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Volume 81, 1953
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The Hypocreales of New Zealand.
VI. The Genera Hypocrella, Barya, Claviceps and Podonectria.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, May 27, 1953, received by the Editor, June 3, 1953.]


One species each of Hypocrella and Barya, two species of Claviceps and three species of Podonectria have been found in the Dominion. Podonectria gahnia and P. novaezealandiae are described as new species. Hypocrella and Podonectria parasitise scale insects, while Claviceps attack inflorescences of grasses; Barya lives on fructifications of other fungi.

The capitate ascus and filamentous spores which are present in mature perithecia of Hypocrella Sacc., Barya Fel., Claviceps Tul., and Podonectria Petch are typical of “scolecosporae” genera of Hypocreales. In Hypocrella as in Cordyceps (Fr) Link and Torrubiella Boud, the filamentous spores are multiseptate but differ in that they fragment in the ascus; in Claviceps and Barya no septa are developed.

In Claviceps, as in Cordyceps, the fertile fleshy stroma grows from a hard sclerote formed from modification of the host tissues Fries (1822) described the sclerotial stage under Spermoedia and in 1823 included the fertile stroma in the sub-genus Cordyceps of Sphaeria.

Perithecia of Hypocrella though similar in structure to those of Cordyceps and Claviceps are immersed in a massive horny stroma which completely envelopes the host insect. A massive pycnidium is produced in the centre of the stroma (Text-fig 1, Fig. 3) and fertile areas appear as swollen tubercles on the pycnidial wall (Text-fig 1, figs. 2, 4). Petch (1921a) established the relationship of the pycnidial stage, usually described in the form genus Aschersonia Mont, with the ascogenous Hypocrella

Barya and Podonectria superficially resemble Nectria Fr., perithecia are simple or caespitose, bright or lightly coloured, and possess a pseudoparenchymatous wall. Asci and spores are typical of this “scolecosporae” group.

The author wishes to thank the Director, Sir Edward Salisbury, F. R.S, and Dr. R. W. G. Dennis, for permission to examine New Zealand collections in the Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; Dr. G. H. Cunningham for his assistance in preparation of this manuscript, Dr. W. Cottier for identification of insect hosts and Miss B. Hooton for preparation of Latin descriptions of new species.

3. Hypocrella Saccardo. Michelia, vol. 1, p. 322, 1878.

Aschersonia Mont. Ann. Sci. Nat., Ser. 3 (bot) 10, p. 122, 1848; Moelleriella Bresadola, Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital., p. 291, 1897; Fleischeria Penz. & Sacc., Malpighia, vol. 15, p. 230, 1901.

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Text-fig. 1.—Fig. 1: Compound stroma of Hypocrella duplex (Berk.). Fig. 2: Section through compound stroma—showing pyenidia and perithecial areas. Fig. 3: Simple stroma of Hypocrella duplex (Berk.). Fig. 4: Section through simple stroma showing centrally placed pyenidium and fertile area on pycnidial wall. Fig. 5: Details of fertile area showing perithecia of Hypocrella duplex. Fig. 6: Apex of asci of Hypocrella duplex. Fig. 7: (a) Conidia from pyenidia; (b) Part spores from asci.

Stoma superficial, fleshy, discoidal or pulvinate, lightly coloured often black when overmature, prosenchymatous, mycelium hyaline, thick walled. Perithecia globose or pyriform, immersed in stroma; asci cylindrical, capitate, cap hemispherical, divided by a narrow canal, eight spored, spores twisted into a fascicle within ascus; pseudoparaphyses absent. Spores multiseptate, divided into partspores within the ascus. Pycnidia flask-shaped or globose, immersed in stroma;

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conidia oval or fusiform, borne on filamentous conidiophores lining interior of the pycnidia.

Type Species. Hypocrella discoidea (Berk. & Br.) Sacc.

Distribution. Tropical and sub-tropical regions.

Hypocrella duplex (Berk.) Petch, Annals Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya vol. 7, p. 240, 1921.

Aschersonia duplex Berk., in Hooker's Florae Novae-Zealandiae, vol. 2, p. 194, 1853.

Text-fig 1, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

Stroma seated on a scale insect usually single, but sometimes several, when caespitose, pulvinate, usually hemispherical, with tuberculate fertile areas; ochraceous or umber, subtranslucent, sometimes farinaceous, 0 5–5 mm. diameter; prosenchymatous, hyphae 6–10μ diameter, walls 2–3 5μ thick hyaline pigmented; hyphae compacted in outer tissue. Perithecia obpyriform, 200–250 × 500–700μ, neck 100–250μ long, immersed in stroma, aggregated on special fertile tubercles; perithecial wall 50–60μ thick, pseudoparenchymatous, cells small, 1 5–2.5 × 3.5–8.5μ, hyaline, pigment globules present among tissues. Asci cylindrical, 150–400 × 6–10μ, cap hemispherical, 5–7μ diameter, divided by a narrow canal, eight spored, spores twisted into fascicle in ascus; pseudoparaphyses absent. Spores filiform, multiseptate, dividing into part-spores in ascus; part-spores oblong, ends rounded, 3 5–6 × 0.75–1.5μ. Pycnidia single, immersed in the centre of stroma, 1–2 mm. diameter, labyrinthiform, lined with unbranched conidiophores arranged more or less parallel and lining pycnidia; sterile conidiophores (paraphyses) extending into cavity of pycnidia, 100–150 × 1 5μ; conidia unicellular, fusiform or oval, 3.5–7 × 1 0–1.5μ.

Type Locality. New Zealand.

Distribution. New Zealand and (*) Australia.

Habitat. Parasitic on scale insects.

Ctenochiton viridis Mask.

Auckland: Tongariro National Park, Whakapapa, October, 1949, (10661) (10666).

Taranaki: Mt. Egmont, April, 1946, J.M.D. (4508); March, 1951, J.M.D. (10663).

Wellington: Wanganui, March, 1949 (4478).

Ctenochiton sp.

Auckland: Ngaitonga Ra., Russell, June, 1948, J.M.D. (10646); Hunua Ra., Moumoukai Valley, July, 1946, J.M.D. (10653).

Taranaki: Mt Egmont, April, 1946, J. M. D. (4521); March, 1951 (10664).

Wellington: Wanganui, March, 1946, J.M.D. (4479); Tararua Ra., Mt. Wariti, October, 1930, E. E. Chamberlain (3694).

Inglisia sp.

Auckland: Leigh, October, 1930, M. Hodgkins (10645); Waitakere Ra., Nihotupu, May, 1946, J.M.D. (4515); Titirangi, May, 1948, J.M.D. (10648); Ngaiotonga Ra., Russell, June, 1948, O. Turbott (10644):

[Footnote] * The numbers quoted in brackets represent the accession number in the Herbarium, Plant Diseases Division, Auckland.

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Titirangi, June, 1949, J.M.D. (10650); Waipoua, September, 1949, J.M.D. (10652).

Lecanid scale.

Westland: Weheka, January, 1950, E. Cookson (10647).

Unknown scale insects.

Auckland: Waitakere Ra., Anawhata, October, 1931, L. Cranwell (3693); Swanson, December, 1941, J.M.D. (4191); Titirangi, June, 1946, M. W. Carter (10656); Titirangi, March, 1946, J.M.D. (4499); Orewa, January, 1948, M. Ambler (10643); Henderson, January, 1948, J.M.D. (10649); Cascade Kauri Park, September, 1948, J.M.D. (11952); Tongariro National Park, June, 1949, D. W. McKenzie (10659); Waitakere Ra., Cascade Kauri Park, March, 1950, J.M.D. (10651); Waiwera, October, 1950, J.M.D. (10654); Lake Rotoehu, June, 1951, J. M. D. (10935).

Taranaki. Mt. Egmont, J. C. Neill, April, 1925 (1931), August, 1945, R. W. Denne (10657); January, 1953, J.M.D. (11750, 11757).

Wellington: Ngaio, 1909, A. H. Cockayne (470); December, 1919, E. H. Atkinson (479); York Bay, October, 1922, E. H. Atkinson (10400); Mt. Hector, Tararua Ra., February, 1931, E. E. Chamberlain (10658).

Nelson: Reefton, G. B. Rawlings (10660).

Westland: Weheka, December, 1946, J.M.D. (10662).

Though the species shows a diversity of form and colour, morphologically all collections are similar, Berkeley described the stroma as ‘lobed like a raspberry, rarely simple and containing one cell.’ Petch (1921a) stated that this lobed condition must refer to the perithecial form.

Filed under Hypocrella duplex in the Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, there are:—

Aschersonia duplex Berk. on Astelia, New Zealand, Colenso, 4704” This collection shows pyenidial stromata only and is typical of pycnidial collections on Ctenochiton viridis on Astelia.

Aschersonia duplex Berk. New Zealand, Colenso 5119” Examination of this collection proved it to be the Isaria stage of Cordyceps novae-zelandiae Dingley.

Under Aschersonia oxyspora Berk. there is a collection labelled 1on Cinnamomum oliveri Queensland' which proved to be typical of the pycnidial stage of Hypocrella duplex. Petch (1921a) listed this collection under Aschersonia oustraliensis P. Henn. but noted that in part it is H. duplex. Only stromata of H. duplex now remain in the packet.

Petch divided Hypocrella into two sub-genera Eu-Hypocrella and Fleischeria. In Eu-Hypocrella he included species which parasitised white flies and had long ‘paraphyses’ in the pycnidia. In Fleischeria he placed species which parasitised scale insects and ‘paraphyses’ were absent in the pycnidia. He placed H. duplex in Eu-Hypocrella. In all the collections examined, the host insect proved to be a scale insect but in all cases ‘paraphyses’ were present on the pycnidia.

Specimens filed in Kew Herbarium as Aschersonia zeylanica Berk N.Z. Colenso 3804a on scale on Hedycarya arborea are of Aegerila webberi Fawcett. Petch (1926) stated that although the specimen is labelled in Berkeley's handwriting he never described the species.

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4. Barya Fuckel, Symb. Myc., p. 93, 1869.

Perithecia superficial, scattered, aggregated on a byssoid subiculum, pyriform, lightly or brightly coloured, translucent, perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous, cell wall pigmented, not thickened. Asci cylindrical or lanceolate, capitate, eight spored, spores arranged biseriately, paraphyses absent, pseudoparaphyses usually diffluent. Spores linear or cylindrical, nonseptate.

Type Species. Barya parasitica Fuckel.

Distribution. World wide.

Barya agaricicola (Berk.) Hoehnel, Sitzungsber. K. Akad. Wiessensch Wein, vol. 121, p. 351. 1912.

Nectria agaricicola Berk, in Hooker's Flora Tasmaniae, vol. 3, p. 278, 1860, Ophionectria agaricicola (Berk.) Sacc. Syll. Fung., vol. 2, 563, 1883.

Perithecia obpyriform or ovate, 0 3–0 35 × 0 55–0.6 mm. superficial, scattered on a byssoid subiculum, orange red, translucent, collapsing when dry, ostiole papillate; perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous, 10–15μ diameter, outer cells compacted small 2–3 × 3–7μ, cell walls pigmented. not thickened. Asci cylindrical, 200–250 × 2–3μ, capitate, cap hemispherical, 1–1.5 × 2–3μ divided by a narrow canal, eight spored, spores twisted into a fascicle; pseudoparaphyses diffluent. Spores linear, filiform, as long as ascus, continuous.

Type Locality. Tasmania.

Distribution Australia, New Zealand.

Habitat. On over mature fructifications of agarics.

There is a single collection from New Zealand in the Kew Herbarium. This agrees with the type collection from Tasmania. Perithecial characters are typical of Nectria but the asci are characteristic of Cordyceps and Torrubiella. The cap is distinct with a narrow canal and spores are non-septate.

5. Claviceps L. R. Tulasnc, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci., vol. 33, p. 646, 1851.

Spermoedia Fries, Syst. Myc., vol. 2, p. 269, 1822.

Sclerotia formed in inflorescences of grasses and sedges; black, cartilagenous when mature, germinating after resting period to form delicate stalked stromata Perithecia globose or pyriform, more or less immersed in a swollen head, asci cylindrical, fusiform, capitate, paraphyses diffluent Ascospores hyaline, acicular or fusiform, continuous, becoming multiseptate on germination.

Type Species Claviceps purpurea (Fr) Tul.

Distribution World wide.

Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. Ann. Sci. Nat., ser III vol. 20, p. 45, 1853 (Sclerotium clavus D.C. Mem. du Museum Paris. p. 401, 1815) Spermoedia clavus (D.C.) Fr., Syst. Myc, vol. 2, p. 268, 1822. Sphacria (Tribe Cordyceps) purpurea Fr., Syst Myc vol. 2, p. 325, 1823.

Sclerotia replacing seed in inflorescences, black or fuscous black, fusoid often falcate, up to 2 cm. long, angular, with longitudinal grooves, pseudoparenchymatous, cells cuboid, 3–10μ diameter, thick walled, hyaline though pigmented in outer layer. Perithecial stromata developing from sclerotia, stalked, up to 1 cm. long, head globose, 0 5–1 mm. diameter, hyaline or pale lavender, pseudo-parenchymatous, cells 4–8 × 4μ, thin-walled, hyaline Perithecia immersed in stroma but superficial, ovate or globose, 150–200 × 350–400μ, ostiole papillate; perithecial wall pseudoparenchymatous, 20μ wide, cells 4–5μ diameter. Asci cylindrical. 70–120 × 4–5μ, cap hemispherical or pyriform, divided by narrow canal, 4–8 spored, spores arranged in fascicles. Spores non-septate, filiform, or acicular, 60–80 × 0 5–1μ becoming lultiseptate upon germination, hyaline. Conidia catenulate from hyphal tips, globose or elliptical, 4–6 × 2–4μ; hyphae completely smothering developing ovary.

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Type Locality. Europe.

Distribution. Europe, North and South America, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand.

Habitat. On inflorescences of grasses.

Agropyron repens Beauv.

Auckland: Owairaka, March. 1942, J.M.D. (6186).

Agropyron scabrum (Lab.) Beauv.

Canterbury: North Canterbury, Boyle River, April, 1950, A. J. Healy (7226).

Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link.

Auckland: Muriwai, February, 1941, J. C. Neill (4215).

Wellington: Tangimoana, March, 1932, J. C. Neill (3860); Paramata, January, 1922, G. H. Cunningham (1552).

Arundo kakaho Steud.

Wellington: Pipiriki, March, 1922, E. H. Atkinson (619).

Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) Mert. and Koch.

Wellington. Karori, January, 1922, E. H. Atkinson (507).

Dactylis glomerata L.

Common wherever host is grown.

Danthonia flavescens Hook.

Taranaki: Mt. Egmont, April, 1925, J. C. Neill (1858)

Otago: Whakatipu, Greenstone Valley, February, 1948, J.M.D. (6136).

Danthonia raoulii Steud.

Wellington: Tararua Ra. Mt. Hector, June, 1939, H. H. Allan (4339).

Dichelachne crinita (Forst. f.) Hook f.

Canterbury: Lake Ellesmere, May. 1884, T. Kirk (1548).

Echinopogon ovatus (Forst. f.) Beauv.

Wellington: Weraroa, March, 1921, E. H. Atkinson (485).

Festuca arundinacea Schreb.

Common wherever host is grown.

Festuca elatior L.

Common wherever host is grown.

Festuca novea-zealandiae Cockayne.

Canterbury: North Canterbury, Boyle River, April, 1950, A. J. Healy (7225).

Glyceria fluitans (L.) R. Br.

Wellington: Mangaroa, January, 1953, A. J. Healy (11749).

Holcus lanatus L.

Wellington: Weraroa, March. 1925, J. C. Neill (1852).

Otago: Outram, February, 1925, J. C. Neill (1785).

Hordeum vulgare L.

Canterbury: Christchurch, G. H. Cunningham (3356).

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Lolium multiflorum Lam.

Auckland: Owairaka, January, 1942, J. C. Neill (4332).

Lolium perenne L.

Common wherever host is grown.

Microlaena avenacea (Raoul) Hook. f.

Wellington: Upper Hutt, April, 1952, A. J. Healy (11955).

Microlaena stipoides R. Br.

Wellington: Upper Hutt, March, 1952, A. J. Healy (11954).

Phleum pratense L.

Marlborough Blenheim, April, 1951, J. P. Beggs (10629).

Poa caespitosa Spreng.

Wellington. March, 1942, A. J. Healy (4206).

Puccinellia stricta (Hook. f.) Blom.

Canterbury: Banks Peninsula, February, 1945, J. C. Neill (4363).

Secale cereale L.

Common wherever host is grown.

Triticum aestivum L.

Marlborough. Fairhall, January, 1925, J. C. Neill (1282).

Canterbury: Christchurch, Lincoln, May. 1924, J. Calder (3371).

Otago: Waikaka, February, 1927, J. C. Neill (2066)

In addition to the above recordings Neill (1942) listed Claviceps purpurea on Agrostis tenuis Sibth., Bromus inermis Leyss., B. mollis L., Avena sativa L., Poa pratcnsis L. He studied the life history of cultures from “ergot” from inflorescences of Glyceria fluitans, Festuca arundinacca, Dactylis glomerata, Holcus lanatus, Ammophila arenaria, Poa pratensis, Agropyron scabrum, Bromus inermis, Lolium multiflorum, L. perenne, and Triticum aestivum.

The fungus appeared about 1875 and has since become widespread It has been collected on a large number of introduced and 10 indigenous grass hosts, but appears to be rare on cereals.

2. Claviceps paspali Stevens and Hall. Bot Gaz., vol. 50, p. 462, 1910 Spermoedia paspali Fr. Syst. Myc., vol. 2, p. 268, 1822. S. stevensii Seaver, Mycologia, vol. 3, p. 222, 1911.

Sclerotia replacing seed in inflorescences, buff or ochraceous, surface aerolate, globose, up to 5 mm. diameter, pseudoparenchymatous, cells cuboid, 5–12 5μ, thin-walled, hyaline, outer cells lightly pigmented. Fertile stromata developed from sclerotia, stalked, up to 5 mm. long, head globose, 1–2 mm. diameter, pale honey coloured, pseudoparenchymatous, cells 6–8μ diameter, arranged in parallel fascicles to form a stalk. Perithecia immersed in superficial zone of globose head, ovate or obpyriform, 120–180 × 200–300μ, ostiole papillate, projecting above surface of stroma, perithecial wall 10–12μ, cells small, cuboid 2–3μ compacted. Asci cylindrical, 100–150 × 2–3μ, capitate, cap hemispherical, divided by a slender longitudinal canal, 6–8 spored, spores arranged in fascicles, paraphyses diffluent. Spores acicular or filiform, 80–100 × 0 5–1 0μ.

Conidial Stage. Conidia catenulated from hyphal tips of mycelium which covers the developing host seed; unicellular, globose or oval, 4–9 × 3–4μ, hyaline.

Type Locality. North Carolina, North America.

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Distribution. North and South America, South Africa, China, Hawaii, Australia, New Zealand.

Habitat. On inflorescences of Paspalum spp.

Paspalum dilatatum Poir.

Common wherever host is grown.

Paspalum distichum L.

Auckland: Whatipu, April, 1951, J.M.D. (10614).

As with Claviceps purpurea this species has been introduced into New Zealand, probably with grass seed. It attacks species of paspalum only, and is very common in North Auckland pastures of P. dilatatum. The sclerotes are small, globose and pale coloured but perithecial stromata are similar to those of C. purpurea.

6. Podonectria Petch, Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc., vol. 7, p. 147, 1921.

Perithecia scattered, usually superficial or semi-immersed in a byssoid stroma, bright or lightly coloured, hairy or smooth; perithecial wall pseudoparen-chymatous. Asci cylindrical or elongate-fusiform, apex thickened to form a modified cap, canal rudimentary; eight spored, spores arranged more or less biseriately in the ascus, paraphyses absent, pseudoparaphyses branched forming a network within the perithecia, spores acicular, or elongate-fusiform, multiseptate, hyaline.

Type Species. Podonectria coccicola (Ell. and Ev) Petch.

Distribution. In warm temperate and tropical regions of the World.

Key to Species

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Perithecia superficial
Perithecia hairy 1. P. novae-zealandiae Dingley
Perithecia smooth 2. P. coccicola (Ell. & Ev.) Petch
Perithecia immersed in a mucilaginous sheath 3. P. gahnia Dingley

Podonectria novae-zealandiae n. sp. Text-Fig. 2, figs. 2a, 2b.

Stroma incerte definition, peritheciis separatis vel in coronis 2–5 aggregatis. Perithecia globosa, 0.5–0.7 mm. diam. cremea, saltis hirsuta, parietibus peritheciorum 60–75μ crassis, pseudoparenchymatis, cellulis cuboidibus 7–10μ diam. Asci cylindrici vel clavati 250–360 × 20–25μ, capitibus truncatis 2–8 sporis oblique uniseratis vel in fasciculo intra ascum ordinatis pseudoparaphysibus ramosis. Sporae filiformes vel clavatae, 110–160 × 7–9μ, multiseptatae, hyalinae, 18–23 septis transversis.

Stroma poorly developed, pseudoparenchymatous. Perithecia scattered or aggregated in clusters of 2–5 globose, 0.5–0.7 mm. diameter, cream or ochraceous, covered with bristle-like hairs 5μ diameter, ostiole papillate; perithecial wall 60–75μ thick, pseudoparenchymatous, cells cuboid, 7–10μ diameter, thin walled, hyaline. Asci cylindrical or clavate, 250–360 × 20–25μ, capitate. canal rudimentary, 2–8 spored, spores uniseriate or irregularly arranged; pseudoparaphyses branched, diffluent Spores filiform or clavate. 110–160 × 7–9μ, multiseptate, divided by 18–23 transverse septa, hyaline, smooth. Conidial stage unknown.

Type Locality Hunua Range, Auckland, N.Z.

Habitat. Parasitic on scale insects.

Leucaspis sp.

Auckland: Hunua Range, October, 1946, J.M.D. (10942).

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The species resembles P. echinata Petch, but differs in that perithecia and asci are longer, each ascus usually contains only 2–4 rather broad spores.

2. Podonectria coccicola (Ell. & Ev.) Petch, Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc., vol. 7, p. 161, 1921; Nectria coccicola, Ell. & Ev., J. of Mycology, vol. 2, p. 39, 1886. Dialonectria coccicola Ell. & Ev., J. of Mycology, vol. 2, 137, 1886; Ophionectria coccicola (Ell. & Ev.) Berlese & Voglino, in Sacc. Syll. Fung. (Add. vol. 1–4), p. 218, 1886; Scoleconectria coccicola (Ell. & Ev.) Seaver, Mycologia, vol. 1, p. 198, 1909. Puttemansia coccicola (Ell. & Ev.) Hohnel Sitz. K. Kais. Akad. d Wissensch. Wien, vol. 120, p. 30, 1911.

=Text-Fig. 2, figs. 3, 4, 5.

Stroma byssoid, covering host, hyphae 4–6μ, pigmented. Perithecia obpyriform or globose, 0 3–0.4 × 0.4–0.6 mm., superficial but gregarious on stroma, vinaceous brown, sometimes ochraceous, farinaceous, ostiole papillate; perithecial wall 60–75μ wide, cell wall lightly pigmented and thickened, cells 7.5–15 × 10–12μ groups of cells in sub-hymenial layer densely pigmented and thickened. Asci cylindrical, 220–350 × 18–20μ, capitate but truncated, canal rudimentary, 4–8 spored, obliquely uniseriate, sometimes biseriate or irregularly arranged in ascus; pseudoparaphyses diffluent. Spores clavate or acicular, 120–220 × 6–7.5μ multi-septate, divided by transverse septa, hyaline. Conidial stroma 0 4–0.6 mm. globose, prosenchymatous, hyphae thickened, 6–8μ diameter, cell walls up to 3μ diameter, occasionally densely pigmented. Conidia formed in clusters on a short basal cell, cylindrical, multiseptate, 50–150 × 7–8μ. Tetracrium coccicolum Hoehnel.

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Text-fig. 2, Fig 1a. Section through perithecia of Podonectria gahnia. Fig. 1b: Details of wall of perithecia of Podonectria gahnia. Fig. 2a: Section through perithecia of Podonectria novae-zealandiae. Fig. 2b: Details of wall of perithecia of Podonectria novae-zealandiae. Fig. 3: Section of perithecia of Podonectria coccicola. Fig. 4: Apex of asci of P. coccicola. Fig. 5: Spores of P. coccicola.

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Type Locality. Florida, North America.

Distribution. North America, West Indies, Ceylon, Java, Formosa, South Africa, New Zealand.

Habitat. Parasitic on scale insects.

Leucaspis sp.

Auckland, Turangi. Mt. Pihanga, October, 1949, J.M.D. (10947).

Otago: Hollyford Valley, January, 1950, J.M.D (10946).

Unknown host.

Taranaki: Mt. Egmont, January, 1953, J.M.D. (11759).

The species is a variable one, since the stroma is sometimes reduced to a more or less byssoid subiculum while perithecia may be globose or ovate, smooth or farinaceous, ochraceous or vinaceous. Seaver (1909) placed the species in Scoleconectria because a well developed stroma was present.

3. Podonectria gahnia n. sp. Text-Fig. 2, figs. 1a, 1b.

Stroma hospitem opprimens, fusco-nigrum, pseudoparenchymatum; perithecia in stromate immersa, globosa, 0 2–0.35 mm. diam., rubra, ostiolis papillatis, super superficiem stromatis eminentibus, pariete perithecii pseudoparenchymato, 30μ diam, cellulis cuboidibus 5μ diam., parietibus tenuibus, tinctis. Asci cylindrical 150–200 × 12–16μ capitibus truncatis 4–8 sporis in fasciculo intra ascum ordinatis, pseudoparaphysibus ramosis. Sporae filiformes, aciculatae, 90–140 × 3–4μ multiseptatae, hyalinae, 6–12 septis transversis.

Stroma superficial on host, fuscous black, pseudoparenchymatous, hyphae hyaline with clusters of densely pigmented cells. Perithecia globose, 0.2–0.35 mm. diameter, red or scarlet, ostiole papillate, projecting above stroma; perithecial wall 30μ wide, pseudoparenchymatous, cells cuboid up to 5μ diameter, thin-walled pigmented, subhymenial layer diffluent. Asci cylindrical. 150–200 × 12–16μ, capitate, cap truncated, canal more or less rudimentary, 4–8 spored, spores arranged in fascicle; pseudoparaphyses branched, diffluent. Spores filiform, acicular, 90–140 × 3–4μ, multiseptate, with 6–12 transverse septa, hyaline. Conidia absent.

Type Locality. Waitakere Ranges, Auckland, New Zealand.

Habitat. Parasitic on scale insects.

On a Diaspid scale.

Auckland: Waitakere Ranges, Swanson, November, 1945, J.M.D. (10944); Simla, October, 1947 (10945) Type collection; Cascade Kauri Park, November, 1948, J.M.D. (10943).

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In fresh collections the bright red perithecia are semi-immersed, but in herbarium specimens perithecia appear immersed with only ostioles projecting. Spores are filiform, similar to those of Cordyceps, but do not divide into part-spores. Asci are truncated and are typical of species included in Podonectria.


Fries, E. M., 1822. Systema Mycologicum, 2, 1–274.

— 1823. Systema Mycologicum, 2, 275–620.

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