Go to National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa
Volume 82, 1954-55
This text is also available in PDF
(550 KB) Opens in new window
– 1157 –

New Zealand Braconidae
I.—The Subfamily Doryctinae

[Read before Nelson Philosophical Society. May 10.1954; received by the Editor, May 24, 1954.]

The New Zealand species of Doryctinae show considerable diversity in structure, and it is very likely that more than two genera are represented Nixon (1939, Ann. Mag Nat Hist, Vol. 3 (11) p. 482) defined the genus in a somewhat restricted sense, although he states “though not wider than those already allowed by the present definition of the genotype (Doryctes striatellus) (Nees) (By designation of Westwood)”. In the New Zealand forms there is considerable variation in the form of the abdomen, mainly in the relative length of the 1st abdominal tergite. It is quite evident, as Nixon has pointed out (loc. cit.) that there is need for a comprehensive generic revision and a re-definition of the Doryctinae genera. He states “… so that within it there exists no sound system of categories, whether they be given the rank of tribe, genus, or sub-genus, into which new species can be accommodated.” Ashmead (1900: 629) defined his genus Doryctomorpha mainly on the character that the 2nd recurrent vein in the forewing enters the 2nd cubital cell. This character is also shared by the genus Caenopachys Foerster, but in the latter genus the 2nd and 3rd abscissae of the radius and cubital veins are thickened and there is an anal cell present in the hindwing Although Doryctomorpha was originally separated from Doryctes, by this one character, it may be separated from other genera of Doryctinae by the following combination of characters:—

Head quadrate, its surface finely and minutely coraceous, the recurrent vein in forewing enters the 2nd cubital cell, and the cell itself, elongated and relatively narrow compared with the more typical forms of Doryctes and except for the short longitudinal and slightly converging carinae at the base, the 1st abdominal tergite is almost entirety smooth.

The above definition of the genus was arrived at from the examination of specimens from the Chatham Islands (Type locality) and from New Zealand. It would be difficult to warrant the retention of Ashmead's genus solely on the one venational character mentioned by the author in his key, but taking into account the general form and characters mentioned above Doryctomorpha antipoda Ashmead undoubtedly deserves generic status.

There is some doubt whether, another very distinctive species, Doryctes pallida Gourlay, is really co-generic with other more typical species of Doryctes. It differs mainly in its elongated thorax, and forewings, the relatively large 1st abdominal tergite, and the fine but distinct sculpture of the tergite (2 + 3) as well as a strong median longitudinal fovea extending from the anterior ocellus to the base of the clypeus. In the present state of our knowledge of these insects, and I am not familiar with many of the exotic genera of this subfamily, the

– 1158 –

erection of a new genus for the reception of Gourlay's species does not appear to be warranted in the meantime, therefore, it will remain in Doryctes.

Key to New Zealand Genera ofDoryctinae

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

1. Recurrent vein distinctly enters the 2nd cubital cell; the 2nd cubital cell is elongated, its greatest width is usually under one-third its length; head quadrate Doryctomoipha Ashmead
2. Recuirent vein enters either the 1st cubital cell or is interstitial with the 1st transverse cubitus; 2nd cubital cell wider, width over one-third'its length; head cubital or subcubital Doryctes Haliday

Genus Doryctomorpha Ashmead, 1900.
1900. Doryctomorpha Ashmead, Entom. News, Vol. XI, No. 10, p. 629.

This genus was erected by Ashmead for the reception of a species of Doryctinae collected by Dr. Hugo H. Schauinsland, Director of the Stadtisches Museum, Bremen, from the Chatham Islands. Turner (1922) records the same species from New Zealand. Through the courtesy of Mr. E. S. Gourlay I have been able to examine specimens of Ashmead's species from the Chatham Islands as well as specimens collected from the mainland of New Zealand.

Doryctomorpha antipoda Ashmead, 1900. (Figs. A, B and C.)

1922. Doryctomorpha antipoda Ashmead, Entomological News, Vol. XI, No. 10, 1900, p. 630. Turner, A.M.N.H. (9), X, p. 275.

Originally described from the Chatham Islands, this is the type species of the genus. Turner in 1922 records it from Wilton's Bush, Wellington. The following combination of characters will serve to distinguish this species.

Scape elongate, apically about twice as long as thick; 1st, 2nd and 3rd segments of flagellum subequal, the 1st may be slightly longer than the 2nd; cheeks very wile about three times the width of the eye in profile; malar space over half as long as vertical diameter of eye; eye small; ocellar triangle with the basal side the longest; ocellocullar space nearly five times the length of the distance between the posterior ocelli and two-thirds the length of the space between the posterior ocelli and the occiput carina; face short, twice as wide as long; mandibles with short, stout apical teeth, the upper decidedly the longer; 1st tergite, about as long as wide apically, with a few shallow punctures and at the base, two very short, longitudinal and slightly converging carinae; propodeum with well defined dorsal areae; scutellar fovea wide and shallow, with about three widely spaced transverse carinae, the median one being the strongest; antennae short and heavy, about two-thirds the length of the insect, the flagellum with 25 segments, except for about four or five basal ones, the segments are about as thick as long; ovipositor equals the length of the entire insect.

From Doryctes ambeodonti Muesebeck this species differs (in addition to those characters given in the key) by having a shorter ovipositor and the areae on the propodeum not so well defined. In both species the mandibles are longitudinally aciculate.

Distribution. Chatham Islands (Type Locality); Wellington, and Nelson provinces, New Zealand.

Genus Doryctes Haliday, 1836.

1836. Doryctes Haliday, Ent. Mon. Mag., Vol. 4, pp. 40 and 43.

1838. Ischiogonus, Wesmael, Nouv. Men. Acad. Sci., Biuxelles, Vol XI, p. 124.

Three species at present placed in this genus are recognised from New Zealand. Two of these, D. ambeodonti Muesebeck and a new species D. gourlayi are typical

– 1159 –

forms and fall within the accepted limits of the genus, but there is some doubt as to whether the third species D. pallida Gourlay, is co-generic. As mentioned above, it differs in some important characters from the other New Zealand species, and on the basis of these characters may represent a distinct genus. I refrain from erecting a new genus at present, as I am not familiar with many of the exotic genera that have been previously defined. The elongated thorax and fore-wings, the relatively long 1st abdominal tergite, the fine but distinct sculpture of the tergite (2 + 3), and the longitudinal fovea running from the anterior ocellus between the bases of the antennae, and terminating at the base of the clypeus, would be the diagnostic characters of this new genus.

The following key will serve to separate the three New Zealand species.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Doryctes

1 1st tergite of abdomen elongated, one-third longer than broad; wings not uniformly infumated; a distinct longitudinal median fovea running from the anterioi ocellus between the bases of the antennae and terminating at the base of the clypeus; 1st abscissa of medius in hind wing about equal to or less than the length of the 2nd abscissa D. pallida Gouilay
–. 1st tergite of abdomen as wide or wider apically than long; wings uniformly infumated; fions and face without a longitudinal fovea; 1st abscissa of medius in hind wing is, at most only two-thirds as long as 2nd absciss 2
2 1st teigite niegululy longitudinally rugoso-striate; ovipositor at least one-and-a-half times the length of the abdomen; 1st abscissa of radius about as long as widest part of stigma; 2nd cubital cell, measuied along the cubitus, about three times as long as high, measuied vertically from the cubitus to junction of 1st and 2nd abscissae of radius D. ambcodonli Mues
–. 1st tergite regularly and distinctly longitudinally striate; ovipositor about three-quaiters the length of the abdomen; 1st abscissa of radius much less in length than the greatest width of stigma; 2nd cubital cell less than twice as long as high D. gourlayi sp.n

Doryctes pallida Gourlay. (Figs. D and E.)

1929. Doryctes pallida Gourlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. 69, p. 360.

This species was described by Gourlay from a male taken at Karori, Wellington, in 1920, by the late G. V. Hudson. Another male (Paratype) was taken at Whakapapa, 4,000ft Mt. Ruapehu in January of the same year. Through the kindness of Mr. E. S. Gourlay, Entomologist, Cawthron Institute. Nelson, I have been able to examine the Holotype, which is in his collection.

Amongst other characters this very characteristic species may at once be distinguished by the form of the pubescence on the thorax and head. The sexes are similar in all important characters, and as the female has not been described I give a description of a female collected at Lake Rotorua by the late A. Philpoti in November, 1928 This specimen is in the collection of the Cawthron Institute, Nelson. As Gourlay (loc cit.) characterises this species principally on colour and pubescence, the following will serve to amplify the original description.

Female. 6 mm. in length.

Head cubital, vertex slightly convex, very finely and closely punctate; ocelli in a triangle with the base about equal to the sides in length; posterior ocelli margined posteriorly by a deep short groove; a groove extends from between the base of the antennae to the anterior ocellus; cheeks are one-third wider than the

– 1160 –

eyes in profile; malar space about one-third the vertical diameter of the eye; face (19) wider than long (13), punctate with a well defined longitudinal groove, which is a continuation of the median longitudinal groove on the frons, extending from between the antennae to the base of the clypeus; fovea separating the face from the clypeus is strongly denned and recurved, forming with the median facial fovea and inverted Y: mandibles wide and strong, with the teeth set wide apart at the apex: and subequal in length; scape at apex obliquely truncated, about twice as long as thick: flagellum with the first four segments subequal in length, increasing in thickness, the remaining segments somewhat shorter, in length about one-and-a-half times their diameter; antennae broken at 22nd joint; ocellocular space shorter than space between posterior ocelli, and the occiput carina; space between the posterior ocelli is about one-quarter the width of the ocellocular space; pronotum punctate, somewhat depressed anteriorly; pronotal collar well developed and coarsely rugulose; mesonotum elongated, not quite as wide between tegulae as median length of segment; median area flat, closely punctuate, finely wrinkled in places, lateral and posterior areas somewhat raised and not so closely punctate, a shallow median, longitudinal fovea extending from the anterior border to base of scutellum, the anterior border of the mesonotum is curved and denned by a low, fine carina; scutellum with basal fovea wide and deep, with about 9 well defined carinae; scutellum nearly flat, finely but not so closely punctate as the mesonotum, anteriorly a little broader than long, with no lateral carinae, although the base is bordered by a low carina; mesopleurae punctate on the upper anterior portion, rugulosely so in places, particularly under base of forewing, with a few fine punctures scattered over the lower, posterior portion, remainder impunctate and shining; a very well-defined deep longitudinal groove separating the mesopleurae from the mesosternum, the latter impunctate and shining; metapleurae finely and irregularly rugose; propodeum closely punctate, in places transversely rugosely punctate; legs with anterior femora apically thickened and the posterior metatarsi about as long as the remaining four joints of the tarsi, the 4th joint shortest, being about half as long as apical joint; claws weakly curved, not pectinate; abdomen with the 1st tergite spiracles placed about one-sixth the length of the tergite from base, the tergite is about one-third longer than its apical breadth, the whole surface longitudinally striated; tergite (2 + 3) irregularly striated, laterally the striae are oblique; remaining tergites mainly smooth, with traces of longitudinal striae; wing venation as figured (Fig. D). Forewing with 2nd cubital cell two-and-a-half times as long, measured along the cubitus, as high, measured vertically from the cubitus to the junction of the 1st and 2nd abscissae of radius.

Allotype. Female, Lake Rotoroa, November 10, 1928 (A. Philpott). (Cawthron Institute Collection).

Distribution. Wellington and Nelson Provinces.

Doryctes ambeodonti Muesebeck, 1941. (Figs. F and G.)

1941. Doryctes ambeodonti Muesebeck. Proc. Entom. Soc, Washington, Vol 43. No 7, p. 149.

Muesebeck described this species from 24 females and 2 males collected at Papakura, Auckland and reared by K. Harrow, from Ambeodantus tristis (Fabr).

This species has been adequately described by Muesebeck, but the following combination of characters will serve to distinguish it from other known Now Zealand species.

– 1161 –

Malar space about two-thirds of the vertical diameter of the eye; ocellocular space is slightly over 1½ times the length of the space between the posterior ocelli and the occiput carina; ocellar triangle with the base longer than the length of the sides; scape shorter and relatively thicker, being only a little longer than its greatest diameter; flagellum with 1st segment about 1½ times as long as 2nd segment; usually the pronotum is considerably darker than the surrounding sclerites, in some specimens nearly black; the absence of the median longitudinal fovea on the frons and face, although it is present between the bases of the antennae; wings uniformly infumated; abdomen with 1st tergite about as broad apically as long, and with basal three-quarters laterally carinate, a short carina running obliquely inwards from each of the anterior lateral corners, the whole tergite medially convex; 1st abscissa of, radius is subequal to the greatest width of stigma; 2nd cubital cell is three times as long as its greatest height. Wings as figured. (fig. F.)

The above notes were made from several paratypes in the collection of the Plant Diseases Division, Auckland.

Distribution. Auckland Province, New Zealand.

Doryctes gourlayi sp.n. (Figs. H, I and J.)

Female. Length, 4 mm.

Colour. Head dark brown to black, antennae concolourous with head; thorax and propodeum black to black-brown; tegulae and legs brown; abdomen with 1st tergite black-brown, remaining tergites dark-brown; ovipositor, stigma and veins dark-brown; a light spot at base and apex of stigma; lower portion of 1st transverse cubitus, and the 2nd transverse cubitus veins unpigmented.

Vertex and cheeks impunctate and shining, an obsolete median longitudinal fovea extending from between the posterior ocelli to the occiput carina; face nearly twice as wide as long, slightly protuberant below antennae, covered with widely separated punctures, and the entire surface minutely roughened; length of ocellocular space 3 ½ times the length of the postocellar space, and the distance between a posterior ocellus and the occiput carina is slightly under twice the ocellocular space; ocellar triangle with the base subequal to the length of one side; cheek in width subequal to width of an eye in profile; malar space approximately half the vertical diameter of an eye; scape twice as long as wide at apex; flagellum with the 1st and 2nd segments subequal, the 3rd slightly shorter, the apical joints are longer than thick and the antennae are about as long as the entire insect; mandibles wide and massive, upper tooth much the thicker and longer of the two; pronotal collar well below the level of mesonotum, punctate; mesonotum finely but not closely punctate on median lobe; notauli strongly developed and median area depressed, rugosely punctate, with two or more low (in some individuals obsolete) longitudinal carinae, reaching to the raised posterior border of the mesonotum; basal fovea of scutellum wide and shallow, usually with several weak transverse carinae; the median one usually well developed; mesopleurae, impunctate, shining, except for a rugulose area under the forewings and a small punctate area at the posterior ventral corners above the middle coxae, metapleurae rugose; propodeum with areae well defined, areola always distinct: abdomen (Fig. 1) with 1st tergite apically slightly wider than long, the entire surface longitudinally aciculated, the centre half of the tergite from base to near the apex strongly raised and margined by two longitudinal posterior border of the mesonotum; basal fovea of scutellum wide and shallow, usually with several weak transverse carinae; the median one usually well developed; mesopleurae, impunctate, shining, except for a rugulose area under the forewings and a small punctate area at the posterior ventral corners above the middle coxae, metapleurae rugose; propodeum with areae well defined, areola always distinct: abdomen (Fig. 1) with 1st tergite apically slightly wider than long, the entire surface longitudinally aciculated, the centre half of the tergite from base to near the apex strongly raised and margined by two longitudinal

– 1162 –

carinae; in this central area the longitudinal aciculations converge apically, while those on the lateral areas diverge slightly towards the lateral margins; tergite (2 + 3) and remaining tergites impunctate and shining; ovipositor about two-thirds tie length of the abdomen. Wings as figured (Fig. H).

The male is similar to the female in all important characters.

Holotype. Female and Allotype male collected from Insectory, Cawthrou Institute, Nelson, by Mr. E. S. Gourlay, after whom the species is named.

Paratypes. 12 females and 1 male collected at the same time and place as the holotype.

The types have been deposited in the Cawthron Institute Collections.

This species was found in an insectory at the Cawthron Institute, Nelson, which was being used for rearing Rhyssa, a parasite of the Horntail borer (Sirex juvencus). Each year a quantity of infested pine logs are placed in the insectory, and a number of insects emerge, including several native coleoptera. It is presumed that this doryctid is parasitic on one of these species of coleoptera.

Acknowledgments

I wish to express my gratitude to Mr. E. S. Gourlay, Entomologist, Cawthron Institute, Nelson, for collecting and handing over to me for description, the new species of doryctid described in this paper, and for his kindness in allowing me access to specimens of Doryctinae in his collections.

To Dr. C. W. F. Muesebeck, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, and to Mr. G. E. J. Nixon, Imperial Institute of Entomology, London, my sincere thanks are due for advice and for literature which they have at all times so freely given.

To the Director of the Cawthron Institute and the Director of the Entomological Research Station, Nelson, New Zealand, for library facilities and access to Inset Collections under their care.

– 1163 –
Picture icon

A-C. Doryclomoipha anlipoda Ashmead. A, foie- and hindwing. B, doisal view of head. C, doisal view of abdomen.
D-E. Doryctes pallida Gourlay. D, fore- and hindwing. E, dorsal view of head.
F-G. Doiyctes ambeodonti Muescbeck. F, fore-and hindwing. G, dorsal view of head.
H-J. Doiyctes gouilayi sp. n. H, foie- and hindwing. I, dorsal view of abdomen. J, doisal view of head.