Key to Species of Neocyproidea
|1. Mandibular palp absent; gnathopod 1, both margins and surface of dactylos strongly toothed||2|
|Mandibulat palp of 3 slender segments; anterior margin and surface of dactylos of gnathopod 1 very weakly toothed||N. peninsulac n. sp.|
|2 Gnathopod 1 has about 5 and 7 strong teeth on anterior and posterior margins, a few small spine-teeth on surface||N. otakensis (Chilton), 1900|
|Gnathopod 1 has about 6 and 13 strong teeth on margins a great number of smaller spine-teeth on surface||N. pilgrimi n. sp.|
Neocyproidea otakensis (Chilton), 1900. (Figs. 14-38.)
Cyproidia otakensis Chilton. 1900: 243-246. Pl. V.
Cyproidea otakensis Stebbing. 1906: 723.
“Light brown.” Body tumid, length about 3 mm.
Antennae. First: Lysianassid-like; peduncle nearly 3 times length flagellum, 1st segment width about ⅔ length; 2nd about ⅔ length 1st, 3rd nearly as wide as long, not ½ length 1st; flagellum of 3 distinct segments; 1st stout, tapering, base slightly narrower than 3rd peduncle segment, about as long as 2nd peduncle segment; inferior margin has 9 pairs of long flaccid sensory setae inferodistally, 2nd subsquare, about ¼ length 1st, 2 long setae inferodistally; 3rd ½ length 1st, 3 or 4 fine terminal setae. Accessory a blunt stump, nearly ½ length 1st flagellum segment, length twice width. Second: Peduncle, 2nd segment has promment gland cone extending ½ along 3rd, 3rd nearly as wide as long, 4th slightly more than twice length 3rd, slightly narrower; 5th as long as 4th. Flagellum not ½ peduncle length, of 4 segments; 1st segments ¾ length 5th peduncle segment, narrower; 2nd ⅔ length 1st; 3rd ½ 2nd; 4th slightly shorter than 2nd; slender; each has row of fine setae distally.
Mouthparts. Upper Lip: Bilobed, more or less symmetrical. Lower Lip: Outer lobes, inner margin finely bristled, finely toothed distally. Sug-
gestion of inner lobes proximally. First Maxillae: Inner plate short, 1 end seta. Outer has 8 stout teeth, several short setae. Palp as long, of 1 segment, has 1 or 2 fine end setae, 4 strong toothed spines. Second Maxillae. Inner plate has 2 strong-toothed flat crescentic spines on end; 2 in notch about ⅓ down inner margin; outer plate has 2 similar spines, stout short seta. Mandible: Cutting edge of about 6 teeth; accessory (on left) similarly toothed; molar process strong; spine-row of about 11 short spines; no sign of palp. (The Hauraki specimen has a structure reaching ¼ way from molar to tip of mandible which may be debris lying on the tip or may be the remnants of a quite stout 1-segmented palp). Maxilliped: Inner plates subrectangular, comparatively narrow, reaching end of palp merus; 2 minute dome-shaped spines on end margin, 2 longer ones down inner surface, a small seta also Outer plates reach end of carpus, outer margin convex, a large spine near apex, a seta inside it, the outer margin bristled, the inner finely comb-toothed as far as inner plate, about 6 long setae down rest of inner margin. Palp carpus ⅗ merus length; has 5 or 6 long setae on inner distal angle, merus width ½ length, inner distal angle has 1 seta Propod slightly longer than merus, 5 long setae on inner surface, angle produced in blunt thumb a little way along curved blunt finger which is about ¾ propod length.
Gnathopods. First: Sideplate quite rudimentary. Basos width not ⅓ length, a few fine short setae anteriorly. Ischium width ¾ length, length ¼ basos, [ unclear: ] posterodistally. Merus subtriangular; posterior margin convex, width more than ½ length, length more than ⅓ basos, strong spine-seta posterodistally. Carpus somewhat subtriangular, width ⅔ length, anterior margin ⅖ basos length, posterodistally produced ⅓ along behind propod; posterior margin of process has 3 single and 2 pairs of strong spines, end margin has 3 long strong spines, the spines finely tooth-combed Propod ⅔ basos length, widest about ⅓ where width nearly ⅓ length, margins slightly convex, the distal ⅔ of posterior with about 8 sets of single and paired strong fine-combed spines Dactylos strong, curved, ½ propod length, about 7 strong teeth on posterior margin, 5 or so on anterior; as well as numerous short fine spine-teeth on surface, the distal non-toothed ⅓ is a slender sharp claw. Second: Somewhat similar; basos width nearly ⅓ length. Ischium width ¾ length, length ¼ basos. Merus ⅓ basos length, subtriangular, width proximally ½ length, distally little more than ½ that, distal margin truncate has 5 or 6 long setae. Carpus subtriangular, greatest width ½ length, anterior margin ½ basos length, posterodistally produced ½ along propod, the process outer margin with 3 strong spine-setae, inner about 8, the end 3 strong finecombed spines. Propod as long, width ⅖ length, margins slightly convex especially posterior, distal ½ of posterior has 7 sets of 1 long and 1 short fine-toothed spines. Dactylos not ½ propod length, about 7 strong teeth on posterior margin, 5 or 6 on anterior.
Pereaopods. First: Sideplate ovate-rectangular, width slightly more than ½ length, anterior margin rounding convexly to oblique ventral, posterodistal angle acute but actual angle rounded, posterior margin sinuous with double flanged edge distally to imbricate with succeeding sideplate. Basos ⅔ sideplate length, width about ¼ length, a few fine setae on margins. Ischium not ⅓ length, 4 or 5 fine setae posteriorly. Merus piriform, ½ basos length, width about ⅓ length, 4 or 5 short setae on each margin. Rest missing Second: Sideplate greatly expanded, shield-like, anterior margin slightly convex about ⅓, barely concave distally, right-angled to ventral but angle tip truncate, ventral margin rounding
Text-fig. 2.—Veocyproidea [ unclear: ] (Chilton). 22, Antenna 1.23, Antenna 1, accessory flagellum. 24, Antenna 2.25. Maxilla 1, end of palp. 26. Gnathopod 1.27, Gnathopod 1, dactvlos. 28, Gnathopod 2. 29, Gnathopod 2, dactvlos. 30, Gnathopod 2. fine-toothed spines from propod posterioi margin. 31. Peraeopod 1.32, Peraeopod 4. 33, Utopods 2 and 3, telson.
convexly to posterior, posterior margin proximally excavate. Third. Sideplate posterior lobe slightly the larger and deeper; ⅔ basos depth. Basos narrowly expanded, width ½ length, slightly narrower distally, 6 or 7 short fine setae on slightly sinuous anterior margin, posterior barely concave medially. Ischium ⅓ basos length, width ½ length, 1 or 2 very short fine setae anteriorly. Merus piriform, posterodistal angle somewhat produced, anterior margin ½ basos length, width nearly ½ length, 3 or 4 short fine setae on each margin. Fourth: Sideplate ovate, depth about ¾ basos; basos ovately expanded, width about ⅔ length, widest distally, several very short setae on barely convex anterior margin; posterior straight except for rounded angles, naked. Ischium and merus as above except merus width about ¾ length. Fifth: Sideplate ovate, about ½ length basos anterior margin, ½ posterior; basos widest distally, anterior margin slightly convex, distal width about ⅘ anterior margin length, 4 or 5 short setae anteriorly; posterior margin produced in somewhat rounded lobe proximally, broad convex lobe distally as far as merus, ischium [ unclear: ] length of basos anterior margin, width ¾ length, 1 or 2 short setae anteriorly; merus piriform, posterior margin greatly convex and produced in strong acute posterodistal lobe probably to propod, a few fine setae each side of process; as wide as anterior margin which is ½ basos anterior margin length; posterior margin twice as long. Carpus (presumably of 5th) barely shorter than merus anterior margin, width ½ length, 3 or 4 short setae on anterior margin, propod as wide, ¾ length basos anterior margin; 5 or 6 short spines on anterior margin; dactylos strong, curved, about ½ propod length, small setal prominence near inner tip.
Epimeral Plates. First subtriangular, 2nd and 3rd more or less ovate, 2nd with small ridge running across anterior surface from anterior margin (but this may be abnormal).
Urosome. First urosome segment produced in telson-like keel with slightly concave upper surface extending back to about telson base. This is not, as Chilton seems to suggest, a vertical plate but is boat-shaped.
Uropods. First: Rami and peduncle subequal in length, rami very slender. Second: Peduncle about [ unclear: ] length inner ramus, outer ramus about ¾, the upper margins of narrow rami finely comb-pectinate throughout. Third: Peduncle nearly as long as inner ramus, outer nearly ⅔ as long; peduncle keeled superiorly and produced into acute superodistal angle; rami and peduncle superior margin all finely comb-pectinate. Telson: In profile boat-shaped; entire, subtriangular, reaching end of 3rd uropod peduncle.
Types: (Believed), Chilton Collection, Tray 12/13-15 (A1-A3). Paratype: C. 121.
Localities. Port Chalmers, New Zealand (surface net), types and paratypes.? off Kawau Island; Hauraki Gulf, 6 fathoms, “Hinemoa,” 29.XII.14, Tray 140/10.
Discussion. The main points to be noticed about this species are the very distinct teeth on the gnathopod dactyli which Chilton's paper speaks of as “setae”, and the lack of a mandibular palp. The shape and setation of the anterior margin of the basos of Pr. 3-5 are also noteworthy.
Neocyproidea peninsulae, n. sp. Figs. 39-50.
Small, black or dark olive-green, eyes reddish, body tumid, a pronounced bulge about the 2nd to 6th segments but sharply narrowed ventrally just above
the insertion of the sideplates. Length, 2 mm., depth, 1 ½ mm.; width, 1 ¼ mm. Like N. otakensis except as below.
Antennae. First: Flagellum of 4 segments, 1st with about 4 pairs of long flaccid sensory setae; the others with a pair each Minute accessory flagellum.
Mouthparts. Mandible. Spine-row of 9 stout spines; palp of (probably) 3 very slender segments, 1st about [ unclear: ] 2nd: 2nd ⅔ 3rd, a single seta on inner distal margin of 2nd. First Maxillae: Palp has 3 small toothed end spines, 2 fine setae.
Gnathopods. First: Carpal process has about 5 spines posteriorly, 3 on end. Propod width not ⅓ length, margins only slightly convex; single long spine-seta on outer margin about ⅘; 2 single and 3 pairs of fine combed spine-sctae on distal [ unclear: ] of posterior margin (although fewer on younger specimens). Dactylos more than ½ propod length, about 7 seta-like teeth on posterior margin, a much stouter distalmost one about [ unclear: ] ; several very small seta-like teeth on anterior margin, a few on surface. Second: Merus has single spine-seta [ unclear: ] along posterior margin, 5 on truncate end margin; carpal process has 3 stout spine-setae on outer margin, 3 on inner, 3 long stout spines on end margin, at least 2 of which are strongly comb-pectinate. Propod posterior margin distal ⅔ has up to 7 single and 3 paired sets of strong comb-pectinate spine-setae. Dactylos has about 5 seta-like teeth on posterior margin, the distalmost the strongest; anterior has about 3 very fine spines, 6 or 7 fine seta-like teeth on surface.
Peraeopods. First and Second: Basos anterior margin has quite strong fringe of relatively long fine setae; some on surface sideplate anterior to basos insertion also. Third: Basos anterior margin has about 5 long spine-setae. Fourth: Sideplate about ⅕ basos length; anterior margin has 5 or 6 quite long spine-setae. Fifth: Basos as wide as anterior margin is long, width about ⅗ posterior margin; the posterodistal angle less evenly rounded than in N. otakensis, about 6 or 7 quite strong spine-setae down anterior margin, 2 each on ischium and merus anterior margins also.
Uropods: Outer ramus 1st uropod about ¾ length inner; rami in all uropods finely pectinate on both margins, peduncle dorsal margins also. Telson: Subtriangular, length about twice width, about 3 fine bristle-setae on each margin, narrow apex bluntly pointed.
Types: Slides P: 120; paratypes. Slides P.122, P.125.
Localities: Off wharf-blocks from Ceramium, Portobello Marine Biological Station, Otago Harbour, 21/9/53. (P 120, 122, 125), coll D.E H.; off Ceramium on Pyura pachydermatina stalk. Aquarium Point, P.M.B.S, coll. D.E.H. 1/6/54; off wharf-blocks, P.M B.S, coll D.E.H., 27/8/53.
Discussion: The most characteristic features of this species are the general body shape and colour (which may or may not correspond precisely with that of N. otakensis); the feeble spination and pectination of the dactylos in each of the gnathopods; the presence of the 3-segmented mandibular palp and the strong setae on the anterior margin of the basos in the 3rd-5th peraeopods. There may be a mandibular palp in N. otakensis, but I have failed to find any definite indication of one in the two specimens I have seen. I am reasonably sure there is none in N. pilgrimi n.sp., unless by some mischance the palp has broken off cleanly at the base in all of the specimens which I have examined. The weak dactylos spination appears to be constant in the variously sized specimens of N. peninsulae which I have seen.
Text-fig. 3.—Neocyproidea otakensis (Chilton). 34. Paraeopod 2.35. Peraeopod 3.36 Peraeopod 5. 37, Peraeopod 5. end segments. 38. Epimeral plates Neocyproidea peninsulae n. sp. 39, Adult, side view. 40, Adult, dorsal view 41. Maxilla 1. end of palp. 42. Gnathopod 1, end segments. 43, Gnathopod 1, dactylos. 44, Gnathopod 2. end segments. 45, Gnathopod 2, dactylos 46, Uiosome keel 47, Telson.
The difference in general body shape and facies between this and the following species is quite marked, the one small, with the abdomen grossly tumid above the sideplates and quite noticeably pinched off below the sideplate insertion, dark in colour and keeping its pigment in alcohol for a considerable length of time if not always; the other about twice as large (4 mm.), evenly tumid with no sudden ventral constriction, and in alcohol white. I have no doubts about the distinctness of N. peninsulae from N. pilgrimi. I am somewhat less certain about the distinctness of either from N. otakensis. More particularly. I find N. otakensis and N. pilgrimi very close in detailed morphology with the exception of the gnathopod dactyli. I incline to the view that the differences in the spination of the dactyli in the three species are of specific rank.
The species name is derived from the Otago Peninsula, on which the Portobello Marine Biological Station is situated.
Neocyproidea pilgrimi, n.sp. (Figs. 51-62.)
Of moderate size (about 4 mm.), white in spirit and possibly in life although some of the preserved specimens show signs of a purplish-brown, eyes reddish-brown in spirit. Body evenly tumid, globose.
Length, 4 mm.; depth, 2 ½ mm. Like N. otakensis except as below.
Antennae: Small accessory flagellum present on first.
Mandibles: Left has spine-row of 14 curved sharp spines, right has 11 and a slender blunt spine distally. No sign of palp.
Gnathopods. First. Basos anterior margin has short fine setae of slightly varying lengths but not distally fringed as in N. peninsulae Carpal process has about 5 single and 2 pairs of fine-combed strong spine-setae on posterior margin; 3 strong end spines; propod as in N. otakensis; dactylos anterior margin has 5 or 6 strong teeth on medial ⅓. numerous very small spine-teeth proximal to them, posterior has about 13 distinct and quite strong teeth on proximal ⅔; the surface has numerous small and medium-length spine-teeth. Second: Carpal process has about 5 fine-combed strong spine-setae, posterior about 10 long setae, end has 3 strong spines; posterior margin of propod has about 8 pairs of 1 short, 1 long comb-pectinate stont spines. Dactylos has about 8 strong teeth on inner margin, about 5 quite strong and 8 or so short teeth and spine-teeth on outer, surface more or less naked.
Peraeopods.. First: Basos anterior margin strongly fringed with short setae. Second: Basos anterior margin strongly fringed with fine setae, width ⅓ length. Ischium width ½ length; posterior margin has several very short setae. Merus posterior margin straight, with 5 or 6 short spine-setae, length ½ width, anterior slightly convex with a few very short fine setae, anterodistal angle slightly produced, blunt Carpus linear, as long as merus, width about ¼ length, 4 small spines on posterior margin; propod almost as long and wide, 7 small spines on posterior margin. Dactylos about ½ propod length. Third, Fourth and Fifth: Proximal segments as in N. otakensis; merus of 4th, straight anterior margin is ½ basos length, has 4 small spines; posterior is convex and produced acutely ¾ down carpus, has several very short fine setae Carpus as long, width nearly ⅓ length. 3 spines on front margin, propod slightly longer, 5 short spines on anterior margin; dactylos about ½ propod length.
Uropods. First: Rami more or less subequal. Second: Outer ramus about ¾ length inner. Third: Outer ramus about [ unclear: ] length inner, inner barely longer
Text-fig. 4.—Neocyproidea peninsulae n.sp. 48, Mandible. 49, Peraeopod 4. 50, Peraeopod. 5. Neocyproidea pilgrimi n. sp. 51, Mandible. 52, Maxilla 1, end of palp. 53, Maxilla 2.54, Gnathopod 1, end segments. 55, Gnathopod 1, dactylos 56. Gnathopod 1, end of caipal process with spines. 57, Gnathopod 2, end segments. 58, Gnathopod 2, dactylos. 59, Peraeopod 1 60, Uropod 3.
than peduncle which has superodistal angle produced nearly ½ along outer ramus. In all uropods, peduncle and rami have both dorsal margins finely pectinate.
Types: Slides P.70, female. Paratypes: P.124, female of length 3 ½ mm., depth 2 ¼ mm.; width, 1 ½ mm; P.126, female.
Localities: Menzies Bay, Banks Peninsula, coll. Dr. R. Pilgrim, 1953 (Slides P.70, P124, P.126); Hawke Bay, ovigerous female from Chilton Collection (Slides C.123).
Discussion: The grounds on which these specimens have been given specific rank have already been detailed above. The doubts about its distinctness from N. otakensis will probably be resolved finally only by the availability of considerably more comparison material, particularly of N. otakensis. The general facies of the latter species may prove especially useful.