Description of Male (Subsidiary details)
Colour in formalin white, eyes clear with orange nucleus. Length 10 mm.; depth, 2 mm.; width, 2 mm. Cephalon as long as 1st 3 segments of body; peraeon as long as pleon plus urosome. Peraeopod 3 much the longest; 1st uropods longer than 2nd but not reaching as far as 3rd.
Antennae. First: Filiform, shorter than 2nd, length 3 mm. Flagellum of 12 segments, 1st large and nearly twice peduncle length; straight inferior margin has U-shaped tract of setae; superior margin slightly convex; other segments mostly much longer than wide with scattered fine setae. Peduncle, 2nd and 3rd segments very short, wide; together about ½ length 1st. Second: Filiform, length about 5 mm. Flagellum about 5 times peduncle length, of 17 segments; segments much longer than wide, 1st twice length of rest, all with small scattered setae. Peduncle 3rd and 4th segments subequal, ¾ length 5th, a few scattered setae on each.
Mouthparts. First Maxillae: Subrectangular inner plate shorter than outer, long setae on outer and inner margin meeting in row across surface medially; 3 strong teeth distally. Outer plate ovate, tending to lanceolate; a short boss-like spine distally, outer margin strongly serrated, a series of much shorter spines inside boss distally. Second Maxillae: Inner plate slightly the shorter,
Text-fig. 8—Hyperoche mediterranea Senna. 125—Antenna 1, ♀. 126—Antenna 2, ♀. 127—Mandible, ♀. 128—Peraeopod 1, ♀. 129—Epimeral plate, ♀. 130—Epimeral plates 1–3, ♂. 131—Pleopod. 132—Uropods and telson, ♀. Parathemisto gracilipes (Norman). Male. 133—Adult. 134—Antenna 1. 135—Antenna 2.136—Left mandible. 137—Maxilla 1.138—Gnathopod 1. 139—Gnathopod 1, dactylos and propod posterior margins. 140—Peraeopod 4. 141—Peraeopod 4, propod anterior margin. 142—Pleopod and coupling spines. 143—Epimeral plates.
Text-fig. 9—Parathemisto gracilipes (Norman). 144—Antenna 1, ♀. 145—Antenna 1, Juvenile ♂. 146—Gnathopod 2, ♀. 147—Gnathopod 2, Juvenile ♂. 148—Maxilla 2. 149—Maxilliped. 150—Gnathopod 2. ♂. 151—Peraeopod 1, ♂. 152—Peiaeopod 1, ♂, propod anterior margin. 153—Peraeopod 1, Juvenile ♂, carpus. 154—Peraeopod 3, ♂. 155—Peraeopod 1, ♀, carpus and propod. 156—Peraeopod 2, ♀. 157—Uropods and telson. 158—Uropod 1, inner ramus, excavation margin.
Text-fig. 10.—Parathemisto gaudichaudii (Guér.). 159—Antenna 1, ♀. 160—Antenna 1. ♀, inner margin. 161—Antenna 2, ♀. 162—Gnathopod 1, ♂, end segments. 163—Gnathopod 1, ♀. 164—Gnathopod 2, ♂. 165—Peraeopod 1, ♂, end segments. 166—Peraeopod 1, ♀ (f. thomsoni). 167—Peraeopod 2, ♂. 168—Peraeopod 2, ♀. 169—Peraeopod 2, ♂, propod and dactylos. 170—Uropods and telson. 171—Uropod 1, rami showing excavation. 172—Uropod 1, excavation margin. 173—Uropod 3, outer ramus, inner margin. 174—Dorsum of female, length 13 mm. Parathemisto australis (Stebbing). 175—Dorsum of female, length 9 mm. Parathemisto gracilipes (Norman). 176—Dorsum of male, length 11 mm.
ovate, longer than wide, brush of long setae distally, a long end spine and 3 or so very short spines. Outer plate narrowing to 2 strong end spines, distal ½ has brush of long setae. Mandibles: Cutting edge a rectangular plate with about 16 incised teeth; molar process strong, some of process teeth bristled; a strong brush of setae between cutting edge and molar process. Palp of 3 segments, segments long and narrow; 1st about ⅖ and 3rd about ⅗ length 2nd; 3rd lanceolate, outer margin fringed with short bristles. Maxilliped: Inner lobe shorter than outer, 2 short sharp end spines, the margin between them excavate, fork-like; surface has horseshoe-shaped field of long setae. Outer lobes crescentic, tapering, short setae on inner margin, about 5 long setae on proximal ½ of surface.
Gnathopods. First: Basos width not ⅓ length, long setae on posterodistal angle. Ischium length ⅕ basos, posterior ½ of distal margin has long spines, end margin V-shaped; wider than long. Merus more or less subrectangular, posterior margin straight, ¼ basos length; anterior margin convex, overlying carpus, meeting straight end margin in acute angle; posterodistal angle with 6 or so long spines. Carpus ovate, margins convex; length nearly twice width and ½ basos length; anterior margin has 2 small setae and spine; posterior fringed with long spines, row of 5 or 6 long spines medially down each surface; posterior margin not showing bristles. Propod slightly longer, tapering; greatest width not ½ length; anterior margin convex with several long spines; posterior straight with several small setae on finely serrated margin; several on surface. Fine curved dactylos ½ propod length, a few minute spines on surface, proximal ½ of margin finely serrated. Second: Basos width ¼ length, 1 or 2 long spines posterodistally. Ischium ⅕ to ⅙ basos length, wider than long; long spines posteriorly on distal margin. Merus ovate, a spoon-like process more than ½ along carpus; length nearly twice width and nearly ½ basos length; lateral margins rounding to distal evenly except for slight V-shaped angle terminally; margins with long spines, finely bristled between spines. Carpus process narrow, margins with long slender spines, bristled between spine bases; total carpus length ¾ basos. Propod hollowed to spoon-like scoop; length nearly ½ basos; narrowing distally to dactylos, long spines on one margin, other finely serrate with a few short spines; a few small spines on surface. Long fine dactylos slightly more than ½ propod length, inner margin finely serrate.
Peraeopods. First: Basos margins convex, proximally constricted, width ⅖ length; anterior margin has a few single spines; posterior 6 or so longer ones. Ischium subrectangular, 2 or 3 small spines; length not ¼ basos. Merus piriform; ⅓ basos length, width ¾ length, convex anterior margin is finely bristled, has 5 or so spines, a few on surface Carpus margins evenly convex, length ½ basos, 1 or 2 small spines on anterior margin and distal angle; posterior margin has about 7 long spines with smaller ones interspersed; a little serrate distally. Propod ¾ basos length, width ⅕ length anterior margin convex, a few fine setae; posterior margin straight and serrate, serrations long and fine with several interspersed single setae; 15 or so long, fine spines with very fine bristles between their bases medially on surface. Long fine dactylos about ⅖ propod length, inner margin smooth. Second: Carpus slightly longer in proportion to width than in 1st Third: Basos width ⅓ length; anterior margin sigmoid, 6 or so strong single spines distally; posterior margin has single minute spines. Ischium subrectangular, ⅕ basos length, wider than long, a few minute spines anteriorly. Merus a little expanded distally, margins slightly convex, width ⅔ length, length ½ basos,
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posterodistal angle has 2 or 3 spines; anterior margin has several increasingly larger single spines, finely bristled. Carpus longer than basos, margins relatively straight, posterior with small spines, anterior with about 12 spines, margin between them finely bristled and with small setae. Propod much narrower, slightly concave, length between 1.2 and 1.4 times carpus length; and 12 to 13 times greatest width, a few minute spines on posterior margin; anterior margin has 10 or so spines, small setae between them, is bristled throughout except at dactylos base where bristles give way to a few very fine long comb-like teeth. Dactylos inner margin smooth, length from 1 ½ times propod length in juvenile to ⅙ in adult. (N.B.: All these proportions are qualified by later remarks indicating that they vary with size; the carpus propod relationship tends to remain the same but the dactylos grows much slower than the other segments. The distal comb on the propod tends to be proportionately larger in smaller specimens also.) Fourth: Basos and ischium as in Pr. 3. Basos width ⅓ length. Merus width ⅖ length; length less than ½ basos; strong spine at distal angles; a few smaller spines on anterior margin. Carpus slightly shorter than basos; width ⅓ length; margins with numerous long spines, a parallel row of spines on anterior surface, anterior margin bristled right along, bristles also at bases of surface spines. Propod-basos lengths in ratio 7:5, propod slightly concave, width ⅕ length, convex posterior margin has 5 or so short single spines; anterior margin has 8 or so spines interspersed with small setae, entire margin has long stout bristles which are almost comb-like teeth; a parallel row of spines on anterior surface with bristles between spine bases. Dactylos 2/7 propod length in adults. Fifth: Like Pr. 4 with fewer spines on carpus and propod posterior margins
Gills. Broad, ovate, slightly longer than basos of corresponding limb; width about ¾ length.
Epimeral Plates. Subrectangular. Anterior margins sigmoid, tending to concave, rounding broadly, ventral margin serrate and minutely spined; posterodistal angle acute and produced a little posteriorly; posterior margin sigmoid, tending to convex, 2 or 3 minute spines distally.
Pleopods. Biramus, rami longer than peduncles, about 14-segmented. Peduncle subrectangular, a few spines on posterior margin, peduncle width ½ length, as wide as deep, 2 coupling spines.
Uropods. First: Rami lanceolate, reaching ½ along rami of 3rd; outer narrow, slightly more than ½ peduncle length in adult male, inner margin expanded proximally, then immediately excavate for short distance; outer ramus about ⅔ length inner; inner ramus outer margin similarly expanded and excavate proximally; inner ramus outer margin and outer ramus inner margin strongly pectinate; margins bristled about excavations. Second: Stouter than 1st, reaching almost as far; rami lanceolate, ½ width of inner, inner as long as peduncle; outer ramus inner margin and inner ramus outer margin strongly pectinate, not proximally excavate. Third: Outer and inner rami and peduncle in ratio 2:3:5 in length; peduncle inner distal angle produced to sharp tooth as in 2nd; margins of inner ramus and inner margin of outer ramus pectinate. Telson: Subtriangular, distally rounded, as wide as long, ⅕ length uropod 3 peduncle in adult.