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Volume 82, 1954-55
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New Zealand Hepaticae (Liverworts)—VIII
A Review of the New Zealand Species of the Genera Bazzania and Acromastigum

[Read before Hawke's Bay Branch. July 22, 1953; received by Editor, August 10, 1953.]

Summary

Part 1: Introduction to Bazzania; 2 Sections represented in New Zealand, Connatae and Vittatae. Description of genus; Key to species; Description of species with one new combination, Bazzania, Hochstetteri (Reichardt) Hodgson; Additional Notes.

Part II:- Introduction to Acromastigum; 2 Sections represented in New Zealand, Squarrosa and Inaequilatera; Description of genus; Key to species; Descriptions of species including 1 new one, Acromastigum marginatum, 2 new combinations. A. verticale (Steph.) comb. nov., and A. Mooreana (Steph.) comb. nov.; A. integrifolium a Hawarian species recorded in New Zealand for the first time; 2 plates, 16 figures.

Part I.

Bazzania and Acromastigum are closely related genera, belonging to the family Lepidoziaceae. Bazzania is a large genus, mostly of tropical and subtropical species. It is a well-marked genus, the leaves throughout having a uniformity of character which makes the species difficult to separate. In New Zealand there are 4 species with well-defined characters, B. convexa, B. Tayloriana, B. monilinervis and B. Novae-Zelandiae. But with B. adnexa, B. involuta, and B. Hochstetteri, the forms approach one another, and it is difficult to assign positive limits to the species.

All the New Zealand species belong to the subgenus Tridentatae Steph., and to the following sections as revised by Fulford (1946):—

Connatae: B. involuta, B. adnexa, B. Novae-Zelandiae, B. Hochstetteri.

Vittatae: B. monilinervis, B. Tayloriana, B. convexa.

The section Connatae includes all the species having the stipule connate with the leaf, on both or on one side, even if they are joined by 1 or 2 rows of cells.

The section Vittatae includes all the species whose leaves show a vitta of enlarged cells. Stephani places B. Hochstetteri in this section although the vitta often consists of a group of large cells in the interior of the leaf, instead of 2–4 distinct rows adjacent to the ventral margin.

Genus Bazzania

Bazzania S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Br. Pl., 1. 704, 1821 (as Bazzanins).

Pleuroschisma Dumort., Syll. Jungerm., 68, 1831.

Herpetium Nees, Nat. Eur. Leberm., 1, 96, 1833.

Herpetium Section Mastigobryum, Nat. Eur. Leberm., 3, 43, 1838.

Mastigobryum G. L. et N., Synopsis Hepaticarum 1844–1847.

Plants medium to robust in tufts, loosely creeping, or forming cushions, in various shades of green or greenish brown, on earth, humus, rotting logs or rock. Steins furcately branched and bearing flagellae with minute, scale-like leaves from

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the axils of the stipules. Leaves incubous, ovate-oblong to linear oblong, sometimes a little falcate, dorsal margin arched at the base, ventral fairly straight, apex 3-dentate in New Zealand species, decurved or plane, sometimes oblique. Stipules always present, quadrate-ovate, rounded or reniform, apex faintly to deeply 4-lobed, or variously toothed, sometimes margined with 1 to several rows of hyaline rhomboid cells, lateral margins crenate or toothed. Cells usually with thick wills, marginal smaller, a vitta of larger cells present in some species. ♀ branches short, ventral, axillary. Invol. leaves small, in 3 rows, perianth hyaline, tapering, grooved or sub-terete, mouth ciliate. ♂ branches also ventral, axillary perigonial bracts in 3 or 4 pairs, complicate, obtuse or denticulate, each with 2 antheridia.

Key to Species of Bazzania
1. Species with a special band of larger cells extending along, and a few cells distant from, the ventral margin of the leaves, stipules free Vittatae 2
Species without a special band of larger cells, stipules connate on one or both sides with the leaves Connatae 4
2. Leaves asymmetrically ovate, convex, apices subentire, stipules divided to the middle into 4 segments B. convexa
Leaves ovate-oblong, flat, with apical teeth well developed 3
3. Leaves glaucous green, stipules irregularly divided into 4 obtuse, hyaline segments B. Tayloriana
Leaves bright green or brownish, apical teeth diverging, very pronounced, stipules ovate, entire or subentire B. monilinervis
4. Plants small, stems and branches partly bare of leaves, leaves variable in shape, mostly linear-oblong and less than 1 mm. long B. Hochstetteri
Plants medium to robust, leaves not fugacious 5
5. Plants robust, leaves large, ca. 3 mm. long, and 1.4 mm. broad at base, apical teeth strong without denticulations, stipules quadrate, taller than broad, crenate B. Novae-Zelandiae
Plants medium to robust, leaf apices and upper margins often with denticulations, leaves often auriculate, coalescing in various degrees with the stipules, which are usually broader than tall 6
6. Plants medium, leaves twice the length of basal breadth, apices strongly toothed, stipules also toothed, with few to many rows of hyaline cells B. adnexa
Plants mostly robust, leaves involute or lax, apices shortly toothed or subentire, length equalling the breadth of the base, stipules crenate to deeply lobed, toothing slight or absent B. involuta

Bazzania convexa (Thunb.) Trevis. Text-fig. 1, fig. 4.

Jungermannia convexa Thunberg, Prod. Pl. Cap., 173, 1794.

Jungermannia nitida Weber, Prodromus 43, 1815.

Mastigobryum convexum G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 215, 1845; L. et G., Spec. Hep., Fasc. 8–11, 1, 1851; Mitt. Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 147; Hook. Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 524, 1867; Steph., Spec. Hep., iii, 534, 1909.

Mastigobryum. heterostipum St. Spec. Hep. iii, 532, 1909.

Mastigobryum fissistipum Steph., ibid., 533, 1909.

Pleuroschisma convexa Steph., Engl. Bot. Jarhb., 308, 1895.

Bazzania convexa Trevis. Mem. 1st. Lomb., 13, 414, 1877; Mitt., Journ. Linn. Soc. 22, 322, 1887; Fulford, Ann. Crypt. et Phytopath. iii, 159, 1946; Sim, Trans. Roy. Soc. Sth. Afr., 15, 81, 1926.

Mastigobryum obtusatum Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19, 287, 1886.

Mastigobryum fugax Col., ibid., 18, 247, 1885.

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Plants loose and sprawly, or densely tufted, dull green drying to dingy brown, often with the appearance of a small B. involuta, on rotting bark or tree-fern bases. Stems to 2 cm., often bare of leaves in parts, little branched, ventral branches flagelliform with minute leaves. Leaves imbricate to 0.6 mm. long × 0.3 mm. wide, asymmetrically ovate-oblong, rounded-truncate, acute, obtuse, crenate or obscurely 3-dentate; ventral margin nearly straight, dorsal covering less than ½ the stem, apices usually incurved, cell cavities 16–20μ, cells of the vitta 25–30μ, with distinct trigones. Stipules distant, variable, ca. 0·15 mm., obovate-quadrate, divided to the middle into 4 segments, mostly 4 cells tall and 2 cells wide, cells quadrate, ca. 20μ. “Perianth ovate, incurved, plicate at the apex and with the mouth denticulate.”

This species is recognized by its small size, almost involute, broad, sub-entire leaves, the 4-fid stipules, together with the zone of large cells near the ventral margin.

North Island: With B. adnexa Ohakune Mountain Track, 2,000–3,000ft., Mt. Ruapehu, 1844, H. M. H.; on rotten log, Puaiti Bush, South of Rotorua, H431, near ground on very rotten log in bush near L. Roto-iti, H430, K. W. A.; in bush around L. Waikaremoana, 2,000ft., 7415, G. O'Malley; Ibid. L856, 1853, bush near Wairoa, mainly on tree-fern bases, 1848, 1854, 156, 6434, 9254, E. A. H.; Mangawaru Plateau, 4,300ft., Raukumaras, A. P. D.; Ruahine Foothills, 1878, A. L. H.; South Rimutakas, over 3,000ft., 1847, H. M. H.; Mt. Climie, Rimutakas, 2,000ft., 1971, A. P. D.

South Island: Marlborough, J. H. McMahon, Bealey R., 3693, S. Berggren; headwaters E. branch of Hawdon R., 1850, H. M. H.; head of L. Manapouri, H827, in part H892, G. S.; Fox Glacier, 1845, C. Crompton; on loose outer bark of Libocedrus Bidwillii, near Dunedin, 267, G. S. and J. S. T.; on very rotten log in bush, Mt. Cargill, Dunedin, 1,500ft., H4670, on bark of Libocedrus in bush above saddle between Dunedin and Waitati, K. W. A.; on ground with Schistochila glaucescens, Doubtful Sound, 5591, W. M.; Facile Harbour (Dusky Sound), 1920, in part, 1923, H. H. A.

Also from South Africa and South America. The type was from South Africa.

Bazzania Tayloriana (Mitt.) Kuntze. Text-fig. 1, fig. 3.

Mastigobryum Taylorianum Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 147, 1854; Hook. Handb. N.Z. Fl. ii, 524, 1867; Steph., Spec. Hep., iii, 533, 1909.

Bazzania Tayloriana Kuntze, Gen. Plant., 832, 1901; Fulford Ann. Crypt, et Phytopath, iii, 157, 1946.

Mastigobryum. obtusistipulum Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19, 294, 1886.

Mastigobryum obscurum Col., ibid., 292, 1886.

Mastigobryum delicatulum Col, ibid., 18, 246, 1885.

Plants small, fragile, in loose depressed mats, glaucous, paling to creamy green when dry, on soil, rotting logs, or bases of tree-ferns. Stems rarely more than 1 cm., prostrate, sometimes denuded of leaves, occasionally branched from a wide angle, ventral branching rare, leafy, leaves minute, bidentate. Leaves very minutely punctate, sometimes fugacious, contiguous to a little imbricate 0·7–1 mm. long × 0·4–0·5 mm. wide, asymmetrically oblong-ovate, vittate, horizontally spreading, mostly flat, ventral margin straight, dorsal strongly arched at the base, and covering about ⅓ the width of the stem; apex 3-dentate, teeth irregular in width, diverging, mostly ca. 5–8 cells long. Cells obscure, walls thin, vitta in 3–4 rows, each cell appearing divided into 4 or 5 cellules, other cells ca.

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20μ, trigones present. Stipules distant, oblong-ovate, hyaline, irregularly 4-lobed to about ⅓, lobes obtuse, cells rectangular-quadrate, ca. 30 × 20μ. Fertile branch short, ventral, basal. Invol. leaves, innermost, hyaline, bilobed, margins with cells obliquely protruding, lobe apices shortly piliferous, lower pairs of leaves hard to detect, perianth hyaline, barely 2 mm., mouth lobed, lobes piliferous to about 6 cells.

Quite distinct from other species in its small size with glaucous, minutely punctate vittate leaves, and the obtusely 4-lobed, hyaline stipules.

North Island: Cascade Kauri Reserve, L7, O. H. Selling; rotten log in Waipoua Forest, H765, K. W. A.; on Leucobryum candidum, Waipoua Forest, M. A. Baker, 4622; bank of creek, Domain, Waikiekie, 6682, T. Maddox; base of tree-fern in bush, Titirangi, 4980, E. A. H.; Waitakeres, 1879, 1882, E. D. Swanberg; on tree-fern, tawa forest, Hunua, 1865, epiphytic, Te Moehau Mt., H436, L. B. M; top of Tokoteas, Coromandel, 1878, E. D. Campbell; Horokino Bush, Mangapehi, 1875; V. W. L.; vicinity of Rotorua and Taupo, on rotting logs and tree-ferns, H621, H435, H434, 1877, 1863, 1511; on rotting tree-fern stump, between L. Rotoehu and coast, H613, K. W. A.; mostly on tree-ferns and rotting logs around L. Waikaremoana, 1862, 1867, 390, 8390, in Morere Bush, 1874, bush at Maungapoike Falls, 1876, Te Tiki, Wairoa, 1864, E. A. H.; Waitomo, A. L. H.; Dawson Falls Road, Mt. Egmont, 1880, A. H. Hornblow; base of tree-fern, forest, Eastbourne, 3104, N. J. B.; Ohaewai, 1861, S. Berggren.

South Island: Great Island, North Port, Chalky Inlet, Fiordland Excursion, H. H. A.

Stewart Island: On log by water hole in forest, Ocean Beach, 330; on tree-fern on island in Sawmiller's Arm, Pegasus, 491; on logs, forest, margin, Wilson Bay, S. Coast, 2012, W. M.

The type was collected by Colenso. Also cited from Bogota, Columbia, by Fulford, and from Samoa, cited by Stephani.

Bazzania monilinervis (L. et L.) Kuntze. Text-fig. 1, fig. 5.

Jungermannia monilinervis Lehm. et Lindenb., in Lehm. Pug. Pl., iv, 56.

Mastigobryum monilinerve Nees in Syn. Hep., 224, 1844; L. et G., Spec. Hep., fasc. 8–11, 55, 1851; Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 1855; Hook. Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 524, 1867. Steph., Spec. Hep., iii, 534, 1909.

Bazzania monilinervis Kuntze, Gen. Plant., 832, 1901; Rod., Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., 75, 1916.

Plants small, palish green to brownish, mixed with other hepatics. Stems to 2 cm., a little forked. Leaves a little imbricate, linear-ovate, strongly vittate, 1·2 mm. long by 0·4–0·55 mm., at the widest part, 0·2 mm. wide at the apex excluding the teeth, dorsal margin arched at the base, ventral straight or nearly so; apex with 3 slender diverging teeth, the middle one the largest, with 2–3 rows of twin cells, then 6 single ones. Cell lumina to 20μ, increasing a little near the vitta, without trigones; cells of the vitta which is 2 or 3 rows away from the ventral margin, 35–45μ, with sinuous walls caused by large convex trigones, cuticle smooth. Stipules ovate or rounded-ovate, entire or a little crenate, apical teeth mostly absent, 0.5 mm. long by 0·4–0·5 mm. broad, from a somewhat narrowed base, cells quadrate, ca. 20μ, not connate with the leaves.

Quite distinct in the small size, narrowing, strongly vittate leaves with diverging, elongate teeth.

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North Island: Forming cushion with B. convexa on dead Leucobryum cushion, Mangawaru plateau, 3,400ft., Raukumaras, 9,320, A. P. D., 1953.

Stewart Island: Epiphytic on tree-ferns, Port Pegasus, 623 and 610 (probably the same gathering); on forest trees with Radula sp., West Hut, Tin Range, 593, with Acromastigum anisostomum on log in forest, 345, W. M.

The Handbook also records it from Stewart Island.

Also found in Australia and Tasmania, the type being from Nova Hollandia (Australia) in Herb. Hooker, leg. Cunningham.

Bazzania hochstetteri (Reichardt) comb. nov. Text-fig. 1, fig. 1.

Mastigobryum affine Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 147, 1854; Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 525, 1867.

Mastigobryum Hochstetteri Reich., Diagonses der neren Art. ion Lebermoosen welchen die Nov. Exped. mitbrachte 1868; Steph. Spec. Hep., iii, 533. 1909.

Mast. quadratum Col., Trans. N. Z. Inst., 18, 246, 1885.

Mast. polyodon Col., ibid. 19, 291, 1886.

Mast. pusillum Col., ibid., 19, 290, 1886.

Mast. heterophyllum Col., ibid, 19, 291, 1886.

Mast, Kirkiana Steph., Spec. Hep., iii, 455, 1909.

Bazzania quadratum (Col.) Hodg., Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 78, 499, 1950.

Plants small, in loose mats, yellow to dull green, variable. Stems procumbent ca. 2 cm., rarely more, branches often short and divaricating, both stem and branches often partly bare of leaves, flagella fairly short and numerous. Leaves contiguous to imbricate, rarely deflexed, usually fugacious, 0·7–1 mm. long by 0·3–0·4 mm. wide at the widest part, variable in shape, subvittate, narrow-oblong or oblong-falcate to ovate-oblong, dorsal bases not contiguous, ventral margin fairly straight, apices very variable, mostly 0·2 mm. wide, rarely more than 0·3 mm., tridentate with bidentate leaves often present, teeth conspicuous, truncate or obliquely truncate. Cells mainly rounded-quadrate, uniformly large between 30 and 40μ, or dorsal marginal ca. 20μ., increasing to 45μ, in an irregularly shaped and variously placed area, walls thin, trigones small to medium, cuticle minutely papillose. Stipules variable, slightly connate with the leaves or free, at least twice as wide as the stem almost entire to crenate-toothed, hyaline cells to 30μ, reaching to varying depths.

This species is recognized by its small size, narrow leaves, and stems partly bare of leaves. It differs from B. adnexa forma submutica in its usually shorter stems and branches, leaves longer and narrower with variable apices, sometimes bidentate, and in the variable apices of the stipules.

Mitten's name of Mastigobryum affine 1855 is unfortunately invalid, as the same specific name was bestowed on a Mexican plant by Lindenberg and Gottsche in 1847. I think that Stephani was incorrect in reducing M. affine Mitt. to M. adnexa, specialty as M. Kirkiana St., is the same species. Both M. affine Mitt., and M. Kirkiana St. from the Gt. Barrier, have some leaves with an obliquely truncate apex, as in Stephani's drawing of M. Kirkiana, the reason possibly being that the third tooth is tending to disappear. Bidentate leaves are quite common on stems of M. Kirkiana, though Stephani apparently did not notice them. Mitten's type of M. affine has stems and branches bare of leaves, and the leaves have uniformly large (comparatively) cells.

Stephani places B. Hochstetteri in his Section Vittatae, but it is not constantly or uniformly vittate as are B. monilinerve, B. convexa and B. Tayloriana.

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North Island: Maunganui, Northland, 219 Auckland Museum Herb., H. B. Matthews; Russell-Whangarei Rd., 1965, V. W. L.; kauri bark, Waipoua Forest, 24666 in part, 24672, Bot. Div. Herb., on old Weinmannia trunks, Moehau, 2,800 ft., L. B. M.; Waipoua Forest, 4617, M. A. Baker; on rotting stump in bush, H651, covering all round about 4 feet of a dead standing treefern caudex, H769, Sandy creek bank, H767, all Waipoua Forest, K. W. A.; Parua, 1510, Mrs. Harnett; on ground in kauri regeneration, 900ft., Great Barrier Is., R. Lloyd; hillside under manuka, H622, on caudex of treefern, H440, fallen log, H439, all near Atiamuri, shady bank in forest, Moerangi, H623, K. W. A.; base of beech tree by Whakatane R., between Ruatahuna and Te Whaiti, Urewera, 9345, on humus in bush, Waikaremoana, 711, 712, base of tree-fern caudex, McKinnon's Bush, Wairoa, 1964, E. A. H.; Petane, 4852 Bot. Div. Herb., A. Hamilton in Kirk's collection; Akatarawa V., on earth with grass, 1986, 1977, H. M. H.; trunk epiphyte on Cyathea dealbata, forest, Eastbourne, 3105, N. J. B.; a296, a2105, Herb. Colenso.

South Island: On wood with other hepatics, Lead Hills near Rainham, Nelson, 3,500–4,000ft., 555, G. S. & J, S. T.; on bark of Librocedrus with B. convexa in bush about saddle between Dunedin and Waitati, H902, K. W. A.; on rooty humus in bush, near Greymouth, 777, H. M. H.; bank by waterfall, Pegasus Stream, Stewart Island, 2784, W. M.

The type was collected by Hochstetter, locality not stated.

Bazzania Novae Zelandiae (Mitt.) Besch. & Massal. Text-fig. 1, fig. 8.

Mastigobryum Novae Zelandiae Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 148, 1854; Hook. Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 525, 1867; Steph. Spec. Hep., iii, 456, 1909.

Bazzania Novae Zelandiae Bescherelle & Massalonga, Miss. Soi. du Cap Horn, v, Bot., 233, 1889; Kuntze Gen. Plant. 832, 1901; Fulford in Ann. Crypt, et Phytopath., 123, 1946.

Mastigobryum spectabile Steph., Spec. Hep., iii, 455, 1909.

Plants robust, in clumps or sprawly cushions, brownish green to dark green. Stems to 8 cm., but usually not more than 6, sparingly branched, apex usually forked, flagelliform branches fairly numerous, shortish to 1·5 cm. Leaves a little imbricate, ca. 3 mm. long and 1·4 mm. broad at base, asymmetrically ovate, a little falcate, mostly deflexed, dorsal bases not or slightly overlapping, apex coarsely 3-dentate, the middle tooth often the largest. Cells in mid-leaf ca. 40 × 20μ, becoming smaller and more quadrate towards the margins, trigones small. Stipules large, to 1·4 mm., quadrate to ovate-quadrate, margins and apex crenate, usually with 2 or more rows of hyaline cells, slightly connate with the leaf on one side.

This is the largest of the New Zealand species and can be distinguished from B. adnexa by its large size (usually), and large quadrate stipules with crenate, not toothed margins.

North Island: Waipoua Forest, between Dargaville and Opononi, 1891, V. W. L.; wet kauri forest floor, with other hepatics, Waipoua Forest, H768, K. W. A., Waipoua Forest, 4614, M. A. Baker; Great Barrier Is., T. Kirk, 6185, 6065, Bot. Div. Herb.; Mt. Moehau, forming clumps H91, on rotting stump in open scrub H236, abundant, forming cushions on bases of trees ca. 2,400ft., H237, L. B. M.; Mt. Archeria, Little Barrier Is., H155 Herb. L. B. M., W. M. Hamilton; bases of trees in bush round L. Waikaremoana, 1894, E. A. H.; Tararuas, 1899, G. O. K. S., in bush 2,000ft., 957, Akatarawa V., 1886, A. P. D.; Akatarawa Saddle, 9277,

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Bot. Div. Herb., V. D. Z.; Sth. Rimutakas, 1884, H. M. H.; Great Barrier Is., on ground in cut over forest, 30, R. Lloyd.

South Island: Hawke Crag, Takaka Hill, 1896, I. Haskell; Lewis Pass, 1889, E. Oecenden; Leslie Clearing, Caswell Sound area, 5248, V. D. Z.; Fiordland Excursion, per H. H. A.

Auckland Island: Bush above Musgrave Peninsula, R. L. Oliver, 1944.

Very common throughout Stewart Island, W. M.; L. Cockayne, 1883, Mrs. J. D. Smith.

The type appears to have been collected by Colenso. Also recorded from Patagonia and the Straits of Magellan by Bescherelle and Massalonga, and from Western Patagonia (collected by Dusen) by Stephani, but none of these specimens were examined by Fulford (1946).

Bazzania adnexa (L. et L.) Trevis. Text-fig. 1, fig. 7.

Jungermannia adnexa Lehm. et Lindenb., in Lehm. Pug., 1828–1831.

Mastigobryum adnexum Mont., Voy. au Pole Sud, 1. 243, Steph., Spec. Hep., iii, 479, 1909.

Mastigobryum Novae Hollandiae G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 221 and 717, 1844–1847; L. et G., Spec. Hep., fas. 8, 30–48, 1851; Mitt. Fl. Nov Zel., ii, 148, 1855; Hook., Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 525, 1867.

Mastigobryum laceratum Steph., Spec. Hep., iii, 479, 1909.

Bazzania adnexa Trevis., Schema di una nuova class., delle Epa., 1877; Rod., Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., 124, 1916; Pears. Univ. Cal. Pub. Bot., 10, 17, 1923; Sim. Trans. Roy. Soc. Sth. Afr., 82, 1926.

Plants very variable, medium size in depressed mats, usually olive green, sometimes approaching brown, glistening. Stems ca. 3 cm., sparsely dichotomously branched, flagella many or few, of varying lengths. Leaves imbricate to a little remote, ascendent or horizontally spreading, deflexed in varying degrees to almost involute when dry, 1·5 mm. long, ca. 0·8 mm. wide at the base, asymmetrically ovate with the upper portion narrower, sometimes elongate, ventral margin a little concave, sometimes auricled at the base, dorsal bases arched but not overlapping on the stem, apex variable, usually strongly tridentate, sometimes truncate and irregularly shortly toothed, teeth variable, normally triangular, acute or acuminate with margins dentate or serrate, to minutely so. Cells marginal ca. 20μ, increasing to 30 in the interior, and to 40 at the base, the cell lumina rounded, trigones small. Stipules normally broad, to 3 times as broad as the stem, reniform or subquadrate, plane or reflexed from the apex, or laterally inrolled towards the apex with a triangular effect; obscurely or broadly connate with the leaf on both sides, the connecting band of cells may be as wide as 0·8 mm.; apex unevenly dentate or serrate, or lobate-dentate with the lobe margins toothed, sides crenate or toothed. Marginal cells hyaline, mostly rhomboid or oblong, extending to varying distances through the interior, sometimes even to the base; chlorophyllose cells 30–40μ. Invol. leaves appressed, 6–8 ciliate-incised, inmost stipule large, maybe 4-fid. Perianth ovate-cylindrical, apex narrowly plicate, mouth somewhat piliferous.

This is the commonest of the New Zealand species, and there seems to be no limit to the combinations of its variations. One hundred years ago, Lindenberg and Gottsche devoted 18 pages of their Species Hepaticarum to an attempted classification of its complexities. Its most constant characteristics are the convex, oblong-ovate, subfalcate leaves with tridentate apices (the teeth often armed with

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smaller acute serrations), the broad toothed stipules with a deep border of hyaline cells.

In M. laceratum Steph., from Great Barrier Is., the apices are trifid, with the laciniae lanceolate-acuminate, and more or less dentate. This form is represented in Fig. 2 of Lindenberg and Gottsche's plate.

Forma submutica L. et G. Smaller and more slender, with stems to 4 cm., with branches mostly from an acute angle. Leaves ca. 1 mm. long, less than twice the width of the base, apex 0·3–0·4 mm. broad, truncate with 3, sometimes shortish, teeth. Stipules medium to large, connate with the leaves, sometimes reflexed, repand, a little toothed, hyaline cells in 2 rows. Original from Dusky Sound coll. Menzies.

This form appears abundantly in V. D. Zotov's collection of hepatics from Caswell Sound, New Zealand and American Expedition, 1949, also from stations in the North Island. It appears constant, and may be a separate species, or perhaps even a slender form of B. involuta.

Forma Aucklandica L. et G. from Auckland Is. coll. Hooker, has stipules triangular-cordate formed by the reflexed lateral margins. Such stipules are commonly seen on specimens.

The following 3 species have been referred to B. adnexa by Stephani:—

B. macroamphigastrium (Col.) Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19, 291, 1886; B. olivacea (Col.) Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19, 291, 1886; B. heterodontium (Col.) Trans. N.Z. Inst., 21, 66, 1888.

The following also appear to belong to B. adnexa:—

B. macrodontium (Col.) Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19, 292, 1886. B. nitens (Col.) Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19, 293, 1886; B. parasiticum (Col.) Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19, 293, 1886; B. compactum (Col.) Trans. N.Z. Inst, 19, 291, 1886; vulcanicum (Col.) Trans. N.Z. Inst. 21, 67, 1888.

The type was collected in Australia (Nova Hollandia) by Sieber.

Bazzania involuta (Mont.) Kuntze. Text-fig. 1, fig. 6.

Herpetium involutum Mont., Ann Sc. Nat., 253, 1843; Tayl, Lond. Journ. of Bot, 388, 1844.

Mastigobryum involutum G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 1844; L. et G.; Spec. Hep., Fase. 8–11 28, 1851; Mitt. Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 148, 1855; Hook. Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 527, 1867, Steph., Spec. Hep., in, 456, 1909.

Bazzania involuta Kuntze, Gen. Plant., 822, 1901, Rod., Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., 74, 1916.

Mastigobryum elegans Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19, 288, 1886.

Plants medium to robust, yellow or dull green, often pigmented with brown, variable, covering a wide range of forms. Stems stout, to 7 cm., tufted or procumbent, with numerous flagella often long, commonly with ca. 2 branches and forked at the apex. Leaves broadly ovate or semicordate, mostly semivertical, deflexed to involute, convex, to 1·5 mm. long, base ca. 1·5 mm. wide, twice to 3 times the width of the apex, dorsal base reaching to ¾ the width of the stem, upper part of the ventral margin curved inwards, apex with 3 short teeth, sinuses often with denticulations which may reach partly along the leaf margins. Cells rounded-quadrate, fairly uniform in the upper part ca. 20–25μ without trigones, midbasal ca. 25–40μ, with trigones usually present. Stipules medium to very large, to 1 mm. tall by 1 mm. broad, reflexed convex, repand to deeply or crenate-lobed,

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lobes obtuse, maybe a little toothed, hyaline cells absent or in 1 or 2 rows, broadly connate with the leaves to scarcely so.

Lindenberg comments on the differences in the width of the junction of the leaf with the stipules—sometimes scarcely present at all, and sometimes equalling ⅗ of the length of the leaf.

Generally speaking, this species is distinguished from B. adnexa by its shorter, broader leaves and shorter apical teeth, while the stipules if not quite entire, are not jaggedly toothed as in B. adnexa, and the hyaline cells may be absent or reduced to one or two rows. On the other hand, the species resemble each other, in the varying degrees of coalescence of the stipules with the leaves, and in the apical and upper marginal denticulations, if these are present.

Bazzania reflexistipula (Lindenberg) was sent to Lindenberg by Hooker under the name of Herpetium involutum, and I think it very likely that it was that species, as Lindenberg's descriptions of B. involuta and B. reflexistipula differ very little, the main difference being that the stipules of B. reflexistipula are described as free, and in the drawing of that species the leaves are shown as flat, not involute. Stephani identified and described as B. reflexistipula, a plant collected by Krone, but its leaves had strongly dentate apices, suggesting B. novae-zelandiae.

North Island: Urewera, 6353, B. Teague; old stump in beech forest, ca. 3,600ft., Maungapohatu, H130, L. B. M., on ground and logs by shore of L. Waikare-iti, 3,000ft., on open ground near trees, L. Wairaumoana, 1927, L. Waikaremoana, 1925, 2,000ft., E. A. H.; South Ruahines, 797, A. P. D.; Oroua V., 1921, H. M. H.; Oriwa L. Hollow, with small sedge., 3,300ft, 6628, Bot. Div. Herb., V. D. Z.; Tararuas, ca. 4,000ft., 676, A. P. D.; Tauherenikau R., 249, H. M. H.

South Island: On bark, Tableland Track, Mt. Arthur, Nelson, 168, G. O. K. S.; Lead Hills, Rainham, Nelson. 8554, G. S. and J. S. T.; Arthur's Pass, numerous specimens, W. M., H. M. H., Mrs. Vere, F. M.; Milford Track, 1629, F. M.; on trees and forest floor, L. Manapouri-Wilmot Pass-Doubtful Sound area, 6213, 6719, 5586, 8499, 5584, 5623, W. M.; H828, G. S; Facile Harbour, Dusky Sound, 1920, 1937, H. H. A.

Stewart Island: 1968, Mrs. J. D. Smith; T. Kirk, 4925, Bot. Div. Herb.; on logs in damp forest, Glory Harbour, 312, in manuka, Rakiahua Flats, 2639, forming cushions and on logs, Pryse's Peak Forest, 465, 520, 470, 468, on logs and trees in forest, and on ground beside stream, Pegasus, 456, 706, 441, 5331, 5334, W. M.

Auckland Islands: On shady trunks of Metrosideros umbellata, Hanfield Inlet, 2300, Port Ross, 2276, Carnley Harbour 2322 (through H. Guthrie-Smith) G. Einar Du Rietz; Carnley Harbour, 1758, E. G. Turbott; Musgrave Inlet, 1936, M. G. Easton; 817, L. Cockayne; 14a, Tennant, 1904. Herb. Stephani.

The type was collected on Auckland Islands by Hombron, mixed with a Hypnum moss.

The Handbook gives Milford Sound, Lyall; Otago, Hector and Buchanan.

Additional Notes

Bazzania Mittenii (Steph.) to which Stephani (1892) reduced Colenso's species B. concinna, B. imbricatistipula, B. quadrata, and B. epibrya, is not described in his Species Hepaticarum. It is probably B. Hochstetteri.

B. epibrya (Col.) I am unable to find in the Trans. N.Z. Institute.

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Mastigobryum smaragdinum Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 21, 67, 1888, listed by Stephani (1892) as a poor form of some Lophocolea or Chiloscyphus is almost certainly Acromastigum Colensoanum.

Mastigobryum descrescens L. et L., is listed in the Handbook, with a note by Hooker that he has seen no New Zealand specimens, and that the description was taken from the Synopsis Hepáticarum. Lindenberg and Gottsche (1851) mention this species as collected in the Auckland Islands by Hombron. The type of this species was from Mauritius. Through the kindness of the authorities of the Laboratoire de Cryptogamie in Paris, I have been able to examine this Auckland Island plant. Nees No. 363, collected by Hombron, and identified by Moutagne

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Text-Fig 1.—1—B. Hochstetteri, 2—B. adnera forma submutica. 3—B. Tayloriana. 4—B. convexa. 5—B. monilinervis. 6—B. involuta. 7—B. adnexa. 8—B. Novae-Zelandiae.

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as Herpetium decrescens. It seems to be a form of B. adnexa, near enough I think to our var. submutica, but more specimens of B. decrescens would be necessary before one could definitely refer var. submutica to that species.

Other specimens received from Paris are 3 packets of B. involuta (Mont.) and a specimen labelled Herpetium adnexum from Nova Hollandia, all from Herbarium Montague.

Mastigobryum tenacifolium also described in the Handbook, was from the Auckland Islands. It is now placed in Mitten's genus Herpocladium.

Part II

The genus Acromastigum has much in common with Bazzania, from which it was separated by Evans (1822). It differs from Bazzania in that the ventral flagelliform branches arise, not from the axils of the stipules, but from alongside them. Moreover the leaf apices are never tridentate as in the majority of species of Bazzania, but are bidentate, or in 2 cases entire, while the stipules are not so diverse as in Bazzania, being mainly 3-fid. When Dr. Evans wrote his monograph in 1934, he described 28 known species, of which 3 occurred in New Zealand, A. anisostomum, A. brachyphyllum, and A. Colensoanum. The centre of the genus was then considered to be Borneo, with 10 species to its credit. It is now known that New Zealand has at least 7.

The following sections are now represented in New Zealand:—

Squarrosa Evans A. integrifolium, A. verticale.

Inaequilatera (Steph.) Evans A. anisostomum, A. brachyphylla, A. Mooreana, A. Colensoana, A. marginata.

Genus Acromastigum Evans

Mastigobryum B (in great part), G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 218, 1845.

Mastigobryum (Section) 111 Inaequilatera Steph., Hedwigia, 25, 245, 1886.

Bazzania Section 111 Inaequilaterae Schiff.

Acromastigum Evans, Bull., Tori. Club, 27, 103, 1900.

Mastigobryum (Subgenus) Inaequilatera Steph., Bull., Herb., Boissier 11, 8, 408, 1908.

Plants small to medium, light green or strongly pigmented with brown, loosely matted, or in denser cushions, or creeping amongst other hepatics on earth. Stems prostrate, branched as in Bazzania, but ventral flagellae not axillary. Leaves bidentate with 2 exceptions, which are entire and squarrose, otherwise incubous, tending to be unequally bilobed, insertion oblique. Stipules small, often with bulging sides, entire or 3-lobed. Cells larger in the ventral part, arranged in rows, sometimes forming a vitta, cell walls thickened, usually with trigones.

♀ branches short, ventral, axillary, not well known. Perianth as in Bazzania.

♂ bracts delicate, in the form of hollow sacs, monandrous.

Key to Species of Acromastigum
1. Plants small (in New Zealand), stems not more than 1 cm. long, leaves entire or subentire, squarrose with transverse insertion Squarrosa 2
Plants larger, stems longer than 1 cm., leaves unequally bilobed obliquely inserted Inaequilatera 3
2. Leaves ovate, apices regular A. integrifolium
Leaves triangular-ovate, with the apical portion sometimes curved upwards, apices curiously variable A. verticale
3. Leaves pigmented, stems blackish, rigid, ventral leaf-lobe always larger or longer than the dorsal 4
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Leaves light green, paling when dry, but never pigmented with brown 6
4 Leaves very small, 0·35–0.45 mm. long, lobes much reduced, cells bistratose in patches, vitta indistinct, rare A. brachyphyllum
Leaves larger, with, lobes generally not reduced, ventral vitta of large cells very distinct 5
5. Plants robust, ventral lobe of leaf linear-ligulate, of 2 cells in width, those of opposite leaves overlapping on ventral side of stem A. Mooreanum
Plants a little less robust, ventral lobe of leaf not produced, but more triangular from a broader base A. anisostomum
6. Leaves 0.7–0.8 mm. long, not or scarcely imbricate, lobes subparallel, dorsal lobe mainly larger than the ventral, stipules quadrate, cells 20–30μ A. Colensoanum
Leaves 0.3–0.5 mm. long, imbricate, narrowly margined, dorsal lobe mostly reduced to a tooth on a crenation, stipules subcircular, cells 10–12μ A. marginatum

Acromastigum integrifolium (Aust.) Evans. Text-fig. 2, fig. 9.

Mastigobryum integrifolium Aust., Bot. Gaz. 1, 32, 1875.

Bazzania integrifolia Evans, Trans. Conn. Ac. 8, 225, 1892.

Acromastigum integrifolium Evans, Bull. Torrey Club, 27, 103, 1900; Ann. Bry., iii, 16, 1934.

Plants distributed through a small dry mixture of filmy fern roots, Lepidozia, A. anisostomum, etc., pale. Stems barely 1 cm. long, a little branched, with few flagellae. Leaves squarrose, with transverse insertion, ovate, 0·4 mm. long, 0·3 mm. vide, margins quite entire, apices obtuse. Stipules squarrose, somewhat smaller than the leaves, 0·3 mm., occasionally with a small sinus at the apex, otherwise broadly obtuse. Cell cavities very clear, fairly uniform in size throughout, ca. 0.25μ, many stellate in shape, caused by the large trigones with convex sides. Perianth basal on a very short branch, 3·5 mm., hyaline, linear-fusiform, cells rectangular, mouth scarcely ciliate. Invol. leaves similar to the cauline but appressed to the axis. ♂ inflorescence not seen.

The specimen differs from the Hawaiian plant, only in its small size, the measurements for that being given as, stems 3–8 cm. long, and the leaves 0·7 × 0·4 mm. That it should turn up in New Zealand is of great interest.

From Summit, Te Moehau Mt., Coromandel Pen. North Island, 960, L. B. M., 2/8/30.

The type specimen in Herb. W. H. Pearson. West Maui (Baldwin, 1875); Konahuanui, Ohau (Cooke, 1899).

Acromastigum verticale (Steph.) comb. nov. Text-fig. 2, fig. 13.

Mastigobryum verticale Steph., Spec. Hep., iii, 419. 1909.

Acromastigum Martinii Hodg. in lit. Bryophytes Stewart Island, ii, W. Martin, Trans. Roy. Soc. N. Z., 78, 496, 1950.

Plants consisting of isolated stems in a compact mat of minute Lepidozias with Radula dentata. Stems mostly unbranched, to 0·7 cm. long, 0·2 mm. thick, flagella mostly one on each stem, usually short, with minute, distant, retuse or entire leaves, becoming smaller and more distant towards the apex. Leaves ovate-triangular, squarrose or with the upwards part of the leaf curved upwards, or even hamate, transverse attachment, 0·6 mm. long. 0·4 mm. wide at the widest part, concave, apices variable. obtuse or bluntly acute, shortly bifid with divergent lobes or curiously curved backwards towards the ventral margin. Cells 30–40μ, still larger in the basal part, walls sinuous to stellate, caused by the very large

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trigones with bulging sides. Stipules, the width of the stem or a little more, 0·3 mm. tall, ovate-rotund, mostly entire, rarely very shortly bifid, more regular in shape than the leaves. Perianth 3·5 mm. long, 0·5 mm. broad at the base, narrowed to the apex, month piliferous, hair-points to 0·3 mm. long, crooked and entangled, a little toothed and in one instance branched. Seta as long as the perianth. Innermost pair of invol. leaves reaching almost ⅓ up the perianth, with narrow apices, shortly bifid reflexed. Second pair reaching half-way tip the innermost, with similar apices.

The perianth is here described for the first time.

This species resembles A. integrifolium in its small size, transversely attached leaves and similar cells, but that species has purely ovate leaves with regular apices.

Stephani specially comments on the vertical (transverse) attachment of the leaves.

From a moist sandy soil, at head of Crooked Reach, Port Pegasus. Stewart.

That this species should be found with Radula dentata Mitt. on Stewart Island is a remarkable instance of discontinuous distribution, as both of these are Great Barrier Island plants. A. marginatum is also a northern plant.

The type was from Great Barrier Island, leg. Kirk.

Acromastigum brachyphyllum Evans. Text-fig. 2, fig. 12.

Acromastigum brachyphyllum Evans, Annales Bryologici Supp. Vol., iii, 1934.

Plants consisting of loose stems, coloured as in A anisostomum. Stems 6 cm., blackish, dichotomously branched from acute angles. Leaves scarcely contiguous to a little imbricate, obliquely spreading, small, 0·35–0·45 mm. long, 0·25–0·3 mm. broad at the base, bilobed, lobes triangular sometimes much reduced, apex usually decurved; ventral lobe the larger, scarcely 0.1 mm. long, sinus small acute; ventral margin straight or a little concave, mostly at an angle of 45 degrees from the axis, a little incurved. Dorsal margin strongly rounded at the base. Vitta of cells not clearly defined, and trigones indistinct, but the cells in the ventral area are larger than those in dorsal, ca. 25μ, decreasing to 10μ, at the dorsal margin and the upper portion of the leaf. Stipules as in A. anisostomum broader at the base and very obtusely trilobed. According to the author, there are patches of bistratose arrangements in the leaf, these regions involving 2–5 cells. Inflorescences unknown.

This species differs from A. anisostomum and A. Mooreanum in the small leaves with very short lobes, in the vitta being indistinct, and in the small areas of bistratose cells.

Type from Paparoa Range, Westland, 3,000ft., coll. by R. Helms, no. 4948 Bot. Div. Herb., in Kirk's collection.

Acromastigum Mooreanum (Steph.) comb. nov. Text-fig. 2, fig. 15.

Bazzania Mooreana Steph. Hedwigia, 33, 1, 1894.

Mastigobryum Mooreanum Steph., Spec. Hep., iii, 539, 1909.

Acromastigum anisostomum Evans, Ann. Bry Supp. Vol. iii, 48, 1934.

Plants in tufted cushions on the ground and trunks of trees, similar in appearance to A. anisostomum and like the latter, xerophytic. Stems to 6 cm., blackish in the lower part, usually twice dichotomous, apices inclined or subcircinate.

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flagelliferous, flagellae fairly numerous, decurved. Leaves imbricate, narrowly triangular-ovate, decurved, glossy, from pale to orange or brown, near the bases of the stems, bilobed, the dorsal lobe triangular ca. 0·1 mm. long, ventral lobe 0·4 mm., long and narrow, often overlapping on the under surface of the stem, of 2 cells except in the vicinity of the base which may be broader or narrower than the base of the dorsal lobe; ventral margin reflexed, dorsal arched at the base. Cells in the dorsal area and the dorsal lobe small, ca. 10 or 12μ, in the ventral lobe ca. 30μ, diminishing in size towards the tip. The vitta of large pigmented cells, to 50μ × 30μ is adjacent to the ventral margin with one row of slightly smaller cells between; cell walls everywhere thick, with large trigones, cuticle faintly papillose along the margin. Stipules narrowed from a broad base, 0·2–0·25 mm., short, 0·1–0·15 mm.; lobes in most cases appear to be reduced to crenations. Inflorescences not seen.

This species is distinguished from A. anisostomum, by the very long and narrow ventral lobe, a noticeable distinction, and more important, a constant one; also by the vitta reaching practically to the ventral margin, and perhaps by the longer stems and crenate stipules. The “bridging over” between this and A. anisostomum seen by Evans in Cockayne's Stewart Island speciman of Mastigobryum Mooreanum det. Stephani from the Auckland Museum, really seems unimportant alongside the good and ample specimens of each collected by Mr. Martin. When the 2 kinds grow together in the same clump, the stems of each are always distinct. Rodway considered this species as a robust form of A. anisostomum and was hesitantly followed by Evans.

Not known as yet from the North Island.

South Island: Facile Harbour, Dusky Sound, Fiordland Excursion, H. H. A., 1946.

Stewart Island: On trees in subalpine forest, Table Hill, 481, 499, 501; Epiphytic on forest trees, Track, Pegasus to Tin Range, 524. On ground in dense forest, P. Pegasus, 539, on trees, head of Crooked Reach, P. Pegasus, 538, Islet in Sawmiller's Arm, P. Pegasus, 3928, W. M.; Port Pegasus, L. Cockayne.

The type was from Tasmania from specimens collected by Oldfield and Moore.

Acromastigum anisostomum (Lehm. & Lindenb.) Evans. Text-fig. 2, fig. 16.

Jungermannia anisostoma Lehm. & Lindenb., Pug. Plant., 6, 57, 1834.

Jungermannia atrovirens Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot., 388, 1844; Fl. Antarct., 1847.

Mastigobryum atrovirens G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 219, 1845.

Mastigobryum anisostomum G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 219, 1845; Lindenb., Spec. Hep.,

Fasc. 8–11, 17, 1851; Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 146, 1855; Hook. Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 524, 1867; Steph., Spec. Hep., iii, 539, 1909.

Bazzania anisostoma Trevis., Mem. 1st. Lomb., 13, 414, 1877; Rod., Pro. Roy. Soc. Tas. 75, 1916.

Mastigobryum chiloense Steph., Kungl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 46, 59, 1911.

Acrormastigum anisostomum Evans, Ann. Bry., Supp. Vol. iii, 1934.

Plants in cushions on ground and trunks of trees, shiny, golden to olive brown. Stems rarely more than 2 cm., dark brown or blackish, rigid, brittle, sparsely dichotomously branched, flagelliferous, flagellae fairly numerous, decurved, ca. 1 cm. long with minute, distant, appressed subentire leaves. Leaves usually closely imbricate, golden, shading to brown, the lower ventral portion being more strongly pigmented, glossy, triangular-ovate, 0·4–0·6 mm. long to the tip of the ventral lobe, convex, strongly decurved, bilobed, sinus acute or obtuse, lobes variable in

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size, the ventral larger, 1 ½ to twice the length of the dorsal, and usually wider, but sometimes narrower from a narrower base, dorsal lobe triangular. In some cases both lobes may be small, and leaves quite entire have been observed; dorsal margin arched at the base, ventral a little incurved or flat, sometimes minutely asperate along the margin. A vitta of very large cells to 50μ × 20–30μ, and 2–3 cells distant from the ventral margin extends along most of the leaf; cell walls thick, and in the area of the vitta, the trigones very large, often bulging into the sides of the cells. Cells in the dorsal area of the leaf 10μ at the margin, increasing to 30μ at the edge of the vitta. Stipules 0·2 mm. wide at the base, slightly auricled and mostly extending across the width of the stem, narrower at the apex, and only 0·1 mm. tall on stems examined, trifid to the middle, segments broadly obtuse. Invol. leaves in 3 rows, increasing in size upwards, perianth 3 mm. fusiform, 3-grooved in the upper half, mouth ciliate.

Mastigobryum atrovirens was reduced to synonomy on p. 717, Synopsis Hepaticarum. M. chiloense by Evans, p. 49, 1934.

This plant can be known by its coloration, its rigid-looking stems, with imbricate decurved, bilobed leaves. From Acromastigum Mooreanum it is distinguished by the ventral lobe not more than twice the length of the dorsal, and more than 2 cells wide, and as far as is known, by the shorter stems.

North Island: Summit Little Barrier, H159, W. M. Hamilton; Mt. Archeria, Little Barrier Is., R. E. N.; mossy forest, quite abundant, growing low and close on trees, Te Moehau ca. 2,400ft., H349, H64, L. B. M.

South Island: Lead Hills, Rainham, Nelson, 3,500–4,000ft., G. S. and S. T.; Westland, R. Hamilton, 4935 Herb. Bot. Div.

Stewart Island: On bank of stream in forest, Pegasus, 511, logs in forest, Pegasus Creek, 5341, Wet Banks, Tin Range, 540, common as cushion former, Pryse's Peak, 469, log in forest, Mt. Anglem, 345, W. M.

Auckland Is., on rock in upper border of the hygrohalophyte belt, 2303, G. Einar Du Rietz.

The type of J. atrovirens was from Auckland Is., in Hooker's collection. The earlier type was collected at Dusky Sound by Menzies, 1769.

Also from Tasmania, Australia, Chile, Patagonia and Straits of Magellan.

Acromastigum Colensoanum (Mitt.) Evans. Text-fig. 2, fig. 14.

Mastigobryum Colensoanum Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 147, 1855; Hook. Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 524, 1867.

Mastigobryum amoenum Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19, 288, 1886.

M. minutulum Col, ibid.

Bazzania Colensoi Rod., Papers & Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas, 75, 1916.

Aoromastigum Colensoanum Evans in Reimers, Hedw., 73, 142, 1933; Ann. Bry., Supp. Vol. iii, 79, 1934.

Plants green, on earth, or rotting wood, mostly with other bryophytes. Stems procumbent, flexuose, loosely intricated, to 2 cm., branches few, to 0.5 cm., mostly dichotomous, both stems and branches with fairly frequent flagella Flagella 2–7 mm. long, with minute bifid leaves. Leaves contiguous to a little imbricate, insertion nearly straight, sometimes a little decurrent, oblong or ovate-oblong, 0·7–0·8 mm. long, cleft to ¼ to the length of the leaf, lobes subparallel, longly triangular-acute, sinus acute or rounded, the dorsal one 1 ½ times as big as the ventral, dorsal margin straight or convex near the base, ventral or a little concave;

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leaf at the dichotomy, rounded-ovate, shortly bidentate. Trigones small or absent, cells ± quadrifid and uniform, 20–30μ. Stipules quadrate, mostly as wide as the stem, 0·2 mm. long × 0·2 mm. wide, 3-fid to the middle or just below, segments 2 cells broad, obtuse. Invol. leaves ovate, acuminate, deeply cleft with lobes converging, cells hyaline, oblong-quadrate to 40μ, or rhomboidal cells projecting little along the margin. Perianth fusiform, 3 mm. long pluriplicate from about ½ way up, lobes bifid, apices ciliate-toothed.

The medium size, green, bilobed, non-imbricate leaves enable this species to be identified.

North Island: Damp rotten log, 6166, on fallen caudex of tree-fern, H433, both Puaiti Bush near Rotorua, under beech, Pahautea bush, 3920, 3932, K. W. A.; Mt. Pureora, Central North Island, 3,000ft., A. L. H.; Kaimanawas, 3934, H. M. H.; on rotting, wood, Waikare-iti track, 3917, Ngamoko Track, 391, Forest Floor, Waikaremoana, 1006, rotting wood in bush Pinehaven, Wellington, 6782, on treefern caudex, bush near Wairoa, 3916, E. A. H.; on trunk of Cyathea dealbata with Bazzania, forest, Eastbourne, Wellington, 3105, N. J. Butler; on treefern caudex, Maungaroa, 3830 in part, S. Berggren, 1874.

South Island: Marlborough, J. H. McMahon; with Tylimanthus tenellus Bealey, 3685, S. Berggren; Caswell Sound, V. D. Z.; on rotten log in bush, Mt. Cargill, Dunedin, 4919, K. W. A.; Forest Floor, Tin Range, Stewart Island, 2008, W. M.

With Rhizogonium sp., bush above Musgrave Pen., Auckland Is., 9295, R. L. Oliver, 1944. This is the first recording of this species from the Subantarctic.

The type was from the Tararuas, coll. Colenso.

Also recorded from Australia and Tasmania.

Acromastigum marginatum Hodgson Spec. Nov. Text-fig. 2, figs. 10, 11.

Plantae parvae, virides, (vivae) depressae, laxe implicatae, terrestres. Caulis bis 2 cm., interdum ramosus, apice furcato forsitan, ramis divergentibus, flagellis crebris. Folia, parum obliqua patula, ovata, 0·35–0.4 mm. longa × 1·5 mm. lata, marginibus hyalinis, minute papillosis, margine ventrali convexo, dorsali. subrecto, bifido, lobis inaequalibus, ventrali triangulato, subacuto, 0.1 mm. longo, 0.1 mm lato, dorsali minimo vel obsoleto. Cellulae 10–12μ subventralibus inferis 18μ. Foliola magna, imbricata, subcircularia, triloba, lobis obtusis vel acutis. Flores ignoti.

Plants bright green when fresh, paling to fawn, loosely intricate in a depressed mat. Stems to 2 cm., branched at an angle somewhat less than a right angle, branches simple or forked, mostly bearing 1–2 flagelliform branches, to 0.5 cm. long and 0.1 mm. broad, with minute closely appressed bifid leaves. Leaves imbricate, very regular, with a narrow hyaline margin all round, narrow ovate 0.35–0.4 mm long × ca. 0.2 mm. broad, oblique, ventral margin convex, dorsal margin nearly straight; bilobed, the ventral lobe the larger, triangular, subacute, 0·1 mm. long, to 0.1 mm. broad at base (ca. 5 cells), inclined towards the apex of the stem; dorsal lobe reduced to a tooth or a crenation. Stipules imbricate, medium to comparatively large, subcircular, to 0.2 mm. wide, divided from ⅓-½ into 3 obtuse or acute lobes Cells 10–12μ, more or less in rows and fairly uniform except in basal area somewhat nearer to the ventral margin than to the dorsal,

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where they may reach to 18μ. Cuticle minutely papillose showing along the margin of the leaves. No inflorescences seen.

This species is characterized by its small size, bright green imbricated leaves, with a convex oblique ventral margin, and with the dorsal lobe greatly reduced, and the comparatively large, imbricate, almost circular stipules.

The Stewart Island plant grows more compactly with shorter stems and larger cells throughout, 20μ increasing to as much as 30μ, but it is obviously the same species.

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Text-Fig. 2.—9—A. integrifolum. 10—A. marginatum dorsal. 11—A. marginatum ventral. 12—A. brachyphyllum. 13—A. verticale. 14—A. Colensoanum. 15—A. Mooreanum. 16— A. anisostomum.

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Localities: Waipoua Kauri Forest, between Dargaville and Opononi, 1,200ft., 651, V. W. Lindauer, Aug., 1939; bank of stream in forest, head of Crooked Reach, Pegasus, Stewart Island, January, 1949, 511 in part, W. M. No. 2130 Herb. Hodgson.

Type, at base of rewa-rewa trunk, Forestry Camp. Great Barrier Island, 10/4/52, 39, Ron Lloyd, No. 8433 Herb. E. A. H.

Acknowledgments

The loan of the following types from Stephani's Herbarium, Geneva, per Dr. Prof. Charles Baehni, is gratefully acknowledged; Bazzania Hochstetteri, B. lacerata, B. Kirkiana, B. spectabile; also a small packet of specimens from Montagne's Herbarium, loaned by Professor Heim and Madame Jovet-Ast. My thanks also to the collectors for numerous specimens received.

Literature Consulted

Colenso, Rev. W., 1885. A Description of Some Newly Discovered Cryptogamic Plants. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 18, 245–247.

—— 1886. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19, 287–294.

—— 1888. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 21, 66–68.

Evans, A. W., 1900. A New Genus of Hepaticae from the Hawaiian Islands. Bull. Torrey Club 27, 97–104.

—— 1934. A Revision of the Genus Acromastigum. Annales Bryologici Supp. Vol., iii, The Hague.

Fulford, M., 1946. The Genus Bazzania in Central and South America. Annales Cryptogam. and Phytopath, iii, Waltham.

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