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Volume 81, 1953
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The Hypocreales of New Zealand V. The Genera Cordyceps and Torrubiella

[Read before Auckland Institute, March 18, 1953, received by Editor March 23, 1953.]


Species of Cordyceps and Torrubiella described are placed under the Clavicipitaceae of the “scolecosporae” section of the Hypocreales. Eight species of Cordyceps have been found in the Dominion, and four of Torrubiella. Three new species of Cordyceps are described below, named C. novae-zealandiae, C. hauturu, C. lateritia. With the exception of Torrubiella cordyceps all are insect parasites.

Gaumann (1925) noted that “scolecosporae” genera of the Hypocreales formed a natural group with distinct characters. Nannfeldt (1932) recognised this group and placed them in the Clavieipitales; he described the typical cylindrical ascus with its characteristic thick walled apex and filamentous spores, and noted that except for the absence of paraphyses the perithecial structure is similar to that of the order Diaporthales and Valsales (two groups usually included as families of the Sphaeriales). The fleshy, more or less pseudoparenchymatous perithecial wall and stroma consist of thin walled, light coloured mycelium; this character as well as the absence of paraphyses places the group within the Hypocreales; the typical capitate asci and the filamentous spores differentiate the Clavicipitaceae from the Hypocreaceae.

The “capitate” asci appear to be a modification of the apical condition described by Chadefaud (1942) for Sphaeriaceous fungi of the Pyrenomycetes (particularly the condition he described in Hypoxylon fragiformus). The cap or “coussinet apical” is well developed while the canal or “ponctuation apieale creusee dans ce coussinet” is well marked and gives the cap the superficial appearance

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Text-Fig. 1.—Asci of Hypocrella duplex (Berk.) Petch. (a) Ascus immature, showing cap and canal. (b) Spores and ascal contents in canal. (c) Mature ascus-cap swollen and broken away from the wall.

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of being two-lobed (Text-fig. 1, fig. a). The mature contents of the ascus appear to push upwards into the canal (Text-fig. 2, fig. b). During wet periods of weather the cap absorbs moisture, swells, obliterates the canal and pushes its contents back into the ascal cavity. In mature asci this action forces the walls to rupture at the base of the cap and the spores are liberated (Text-fig. 1, fig. c).

Family II Clavicipitaceae

Stroma usually present, pseudoparenehymatous, prosenchymatous or byssoid; sometimes stalked and arising from an endosclerotium. Perithecia free, caespitose or gregarious, sometimes immersed in the stroma; perithecial wall distinct, pro-senchymatous or pseudoparenchymatous, hyaline or pigmented. Asci cylindrical, linear or filiform, with a thickened apical cap, eight spored; paraphyses absent, pseudoparaphyses branched, evanescent. Spores linear, sometimes filiform or acicular, usually multiseptate.

Key to the Genera
Asci capitate, cap globose of subglobose, canal well developed.
  Spores filiform, multiseptate. divided into part-spote within the ascus.
   Stroma stalked.
    Stroma arising from endoseleiotium 1 Cordyceps (Fr.) Link
   Stroma not stalked.
    Stroma formed on gubiculum on host.
     Perithecia superficial or semi-immersed 2. Torrubiella Bond.
    Stroma fleshy, completely smothering host 3. Hypocrella Sacc.
  Spores filamentous, transverse septa absent when spores are in the ascus.
   Perithecia superficial, stroma if present, byssoid 4. Barya Fel.
   Poiithecia immersed in a stalked stroma arising from sclerotium 5. Claitceps Tul.
Asci capitate, but cap truncated and canal not distimet 6 Podonectria Petch

In both Cordyceps and Torrubiella the fertile stroma arises from an endosclerotium formed by the complete replacement of the host tissue with fungous mycelium. Asci are capitate, and the cap is split by a longitudinal canal; spores are filamentous, multiseptate and break into part-spores within the ascus. In Tarrubiella perithecia are semi-immersed in a byssoid subiculum which completely hides the endosclerotium; in Cordyceps a stroma arises from the endosclerotium. Most species of both genera parasitise some Arthropod.

Australian species of Cordyceps were described by Olliff (1895) and Lloyd (1915); Cunningham (1921) listed five species from New Zealand and later (1923) described a sixth species. In this account eight species are listed, four of which are new to New Zealand.

The author wishes to thank the Director, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, for permission to examine material in the herbarium; Dr. G. H. Cunningham, for help in preparation of the manuscript; Dr. W. Cottier, for the identification of host insects; and Miss B. Hooton, for Latin description of new species.

1. Cordyceps (Fr.) Link, Handbuch Vol. 3, p. 347, 1833

  • Sphaeria, Tribe I, Cordyceps Fr. Syst. Myc., Vol. 2, p. 323, 1833; Cordyceps Fr.

  • Summa Veg. Scand., p. 381, 1849; Torruta Lev. ex Tul. Sel. Fung. Carp Vol 3. p. 5, 1865; Ophiocordyceps Petch Trans. Brit. Mye. Soc., Vol. 16, p. 73, 1931.

  • Endosclerotium formed by the ramification of host tissue with mycelium to form a compacted fungous tissue within the exoskeleton of host. Stroma.

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usually stalked arising from endosclerotium, fleshy, simple or branched; fertile portion terminal or lateral, dilated; perithecia caespitose, superficial or immersed, obpyriform or globose. Asci cylindrical, linear, capitate, cap hemispherical, hyaline, divided by a narrow canal; 4–8 spored. Spores filiform or acicular, rarely clavate, multiseptate, dividing into part spores within ascus.

Type Species. Cordyceps militaris (Linn.) Link.

Distribution. World-wide, particularly in warm temperate and tropical regions.

Key To Species
Stroma large, 10–15 cm. long, filiform, rarely branching
  Perithecia superficial, discrete 1. C. robertsii Hook.
  Perithecia immersed 2. C. hauturu Dingley
Stioma not over 5 cm. long, stout. clavate
3. C. qunnii Berk.
Stroma not over 1.5 cm. long
  Fertile portion clavate, perithecia borne on lateral. rarely teiminal pads 4. C. dovei Rodway
  Fertile portion globose, teiminal
5. C. kirkn G. H. Cunn.
Stroma under 1 cm. irregular, often branched, sometimes absent when perithecia are superficial on a subiculum upon the endoscleiotium.
  Perithecia 0.35-0.4 × 0.5-0.5 mm.
    Asci 200-340 × 3-5μ 7. C. noiac-zealandiae Dingley
    Asci 150-250 × 4-5μ
8. C. tuberculata (Libert) Mane
Perithecia 0.2-0.23 × 0.5 mm 6. C. lateritia Dingley

1. Cordyceps robertsii Hooker, Flora Novae-zealandiae, Vol. 2, p. 202, 1855.

  • Sphaeria robertsn Hooker, Icon. Plant., Vol. 1. PI XI, 1836.

  • Clavaria lariarum Westwood, Proc. Ent. Soc. London, Vol 2, p. 6 1838 nomen nudum.

  • Sphaeria hygehi Coida, Icon. Plant., Fasc. IV, p. 44, fig. 120, 1840.

  • Sphaeria forbesii Beik., London Jour. Bot., Vol 3, p. 578, 1848, nomen nudum.

  • Torrubia robertsu Tul., Sel. Fung. Carp., Vol. 3, p. 6, 1865.

  • C. selkirkii Ollifl, Aqric. Gaz. N.S.W., Vol. 6, p. 419, 1895.

  • C. larvorum (Westwood) Olliff, l.c., p. 412.

  • C. hugelii Corda, var. neglecta. Massee, Ann. Bot., Vol. 9, p. 30, 1895.

Endosclerotium retainmg form of host, hyphae 3-5μ diameter; branched, gemmae globose or oval, 5-6μ diameter, terminal, intercalary or lateral, single or in clusters. Stroma 10-18 cm. long, usually single, rarely dichotomously branched, arising from cervical region of endosclerotium; stem 10-15μ long, 1 5-2 mm diameter, bay brown, clothed with chestnut hairs at the base, pseudo-parenchymatous or prosenchymatous, inner mycelium often disintegrating, then stem hollow, outer tissue pseudoparenchymatous. cells 5-8μ diameter, thick walled, pigmented brown. Fertile head more or less terminal 5-10 cm. long, apical tip sterile Perithecia discrete but caespitose, arranged at right angles to the main axis, oval or cuneate 0.4-0.5 × 0.6-0.75 mm.; perithecial wall 20-50μ thick, showing greatest development around ostiolum, cells 4-10 × 4-6μ, pigmented and thickened. Asci linear, cylindrical, sometimes acicular 250-420 × 10-14μ, head globose or broadly oval 5-5.5 × 4.0μ; canal narrow, 4-8 spored, spores loosely twisted in a fascicle; pseudoparaphyses diffluent. Spores filiform, acicular, multiseptate, 250-380 × 1.5-2μ, part-spores 6-12 × 1-1.5μ, rectangular, hyaline, smooth.

Conidial stage unknown.

Type Locality. New Zealand.

Distribution. New Zealand.

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Habitat. On larva of Oxycanus sp. (Lepidoptera). Auckland: Huia, June, 1949, J. M. D.* (10938); February, 1951, K. Wood (10597); Laingholm. December, 1930, M. Hodgkins (10600); Little Barrier [s., October. 1945, J. M. I) (4440); Orere, February, 1953, J. M. D. (11891) Taranaki: Mt. Egmont, November, 1924, J. C. Neill (1795); November, 1927, G. H. Cunningham (3280); March, 1951, J. M. D. (10598). Wellington Raurimu, January, 1920, E. H. Atkinson (191).

Collections examined in the herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew:—

  • Sphaeria robertsii C. neglecta Massee, Colensi, N. Z.

  • Sph. robertsii Colenso 1321.

  • Sph. robertsii Hook. Mr. Stephens.

  • Sph. robertsii Hook.—Hugelii Cke. N.Z. (ex Herb Hook).

  • Cordyceps robertsii Hook., Dr. Berggren, 1879 N. Z.;

  • Sph. robertsii on Hepialus virescens, F. Moore, 1864 (ex Herb. Currey).

The species is common in the North Island of New Zealand. Perithecia are free, cuneate and lighter coloured than the stalk. A small sterile apiculate tip is always present.

In the herbarium of the Commonwealth Mycological Institute there is a specimen ex herb. Sydow from Chile (ex P. A. Hollenmeyer No. 1765) labelled C. robertsii; this superficially resembles New Zealand material but perithecia and asci are smaller.

Kobayasi (1941) listed the species as C. larvarum Westwood Westwood. (1836) did not publish this combination, but merely stated that “he believed that a Clavaria sp. parasitised the caterpillar” and in a footnote added that this species was described by Sir W. Hooker in Icones Plantarum as Clavaria lavarum. Hooker, however, described and illustrated this species as Sphaeria robertsn Berkeley mentions the name Sphaeria forbesii when quoting a letter from J. E. Gray, but did not append a description. No material is filed under C. hugelii in the herbarium of the Royal Botanie Gardens, Kew, but in the folder of Cordyceps robertsii there is a collection labelled Sph. robertsii Hook.—hugelii Cke., N.Z. This collection, and Corda's illustration and description are comparable with Cordyceps robertsii. Massee (1895) described a form which differs from the type in that perithecia are flask-shaped and with a long slender neek, he named this variety C. hugelii var. neglecta Massee. At Kew no collection is filed under this name, but there is one labelled “Sphaeria robertsii-? Cordyceps neglecta Massee, N.Z., Colenso. This is a typical specimen of Cordyceps robertsii parasitised by a species of Torrubiella and is presumably the type of Massee's variety. Kobayasi (1941) listed this form as C. larvarum (Westwood) Olliff var. neglecta (Massee) Kobayasi and described it as a synonym of C. robertsii (Hook.) Gray var. neglecta Massee.

Myers in Cunningham (1921) stated that “practically all the earlier naturalists accepted without question the current belief that the host of this species was Hepialus virescens Dbd. as it was the only larva large enough to coincide with the vegetable caterpillar … Hudson was the first to point out the improbability of the arboreal Hepialus as a host seeing that the inflected larva was invariably found underground … .” Later Myers stated that it was probable

[Footnote] * The number in brackets refers to the accession numbei of the collection in the herbarium Plant Diseases Division. D.S.I.R., Auckland.

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Text-Fig II
Fig. 1.—Cordyceps novae-zealandiae. Fig. 2.—Section through perithecia of C. novae-zealandiae. Fig. 3.—Section through perithecia of C. lateritia Fig. 4.—C. hauturu Fig. 5.—C. lateritia. Fig. 6.—Section through fertile part of the stroma of C. hauturu Fig. 7a.—Ascus of C. novae-zealandiae. Fig. 7b.—Ascus of C. hauturu.

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that the usual host of C. robertsii is Porina (Oxycanus) dinodes Myers in the South Island and P. (Oxycanus) enysii Buller in the North. Parasitised larva of Hepialus virescens have been collected, but unfortunately the fertile portions of the stroma are missing. The vegetative parts and the conidial form suggests that it may be a different species. In Kew herbarium all specimens are parasitic on typical larva of Oxycanus sp. although in many cases they were labelled Hepialus virescens.

2. Cordyceps hauturu n.sp. (Text-fig. II, figs. 4, 6, 7b.)

Endosclerotium lineamentum hospitis sequitur. Hyphis ramosis hyalinis 2-2.5μ latis, gemmis globosis vel ovalibus, 6-10 × 5-6μ, parietibus crassus terminalibus, intercalaribus vel lateralibus, solitariis vel in coronis dispositis. Stroma 10-15 cm. longum, plerumque solitarium, e cervice endosclerotii erumpens, stirpe cylindricali fulva, pilosa, parte fertili terminali, 4.5-8 cm. longa, vinacea. Perithecia in texto pseudoparenchymato stromatis immersa, ovalia vel obpyriformia 0.2-0.25 × 0 4-0.5 mm. ad pares angulos ad axem principalem disposita ostiolo papillato, pariete perithecii pseudoparenchymato 40-50μ crasso hyalino. Asci cylindricales 250-350 × 8-12μ capitibus globosis vel ovalibus 4-4.5 × 4-6μ, 6-8 sporis, pseudoparaphysibus evanescentibus. Sporae eylmdricales filiformes multiseptatae 115-190 × 1.5-2μ in sporas divisas in asco se dividentes. Sporae divisae 4-6 × 1.5-2μ, hyalinae leves. Status conidialis ignotus.

Endosclerotium retaining outline of host, hyphae hyaline, branched 2-2.5μ wide, gemmae globose or oval 6-10 × 5-6μ, thick walled termmal intercalary or lateral, single or in clusters. Stroma 10-15 em. long, usually single, rarely dichotomously branched arising from cervical region of endosclerotium, stem 8-10 cm. long, 1-1.5 mm. diameter, broader at the base, clothed with fulvous or bay-brown hairs; outer tissue pseudoparenchymatous, walls pigmented and thickened, inner tissue prosenchymatous, hyphae hyaline, thin walled 4-6μ diameter. Fertile head terminal, swollen 4.5-8 cm. long, 3-5 mm diameter, vinaceous, punctate with darker coloured protruding ostioles. Perithecia immersed, caespitose, oval or obpyriform, 0.2-0.25 × 0.4-0.5 mm. arranged at right angles to the main axis of the stem; perithecial wall 40-50μ thick, pseudoparenchymatous cells 5-6μ diameter, thin walled, hyaline, lightly pigmented brown. Asci cylindrical, acicular, tapering to an apical cap, 250-350 × 8-12μ, head globose 4-4.5 × 6μ, canal distinct, 6-8 spored, spores loosely twisted into a fascicle; pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Spores cylindrical filiform, 150–190 × 1.5–2μ, multiseptate, dividing into part-spores within the ascus, part-spores oblong 4–6 × 1.5–2μ, hyaline, smooth.

Conidial stage unknown.

Distribution. New Zealand.

Habitat. On Lepidoptera larva. Auckland: Little Barrier Island, October. 1945, J. M. D. (Type Coll.), (10676); Auckland, W. Cottier? (10677).

A distinct species differing from C. robertsii in that perithecia are immersed in the tissues of the stroma; part-spores are smaller and the hyphae within the endosclerotium are coarser (2.5μ) than in C. robertsii. No material of C. lacroixii Har. et Pat. has been examined, but from the descriptions this species appears similar. Lloyd (1915) listed C. lacroixii as a synonym of C. gunnii but perithecia are arranged at right angles to the main axis, while in C. gunnii the peritheeial neeks are curved.

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3. Cordyceps gunnii Berkeley, Hooker's Flora Tasmaniae, Vol. 2, p. 278, 1860.

  • C. craigii Lloyd, Mycological Notes, No. 39, p. 527, 1915.

  • C. consumpta G. H. Cunningham, Trans. N.Z. Institute, Vol. 53, p. 377, 1921.

  • C. hillii Lloyd., Mycological Notes No. 65, p. 1061, 1921.

Endosclerotium retaining form of host; hyphae hyaline 2–2.5 mm. diameter, gemmae terminal or intercalary, single or in clusters. Stroma up to 20 cm. long, sometimes branched, arising from the cervical region of the endosclerotium, pale ochraceous; fertile portion terminal, club-shaped, apiculate, 2–3 cm. diameter, 10–15 cm. long, pseudoparenchymatous, cells hyaline. Perithecia 0.4–0.5 × 1–1.5 mm., caespitose, immersed in stroma, oval, usually allantoid, ostiolar neek curved; perithecial wall 10–25μ thick, small celled and lightly pigmented. Asci 350–450 × 5–5.5μ, cylindrical tapering to a globose head, 4μ in diameter, divided by a delicate longitudinal canal, eight spored, spores twisted into a fascicle; pseudo-paraphyses evanescent. Spores cylindrical, filiform, as long as ascus, multiseptate, dividing into part-spores within ascus; part-spores rectangular 2.5–3 × 2μ, hyaline, smooth.

Conidial stage; eonidia globose, unicellular 4–7μ diameter, smooth, hyaline catenulated from pyriform pionnotes, superficially arranged on the swollen “fertile” part of stroma—Isaria sp.

Type Locality. Franklin, near Launceston, Tasmania.

Distribution. Australia, New Zealand.

Habitat. On larva of Lepidoptera. Wellington: Wireless Hill, 1920, H. Hamilton (192); Pukemaha, September, 1916, A. Hill (Auckland Museum). Auckland: Rotorua, June, 1920, A. Lush (Type of C. consumpta, Canterbury Museum).

Collections examined in herbarium, Royal Botanie Gardens, Kew:—Wattle Grove, Launceston, Tasmania; near the Blue Mountains, N.S.W., Rev. Dr. Wrall; Melbourne, F. Reader; Paris Exhibition, 1837, ex herb. Berkeley; Franklin Village, Launeeston, 29/4/1846 (Type).

Australian collections in the herbarium at Kew show great variation in form and shape of the fertile stroma. Perithecia are completely immersed in the stroma and are arranged at an acute angle to the main axis.

Lloyd (1915) described C. craigii from material forwarded by Mr. E. Craig collected from old kumara (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) beds. Notes with the collections at Kew record that the Australian specimens occurred in areas of light sandy soil; the stromata are large, oval, club-shaped, simple or branched. Through the courtesy of the Director, Canterbury Museum, the type of C. consumpta was examined. It was described from a small symmetrical specimen of C. gunnii.

Olliff (1895) recorded this species from New Zealand. Cunningham (1921) stated that probably the species was confused with C. craigii; he separated C. consumpta on the grounds that perithecia were more compacted, a character which appears to be a variable one. Lloyd's C. hillii appears to have been described from an immature specimen.

4. Cordyceps dovei Rodway, Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmama, 1898–1899, p. 100, 1900.

  • C. aemonae Lloyd Mycological Notes No. 62, p. 932, 1920.

Endosclerotium retaining form of host, hyaline, 1.5–2 5μ diameter, gemmae oval or clavate; 6–12 × 5–6.5μ, thick-walled, terminal or interealary, single or

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arranged in chains. Stroma up to 1.5 cm. long, 1 mm. diameter, single or in groups of 2–4 arising from the cervical region of the endosclerotium, pale ochraceous, fertile portion arranged as irregular lateral pads 3–5 mm. long, darker coloured than the stroma, apex sterile, apiculate, sometimes club-shaped and branched. Perithecia globose or oval, 0.3–0.4 × 0.3–0.6 mm., semi-immersed, arranged at right angles to main axis; perithecial wall 20–30μ diameter pseudoparenchymatous, cells rectangular 3–6 × 3–4 μ, lightly pigmented, thickened. Asci cylindrical 120–200 × 5–6μ, apical cap oval 3–4μ, canal narrow, eight spored. spores arranged in fascicle within ascus. Spores filamentous, multiseptate, as long as ascus, dividing into part-spores within ascus, part-spores 5–7 × 1.5–2μ, hyaline. Conidial stage; spores sub-globose 4–6μ diameter, hyaline, smooth, catenulated from apex of parallel hyphae, arranged on the terminal portion of the immature stroma.

Type Locality. Tasmania, Mt. Bischoff.

Distribution. Australia, New Zealand.

Habitat. On Coleoptera larva.

Aemona hirta Fabr. Wellington: Weraroa, September, 1919, G. H. Cunningham (78) (co-type of C. aemonae Lloyd); May, 1923, G. H. Cunningham and J. C. Neill (1145). Otago: Dunedin, Ross Creek Reserve, August, 1933, H. K. Dalrymple (6387).

Unknown Host. Auckland: Dargaville, Trounson's Park, July, 1947, G. H. Cunningham (10602). Otago: Dunedin, Morrison's Creek, February, 1935, J. R. Moore (10603). Westland: Copland Valley, February, 1947, G. H. Cunningham (5085).

Through the courtesy of Professor H. N. Barber, of the Botany Department, University of Tasmania, the type of C. dovei was made available and compared with the co-type of C. aemonae Lloyd. No character proved sufficiently distinct to separate the two species. The host is a wood boring insect. The stalk of anastomosing hyphae makes its way to the surface of the wood, and there gives rise to the fertile stroma. In the type of C. dovei the parasitised larva appeared to be near the surface of the wood and the numerous fertile stromata are borne directly on the cervical region of the endosclerotium. Kobayasi (1941) listed C. aemonae Lloyd as a synonym of C. dovei and stated that it differs only in the shape of the sterile apex of the stroma.

5. Cordyceps kirkii G. H. Cunningham, Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. vol. 8, p. 74,1923. Endosclerotium retaming form of the host. hyphae 1–3μ diameter, gemmae intercalary or terminal, globose 3–5μ diameter, single or in groups of two or three. Stromata numerous, protruding from the intersegmental membrane 2–5 mm. long. 0.5–1 mm. thick, often flattened, prosenchymatous. hyphae hyaline 2μ diameter, with terminal globose heads up to 2 mm. diameter, tuberculate, with superficial perithecia, vinaceous brown when dry. Perithecia caespitose, united at the base, oval or obpyriform 150–200 × 450–600μ, ostiole papillate; perithecial wall 20–50μ thick, prosenchymatous, outer cells 8–10μ diameter. Cell wall lightly thickened and pigmented, inner cells 2–5μ diameter, hyaline, thin walled. Asci cylindrical 180–320 × 5–7μ, apical cap globose 2.5–3.5μ diameter, divided by delicate canal, eight-spored, spores arranged in fascicles in ascus Spores acicular, filiform 120–150 × 1–1.5μ, multiseptate, part-spores 3.5–6 × 1μ.

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Conidial stage: Conidia elliptical or oval 3–6 × 1–1.5μ, hyaline, catenulated, from phialides arranged as a superficial layer of the immature fertile stroma.

Distribution. Stephen Island, New Zealand.

Habitat. On adult Deinacrida rugosa Buller. Wellington: Stephen Island. January, 1922, H. B. Kirk (10607) Type Coll.

C. kirkii appears similar to a collection in the herbarium of the Commonwealth Mycological Institute (I.M.I.27419) from Trinidad named by Mr. E. W. Mason as C. joaquensis P. Henn. The latter parasitises Gryllotalpus sp. an allied genus to Deinacrida. No type material was available for examination: C. kirkii is retained as a separate species.

6. Cordyceps lateritia n.sp. Text-fig. II, figs. 3, 5.

Endosclerotium lineamenta hospitis sequitur, lateritium, hyphis sub 1 mm. diam., gemmis absentibus. Stroma ad 5 mm. longum, 0.5–1 mm. crassum, in endosclerotio inaequaliter ordinatum, partibus fertilibus, lateralibus vel terminalibus in planis stromatis. Perithecia ochracea, translucentia, obpyriformia, 0.2–0.25 × 0.5 mm. in superficie vel in stromate immersa, ostiolo papillato, pariete perithecii pseudoparenchymato, 20μ. crasso, cellulis 2–3 5μ. diam., parietibus cellularum hyalinis vel leviter tinctis. Asci cyhndricales 120–220 × 2–3μ parietibus tenuibus, capite globoso 0.5–1.5μ, in sulco longitudine se dividenti, 6–8 sporis, pseudoparaphysibus evanescentibus. Sporae filiformes, multiseptatae, aeque longae atque asci. Sporae divisae 0.5–1μ diam.

Endosclerotium retaining form of host, lateritius, hyphae under 1 mm. diameter, gemmae absent. Stroma up to 5 mm. long, 0.5–1 mm. thick, irregularly arranged in endosclerotium, sometimes light coloured and byssoid; fertile pads lateral or terminal, or on flattened areas of stroma. Perithecia ochraceous, translucent, obpyriform 0.2–0.25 × 0.5 mm superficial or semi-immersed in stroma, ostiole papillate; perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 20μ thick, cells 2–3.5μ diameter, cell wall hyaline or lightly pigmented. Asci cylindrical, linear, 120–220 × 2–3μ, thin-walled, cap globose 0.5–1.5μ with distinct canal, six to eight spored, spores twisted in fascicle in ascus; pseudoparaphyses evanescent. Spores multiseptate, as long as ascus, part-spores 0.5–1μ diameter.

Conidial stage unknown.

Distribution. New Zealand.

Habitat. On Coleoptera pupa. Auckland: Waitakere Ra., Swanson, July, 1949 (11717) Type coll.

The species has been described from a single specimen. It appears similar to C. novae-zealandiae on Coclostomidea sp. but differs in that perithecia are more slender and the ostiole is swollen and papillate. From other species on Coleoptera it is separated by perithecia being superficially arranged on a loosely aggregated stroma.

7. Cordyceps novae-zealandiae n.sp. Text-fig. II, figs. 1, 2, 7a.

Endosclerotium lineamenta hospitis sequitur. Hyphis 2μ diam., ramosis ochraceis, gemmis globosis 4–8μ diam., axillaribus, terminalibus vel intercalaribus. Stromata plerumque stipitibus, ramosa, ad 5 mm. longa, capitibus fertilibus terminalibus ad 2 mm. diam., sed interdum in endosclerotium effusa. Perithecia superficilia, obpyriform, 0.35–0.4 × 0.5–0.6 mm. pariete perithecii 40–50μ crasso, pseudoparenchymato ostiolo papillato. Asci cylindricales, lineares 250–

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340 × 3.0–5.0μ, capitibus globosis 3–5μ diam., 8 sporis. Sporae lineares 250–300 × 0.5–1μ multiseptatae, in sporas divisas in asco se dividentes. Sporae divisae 1.5–3 × 0.5–1μ. Statu in conidiali phialidibus in endosclerotio in coronis terminalibus aggregatis, 10–12μ longis conidiis ovalibus vel globosis 4–6 × 3–5μ, hyalinis-Hymenostilbe sp.

Endosclerotium retaining form of host, ferrugineus, often covered with ochraceous, byssoid mycelium, hyphae 1.5–2μ diameter, gemmae globose 4–8μ diameter, axillary terminal or intercalary. Stromata prosenchymatous, hyphae lightly pigmented 2–5μ thick, arising irregularily from endosclerotium, usually stalked, branched, often anastomosing, up to 5 mm. high, terminating with a globose head of perithecia, 2 mm. diameter; sometimes stromata sessile and effuse on endosclerotium. Perithecia gregarious, superficial, obpyriform 0.35–0.4 × 0.5–0.6 mm., translucent, ochraceous, ostiole papillate; perithecial wall 40–50μ thick, pseudoparenchymatous, cells 3–6 × 4–5μ, subhymenial layer prosenchymatous, hyphae diffluent. Asci cylindrical, linear, 250–340 × 3–5μ, apical cap globose, 3–5μ diameter, with distinct canal, eight spored, spores loosely twisted in fascicle. Spores linear, filiform, 250–300 × 0.5–1μ multiseptate, dividing into part-spores within ascus; part-spores 1.5–3 × 0.5–1μ hyaline.

Conidial stage: Conidia oval or globose 4–6μ × 2–5μ hyaline, smooth, catenulated from phialides 10–12μ long; phialides borne in terminal clusters on aerial mycelium on endosclerotium-Hymenostilbe sp.

Type Locality. Otago, Upper Hollyford Valley.

Distribution. New Zealand.

Habitat. On adult of Coelostomidea sp. Auckland: Hunua Ra., Kohukohnui Ridge, 1,300 feet, November, 1943, J. M. D. (10675); Titirangi, March, 1946, J. M. D. (10671); Papatoetoe, August, 1947, J. M. D. (10673); Waitakere Ra. Waiatarua, November, 1948, J. M. D. (10672). Otago: Hollyford Valley, January, 1950, J. M. D. (10674) Type coll.

Commonly perithecia are produced on an effuse stroma on the endosclerotium, although in the type they are formed on a compact globose head. The host genus is endemic to New Zealand.

8. Cordyceps tuberculata (Libert) Maire, Bull. Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de l'Afrique du Nord. Vol. 7, p. 165, 1917.

  • Akrophyton tuberculatum Libert, Zeitschr. f. Wiss Zool., Vol. 9, p. 448. 1858.

  • Torrubia sphingum (Schw.) Tul., Sel. Fung. Car p., Vol. 3, p. 12, 1865.

  • Cordyceps sphingum (Schw.) Berk. and Curt. J. Linn. Soc., Vol. 10, p. 375. 1868.

  • Ophionectria cockerelli Ellis and Ever. J. Inst. Jamaica, Vol. 1, p.141, 1892.

Endosclerotium formed by the complete replacement of the host tissue with mycelium; gemmae terminal or intercalary, globose, 5–7 × 5–10μ, thick-walled pigmented. Stroma sometimes an effuse subiculum which smothers endosclerotium. sometimes clavate, then numerous and arising from any part of endosclerotium, often over 1 cm. long, hyaline, pale ochraceous, hyphae 3–4.5μ diameter, lightly pigmented, thin-walled. Perithecia superficial gregarious. on stalked stroma. or byssoid subiculum. obpyriform, 0.4–0.5 × 0.5–0.65 mm. translucent, citrineous or ochraceous, ostiole papillate; perthecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 25–50μ thick, cells 2–4 × 4–6μ thin walled, slightly pigmented. Asci cylindrical 150–250 × 4–5μ, cap hemispherical 1.5–2μ diameter, divided by a filamentous longitudinal canal, four to eight spored, twisted into a fascicle, in ascus.

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Spores linear multiseptate, as long as ascus 0.5μ wide, dividing into part-spores within ascus. Conidial stage not present in New Zealand Collection.

Type Locality. Unknown.

Distribution. Europe, North America, South America, West Indies, Ceylon, New Zealand.

Habitat. On larvae pupae and adults of Lepidoptera. Auckland: Ruapehu, Whakapapa-iti Stream, 3,500 feet, October, 1949, J. M. D. (11718).

Petch (1931) stated that “Libert found her specimen in the Museum at Geneva. Its origin was not recorded, but the host insect was said to be ‘Sphinx pinastri’.” He listed many synonyms both of the perfect stage and the conidial form. The species is widely distributed throughout temperate and tropical regions, and collections show a wide variety of forms, many of which have been described as separate species. In the New Zealand collection perithecia are embedded in a byssoid subiculum which completely covers the endosclerotium, this form has been described as Ophionectria cockerelli. Petch (loc. cit.) described conidia as being '3–7 × 1.5μ, catenulated from globose phialides which often form a palisade layer on the terminal portion of the immature clavate stromata.

Excluded Species

Cordyceps sinclairii (Berk.) Sacc., Syll. Fung. Vol. 2, p. 577,1883.

Sphaeria sinclairii Berk., Florae Novae-Zealandiae Vol. II, p. 338, 1885. = Isaria sinclairii (Berk.) Lloyd, Myc. Notes No. 68, p. 1179, 1923.

Perithecia were not present in the type collection, nor in any material examined. Lloyd (1923) and Petch (1924) both proposed Isaria sinclairii for this form species. Petch (1933) stated that the perfect stage was Cordyceps sobilifera (Hill) Sacc. but Kobayasi (1941) found pycnidia present in collections of this species. In 1949 Kobayasi described a perithecial stage which accompamed Isaria sinclairii from an immature specimen collected in Japan. No perithecia have been found in New Zealand, and for the present this fungus has been retained in the form genus Isaria.

Cordyceps entomorrhiza (Dickson) Link, Handb. Vol. 3, p. 347, 1833.

In the herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, a single collection is filed from New Zealand. Examination shows this to be a collection of Isaria sinclairii on Melampsalta sp. Australian collections originally recorded under this species were described as C. menesteridis Berk. and Mueller and are parasitic on larva of Coleoptera.

There is no specimen filed under C. caespitosa (Tul.) Sace. in the herbarium at Kew.

2. Torrubiella Boudier, Revue Mycologique, Vol. 7, p. 227, 1885.

Perithecia bright or lightly coloured, membranaceous, superficial or semimmersed in a thin byssoid stroma. Asci cylindrical, linear, capitate, cap divided by filamentous longitudinal canal. four to eight-spored; pseu loparaphyses branched, usually evanescent. Spores cylindrical, linear, multiseptate, dividing into part-spores within the ascus.

Type Species. Torrubiella aranicida Bond.

Distribution. World wide.

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Key To Species
PeRIthecia obpyriform of ovate 0.25–0.4 × 0.4–0.65 mm.   Perithecia immersed 1. T. tomentosa Pat.
  Perithecia more of less superficial 2. T. cordyceps (Lloyd) Dingley
Perithecia oval or clavate.
  Perithecia 0.2–0.3 × 0.7–0.8 mm. 3. T. luteostrata Zimm.
  Perithecia 0.1–0.15 × 0.2–0.35 mm. 4. T. gibbellulac Petch

1. Torrubiella tomentosa Patouillard, Bull. Soc. Myc. Vol. 8, p. 133, 1892. Text- fig. III, figs. 1, 2.

Stroma byssoid, cream or ochraceous, up to 5 mm. diameter, completely covering host. hyphae hyalme, thin-walled. 1–2 μ diameter. Perithecia ovate or obpyriform 0.25–0.3 × 0.4–0.5 mm. superficial, gregarious, or scattered on byssoid mat, pale ochraceous, ostiolum papillate, translucent, perithecial wall 25–45μ wide, pseudoparenchymatous, enclosed in a byssoid sheath of hyphae 25μ thick. Asci cylindrical, linear 250–350 × 6–10.5μ. capitate, head 5–6μ diameter, divided by filimentous, longitudinal caual, eight-spored, spores arranged in fascicle within ascus; pseudoparaphyses branched Spores cyhndrical, linear, 185–255 × 1.5–2.5μ multiseptate, part-spores 7.5–9 × 1.0–1.5μ hyaline. Conidial stage unknown.

Type Locality. Equador. South America.

Distribution. South America. New Zealand.

Habitat. On scale inseets.

Leucaspis sp. on Carpodetus serratus Forst. Auckland Titirangi, May, 1950, J.M.D (10940).

Type material has not been exammned but the New Zealand material agrees with the description and identification of Petch (1924). Perithecia are ovate rather than pyriform, and are embedded in a byssoid sheath for at least half their length. The conidial stage is missing from the collection.

2. Torrubiella cordyceps (Lloyd) Dingley n. comb. Text-fig. III, fig. 3.

Ophionectria cordyeeps Lloyd Mye. Notes No. 49, p. 692, 1917.

Stroma byssoid, supeificial, forming irregular areas up to 5 mm. diameter on fertile parts of stroma of host, hyphae thin-walled, hyaline 1–2μ thick. Perithecia superficial, caespitose. in group of two to five, obpyriform or ovate, 0.3–0.4 × 0.5–0.65 mm., honey coloured, translucent, ostiole papillated; perithecial wall 40–50μ thick, pseudoparenchymatous, cells 5–10μ diameter, hyaline thin-walled. Asci cylindrical, linear 200–350 × 4–5.5μ tapering to a globose hyaline cap. 2–3μ diameter, divided by filamentous longitudinal canal, eight-spored, spores loosely twisted into fascicle within ascus. Spores linear, acicular. 180–250 × 1–1.5μ multiseptate, dividing into part-spores within the ascus, part-spores almost cuboid 1 5–3 × 1–1.5μ hyaline. Conidial stage; Conldia sub-globose, 2μ diameter, hyaline, budding off from tips of pyriform phiahdes, arranged in fascicles among the superficial mycelium. Isaria sp.

Type Locality. Hawke's Bay, New Zealand.

Distribution. New Zealand.

Habitat. On Cordyceps sp.

Cordyceps robertsii Hook. Auckland: Huia. June. 1949. J.M.D. (10938).

Taranaki: Mt. Egmonii, November, 1927, G. H. Cunningham (10939).

Cordyceps hauturu Dingley. Auckland: W. Cottier (10677).

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Picture icon

Text-Fig. III
Fig. 1.—Torrubiella tomentosa. Fig. 2.—Section of stroma and perithecia of T. tomentosa. Fig. 3.—T. cordyceps. Cord. = Cordiceps robertsii. Fig. 4.—Section through stroma and perithecia of T. luteostrata. 4a.—Apex of Aseus of T. luteostrata.

Petch (1923) described Byssostilbe tomentosa on Cordyceps dipterigena Berk. and Br. When he discussed this species he stated that this genus is identical with Torrubiella except for the spores which are cuboid and become rounded when mature. He noted that in B. tomentosa the rounded part-spores have not been seen. This species appears to be similar to Torrubiella cordyceps. Lloyd (1917) named and inadequately described this species from material forwarded to him by H. Hill, Napier. C. robertsii Hook. var. neglecta Massee is based on a specimen of Cordyceps robertsii parasitised by this fungus.

3. Torrubiella luteostrata Zímmermann, Centrablat. f. Bakt., Vol. 7, p. 872,1909.

T. brunnea Kiessler, Ann. Myc., Vol. 7, p. 292, 1909. Text-fig. III, figs. 4, 4a.

Stroma irregular, superficial, byssoid, smothering host insect, up to 5 mm.

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long, pale ochraceous or vinaceous brown, hyphae 2–4μ diameter, sometimes pigmented. Perithecia ovate or obovate 0.25–0.3 × 0.7–0.8 mm. crimson or brown vinaceous, superficial or semi-immersed in stroma, ostiole papillated sometimes ochraccous; perithecial wall 20–40μ thick, prosenchymatous, outer hyphae 3–5μ diameter, pigmented and compacted together; subhymenial layer hyphae hyaline diffluent. Asci cylindrical acicular, filiform, 285–390 × 7.5–10μ, tapering to a globose cap 6–8μ diameter divided by a filamentous longitudinal canal, four to eight spored, arranged in fascicle within ascus; pseudoparaphyses diffluent. Spores cylindrical, linear 220–350 × 1.5–3 μ, multiseptate, dividing into part-spores within ascus; part-spores 5–6 × 1.5–2μ, hyaline.

Type Locality. Buitenzorg, Java.

Distribution. Seychelles Isles, Ceylon, Java, Samoa, New Zealand.

Habitat. On scale insects.

Lepidosaphes lactea Mask. on Fuchsia excorticata Linn. f. Auckland: L. Rotoehu, June, 1951, J. M. D. (10941).

A distinct species separated from T. tomentosa by the shape of the perithecia and the byssoid stroma. Petch (1923) examined T. brunnea Kiessl and found it identical to T. luteostrata: he noted that pigmentation was of little specific importance and that “the white superficial layer noted by Zimmermann appeared to be of rare occurrence.” Two species of scale insects were present in the New Zealand collection, Lepidosaphes lactea Maskell and Hemiberlesia rapax Comsk, the fungus parasitised the former species only.

4. Torrubiella gibellulae Petch Annales Mycologici, Vol. 30, p. 391, 1932.

Mycelium effuse, byssoid, completely smothering host, hyphae 1–1.5μ diameter, branched, smooth, hyaline. Perithecia immersed or semi-immersed, clothed with floccose mycelium, ostiolum bare, oval, 0.1–0.15 × 0.2–0.35 mm., cream or citrineous, translucent; perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous 10–15μ wide, cells 2–5μ diameter, hyaline, not thickened. Asci capitate, cylindrical, 125–150 × 3.5–4μ, cap hemispherical divided by a thin longitudinal canal, 4μ diameter, eight spored, spores twisted in a fascicle in ascus. Ascospores filiform, as long as ascus, 1–1.5μ diameter.

Conidial stage: Conidia borne in clusters on a pyriform phialide 7–10 × 1.5–2 5μ, arranged in clusters to form tubercles on a clavate stalk; conidia single oval or broadly elliptical, 7.5–12 × 2.2–2.5μ. Gibellula aranearum (Schw.) Syd.

Type Locality. Trinidad, West Indies.

Distribution. world-wide.

Habitat. On Araneida.

Porthele sp. Nelson: Takaka, September, 1951, E. S. Gourlay (11720).

Unknown Host (Araneida). Auckland: Rotorua, Whakarewarewa, June, 1950, J. M. D. (11723); Te Whaiti, June, 1951, J. M. D. (11722); Northcote, Kauri Glen, August, 1951, J.M.D (11721); L. Rotoehu, June, 1951, J. M. D. (11719).

In collections from L. Rotoehu and Northcote typical pale violet elavate conidial stromata are present and are from 0.5–1.0 cm. long. In the collection from Takaka perithecia are present; they are more or less embedded in patches of bright yellow mycelium. Perithecia are smaller than in the type, but otherwise appear typical. Conidia are larger but Petch (1932) stated that they are variable

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in size; in collections from the tropics spores are 4–6 × 1.5–2μ, but in South Africa they are 6.5–7 × 2.5–3μ; the New Zealand collection agrees with the latter.

Literature Cited

Chadefaud, M. 1942. Etudes d'Asques II. Revue de Mycologie, 7. 57–88.

Cunningham, G. H., 1921. The genus Cordyceps in New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Institute, 53, 372–382.

— 1923. A Singular Cordyceps from Stephen Island. N.Z, Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc., 8, 72–74.

Gaumann, E., 1926. Vergleichende Morphologie der Pilze. Gustav Fischer, Jena, 626 pp.

Kobayasi, Y., 1941. The genus Cordyceps and its allies. Science Report of Tokyo Bunrika Daigaku, Sect B 84, 53–260.

— 1949. Several new species of the genus Cordyceps and theii conidial forms. Japanese J. of Bot, 24, 176–180.

Lloyd, C. G., 1915. Synopsis Cordyceps Australasia. 12 pp. Cincinnati. Ohio.

— 1917. Mycological Notes No. 48, 686–700. Cincinnati, Ohio.

— 1923. Mycological Notes No. 68, 1169–1184, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Nannfeldt, J. A., 1932. Studien uber die Morphologie und Systematik der Nicht-Lichenisieiten Inoperculaten Discomyceten. Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis Ser. IV, 8, part 2, 368 pp.

Massee, W., 1895. A Revision of the genus Cordyceps. Ann. of Bot., 9, 1–44.

Olliff, A. S., 1895. Australian entomophytes or entomogenous fungi and some account of their insect hosts N. S. W. Agric. Gaz., 6, 402–414.

Petch, T., 1923. Paiasites of scale insect fungi. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc, 8, 207–212.

— 1924. Studies of entomogenous fungi III. Torrubiella. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc., 9, 108–128.

— 1925. Studies of entomogenous fungi IV. Some Ceylon Cordyceps. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc., 10, 28–45.

— 1931. Notes on entomogenous fungi. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc., 16, 209–245.

— 1932. Gibellula. Ann. mycol, Berl., 30, 387–393.

— 1933. Notes on entomogenous fungi. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc., 18. 48–75

Westwood, J. O., 1838. J. of Proceedings Ento. Soc. London, 2, 16.