Go to National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa
Volume 82, 1954-55
This text is also available in PDF
(2 MB) Opens in new window
– 1049 –

Kapitean (Upper Miocene) Mollusca from Te Waewae Bay, Southland, New Zealand

[Received by the Editor. May 27. 1954]

Abstract

Collections of fossil mollusca from Bluecliff from Waikoan River. and from near Port Craig. all in Te Waewae Bay. Southland, include Sectipeclen woollastoni. Austro-fusus coerulescens (= A. tuberculatus. auct.), and other species suggesting that they are Kapitcan (Uppermost Miocene). Forty-seven species are listed and eighteen are figured including eight new forms, and a new subgenus. Penion Fischer 1884 is used for Verconclla Iredale 1914. and Austrofusust tuberculalus Marwick 1931 is synonymized with A. coerulescens (Finlay, 1930).

Introduction

In The Outline of the Geology of New Zealand, Finlay and Marwick (1948: 37) reported Kapitean fossils from Bluecliff. Te Waewae Bay, Southland. A few fossils in the Finlay Collection from Bluecliff and from Mussel Beach had previously been described by Marwick (1927) and by Finlay (1930)*. from beds then doubtfully referred to the Hutchinsonian.

New collections from Bluecliff and one from Waikoau River were obtained by Dr. J. Marwick and Mr. R. W. Willett in 1941 and supplemented by Mr. B. L. Wood and others in 1947. In 1948 Messrs. B. L. Wood and A. C. Beck collected fossils interbedded in the base of the Port Craig Limestone a mile north-north-west of Port Craig, including some distinctive Bluecliff species. Mussel Beach is shown on the Aropaki Topographic Sheet (S175), extending half a mile north from Port Craig. Finlay's collection from Mussel Beach is from the same formation as the later collection from the coast further north, and has much in common with it, including Marama singularis (Marw.), which is unknown anywhere else. None of the localities has been exhaustively collected.

Lists and descriptions of mollusca from the type Kapitean have not been published. The age attributed to the Southland fossils described in this paper thus depends largely on unpublished data on the stratigraphic range of species in West land and elsewhere.

Austrofusus coerulescens (formerly tuberculatus), one of the guide species to the Kapitcan Stage, occurs at Bluecliff and Waikoau River, and Sectipeclen wollostom, another restricted Kapitcan species, at Bluecliff. At Port Craig, neither pecies has been collected, but matrix from the fossils contains Textularia kapitea Fin (Mr. N. de B. Hornibrook, oral. comm.) and other Foraminifera indicating Kapitean age. Some of the Port Craig Mollusca also suggest Kapitean age.

The fossils identified in Table 1 are from the following localities.

GS 2944. 2947. Bluecliff. Te Waewae Bay (S175/487). Grid reference 536293 to 537294. Coastal cliff of blue-grey argillaceous sandstone, partly

[Footnote] * Kuia macdowelli Marw. K singularis Marw. Eumarcia (Atamarcia) crassatclliformis Marw. Falsicouls coerulescens Fin.

– 1050 –

slumped. 2947 is from a beach boulder with Kuia, at the same locality, apparently a different bed from the main outcrop.

GS 2954: Mouth of Waikoau River, Te Waewae Bay (S175/485). Grid reference: 574299. Blue-grey siltstone.

GS 5170: Beach platform, exposed at low spring tide, 88 chains NNW of Port Craig, Te Waewae Bay (S175/585). Grid reference: 499228. Blue-grey muddy sandstone, with conglomerate pebbles up to 12 mm.

M.B.: Mussel Beach, Te Waewae Bay, Finlay Collection, Auckland War Memorial Museum. Coarse, pebbly, calcareous sandstone.

The Port Craig fossils are from pebbly sandstone, and include Lepsiella (a genus that now lives only on rocky shores), worn corals, and abundant large broken and worn barnacles (Megahalanus sp.), indicating deposition near rocky shores in shallow water considerably agitated by waves and currents. The fossilbed is a lens in a limestone that unconformably overlies coal measures, probably Eocene in age.

At Bluecliff and Waikoau the fossils are scattered in poorly-bedded muddy sandstoue and siltstone Intertidal forms are lacking, and the species collected suggest deposition at a depth of about 20 fathoms in the mud zone, where there was little movement of the bottom water.

Many of the specimens from all localities are fragmentary and cannot be precisely determined. New and stratigraphically significant species are discussed below.

Systematics

Pelecypoda

Glycymeris (Glycymeris) aff. waitakiensis Marwick.

1924. Glycymeris waitakiensis Marw., Trans. N.Z Inst., 54: 76, Pl. 5. Fig. 2, Pl. 6, Fig. 2.

Five valves. Very similar to Waitakian specimens, differing in shape from Tongaporutuan callaghani, G. waitakiensis represents a generalized form of which callaghani, waipipiensis and shrimptoni are specialized offshoots.

Glycymeris (Grandaxinea) chambersi Marshall (Plate 40, Figs. 1, 2)

1909. Glycymeris chambersi Marshall, “Subantarct. Islands N.Z.”, 2: 701.

Four valves from GS 5170 have been compared with topotypes from Campbell Island, which are about Opoitian in age (Fleming, 1950). I can detect no systematic differences between the two series of specimens. They differ from the Recent G. laticostata (Q. aud G.) in having more densely-striated ligamental areas, as recorded by Marwick.

Sectipecten wollastoni Finlay (Plate 40, Fig. 4)

  • 1873. Pecten secta Hutton, Cat. Tert. Moll 30 (non Goldfuss).

  • 1914. Pecten [Patinopecten) sectus Hutton Suter. N.Z Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 2: 41, Pl. 9, Fig. 1.

  • 1927. P. wollastoni Finlay, Trans. N. Z. Inst., 57: 526.

  • 1928. Sectipeclen wollastoni (Fin.); Marwick, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 58: 454.

The only specimen from Southland (Bluecliff, 2944) is a fragment of the posterior part of a left valve apparently about 45 mm. high. It differs slightly from the holotype in having a single strong radial rib between each of the bifid costae, instead of the usual two or three, but such variation may not be significant.

– 1051 –

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Table I.
Kapitean Mollusca from Te Waewae Bay.
2944
Pelecypoda 2947 2954 5170 M.B.
Nucula cf. otamaringaensis Marw. X
Anomia sp. X
Barbatia sp. X
Glycymeris (s. str.) aff. waitakiensis Marw. X X
G. (Grandaxinea) chambersi Maish. X X
Limopsis lawsi King X X
Sectipecten wollastoni (Finlay) X
Mesopeplum n.sp. aff. crawfordi (Hutt.) X X
Lentipecten hochstetteri (Zitt.) X X
Lima colorata Hutton X X
Lima becki n. ap. X
Limatula craigensis n.sp. X
Atrina sp. X
Taras (Zemysia) globus (Fin.) X
Venericardia aff. beata Marw. X X
Venericardia southlandica n.sp. X
Pleuromeris sp. X
Cuna caerulea n.sp. X
Chama sp. X
Notocallista (Striacallista) n.sp. X
Dosinia (Kereia) aff. chathamensis Marw. X
Dosinia (Kereia) greyi Zitt. X
Marama (Hina) singularis (Marw.) X X
Marama (Marama) cf. elegans (Hutton) X
Kuia macdowelli Marw. X
Eumarcia (Atamarcia) cf. curta (Hutton) X
Eumarcia (Atamarcia) crassatelliformis Marw. X
Nemocardium (Pratulum) quinarium Marw. X
Panopea sp. X
Gastropoda
Astraea n. sp. X
Maoricolpus sp. X
Stiracolpus aff. symmetricus (Hutt) X
Sigapatella sp. X X
Cirsotrema aff. propelyratum Marw. X X
Struthiolaria (Callusaria.) cf. arthritica B. and P. X
Polinices lobatus (Marw.) X
Uberella sp. X
Globisinum sp. X
Argobuccinum (Haurokoa) woodi n.sp. X
Xenophalium (Mauicassis) sp. X
Ellicea willetti n.sp. X
Ellicea antorbita n. sp. X X
Aeneator sp. X
Penion brazieri n.sp. X X
Austrofusus coerulescens (Fin) X X
Poirieria cf. primigena Fin X
Lepsiella cf. maxima Pow. and Bart. X
Alcithoe aff. howeraensis Marw. X
Alcithoe cf. solida Marw. X
Wairhaoia (?) sp. X
Baryspira aff. mucronata (Sow.) X
Baryspira tholiculus Marw. X
Marginella sp. X
Scaphopoda
Dentalium irregulare Hutton X X
Laevidentalium pareorense (P. & S.) X X X
– 1052 –

Mesopeplum n.sp. aff. crawfordi (Hutton).

Ten valves from Mussel Beach and a fragment from 5170 differ from M. crawfordi (Waitotaran) in their smaller size (maximum 58 mm. in breadth), coarser sculpture, and tendency to be strongly “stepped” in profile. They are less inflated than M. burnetti (Zitt.), judged by a cast of the type. Among Tertiary specimen; available for comparison, they agree most closely with those identified by Suter (1921: 43) as Pecten crawfordi from the uppermost Mount Brown Beds of Weka Pass Stream (Thomson's collection “F”)—i e., upper Southland Series.

Lentipecten hochstetteri (Zittel).

1864. Pecten hochslelleri Zittel, Palaont. N. Z. (Novara Exped) : 50 Pl. 11, Fig. 5.

1928. Lentipecten hochstelleri (Zitt.) Marwick, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 58: 450, 455.

A right valve from Mussel Beach and a fragment from Port Craig (5170) show no differences from specimens from Landon, Pareora and Southland series. These an the youngest specimens of Lentipecten so far recorded in New Zealand.

Lima becki Fleming, n.sp. (Plate 40, Fig. 3).

Differs from L. waipipiensis Marshall and Murdoch (Waitotaran, South Taranaki) in being broader and flatter, with sixteen, widely spaced, somewhat spinous, narrow, triangular ribs, separated by broad, gently concave interspaces. The third rib from the posterior margin trifurcates distally, but this is probably not diagnostic. The ribs of L. vasis Marwick (Opoitian, Chatham Islands) are rounded in profile, those of L. robini Fleming (about Opoitian, Campbell Island) are more numerous and more closely spaced.

Height, 89 mm.; length, 76 mm. (est.); inflation, 16 mm. (holotype).

Holotype, fragmentary right valve, in N. Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Locality. GS 5170, Port Craig, Te Waewac Bay.

L. robini, L. vasis, L. warpipiensis and L. becki are related forms. They could be treated as subspecies of a single species that apparently lived in southern New Zealand seas during the Taranakian and extended as far north as Taranaki in the early Wanganuian. In Southland, during the Kapitean, one member of this complex (becki) was sympatric with L. colorata without evidence of intergradation to suggest hybridization. Relations of L. colorata persisted through the Pliocene (L. mestayerae Marw.) and are represented by L. zealandica in the Recent fauna, chiefly in southern New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. The specimens of L. colorata from 5170 show no resemblance to L. watersi Marwick. which was a Tongaporutuan development from colorata stock in Taranaki.

Named after Mr. A. C. Beck, N.Z. Geological Survey.

Limatulu craigensis Fleming n.sp. (Plate 40, Fig. 5).

Shell similar to L. maoria Finlay, a little shorter and higher, with fewer (12, compared with more than 20) radial ribs, separated by wider interspaces. Like L. maoria, L craigensis lacks ribs on the anterior and posterior areas of the shell, and thus differs from the nearly contemporary L. morioria Marwick (Chatham Islands) and from the older Miocene L. waiotea Laws (Pakaurangi Point).

Length, 26 mm.; height, 15 mm., inflation, 7 mm. (holotype).

Holotype in the N. Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Locality. GS 5170, Port Craig, Te Waewae Bay.

Picture icon

Fig. 1 2—Glyc [ unclear: ] umeris (Granda [ unclear: ] rinea) chamber Marshall GS 5170, Port Craig Fig. 3— [ unclear: ] Lima b [ unclear: ] ecki Flemming n.sp, holotype Fig. 4—Sectipecten wollasto [ unclear: ] m (Finlay), GS 2944 Bluecliff Fig. 5—Limatula craigensis Fleming n.sp. holotype Figs 6,7—Cuna caer [ unclear: ] ulea Fleming n.sp, holotype, × 14 Figs 8,9—Chama [ unclear: ] hutoni [ unclear: ] 68 5170, port craig Fig. 10— [ unclear: ] aff beata Marwick G8 5170, Port Craig Figs 11 12— [ unclear: ] Southlandica Fleming n.sp. holotype

Picture icon

Fig. 1—Dosi [ unclear: ] (Kere [ unclear: ] ) aff chathmensis G8 5170 Port Craig Figs 2 3—Marama [ unclear: ] (Hi [ unclear: ] na) singularis (Marwick), holotype Figs 4–6—Ma [ unclear: ] ma(Hina) singularis (Marwick). G8 5170. Port Craig Figs. 7, 8, 12—Astracea n. sp, 7, 12, peripheral spine, 8. operculum, G8 5170. Port Craig Figs 9, 10, 11—Astrae [ unclear: ] he [ unclear: ] (Marwick) Recent Figs 13, 14—Eth [ unclear: ] cea u [ unclear: ] Fleming n. sp., holotype Fig. 15—Ellicea antorbita Fleming n. sp., holotype Fig. 16—Argo [ unclear: ] (Haur [ unclear: ] ) woodi Fleming n subgen, n. sp, holotype Fig. 17—Austro [ unclear: ] coer [ unclear: ] (Finlay). Fusus corcules [ unclear: ] (Finlay), G8 2944. Bluecliff. Fig. 21—Alorthoe cf solida Marwick. GS 5170. Port Craig Fig. 22—Penion braze [ unclear: ] Fleming n. sp. holotype Fig. 23—Lepsiella et maxima Powell and Battium, G8 5170, Port Craig. All figures natural size

– 1053 –

Venericardia aff. beata Marwick aff. haskelli Fleming (Plate 40, Fig. 10).

Four specimens from Mussel Beach and four from 5170 represent a variable Venericardia of the purpurata group, somewhat intermediate between beata (Pitt Island) and haskelli Fleming (Campbell Island), two species of approximately Opoitian age. The Mussel Beach specimens are long and rectangular like haskelli, differing in their more numerous flatter ribs. The other specimens (5170) are higher, approaching beata, but are less inflated, with less crowded ribs and shallower interspaces. V. beata and V. haskelli are a southern type of Venericardia that moved north in the Pliocene to produce the living V. purpurata Desh., replacing such Miocene lineages as that of V. waikohuensis, which is represented in the Southland Kapitean by V. southlandica n.sp.

Venericardia southlandica Fleming n.sp. (Plate 40, Figs. 11, 12).

Shell and ornament similar to V. waikohuensis Marwick (Kapitean, Gisborne District) but twice the size, relatively longer, with stronger ribs and deeper interspaces. Lunule shorter and more retracted than in waikohuensis. Anterior cardinal weaker and much more oblique, its axis oriented towards the posterior margin of the shell. Ribs on posterior area more widely spaced than in waikohuensis

Length, 40 mm.; height, 37 mm.; inflation, 16 mm. (holotype, left valve).

Holotype and three paratypes in N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Locality: GS 5170, Port Craig, Te Waewae Bay.

Cuna caerulea Fleming n. sp. (Plate 40, Figs. 6, 7).

Closely related to C. mayi Powell (Recent and Castlecliffian) and probably ancestral. Larger, more inflated, less acutely trigonal, with wider beak angle, and twelve instead of ten ribs. Ribs low and rounded, relatively ill-defined. Hinge-line broadly arched; anterior cardinal stronger than in mayi. Prodissoconch apparently broader than in mayi, but the beak is worn.

Height, 3 mm.; length, 2.5 mm., inflation, 0.8 mm. (holotype, left valve).

Holotype in N. Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Locality. GS 2944, Bluecliff, Te Waewae Bay.

This species is closest to an unnamed form from the Tongaporutuan of Bell Creek, tributary of Mangaopari Stream, Wairarapa (N165/507), collected by Mr. P. Vella. The Tongaporutuan form is still broader, with fourteen rounded ribs.

Chama cf. huttoni Hector (Plate 40, Figs. 8, 9).

A single well-worn broken valve from 5170. Although Chama is now tropical and subtropical, some New Zealand fossil specimens occur with faunas of southern or cool-water aspect—e g. at Castlepoint and Chatham Islands. Chama is known from Target Gully (Awamoan), Pakaurangi Point (Altonian). Te Waewae Bay and East Cape (Kapitean), Pitt Island (? Opoitian), and Castlepoint (?Lower Nukumaruan).

Dosinia (Kereia) aff. chathamensis Marwick (Plate 41. Fig. 1).

1927. Dosinia (Kereia) chathamensis Marw. Trans. N. Z. Inst. 58. 469. Figs. 66, 67, 71.

Two valves from 5170 agree with the nearly contemporary type series of chathamensis in their sculpture of rather coarse bevelled concentric ridges, in

– 1054 –

inflation and in general form, although the dorsal margin is more arched and the lunule somewhat fuller and more swollen. The hinge is similar but shorter and thus a little more crowded. A valve from Mussel Beach (29 mm. high) has coarser sculpture than the above, with ridges near the ventral margin a millimeter wide. These specimens may be taxonomically separable from chathamensis but they are certainly the closest relations of the Chatham Island species so far recorded in New Zealand.

Marama (Hina) singularis Marwick (Plate 41, Figs. 2–6).

1927. Kuia singularis Marw., Trans. N.Z. Inst, 57: 601, Figs. 96, 97.

The type, a broken shell from Mussel Beach, has previously been the only known specimen. One complete specimen (with valves closed) and three imperfect valves (showing the hinge) from 5170 agree well with the type. The right hinge has a strong deeply grooved triangular (not lamellar) anterior cardinal, forming an acute angle with the lunular margin, not a right angle as in Kuia. In the left, valve, the anterior lateral is fairly strong but not tubercular, and is in almost the same straight line as the left anterior cardinal, whereas in Kuia it forms an obtuse angle. The species thus agrees better with Hina than with Kuia, although it is not a typical Hina.

Kuia macdowelli Marwick.

1927. Kuia macdo [ unclear: ] clli Marw Trans. N. Z. Inst, 57: 601, Figs. 98–100.

Marwick recorded a small variety from Bluecliff with a less produced anterior end than shells from Clifden (Clifdenian to Waiauan). Later collections from Bluecliff contain specimens as large as the type, and broken shells from 5170 were probably 45 mm. long They are variable in shape and in sculpture, which consist either of linear concentric grooves, their upper edges raised into lamellae in front, or wide-spaced raised lamellae over the whole shell.

Eumarcia (Atamarcia) cf. curta (Hutton).

Three worn and broken specimens from Mussel Beach (Finlay Collection. Auckland War Memorial Museum) are close to curta and are the youngest representatives of this mid-Tertiary Atamarcia.

Eumarcia (Atamarcia) crassatelliformis Marwick.

1927. Marwick. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 57: 628, Figs. 191, 192.

The holotype, from Mussel Beach (Finlay Collection) is the only specimen known, and because it is poorly preserved, its characters and relationships are uncertain. It is perhaps related to E. sulcifera Marwick (Awamoan).

Gastropoda

Astraea n. sp. (Plate 41, Figs. 7, 8, 12).

Two fragments and a broken operculum from 5170 are very different from A. heliotropium (Mart), the Recent type species of Astraea. which ranges back at least to the Hautawan substage of the Nukumaruan. A fragment of the periphery bearing a spine (lacking the outer shell layer) indicates that the spines were fewer per whorl and more widely spaced than in hcliotrop [ unclear: ] um, and that they projected tangentially forwards instead of radially outwards (see Text-fig.). The base of the spine is narrower than those of A. heliotrope [ unclear: ] um and of A. stirps Laws (Lillburnian, Clifden).

– 1055 –
Picture icon

Astraea n. sp.
Astraea heliotropium (Mart)
Text-Figure

The operculum resembles that of heliotrope [ unclear: ] m but is twice as thick and bears a wide marginal dorsal groove, bounded both within and without by a raised ridge.

In its narrow forwardly-pointing spines the Kapitean species closely resembles an unnamed Astraca from Station Peak. Waitaki Valley (Waitakian, GS 477). Since A. stirps seems to be the ancestor of A. heliotrope [ unclear: ] ium, it appears that at least two lineages of Astraea lived in New Zealand during part of the Miocene, Better specimens are needed before the new species can be named.

Cirsotrema aff. propelyratum Marwick.

1928. C. propclyratum Marw, Trans. N.Z Inst., 58: 483, Fig. 123.

Four broken shells from Mussel Beach (Finlay Collection) differ from the Oligocene C. lyratum in their spiral sculpture, which is differentiated into primaries (about six a whorl) and fine secondaries About five secondary thread-lets between each pair of primaries. C. cuelicola Fin. has more primary threads and rather wider costae. The Mussel Beach specimens are similar to the unique holotype of C. propelyratum Marwick (about Opoitian, Chatham Islands) which, however, has fewer secondaries and narrower costae, each composed of incremental lamellae, not rounded off as in most Cirsotrema. A review of all the New Zealand species is needed to assess the importance of such differences.

Struthiolaria (Callusaria) cf. arthritica Bartrum and Powell.

1928. Struthiolaria arth [ unclear: ] lica B. and P. Trans. N.Z. Inst, 59: 142, Figs. 55 56.

A fragment of a columella, bearing parietal callus. The shell is not strongly callused and is more like arthritica than either S. callosa Marw. or S. obesa Marw.

Family Cymathdae
Subfamily Cymathdae
Genus Argobuccinum Hermannsen

1846. Ind. Gen. Malacol.: 77.

Type (by original designation) : Ranella argus Linn. (= Murex argus Linn.) Subgenus Haurokoa Fleming, nov.

Type Argobu [ unclear: ] num (Haurokoa) woodi n.sp. Upper Miocene N.Z.

Shell resembling Argobuccinum in its general oval form. Anterior canal short and straight. Margin of columella callus irregularly convex outwards, outlining an aperture similar to that of A. argus. Varices spaced at intervals of 200° to 210° as in Argobuccinum s. str. but much stronger, and ornamented as in Cymatium. After each varex, growth continues from within a narrow lip Sculpture strongly nodular. External lip denticulate. Posterior canal bounded on

– 1056 –

the inside by a strong denticle set more vertically than in Argobuccinum, and thus crossing spiral sculpture at a greater angle. Parietal callus with many denticles. Protoconch unknown.

Haurokoa is subordinated to Argobuccinum on account of its short canal and aperturt shape, although it differs markedly in its strongly nodular sculpture and varex form. Powell (1933) has shown by study of the radula that Argobuccinum is a member of the Cymatiinae and is not related to Mayena, Ranella and Fusitrition. Many species of these genera resemble Haurokoa in their relatively generalized nodular sculpture, with no dominant spirals forming a keel or keels at the periphery such as characterize most Cymatiinae. The South African Argobuccinum argus argus Linn, has nodular spiral sculpture approaching that of Haurokoa, but the Australasian form (A. argus tumidum Dunker) has finer or obsolete nodules. Possibly Haurokoa is related to the ancestral stock of Argo-buccinum s. str., which is now the characteristic Cymat [ unclear: ] id of the Subantarctie West Wind Drift.

The subgeneric name Haurokoa (from the Maori name of a lake 10 miles north of the type locality of A. (Haurokoa) woodi.) is feminine.

Argobuccinum (Haurokoa) woodi Fleming, n.sp. (Plate 41, Fig. 16).

Shell of moderate size, strongly sculptured by nodular spiral cords, 3 on spire whorls, 4 on penultimate, and 16 on body whorl, decreasing in strength on base. A single undulating secondary spiral between each pair of primary spirals. Fine Undulating spiral threads cross the nodules on the upper half of the whorl. Varices high, steep-sided, crossed by spiral cords. External lip armed with 15 denticles. Parietal denticle strong, almost vertical. Parietal callus thin, expanding on column to form inner lip armed with 8 denticles.

Height, 51 mm.; width, 34 mm. (holotype).

Holotype and two paratypes in N. Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Locality. GS 5170, coast one mile north of Port Craig, Te Waewae Bay, Southland.

Named alter Mr. Bryce L. Wood, who mapped the geology of the Port Craig district. After the above description had been written, Mr. Wood collected further specimens of Haurokoa from the Waitotaran of Te Waewae Bay. The group thus ranged at least from Upper Miocene to Pliocene in Southland.

Ellicea antorbita Fleming n. sp. (Plate 41, Fig. 15).

Shell similar to Ellicea orbita Hutton but with narrower shoulder, sloping steeply to produce a more regularly fusiform whorl outline. Sculpture, narrow well-defined spiral cord. 7 on penultimate and about 18 on body whorl, the uppermost pair, on the shoulder, weak. 14 axial folds a whorl, weak, but continuous from suture to periphery, not stopped at shoulder as in orbita.

Height, 31.5 mm.; diameter. 17 mm. (holotype).

Holotype and four paratypes in N.Z. Geological Survey Colection.

Localities GS 2954, Waikoau River (holotype); GS 5170. Port Craig (paratypes).

Robust forms of Ellicea are conspicuous in the cool-water Chlamys delicatula assemblage that apparently moved on to the continental shelf of the Cook Strait region in Waitotaran-Lower Nukuma [ unclear: ] time (Fleming, 1944). Similar

– 1057 –

robust Ellicea still live in deep water east of the South Island (Dell, 1951). Ellicea antorbita is the oldest known member of this group, and its occurrence in a continental shelf fauna in southernmost New Zealand is significant.

Ellicea willetti Fleming n. sp. (Plate 41, Figs. 13, 14).

Shell small but robust, most resembling E. carinata Powell (Palliser Bay. Waitotaran) but lacking axial costae on post-nepionic whorls and with stronger, more regular spiral sculpture. Penultimate whorl with 6 strong flat-topped spiral cords, the upper two, on the shoulder, and the lowest, above the suture, somewhat weaker than the middle three which are sub-equal, narrow, vertical-sided, separated by deep flat-bottomed grooves. Body whorl with 10 or 11 similarly spaced cords, and two or three weaker ones on neck of canal. Aperture with rather strong parietal callus bearing weak denticles.

Height, 30 mm.; diameter, 16.5 mm. (holotype).

Holotype and three paratypes in N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Locality GS 2944, Bluecliff, Te Waewae Bay, Southland.

Named after Mr. R. W. Willett, N. Z. Geological Survey, who (with Dr. J. Marwick) collected the holotype in 1941.

Genus Penion Fischer

1884. Man. Conch.; 625.

Type (haplotype): Siphonalia dilatata (Q. and G.) (= Fusus dilatatus Q. and G.) Recent, New Zealand.

Synonym: Verconella Iredale, 1914, Proc. Malacol. Soc, 11. 175 (same type).

Penion was proposed as a subgenus of Siphonalia and so used by Suter (1913 : 369). Iredale used Penion as a full genus in 1912 but proposed Verconella two years later because of a prior Penium (Philippi, 1865). He stated that the “two names are simply the same, one being wrongly transliterated” from the Greek. His rejection of Penion as a homonym of Penium resulted from his interpretation of a decision of the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature that errors of transliteration may be amended Clench (1930: 21) pointed out that Penion is a direct transliteration and Penium a latinized form of the same word but this did not render them homonyms under Article 36. The differences in spelling are not among the specified differences that alone can be disregarded in judging two generic names to be homonyms (1950, Bull. Zool Nomen., 4 : 161–2. 243), so that Penion must be used.

Penion brazieri Fleming n.sp. (Plate 41, Fig. 22).

Powell (1947) has shown that the species imperfecta (Pareora Series), inter-juncta (Upper Southland Series), aspera (Lower Wanganui Series, Chatham Islands) and fairfieldae (Recent) form a group characterized by regular spiral threads with a single secondary thread in their interspaces. Kapitean specimens from Te Waewae Bay clearly fall into this group and are close to interjuncta Finlay (Waiauan, Clifden) but have stronger primary spirals, generally crowding out the secondary threads from the interspaces on some or other part of the body whorl. Tongaporutnan specimens from Taranaki (GS 2601, Mimi Survey District) are closer to aspera Marwick, with flattened spirals and shallow interspaces.

– 1058 –

Height, 54 mm.; diameter, 32 mm. (imperfect holotype, GS 5170).

Paratypes, also broken, show that the shell probably reached a height of 95 mm.

Holotype and several paratypes in N.Z. Geological Survey Collection.

Localities. GS 5170, Port Craig, and GS 2944, Bluecliff, Te Waewae Bay.

This species is named after Mr. R. C. Brazier, N.Z. Geological Survey, who drew the illustrations for this paper.

Austrofusus coerulescens (Finlay) (Plate 41, Figs. 17–20).

1930. Falsicolus coerulescens Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 61: 226, Fig. 1.

1931. Austrofusus tuberculatus Marwick, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 13: 113. Fig. 217.

This species, under the name of Austrofusus tuberculatus, has become one of the best-known of New Zealand Tertiary index fossils since 1941, when Mr. D. E. Morgan (N.Z. Oil Exploration Co.) and Dr. J. Marwick found that it, is limited to part if the Upper “Blue Bottom “of Westland, later named the Kapitean Stage (Finlay and Marwick, 1947). It is known from the coast east of Awaterc River, East Cape (type locality of tuberculatus), from many localities in the Gisborne district, from southern Hawkes Bay, north Taranaki, west Nelson, Westland, and western Southland.

Unfortunately, Finlay (1930) had given the name Falsicolus coer [ unclear: ] ulescens to a specimen from Bluecliff that proves on comparison to be identical with Southland specimens of Austrofusus tuberculatus, and his name must be used unless the East Cape population can be distinguished specifically from the Southland one. Judged by the available specimens, however, individual variation at a single locality is greater than systematic geographic variation.

Finlay classed the broken holotype of coerulescens as a Falsicolus probably because its sculpture superficially resembles that of F. waiauensis (Lillburnian. Clifden) which he described at the same time. The axials on the base of the holotype swing in towards the column and are truncated by the inner lip just above the broken end of the column, whereas the axials and growth-lines of Falsicolus run parallel with the inner lip on the corresponding part of the shell. The holotype has been re-figured in apertural view to show this feature, together with two topotypes and a specimen from Waikoau, showing extremes of variation. Southland specimens are larger than the Te Araroa types of A. tuberculatus, and their secondary sculpture is more elaborate and variable, but early whorls are similar in the two series.

Lepsiella cf. maxima Powell and Bartrum (Plate 41, Fig. 23).

1929. Lepsiella maxima, Powell and Bartrum. Trans. N. Z. Inst., 60: 438. Figs. 101–2.

The imperfect specimen figured extends the range of giant Lepsiella, originally described from the Altonian (Lower Miocene) of Waiheke, Auckland, to the very top of the Miocene. The Southland specimen is from GS 5170. When complete, it was probably 50 mm. high and 45 mm. in diameter. The peripheral carina is weaker than in topotypes and bears subdued rounded nodules which are not continuous above and below as axial folds.

Alcithoe cf. solida Marwick (Plate 41, Fig. 21).

The specimen figured, from GR 5170, Te Waewae Bay, is a more lightly built shell than the type of solida (Mimi S. D, Tongaporutuan) with a weak peripheral carina linking the axial nodules. The Southland Kapitean form may be separable when more specimens are available.

– 1059 –

Dentalium irregulare Hutton.

1873. Dental [ unclear: ] ium irregularis Hutt., Col. Text. Moll, B [ unclear: ] N. Z. 1.

1914 D. manl [ unclear: ] elli Zittel: Sute [ unclear: ] i, N. Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 2: 32, Pl. 3, Fig. 2 [ unclear: ] (not of Zittel)

Hutton's name was based on specimens from Kanieri and Awamoa, and Suter figured a Kanieri syntype as Hutton's “holotype” thereby nominating a lecto-type that restricts the type locality. Probably the type is from GS 227, Kanieri, Hector, 1869. Alexander McKay noted in his personal handwritten copy of the list of fossil localities that this collection contained a mixture of specimens from Kanieri and New River Suter synonymized D. irregulare with D. mantelli Zitt (Cliffs, Nelson, Duntroonian), an ill-known species which seems quite different from the Kanieri shell, judged by Zittel's figures and by topotypes. No prior use of Hutton's combination has been traced, so his name is used for a large, thick-shelled, rather strongly tapering Dentalium, with a variable number (16–26) of coarse longitudinal ribs, crenulated or beaded by annular growth striae, with wide interspaces, commonly bearing secondary radials Such shells are common in the Kapitean Stage of the Waimea-Kanieri district and of Bluecliff, Southland. They are distinct from the finely sculptured D. solidum Hutton and the broad-ribbed D. otamaringaensis Marwick of lower horizons in the Miocene, and from narrow-tapered finely-sculptured relatives of D. zelandicum Sow. that appear in the Waitotaran.

References

Clench, W. J., 1930 On the Status of Penion Fischer. J. Conch., 19: 21.

Dell, R. K., 1951. A Deep Water Molluscan Fauna from of [ unclear: ] Banks Peninsula. Rec. Canl. Mus. 6 (1): 53–60

Finlay, H. J, 1930. Revision of the New Zealand Shells Referred to Fus [ unclear: ] nus. Trans. N.Z Inst, 61: 259–70.

Finlay, H. J., and Marwick, J., 1947. New Divisions of the New Zealand Upper Creataceous and Tertiary. N. Z. J. Sci. Tech., B, 28 (4): 228–36.

—— 1948. (New Zealand) Tertiary: 22–37. In “Outline Geol. N.Z.”

Fleming, C. A., 1944. Molluscan Evidence of Pliocene Climatic Change in New Zealand Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 74: 207–20.

—— 1950. The Fossil Fauna of the Campbell Island Breccias: 47–60. Part in: Capo Exped. Ser., Bull. 3.

Iredale, T, 1912. New Generic Names and New Species of Mar [ unclear: ] ine Mollusca. Proc. Malocol. Soc., 10 (3): 217–28.

—— 1914. On Some Invalid Molluscan Generic Names. Proc. Malacol. Soc., 11 (3): 170–8.

Marwick. J., 1927. The Vene [ unclear: ] udae of New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 57 567–635

Powell, A. W. B., 1933 Notes on the Taxonomy of the Recent Cymat [ unclear: ] udae and Nati [ unclear: ] dae of New Zealand Trans. N. Z. Inst., 63: 154–68

—— 1947. Phylogeny of the Molluscan Genus Verconella, with Descriptions of New Recent and Tertiary Species. Rec. Au [ unclear: ] ck. Inst. Mus., 3 (3): 161–9

Suter, H., 1913. “Manual of the New Zealand Mollusca.” Govt. Printer, Wellington.

Suter, H., and Morgan, P. G, 1921. Lists of New Zealand Tertiary Mollusc [ unclear: ] a, with Notes and a Review of Results. etc. N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 8.