
Otago Branch Of The Royal Society Of New Zealand
Annual Report for Session 1952 (83rd Session)

Membership. The total membership stands at 179. This is an increase of 2 on last year's total.

New Members Elected: Mr. W. Thomson, Mr. G. S. Smith, Mr. L. J. Rapson, Dr. B. Monheimer, Miss V. Jolly, Mr. F. L. Miller, Miss K. Soper (student member), Miss E. L. Elliott, Miss J. Robinson, Dr. M. J. Marples and Mr. L. O. Simpson (student member).

Resignations: Mr. B. A. Heney, Mr. J. Conroy, Dr. J. C. Eccles, Mr. J. A. Jenkins and Mr. W. Stevenson.

Transfers; To the Branch—Miss Jonathan (now Mrs. Rind). from Canterbury; Mr. D. E. Hurley, from Wellington. From the Branch, Nil.

Transfers to Life Membership: Nil.

Removed from the Roll: Nil.

The following members died during the year: Mr. L. D. Coombs, Dr. F. W. B. Fitchett, Dr. T. G. McKellar, Mr. E. Fletcher Roberts, and Mr. George Simpson.

All five, Life Members of the Society, were well-known and held in high regard both in Dunedin and further afield.

Mr. L. D. Coombs, a prominent city architect, was a man of broad interests and one of the last of the amateur naturalists. His special field of interest was the Diatomaceae, and for some years he had been collecting an extremely fine in reference library on the subject and compiling a photographic atlas of the species of diatoms found in the fossil deposits at Oamaru. Mr. Coombs served on the Governmental Advisory Board for the Control of the Portobello Fish Hatchery and Marine Biological Station from 1932 to 1951, when the station was handed over to the University of Otago. Under his supervision, existing buildings were repaired and reorganised and the new laboratory added, and largely through his efforts the Aquarium was kept open to the public.

The following minute has been recorded concerning Mr. Simpson, who rendered much service to the Branch over many years: “The Branch as a whole, and particularly the Council, have suffered a severe loss in the passing of Mr. George Simpson, who, over a period of many years, devoted much of his time to the Society's affairs. Although one of the old school of so-called “amateur” scientists, Mr. Simpson recently earned the Fellowship of the Society, as a result of the outstanding nature of his scientific work.” A Past President and Vice-President of the Branch, Mr. Simpson served on the Council during many sessions, and also represented the Branch on the Council of the Royal Society of N.Z. In association with the late Mr. J. Scott Thomson he was awarded the Loder Cup.

Distinctions Gamed by Members. The Branch offers its congratulations to the following members:-

Dr. G. T. S. Baylis, who has been appointed to the Chair of Botany in the University of Otago.

Dr. D. S. Coombs, who has not long returned from Cambridge University, where he gained the degree of Ph.D.

Mr. C. V. Dayus, who has been appointed Veterinary liaison officer on the staff of the N.Z. High Commissioner in London.

Dr. L. E. Richdale, who has recently gained the degree of D.Sc. of the University of N.Z., and who has been appointed Nuffield Research Fellow in the University of Otago. where he is pursuing his researches in Ornithology.

Mr. W. A. Watters. of the Geology Department, University of Otago, who has been awarded a Post Graduate Science Scholarship of the University of N.Z, and who is now carrying out research work at Cambridge University, where he is in residence at Emmanuel College.

Attendances at Branch Meetings: 46, 45, 66, 20, 180, 27, 31, 61; an average of 59. (The large attendance was at Professor Le Gros Clark's lecture.)

Representatives on the Museum Management Committee. Miss Beryl Brewin and the late Mr. George Simpson. Later in the year Dr. Basil Howard was elected to fill the vacancy caused by Mr. Simpson's death.

Representatives on the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand. Professor W. E. Adams and Mr. O. H. Keys.

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Fellowship of the Royal Society of New Zealand. One of our members, Dr. Muriel Bell, was elected a Fellow during the year.

Pre-Sessional Activity. Opportunity was taken, during the visit to New Zealand of Profesor F. J. Turner, to hold a meeting in his honour. Held on the 20th December, 1951, the meeting took the form of a conversazione and supper in the Zoological laboratory, preceded by an address by Dr. Turner on his work and experiences abroad. At the meeting, Dr. Turner was pesented with the Hector Memorial Medal by the President, Professor W. E. Adams, on behalf of the Royal Society of New Zealand. Professor Adams, at the same meeting, presented the Hamilton Memorial Prize to Dr. Elizabeth Batham.

Early in January informal Council meetings were held to arrange a function in honour of the visit of the “Galathea,” a former British warship, now a Danish warship, engaged in biological research in the ocean deeps, and making a series of calls to New Zealand ports. As a consequence a Conversazione Supper was held in the evening of Thursday, January 10, in the Museum, in conjunction with the Association of Friends of the Museum; prior to supper in the Maori House, Mr. L. E. Richdale gave a brief but excellently illustrated talk on the Taiaroa Head albatrosses, and Dr. Bruun, leader of the “Galathea” Expedition, an address on the work of his staff. He referred with pleasure to his former visit to this Branch on 22nd March, 1949.

On the afternoon of the same day the Council had been the guests of the Expedition on board the “Galathea” when demonstrations were given of the laboratories and the work done in them.

Special Meetings. A successful combined meeting of the Otago Division of the New Zealand Branch of the British Medical Association and the Otago Branch of the Royal Society was held in the Red Lecture Theatre, Medical School, on the 8th August, to hear Professor Le Gros Clark, F.R.S., lecture on “The Significance of Remit Discoveries in South Africa in the Study of Human Evolution.”

Conversazione. The Annual Museum Conversazione, held on October 31, under the auspices of the Association of Friends of the Museum and the Otago Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand, again provided an enjoyable evening for a large gathering of members of both Societies. Dr. Skinner. F.R.S.N.Z., who, in his address, said that he would be retiring at the end of 1952 from his post as Director, spoke of the growth and changes which had taken place in the Museum since its inception in 1868. Looking to the future, he emphasized the present very limited staffing position, which compared most unfavourably with that of northern museums and which was due to lack of finance. These straitened circumstances could not be remedied by gifts and bequests from friends of the Museum, but would have to be met by annual grants from public sources. Dr. Skinner then mentioned that the Association of Friends of the Museum would shortly be launching a campaign for a Museum Rate, and expressed the hope that his audience would do all in their power to assist it.

Main Branch Meetings. These were held without change, as notified in the printed session card.

Original Papers. “Vegetative Anatomy in Donatia, Phyllachne, Forstera and Oreostylidium and Its Taxonomic Significance,” by Mr. L. J. Rapson. “Somatic Chromosome Number of the New Zealand Broom Genera and a Discussion of their Relationship,” by Miss Brenda Slade. “Australian Members of the Sub-Family Holozoinae and a Review of the Sub-Family,” by Miss Beryl Brewin.

For the Council,

W. E. Adams

, President

J B. Mackie

, Hon. Secretary.

Section Reports

Historical Section. The seven papers read at this year's meetings consisted of three of New Zealand interest and from which went more widely afield. For lectures with a special interest, invitations were sent to the Early Settlers' Association, the Law Society, and the French Club. A membership of about 30 makes the Section's finances, although modest, adequate for ordinary administrative purposes. Once again the Section gratefully acknowledges the continued encouragement given to it by the parent body, the Otago Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.

Angus Ross

, President

W. R. Mayhew

, Hon. Secretary.

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Astronomical Section. During the year three meetings were held—one general and two Committee meetings.

Beverly-Begg Observatory. Twenty-four Saturday evening public sessions constituted the winter observing season, from April 19 to September 27, nine nights only being unsuitable for observation. These evenings were conducted by Committee members on a rota system, and many other clear nights were spent in entertaining interested parties. Over 400 members of the public visited the Observatory, in addition to Associates of the Section and members of the Telescope Makers' Club.

Equipment. The telescopes and other equipment housed in the Observatory have been maintained in good order. It is proposed soon to re-silver the main 12-inch mirror; inquiries as to the possibility of aluminizing the glass have not so far proved successful.

Occultations. Observations of lunar occultations were largely defeated by adverse weather conditions. To date only four results have been obtained.

Aurorae. Displays have shown a marked decline during 1952, in contrast to 1951 when many fine aurorae were seen. The Observatory Director and Committee members have been constantly on the look-out but have recorded only ten minor glows following two larger, active displays which occurred in January and February.

Carter Observatory, Wellington, commenting on the present low ebb of sunspot activity and the expected decline of auroral frequency during the next few years, emphasises the importance of making detailed observations of every display occurring. If this is done, both by veteran observers and by newcomers to the ranks, welcome assistance will be rendered to an important study, enabling researchers to form a clearer picture of the variations of the phenomenon during the sunspot cycle.

Queenstown Transit Memorial. During the past three years negotiations have been proceeding between Mr. W. D. Anderson and the Queenstown Progressive League for the setting-up of a plaque commemorating observation by an American expedition of the Transit of Venus in 1874.

Our Section's part in the plan has now been fulfilled; a large bronze plaque having been made at our expense and forwarded to Queenstown where the League is to place it in position upon a suitable base stone on the original site.

The memorial should serve to interest the many overseas and local visitors to this resort, and to emphasise the importance of this rare astronomical phenomenon, the next occurrence of which will be in the year 2004.

Membership. The Roll stands at 12 full members and 27 associate members.

G. S. Smith,

Chairman.

G. G. Couling,

Hon. Secretary.

Nelson Philosophical Society
Annual Report for Year ended September 30, 1952.

Meetings. The following meetings were held:—April 21, “Presidential Address” by Dr. H. O. Askew; May 19, “Experiences in Australia,” by Mr. B. B. Given; June 16, “Textile Design,” by Miss M. Davies; July 21, “A Series of three lecturettes,” Dr. Miller “The Maori Approach to Insects,” Mr. R. J. Monk “The Penetration of Heavy Applications of Borax in Soils,” Mr. S. M. Rapson “Road Traffic Density in Nelson”; August 18, “Whales,” by Mr. L. Gurr; September 15, “Municipal Life at Home,” by Mr. Bental.

Membership. The total membership is 51 composed of 35 full members and 16 associate members.

Finances. The Balance Sheet shows a credit of £10 13s 11d. Twenty-one members are overdue with their subscription for 1952, (14 full members and 7 associate members), which makes a total of £11 6s 6d.

The account for the Transactions of the Royal Society, Vol. 80, has not been received but this will be, together with travelling expenses for our representative on the Royal Society, about £16. Therefore when all outstanding subscriptions are paid up, a credit of about £5 will result from the year's workings.

Attendance. The attendances at the regular monthly meetings have been very satisfactory, varying from 21 to 28.

Obituary. It is with regret that we have to record the death of Mr. W. C. Davies, a past president and for some time hon. secretary-treasurer of the Society. A letter of condolence has been sent to the relatives of the late Mr. Davies on behalf of the members of the Society.

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Hawke's Bay Branch Of The Royal Society Of New Zealand
Annual Report for Year ended December 31, 1952

During 1952 the Branch has carried on reasonably actively. Council met several times and there were four general meetings. At the Annual General Meeting Mr. Johnston spoke on “Plant Hormones,” and at other meetings during the year Dr. Bastings spoke on “Heating,” Mr. Teague on the “Urewera” and Dr. Falla on the “Rediscovery of the Notornis.” Attendance at these meetings was good.

Membership. Membership has dropped slightly, the total now being 101. A few new members would be welcome.

Colenso Memorial. The money received from Mr. Colenso's collection is still in the Post Office, as no decision has yet been made regarding a suitable memorial.

Napier Industries' Exhibition. At this exhibition an opportunity was taken of presenting some aspects of Royal Society activity, in conjunction with the Museum and Art Gallery. Displays consisted of items of natural history, considerable space being given to a collection of modern marine shells found in Hawke's Bay. In addition there was a very striking display of a fine collection of Devonian fossil corals presented some years ago by Mr. Collins. Films of general scientific interest, lent by the National Film Library, were shown throughout the Exhibition. Publications were sent from the Auckland War Memorial Museum for sale, and considerable quantities were sold.

Library. A large number of out-of-date books have been shelved in the Stock room during the year. These are still available on request.

Royal Society Collection at the Museum. The natural history collections at the Museum are being tidied up, and large quantities of material are being sorted in order to obtain a few specimens of each type. The remainder can then be disposed of to such organisations as may have use for them. The final sorting will probably not be completed for some months.

The Branch is now almost at the stage where other workers, knowing something of the subject would be useful to sort and name fossil shells, plants and rocks No new displays have been put out during the year, all available activity being directed towards this sorting of material.

Plans for extension of the Museum provide space that has been provisionally allotted to the Royal Society for display purposes. Plans are afoot for these displays, and some members have already been working several months on the subject.

Sections. Much of the real work of this Branch is carried out through the Sections.

Ornithological Section. Regular excursions have been made, covering particularly the Ahuriri Lagoon, and the estuaries of the Ngaruroro and the Tuki Tuki rivers. Records made include the Little Egret, and this seems to be the first for New Zealand. Useful data have also been accumulated on the movements and numbers of seabirds, waders and ducks in the area.

In anticipation of the extension of the Museum, discussions have centred around bird exhibits. It is suggested that such exhibits take the form of habitat groups of typical birds of the district in their natural surroundings.

Astronomical Section. This section has served a very useful purpose over the years, but it was inevitable from the nature of the subject that a time must come when the section would peter out for want of fresh material. That time has now arrived, and some members of the section have now been absorbed into other sections.

Historical Section. This section has continued its work throughout the year, and is amassing a considerable amount of useful material.

Meteorological Section. Ten meetings were held during the year at which papers were read. In addition to this, the Section records a certain number of local weather observations. In general the papers deal with advances in the science of meteorology or allied sciences. Meetings are well attended and stimulate much useful discussion among members.

General. Council is pleased to record these achievements of the Sections, for it is in the Sections that the enthusiasm of members finds practical application, and the work of Sections during the year has been well worth while.

Apart from the slight drop in membership, Council considers the Branch has had a successful year.

Southland Branch Of The Royal Society Of New Zealand
Annual Report for the Year ended March 31, 1953

During the 1952-53 season the membership of the Branch stood at 43. In 1951-52 it was 45. The resignations of Miss C. O. McHaffie, Miss. S. E. Pratt, Mr. Geo. Turner, and Mr.

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Don Matheson were accepted during the year. New members who joined were Mr. Rex Royds and Dr. L. F. Jepson.

The Council feels that some steps could be taken to increase the membership of the Branch. The rather prevalent idea outside the Society that a degree or other scientific qualification is necessary for membership could be dispelled The Branch has always thrown its meetings open to all interested people whether they were members or not.

Towards the end of 1951, the Council was asked to sponsor an appeal in Southland for the Rutherford Memorial. A cheque for £75 was sent to the Dominion Trustees of the fund.

Dr. Richdale's Ornithological Work on Whero. The building which the Southland Branch erected on Whero Island to assist Dr. Richdale in his important research work is now in need of repairs. Our present financial position does not permit the task to be done.

Meetings. The following addresses were given at meetings of the Branch during the year:- April, annual meeting, presidential address by Mr. A. J. Deaker “The Royal Society”; May, “Lands and Peoples Bordering the Pacific Ocean,” Mr. R. G. Lister, Head of the Geography Department at the University of Otago; “Some Aspects of Wild Life in the United States of America,” Dr. L. E. Richdale; July, “The Meteorological Service in New Zealand,” and “Invercargill Weather,” Dr. R. G. Simmers, this meeting was held in conjunction with the University Association; September, film evening, science films on Jet Propulsion, Television, Seed Dispersal, Life Under the Sea, and the Digestive Process; October, “The Later Geological History of Southland,” Mr. B. L. Wood.

For assistance during the year, the Council desires to thank the Museum Board, the Press, those members who gave hospitality to visiting lecturers, the National Film Library, and the Boys' High School.

Wellington Branch Of The Royal Society Of New Zealand
Annual Report for Year ended September 30, 1952

Council. The Council has held eight meetings during the year under review and the previous Council held one meeting prior to the Annual General Meeting. Dr. Bastings resigned as Branch representative on the Royal Society of New Zealand on his departure overseas, Dr. Barnett being elected to fill the position.

Membership. Membership now stands at 314 full members and 93 associate members. Transactions are received by 308 members. Thirty-four new members and associate members were elected and 19 resigned. The membership list has been thoroughly revised. The Council recorded with regret the death of Dr. E. R. Cooper.

Meetings. General Meetings were held as follows:—October 24: Dr. L. Bastings gave his Presidential Address, “The New Zealand Society, 1851-67”; April 23: “A Biologist Overseas,” by Dr. J. T. Salmon, Victoria University College; June 25. Symposium and Demonstration. “Yellow-leaf Disease of Phormium,” by Mr. W. R. Boyce, Dr. R. A. Cumber, Dr. F. J. Newhook, and Dr. J. Strzemienski; July 23: “A Preview of Biophysics,” by Dr. A. G. Bogle. Director, Dominion Physical Laboratory; August 28: Hudson Lecture, “Advance in Chemistry.” by Professor F. G. Soper, Otago University; September 24: “Radioactive Iodine Studies,” by Dr. H. D. Purves, Endrocrinology Department of the Medical Research Council. Sir Edward Mellanby, G. B.E., K.C.B., F.R S., addressed a Special General Meeting on October 11, his subject being, “Development of Medical Science and its Social Impact.”

The Presidential Address of the Royal Society of New Zealand for 1952 was delivered by Mr. F. R. Callaghan, M. A., F.R.E.S., at a Special General Meeting of the Wellington Branch on May 20. Mr. Callaghan's subject was “The Application of Science and Research in New Zealand.”

Sir John Cockroft, Rutherford Memorial Lecturer, delivered an address at Victoria University College, Kelburn, on September 18, under the auspices of Victoria University College associated with this branch and other Wellington scientific societies. Sir John spoke on “Industrial Applications of Atomic Energy.”

The following subjects were presented at section meetings during the year:

Astronomy and Geophysics Section. April: Combined meeting with Physics Section “New Aids to New Zealand's Time Service,” by Mr. G. A. Eiby, Mr. B. H. Olsson, and Mr. J. Templeton. May: “Recent Investigations of New Zealand's Crustal Structure by Seismic Methods,” by Dr. E. I. Robertson. June: “New Zealand Sea-waves and Related Weather Conditions,” by Mr. W. M. Jones and Mr. R. A. Wooding, Oceanographic Observatory. July: Combined meeting with Physics Section;“Radio Research,” by Mr. J, A. Ratcliffe. August;

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“The Planet Mars,” by Mr. K. D. Adams. September: “Some Aspects of Radio Research,” by Dr. C. D. Ellyett of Canterbury College.

Biology Section. April: “Plant Sociology,” by Miss L. B. Moore. May: “Some Observations on the Ecology of New Zealand Earthworms,” by Mr. K. E. Lee. June: “Resource Conservation,” by Mr. P. C. Habid. July: “Wildlife Research and Management in Scandinavia,” by Mr. Kaj Westerkov. August: “Disease Control as an Aid to Primary Production,” by Mr. David McFarlane. September: “Inter-tidal Algal Ecology of the Hauraki Gulf,” by Miss Vivienne Dellow.

Geology Section. June: “Geology of Tasmania,” by Mr. J. Bradley. July: (a) “Problem of the Lower Course of the Waianakarua River, North Otago,” by Mr. G. L. Adkin; (b) “Geological Significance of Some Upper Tertiary Floras,” by Mr. R. A. Couper. August: (a) “Sediments of the Chatham Rise; Their Petrology and Micropalaeontology,” by Mr. J. J. Reed and Mr. N. de B. Hornibook; (b) “Transcurrent Movement on the Wairarapa Fault,” by Mr. P. P. Vella. September: (a) “A Geological Reconnaissance of Alaska,” by Mr. C. L. Rich; (b) “Structure and Geomorphology of Palliser Bay,” by Mr. R. L. Kite.

Physics Section. April: Combined meeting with Astronomy and Geophysics Section. May: “Microwave Noise Measurement from Gaseous Discharge Tubes,” by Mr. E. W. Collings. June: “Diffraction Microscopy,” by Dr. G. L. Rogers. July: Combined meeting with Astronomy and Geophysics Section. August: “Wind Power Generation,” by Mr. C. J. Banwell, Mr. B. H. Olsson, and Mr. N. G. Robertson. September: “Soft X-ray Spectroscopy of the Solid State,” by Prof. F. C. Chalkin.

Social Science Section. April: “Immigration Policy; An Introductory Talk,” by Dr. W. B. Sutch (the first paper in a symposium on “Immigration”). May: “The Economics of Immigration,” by Mr. A. McGregor. June: “Immigration and the Labour Force,” by Mr. Noel S. Woods. July: “The Cultural Assimilation of Migrants,” by Dr. R. A. Lochore. August: “Immigration and Education,” by Mr. A. B. Thomson. September: “Migrants' Problems,” by Dr. Eichbaum, Mrs. Macaskill, Dr. Jacoby, and Mr. Botham.

Technology Section. No meetings were held.

Papers Submitted for Printing in the Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand. Papers read by title: (a) At meetings of the Branch Council: “The Development of Nothofagus Seed,” by A. L. Poole, September 26, 1951. “A Note on the Earthworm Fauna of the Kermadec Islands,” by K. E. Lee, November 26, 1951; “On a Collection of Fishes made by Dr. Marshall Laird at Norfolk Island,” (communicated by L. R. Richardson), by Henry W. Fowler, July 23, 1952; “A Note on the Occurrence in New Zealand of Mesostoma ehrenbergii (Focke) Schmidt, 1948 (Turbellaria, Trematoda), by Vida M. Stout; “The Protozoa of New Zealand Intertidal Zone Fishes,” by Marshall Laird; “Studies on New Zealand Hirudinea, Part III, Bdellamaris eptatreti n.g. n.sp., and Notes on Other Piscicolidae,” by L. R. Richardson; “Note on Secotium conei, Heim,” by Greta Stevenson, September 24, 1952. (b) At General Meetings: “Dasyatis thetidis Waite, a Second Species of Giant Sting-ray in New Zealand Waters,” by L. R. Richardson and J. A. F. Garrick, August 28, 1952. (c) At Meetings of the Biology Section: “Forest Regeneration on the Western Hutt Hills, Wellington,” by B. H. Croker, May 14, 1952; “Contributions to a Knowledge of the Naturalized Flora of New Zealand, No. 3,” by A. J. Healy, July 9, 1952. “The Molluscan Genus Monodilepas in New Zealand,” by R. K. Dell; “The Fresh-water Mollusca of New Zealand, Part I, the Genus Hyridella,” by R. K. Dell; “Variation in Squilla armata M. Edw. (Stomatopoda), Suggesting a Distinct Form in New Zealand Waters,” by L. R. Richardson, September 10, 1952. (d) At meetings of the Geology Section: “Notes on the Genus Haliotis,” by C. A. Fleming, October 11, 1951; “The Alpine Schists and Upper Triassic of Harpers Pass,” by H. W. Wellman, G. W. Grindley, and F. W. Munden; “The genus Pelicaria in the Tertiary of East Wairarapa,” by P.P. Vella, June 12, 1952; “Origin and Migrations of Australasian Echinoderm Faunas since the Mesozoic,” by H. B. Fell, August 14, 1952.

Hudson Lecture. The Hudson Lecture was this year given by Professor F. G. Soper of Otago University, who spoke on “Advance in Chemistry.” The address has been printed in N.Z. Science Review and reprints have been obtained and distributed to members.

Rutherford Memorial Fund. The appeal conducted by the Branch in conjunction with other scientific societies and Victoria University College met with very satisfactory results, approximately £2,500 being subscribed to the Wellington Provincial Committee's Fund. Approaches were made by personal canvass and by circular to some 5,000 individuals and firms. The work of organisation was lightened by the active assistance of the business community and many members assisted with the canvassing. The success of the appeal owes much to the energy and enthusiasm of Dr, Bastings, who acted as chairman of the Appeal Committee,

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Cockayne Memorial. At the time of preparing this report little progress has been made in finalizing the project. The memorial boulder has not been satisfactorily sited and it has not been possible to arrange with the Wellington City Council for completion of the work and the holding of the dedication ceremony. Negotiations are in progress.

Resignation of Secretary-Treasurer. In view of his impending departure overseas Mr. R. M. Waite tendered his resignation from the office of Secretary-Treasurer which he had held since October, 1950, in April. Mr. Waite acted as Assistant Secretary until the end of June. Mr. J. W. Brodie, Assistant Secretary, was appointed by the Council as Secretary Treasurer from April.

Library. Thirty journals are received by the library, nineteen of these by subscription. The binding of some volumes is held up because of missing parts which are on order. The rest of the arrears are now at the printers being bound.

The card loan system was instituted towards the end of the year. This will enable a survey of the use of the library to be readily made.

N.Z. Society Documents. On the recommendation of the sub-committee appointed to investigate, the Council has agreed that the N.Z. Society papers, being of general historical interest, should be deposited on loan with the Alexander Turnbull Library, on condition that they are catalogued, and kept as a separate collection.

Auckland Institute And Museum
Annual Report for the Year ended March 31, 1933

Centennial. During the last year the Auckland Museum celebrated its centenary. The original Museum was established on October 25, 1852. In 1867 the Auckland Institute was founded for the promotion of arts, science and literature, and soon after took over the custody of the Museum, the two bodies combining as the Auckland Institute and Museum, as it is known to-day.

The centennial functions commenced with a Presidential address by the President, Mr. F. L.-G. West, on May 5, almost coinciding with the date, May 4, of the first presidential address to the Auckland Institute in 1868. This was followed by a series of six special centennial lectures on the progress of science in its various branches over the past one hundred years. The lectures will be published in a special Centennial number of the Museum Records.

During the year the Council was “at home” to our colleague societies and eleven societies accepted our invitation to hold one of their ordinary meetings in the Museum library. Well attended meetings were held by the Society of Arts, the Association of Scientific Workers and Science Teachers' Association, the Botanical Society, the Institute of Chemistry, the Astronomical Society, the Anthropology and Maori Race Section of the Institute, the Geographical Society, the New Zealand Institution of Engineers, the New Zealand Dental Association, the New Zealand Institute of Architects and the British Medical Association. These meetings fulfilled the aims of the Institute in promoting the arts, science and literature in the community; they also brought the Museum and Institute into closer contact with the work of these organisations, to, we hope, our mutual benefit.

On April 4 an evening was held for the Mayors, Chairmen and members of the metropolitan local bodies. The Council expresses its thanks to the members of the staff who prepared suitable exhibitions for the occasion.

The Museum centennial was commemorated at the Sunday morning services at St. Mary's Cathedral and St. Patrick's Cathedral on October 17. The final function took the form of a conversazione in the Museum on October 23, attended by representatives of the Church, the services, local bodies and sister societies and our own members. We are especially grateful to the whole staff of the Museum and the Ladies' Committee for their help in making it a very pleasant and successful function and a fitting finale to our centennial celebrations.

Memorial Oration. On February 11, at the invitation of the Auckland Branch of the British Medical Association, Major-General H. E. Barrowclough, C.B., D.S O., M.C., delivered a moving memorial oration in the Hall of Memories during the Annual Conference of the Association.

Obituary. We record with regret the death of the following members:-V. R. Findlay, A. Goldie, Princess Te Puea Herangi, C.B.E., Major G. R. Hutchinson, O.B.E., Mrs. W. E. La Roche, B.Sc., J. Lowe, Miss F. Murray, Oliver Nicholson, J. W. M. Smith, Mrs. Bertha Wilson, and F. M. Winstone.

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Mrs. Bertha Wilson followed the activities of the Museum with close personal interest and support; she endowed the Mitchelson Prize given at the annual Checseman Flower Show and made endowments of £3,000 for cinematography and photography.

Mr. Oliver Nicholson served on the original Citizen's Committee which was responsible for the erection of the present Museum as Auckland's War Memorial to the First World War He was a member of the Trust Board from 1923-1934.

Princess Te Puea Herangi, C.B.E., will long be remembered for her leadership of and service to the Maori people.

Council. We regret that, through illness, we have not had the benefit of the years of experience in the affairs of the Museum from our senior member of the Institute, Professor H. W. Segar. We also regret that he was unable to be present at the Centennial Conversazione.

Membership. In our centennial year an extra endeavour was made for new members, and, although we did not reach our target of one thousand members, the roll at the end of the year was 979, an increase of 101 for the year. Of our total number 290 are life members. Fifty-six names were removed from the membership list through death, resignations and deletions, and a record number of 157 new members were elected.

Honours. The Museum's greatest benefactor, Mr. Earle Vaile, was honoured by Her Majesty the Queen by his appointment as an Officer of the Order of the British Empire. In addition to his benefactions to the Museum and Institute, the Public Library and the Auckland Grammar School, Mr. Vaile is also well known for his pioneering farming work in the Upper Waikato district.

Miss M. W. Crookes, M. A., was awarded the Loder Cup for 1952 for her distinguished botanical work on New Zealand ferns.

Scenery Preservation. It is gratifying to record that the efforts of several institutions, including our own, have culminated in an Act of Parliament setting aside 22,500 acres of Waipoua Forest as a sanctuary. At the invitation of the Government, the Council has nominated Mr. J. H. Rose as our representative on the Waipoua Forest Sanctuary Advisory Committee.

The Council is also watching developments in the proposal to harness the Upper Waikato for hydro-electric purposes, and any effect on the scenic beauties of that area. A definite statement from the Government as to its intentions has not yet been made.

Science Congress. The Council has advised the Royal Society of New Zealand that it will organise the 8th Science Congress to be held at Auckland in May, 1934.

Bus Services. At the request of the Council the Auckland Transport Board has inaugurated a bus service to the Museum to and from the Pitt Street terminus.

Finance. In addition to the extra work involved during our Centennial year the Council has given a great deal of attention to the matter of finance, which has become acute. Despite the savings created by the absence without salary of two members of our scientific staff (Mr. Cooper, botanist, and Mr. Battey, geologist) we have ended the year with a deficit in the Income and Expenditure Account of £278. All but two of the contributing metropolitan local bodies met the Council's request for a voluntary 15% extra contribution above the statutory contribution. An encouraging response was made by the provincial bodies to the Council's request for a voluntary contribution of one penny per person of their population. Over 30% of these local bodies made contributions during the year amounting to £383. In order to put our financial position to the provincial local bodies and explain the Museum services obtainable in the province, visits were made by the President and the Director to meetings of Nos. 2 and 6 County Wards at Hamilton and Whangarei, respectively, while personal interviews were made with representatives from the Whangaroa, Kawakawa, Kamo and Whangarer districts.

Despite the welcome increased support from metropolitan and provincial local bodies the Council has found the financial position still unsatisfactory. After a thorough review of the financial requirements and the methods of contribution, a new budget and a revised scheme of contribution have been prepared. These were placed before representatives of the local bodies at a meeting called by His Worship the Mayor. The meeting accepted the budget requirements of the Museum, and a revised scheme of contribution which allows for increases with the growth in population is now under consideration. If the endeavours of the Council come to fruition the finances of the Museum and Institute should be satisfactory and stable for many years.

Institute Syllabus and Activities. The centennial year syllabus was opened by the Presidential Address on May 5, when Mr. West reviewed the thought of the years since the Museum was founded and ventured some possibilities of the coming years. It is intended that

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Mr. West's centennial address, together with the following series of lectures on A Century of Discovery and Research shall be published later in the year in a centennial volume of the Records of the Institute and Museum.

“A Century of Geological Research in the Auckland Province,” by Professor A. R. Lillie, Ph.D.; “The Century and the Atom,” by Professor P. W. Burbidge. M.Sc., F.Phys.Soc.; “Looking Back on New Zealand Chemistry,” by Professor L. H. Briggs, D.Sc., F.R.S.N.Z.; “The Contribution of New Zealand Naturalists in a Century of Biology,” by Dr. R. A. Falla, F.R.S.N.Z.; “A Survey of a Century of Medical Progress,” by Dr. F. R. Smale; “Energy in the Service of Man: A Century of Achievement,” by Professor C. G. J. Dalton, D.Phil., B.Sc., B.E. Associated with the centennial were four talks from 1YC on “The Century in Science” contributed by:—Professor A. R. Lillie. Ph.D., “Geology in the Auckland Province”; Professor P. W. Burbidge, M.Sc., F.Phys.Soc., “The Century and the Atom”; Dr. R. A. Falla, F.R.S.N.Z., “A Naturalist Looks Back”; Dr. Gilbert Archey. F.R.S.N.Z., “The Second Century.”

Overseas lecturers whom we had the pleasure of hearing were Professor Clyde Kluckhohn, who spoke on “Culture and Personality”; Dr. C. E. Kenneth Mees, F.R S., on “The Road to Wealth”; and Dr. Sydney Chapman, F.R.S., on “Meteors and Meteorites.”

Sunday afternoon lectures in the Museum library were kindly contributed by:—Mr. E. G. Turbott. M.Sc. “Questions and Answers on Everyday Natural History”; Mr. R. Hardin, B.F.A. “A Texan Looks at Texas”; Dr. J. A. Rattenbury, Ph.D. “Botanizing in California”; Mr. T. Wilson, M.A. “Life in Siam”; Mr. V. F. Fisher, M.A. “Goldie's Maori Portraits”; Mrs. M. C. Bassett, B.A. “The Dyaks of Sarawak”; Mr. A. W. B. Powell, F.R.S.N.Z. “The Galathea Expedition in New Zealand Waters.”

Members of the staff continue to meet requests for outside lectures and radio talks and have given forty-one during the year.

Anthropology Section. Contributors to a successful session of the Anthropology Section included: Mr. D. S. Marshall on Panama Indians; Professor Paul Wingert on Cultural Motivation in Primitive Art, and Dr. Florence Kluckhohn on Personality Problems. On Maori topics, three speakers. Dr. G. Archey, Mr. K. Sinclair and Mr. J. M. McEwen, lectured respectively on the Moahunters; the Maori King Movement; and Contemporary Administrative Problems, while Professor K. B. Cumberland spoke on South Pacific Land Tenure. A film screening of Moana of the South Seas and a field afternoon on One Tree Hill led by Mr. V. F. Fisher completed the programme.

Astronomical Section. The Auckland Astronomical Society carried out a full programme of meetings during the year, together with extension activities that met with full public response, particularly in connection with the Auckland Carnival in February. The President of the Section, Mr. R. A. McIntosh, entertained the members at his home, and the Society also participated in an At Home meeting as part of the Museum centennial programme. The Society acknowledges the valuable gift by Sir Frank and Lady Mappin of a four-inch reflecting telescope, which has been allotted to the Secretary, Mr. Greager, for his lunar observations. The membership has greatly increased and now stands at 126.

Conchology Section. The recently formed Conchology Section (formerly the Auckland Museum Conchology Club) had a very full programme of lectures and other activities for the year. Their regular monthly meetings, with an average attendance of thirty-two members, were held at the Museum.

This year the Section commenced a molluscan faunal survey of the Manukau Harbour. After completion of a report the collection will be housed at the Museum for reference. The Section's annual publication (Bulletin No. 8) was published in November. It consists of sixteen pages and includes eleven original papers by members.

Assistant Director. The year has been a busy one owing to extra commitments in oceanography and continually increasing enquiries. Fifteen outside lectures were delivered, and in collaboration with Mr. Turbott answers to questions submitted by children on nature topics were provided for a series of 1YA broadcasts.

Two papers on New Species of Land Snails were published in the Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum, vol. 4, No. 3. which was edited and published in December.

Meetings of the New Zealand Oceanography Committee were attended in Wellington. A considerable amount of correspondence has taken place in the organisation of an UNESCO sponsored symposium entitled “Marine Provinces within the Indo-Pacific Region,” for the Eighth Pacific Science Congress to be held in the Philippines in November next. Another

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oceanographic activity involved the inspection of ships at the naval dockyard for fouling organisms. An appointment to the UNESCO Advisory Panel on Oceanography was accepted.

Field trips covered visits to the Three Kings Islands and Hen and Chickens Islands in Mr. C. Wild's yacht “Tara” and two overland trips to Cape Maria van Dieman.

A check-list of the Australian Recent and Tertiary Mollusca was prepared and duplicate copies have been lodged in the Dominion Museum, the New Zealand Geological Survey Office, Wellington, and the Australian Museum, Sydney. The check-list may be published later in collaboration with Miss Joyce Allan, of the Australian Museum.

A report on the New Zealand Mollusca (Gastropoda) obtained during the “Galathea” expedition is in preparation.

Ethnologist. The co-operation of the Principal, Mr. T. Wilson, two lecturers, Messrs. S. Knight and S. S. P. Hamilton, and sixty-five students from the Ardmore College made it possible for valuable field work to be undertaken at Maraetai. Two periods of three and seven days respectively enabled the students to gain valuable archaeological and cultural experience and the Museum benefited by the addition of many important specimens and the gleaning of much information. Before assembling at the camps the students were briefed at the Museum. In company with the Director, visits were paid to Mangakino and Waipapa to inspect rock carvings and paintings.

Field afternoons were arranged at One Tree Hill for the members of the Anthropology and Maori Race Section, Ardmore College students and Christchurch Teachers' College, and talks given on the Maori environment, history and earthworks. A field day held at Clevedon School under the auspices of the New Zealand Forest and Bird Protection Society was attended and short talks on Maori nature lore were given to five groups of children.

Associate Ethnologist. In addition to the minor changes normally carried out in the exhibition halls there have been several special display projects during the year.

Ornithologist and Entomologist. The preparation of the Ornithological Society of New Zealand's Check-list, now ready for publication, has entailed intermittent work as a member of a committee (Convener, Dr. C. A. Fleming) over the past three years. Papers have been published on “Some Stray Tropical and Sub-Tropical Sea Birds in New Zealand” in the Records and on “Island Ecology” (read at the first New Zealand Ecological Society conference).

Field work has included two notable opportunities for special projects, firstly the Museum's expedition to the Three Kings Islands, and second, a visit for further field work in the Notornis area. On the Three Kings expedition, projects undertaken were the study and collection of the brown qail (Synoicus), the ringing of nestling red-billed gulls, and, in collaboration with Mr. P. C. Bull, of the Animal Ecology Section, D.I.S.R., bird census work to give information on a quantitative basis relating to the effect of the destruction of goats upon the environment. Mr. J. S. Edwards undertook a full collecting programme to extend the general invertebrate collections from Great Island, and a large amount of material, including leaf mould samples, was obtained which will be sent for report to specialists in various groups. A day spent on the Poor Knights Islands earlier in the expedition enabled most useful collections and observations to be made.

Field investigations since the re-discovery of Notornis were further advanced by the expedition in February, invitation to accompany this expedition being received through the courtesy of the Department of Internal Affairs, Wildlife Section. Observations were devoted especially to the status of post-breeding family groups of Notornis and their distribution in relation to the season.

Associate Geologist. A short paper on the geology of the Albatross Point District, Kawhia, was published in the Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum, whilst a longer paper on the Geology of the Central Hokianga area has been accepted for publication in the Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand.

Field work in the Port Waikato and Kaipara districts has continued and day excursions have been made to several localities close to Auckland. In conjunction with Dr. N. R. Brothers, of the Geology Department, Auckland University College, a week was spent studying the geology of Hukatere Peninsula, North Kaipara. This excursion resulted in the discovery of several new fossil localities.

Educational Officer. It is apparent that the department has reached the stage where almost any part of its main activities might absorb completely the efforts of its staff. It is now impossible to satisfy the demand in any one direction without sacrificing the other functions of the department. The work this year has shown that the present facilities in the Museum can go a

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long way towards meeting the increasing demands of the school population for lessons and that the existing organisation is suitable for incorporating additional staff for this purpose.

Librarian. During the past year there has been a considerable enrichment of the library's stock, particularly in the sections on New Zealand and the Pacific. As much rare, and some unique, material became available, it was considered advisable to take advantage of the opportunity of purchasing it, so that this year the library expenditure has exceeded that of any other year. Among the notable accessions are: Journals of the Provincial Councils, almost completing the library's sets; early volumes of Hansard; Angas—South Australia Illustrated; Hergenroeder's original wash drawings for Langsdorff's Reise um die Welt (1812); original drawings of Pacific Island scenes by Norman Hardy; a number of Colenso papers. All these were purchased from the Edward Earle Vaile Trust Fund. In addition, the library has acquired many items by donation. These include drawings and sketch books of Charles Heaphy, donated by Miss Dudley and Miss Jean Robertson, some rare early works donated by Mr. E. Earle Vaile, including Angas's The New Zealanders Illustrated, William Bligh's Voyage to the South Sea, the anonymous and surreptitious account of Cook's last voyage, Parkinson's Journal of a Voyage to the South Sea, and a number of others. The total number of books added to the library during the year was 1,402, of which 1,044 were purchased from the Edward Earle Vaile Trust Fund.

Canterbury Branch of The Royal Society of New Zealand
Annual Report for the Year ended October 31, 1952

Membership. The ordinary membership of the Society remains at 280. (The total 278 shown in last year's Annual Report was increased by two owing to elections after the Report had gone to press.) Eighteen new members have been elected, one has been transferred from another Branch, and one member was transferred from the associate grade. Ten members have resigned, three have died, four have transferred to other Branches, and the names of three members have been removed from the membership list by order of the Council.

Associate membership remains at eleven. Four new associates have been elected, two have resigned, one has been transferred to ordinary membership, and the name of one member has been removed from the membership list by order of the Council.

Obituary. The Society records with deep regret the death of three members during the year: Professor I. L. G. Sutherland, and Mr. D. R. Sheldon, both of Canterbury University College, and Mrs. E. H. Batchelor.

Ivan Lorin George Sutherland, M.A. (N.Z.), Ph.D. (Glasgow), Professor of Philosophy, Canterbury University College, whose death occurred in March, 1952, was born in Masterton in 1897. Professor Sutherland was the foremost European student of our time of problems of Maori-Pakeha contact. As such he held an honoured place among the small circle of European New Zealanders concerned with the problem of Maori acculturation and the larger mass of Maoris experiencing the actual pains of adjustment. His untimely death after the sabbatical leave from which was expected his magnum opus on the contemporary Maori situation was a major calamity. Fortunately the main lines of his Maori studies are recorded in publications, of which the most noteworthy is the 400-page symposium published in 1940, “The Maori People To-day.”

Since his Christchurch appointment in 1936, Dr. Sutherland had been an active member and some time President of the Canterbury Branch of the Royal Society. He was active in founding the short-lived Social Science Section and played a prominent part in the Society's 1947 and 1951 Congresses and in the Seventh Pacific Science Congress of 1949.

He will be remembered as a brisk chairman and a lucid and genial lecturer by a wide circle of the general public no less than by his students and colleagues.

Sections. Both the Field Club and the newly-formed Scientific Photography Section report active and successful years. Accounts of their activities will be found on a later page.

Research Grant. The Council awarded Miss Shirley Jonathan a Research Grant to enable her to complete research on the trematode parasite of the grey duck.

Congratulations. To two members—Professor E. Percival and Dr. R. S. Duff—who were elected Fellows of the Royal Society of New Zealand during the year, the Council extends warmest congratulations.

Programme. The following addresses were given:—March 5, “The Beginnings of Medicine—with Digressions” (Presidential Address), Dr. A. J. Campbell; April 2, “Why Pasteurise Milk?” Dr. J. H. Blakelock (paper read by Dr. E. Needham), Dr. Muriel Bell, and Dr. I. D. Blair (a well-attended public meeting held in the College Hall); May 7, “Possible

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Universes,” Mr. W. W. Sawyer; June 4, “A Biological Expedition to Colombia,” Dr. W. R. Philipson; August 6, “The Educational Implications of Museum Architecture and Display,” Dr. R. S. Duff; September 3, “High Vacua,” Professor F. C. Chalkin; October 1, “A Biologist at Large,” Professor E. Percival; November 5, “Geological Exploration in Persia,” Dr. P. B. Maling; December 3, (Annual Meeting), “Industrial Research,” Mr. T. R. Pollard.

Special General Meeting. September 15—“Research in Photography,” Dr. J. M. Mitchell. (Meeting in conjunction with the Institute of Chemistry and the Association of Scientific Workers.)

Ordinary Meeting. July 2, “The Thermal Waters of Canterbury” and “The Future of the Christchurch Artesian Water Supply,” Mr. B. W. Collins “The Life History of Kerguelenia stewartina, an Air-Breathing Marine Snai.” Mr. G. A. Knox; “A Sub-Fossil Hawk,” Mr. R. Scarlett; “A Peculiar Case of Cyclomorphosis,” and “Varieties or Species?—a Taxonomic Problem in the Rotatorian Genus Synchaeta,” Mr. C. R. Russell.

Papers Read by Title. May 7, “Spinescence and the Apical Meristem of Hymenanthera alpina,” Mr. B. C. Arnold (read by Miss F. R. B. Nurse); June 4, “Additions to the Rotatoria of New Zealand, Part 5,” by Mr. C. R. Russell.

Rutherford Memorial Lecture. Although not a function of the Canterbury Branch the first Rutherford Memorial Lecture on September 20, which was given in the College Hall, Canterbury University College, by Sir John Cockroft, was attended by many members of the Society.

Report of Representatives on the Canterbury University College Library Committee. A meeting of the Joint Advisory Library Committee of Canterbury University College was held on October 28, 1952. The Librarian reported that additional reading space had been made available, but that the shortage of book storage space had become acute. Various proposals to alleviate the situation were considered, and recommendations were made to the College Council.

Matters concerning the purchase and binding of books and periodicals are dealt with in the report of the Hon. Librarian.

Report of Representative on the Riccarton Bush Board of Trustees. Once again major attention has been given to the part of the bush previously attached to the Riccarton Estate. All ploughable ground in the recreation area has been sown in grass and is kept regularly mown, surface water has been remedied by means of tile drains, and new fences and gates have been erected. It is planned to aim at the standard of maintenance attained in other city parks.

Nearly 400 native trees were planted in the area recently cleared of exotic weeds. It is estimated that an annual planting of about this number will be required indefinitely to keep the bush fully stocked with successional trees and shrubs. In spite of the opposition of the remainder of the Board, your representative has been able to get a nursery established. Thanks to donations of seedlings by members of the Forest and Bird Society throughout New Zealand and by the pupils of the schools of Moana, Ahaura and Totara Flat in Westland, the nursery is already partly stocked. Within three years it is hoped that it will be able to supply the requirements each year for planting in the bush. A serious enemy to natural regeneration is the Muehlenbeckia, which will have to be reduced considerably when suitable trees and shrubs are available to replace it.

During the year Canterbury University College notified its inability to continue its annual donation of £25 to the funds of the Board. This donation has been made since about 1924, and it has helped the bush materially during the long period when the finances were in a precarious condition. The thanks of the community are due to Canterbury College for its long-continued assistance.

Because of damage being done to plants the privilege given to students of schools and colleges to collect specimens has been withdrawn. Provision has been made instead for teachers of botany to obtain from the ranger any material required for teaching purposes.

A visit to the bush is now included on the itinerary of conducted bus tours round Christ-church. Some 4,000 visitors annually visit the bush in this way.

Report of Representative on the Canterbury Museum Trust Board. An important step has been taken by the Trust Board in the direction of developing the Museum by a decision to proceed towards the erection of a north wing partly on the Rolleston Avenue front and partly on the north front. This is part of the whole scheme of rebuilding and extension, which aims at providing seven of the nine intended galleries. It would add lecture hall, workshops and

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store rooms, and would enormously increase the scope of demonstration and scientific work and teaching.

The financial basis of this move is the sum of £85,000 realised by the Canterbury Centennial Association on behalf of the Museum, a sum which is insufficient to enable the achievement of the whole project. It is hoped that the balance necessary will be forthcoming by further public subscription.

Development of the library increases its usefulness while at the same time it shows the need for more accommodation. Important additions have been made to the records in the form of diaries, letters and news-clippings.

The important collection of Maori material made by the late L. J. Vangioni, M.B.E., of Akaroa, has been bequeathed to the Museum. It is hoped that the collection will some day be adequately housed.

A portion of the Centennial Exhibition in the Museum remains in the form of the Canterbury Colonists' Section of the Hall of Folk Culture.

The Board mourned the death of Mr. A. E. Flower, an original member and indefatigible worker on its behalf His interests were extensive and impinged on those of this branch of the Royal Society.

Educational activity continues, again over thirty thousand school children having been formally received in classes.

Field Club Section. The activities of the Section for this year have included a series of Sunday bus excursions to the foothills and Banks Peninsula. In addition long week-end trips were made to Lake Taylor and Goose Bay, Kaikoura. The trips were well attended and these activities have resulted in considerable additions to the biological collections of the Canterbury Museum.

The six evening meetings held during the winter months were well attended. At one of these meetings a series of colour transparencies of insects, etc., taken by section members at Lake Taylor, were shown. The financial position is satisfactory. A balance of £14 3s 4d is held after completion of the year's activities. The total membership of the Section is 50, comprising 20 members of the Society and 30 Section Members.

Officers for the year were:—Chairman, Mr. R. R. Forster; Secretary-Treasurer. Mr. C. F. Champion; Committee, Dr. Jessie Scott, Messrs, J. S. Dugdale, R. K. Garlick, W. F. Heinz, F. McGregor, M. Munro and R. J. Scarlett.

Scientific Photography Section. This newly formed Section had a very successful year. Support of Section members and attendances at meetings have been excellent. At present there are 32 members.

During the year the following talks were given:—“Photographic Equipment,” Mr. J. A. Barry; “Macrophotography and Copying,” Mr. C. R. Russell; “Photographic Optics,” Mr. E. R. Mangin; “Photography and Criminology,” Mr. J. B. Kearton. “Colour Processing,” Mr. R. Cheeseman. It is planned to hold early next year an exhibition of the work of the Section members Officers for the year have been:—Chairman, Mr. G. A. Knox; Secretary-Treasurer, Mr. J. A. Veale; Committee, Messrs, E. C. Gough, K. A. Donaldson, and R. N. Luff.