Contributions to a Knowledge of the Adventive*
Flora of New Zealand, No. 5
[Received by the Editor, July 17, 1956.]
The re-discovery is noted of ten species, not or at most only rarely reported since their original discovery thirty to almost ninety years earlier, and all from new localities.
Thirty-nine species, three varieties and one form belonging to forty-two genera are recorded as new for New Zealand, the genera Ballota, Chamaelaucium, Erechtites, Holosteum, Lens, Minuartia, Rhynchelytrum, Scleranthus, Sida, and Stachytarpheta being new to the adventive flora of New Zealand.
The name Sagina nodosa (L.) Fenzl is expunged from the adventive flora, specimens of the indigenous Stellaria gracilenta Hook. f. having been wrongly determined and recorded in 1948.
This paper treats species in two categories, first, a group of species which have not, with one exception, been reported since originally recorded many years ago, and secondly, a number of species and varieties not previously recorded from New Zealand.
The specimens cited are, unless otherwise stated, deposited in the Herbarium, Botany Division, D.S.I.R., Christchurch, and except where acknowledged otherwise, were collected by the writer.
A.—Re-discovered Adventive Species
Brassica integrifolia (West) O. E. Schulz (Cruciferae). Sparingly established amongst Ammophila and Lupinus, on stabilized sand-dunes near Paraparaumu, Wellington Province, 1952 (78737). I have been unable to trace any other collections of this species in New Zealand herbaria, but it seems that at least one other earlier gathering has been made, as Schulz (1919: 58) notes (without locality, collector or date), the typical form of the species as occurring in New Zealand.
Cuscuta europaea L. (Convolvulaceae). Originally recorded from Ashburton County by Smith (1904: 211, 221), this Eurasian species was noted as destroying red clover crops in the 1893–94 season. The specimens have not been traced, and it is not certain whether this was the species actually present, or whether the name was applied in error to material of C. epithymum Murr. This later species was listed in the same paper (as C. trifolii Babington), so apparently two distinct entities were present in the district at the time. It is odd that the species did not persist, considering its apparent abundance, as only C. epithymum occurs in the district now. C. europaea has been collected (parasitic on Calystegia sp.), Aitken Phormium area, near Martinborough, Wairarapa, M. E. Roberts and W. R. Boyce, 1949 (78763).
Hypericum montanum L. (Hypericaceae). Recorded by Smith (1904: 217) from Ashburton County, this species was found to be well established in bracken fern and scrub communities on rough hill country near Langley Dale Station, Wairau Valley. Marlborough, 1947 (70192).
[Footnote] * The word “Adventive” is substituted for “Naturalized” in the general title of the series, since species in the casual, as well as those in the naturalized state, are treated.
Juncus inflexus L. (Juncaceae). Distinguished from other species of the subgenus Junci genuini found in New Zealand by the very glaucous colour, the 12–18 prominent stem ridges, and the glossy, dark-brown, mucronate capsules, this species was first recorded by Kirk (1878a: 393–4) from between Hokitika and Ross (as J. glaucus L.). It has been found near Napier, N. L. Elder, 1944 (42794, 42795), and near Taradale, Hawke's Bay, 1950 (78760).
Lathyrus nissolia L. (Papilionaceae). Recorded from Ashburton County by Smith (1904: 219), this inconspicuous species was found near Patangata, Hawke's Bay, S. H. Saxby, 1949 (70183). Through the kindness of R. P. Hill, Department of Agriculture, Hastings, who was present when the re-discovery was made, I was able to examine the occurrence of this species. It grows sparingly through ungrazed grass and weeds on roadside banks, and was difficult to detect owing to the narrow leaves and presence of fruits of associated species of Vicia. It was absent from adjacent stocked pastures, and appeared to be restricted to a matter of a few chains along a single roadside. The plant could well occur elsewhere in New Zealand, but pass unnoticed owing to the peculiar habit.
Limnanthes douglasii Nuttall (Limnanthaceae). A North American species, recorded as widely distributed in Ashburton County by Smith (1904: 208) (as Limnanthus douglasii), it has been collected from a roadside near Warkworth, North Auckland, by a farmer and forwarded through the Department of Agriculture, 1951 (73297).
Polygonum prostratum R. Br. (Polygonaceae). Australian in origin, this species was first recorded by Kirk (1882: 383–4) thus “In several places by the Wairarapa Lake—Harry Borrer Kirk.”, with the identical record being republished a year later by Kirk (1883: 388). Several plants were collected from the shore of Lake Rotokawau, Rotorua County, 1947 (82808), but no further evidence of the species was found by examination of the shores of this or other lakes in the district.
Tragopogon pratensis L. (Compositae). Distinguished from the well established T. porrifolius L. by its yellow florets, T. pratensis was recorded on several occasions from different localities, but no New Zealand material has been seen. Earlier records are: Hooker (1867: 760), Auckland, on authority of Kirk (as T. minus L.); Kirk (1870: 139), Auckland district (as T. minor Fries); Kirk (1871: 160), Auckland Isthmus (as T. minor Fries); J. F. Armstrong (1872: 288), Canterbury (as T. minor Fries); Cheeseman (1883: 287), Auckland district (as T. pratensis L. var. minor); Smith (1904: 220), Ashburton County (as T. pratense L.)
The species has been collected from the Springfield district, Canterbury, H. Talbot 1954 (83284), and is stated to be not uncommon there.
Talbot's specimens do not match exactly description of the three subspecies given by Clapham (1952: 1123), and show the following characters: outer involucral bracts red-bordered, inner pale-bordered; florets about equalling involucral bracts; anthers brownish below when immature, later yellowish below, purplish to violet above; mature fruits not seen; immature fruits muricate.
Veronica chamaedrys L. (Scrophulariaceae). This Eurasian species was recorded, by Thomson (1875: 374) from “Pastures in Taieri Plain”; apparently referring to the same occurrence, he writes subsequently (1922: 457)–“In 1870, in a field of newly broken up land in Southland, sown with grass-seed imported from Lawson & Sons, Edinburgh, there came up and flowered several plants of Veronica chamaedrys, Linn.” Further (p. 458), he notes it as “Found (1917) growing among lawn-grass in Dunedin by Mrs. G. S. Thomson.”
The species was found sparingly established in damp situations about margins of a forest remnant and in rank grass along a creek, Trentham, Hutt Valley, 1952 (78751). Observations made over the 1952–53 summer showed capsules to be rarely formed, and it appears that spread is vegetative by means of prostrate rooting stems.
The plant is possibly a garden escape, as it occurs adjacent to the site of a now non-existent homestead.
Vinca minor L. (Apocynaceae). Recorded from Ashburton County by Smith (1904: 220), this species occurs as a persistent and spreading garden escape in several Hutt Valley localities: banks of Hutt River, being spread downstream by floods, Trentham, 1953 (84274); under Cytisus thickets and in grass on roadside, Hutt River, Akatarawa, 1953 (84275, 84276).
B. Adventive Species New for New Zealand
Aira elegans Willd. ex Gaud. (Gramineae). Of Mediterranean origin, this species differs from A. caryophyllea L. in the lower floret being awnless; it has been collected from Kauhiro Swamp, Kaitaia district, H. G. Halliwell, 1954 (89461).
Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. (Gramineae). Closely resembling and confused in the past with the widely distributed A. geniculatus L., this species has been found in both islands; Pukekohe, J. E. Bell, date not given (18463); east of Ward's Pass. Molesworth, Marlborough, B. G. Hamlin, 1952 (74678); Lake Elterwater, near Ward, R. Mason, 1955 (88767); Selwyn River, near Dunsandel, 1954 (88930); Lake Tekapo, H. H. Allan, 1935 (9554); Lake Tuakitoko, near Kaitangata, R. Mason and N. T. Moar, 1952 (75851).
Arctium tomentosum Lam. (Compositae). This European species differs from the naturalized species of Arctium in the broad, non-hooked inner involucral bracts and abundance of woolly filaments entangled in the outer hooked bracts. A single collection from near Timaru, R. Mason, 1945 (58769) agrees well with this species, except that the petioles in sicco appear to be hollow, whereas descriptions state these to be solid.
Ballota nigra L. (Labiatae). Noted adjacent to a quarry, Mt. Wellington, Auckland, P. Hynes, 1953 (83265).
Cardamine flexuosa With. (Cruciferae). A Eurasian species readily distinguished from the many forms of the indigenous C. heterophylla (Forst. f.) O. E. Schulz and the adventive C. hirsuta L. by the characteristic flexuous habit and the leaflet shape.
The species was first collected in and about damaged forest along the Marokopa River, near Te Anga, Kawhia County, 1947 (70259); subsequently in damaged forest along tributaries of the Awaroa River, near Oparau, Kawhia County, 1947 (70260), and in a similar habitat along the upper reaches of the Waiotahi River, Opotiki County, 1948 (81380).
In 1952 and subsequently, the species was found to be well established in shaded habitats in the upper Hutt Valley, Wellington: as a weed of shaded gardens and shrubbery, Upper Hutt, 1952 (79735); damp places along stream, Trentham, 1952 (78742); ditch-banks, Akatarawa, 1952 (79203); weed on rockery and in fernery, Melling, 1953 (82257); Moonshine, 1953 (82839); damp roadside along bushedge, Silverstream, 1953 (83227): Pinehaven, A P. Druce, 1953 (82376); Wallaceville, 1953 (83219).
A single collection has been made in the South Island, Dunedin, R. Mason, 1951 (71732).
The habitats in all North Island occurrences were characterized by moist, shady conditions, and the species was associated with C. heterophylla in some instances, with C. hirsuta in addition in the Hutt Valley. Of interest also was the association of the species in the Kawhia and Opotiki Counties with Sison amomum L., an adventive plant previously thought to have a restricted distribution in the Opotiki district (Healy, 1944: 225).
Chamaelaucium uncinatum Schau. (Myrtaceae). A West Australian shrub which appears to be established in the North Cape locality. It has been reported by several
collectors, Mrs. D. Mason and A. D. Beddie, but unfortunately their specimens and dates of collection are not available.
Chloris truncata R. Br. (Gramineae). An Australian species sparingly established in coastal waste land in the Waitangi-Paihia locality, Northland, 1950 (82833) and in sandy waste land, Westshore, near Napier, 1950 (72008). Not previously recorded from the mainland of New Zealand, the species has been recorded from Great Island of the Three Kings group, by Oliver (1948: 213, 217) and Baylis (1948: 250–1).
Cyperus polystachos Rottb. (Cyperaceae). A cosmopolitan tropical species noted as established at Motutangi, North Auckland, W. Metcalf, 1953 (82617).
Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. (Compositae). Native of North and South America, this species was first collected from the Tauranga district, M. Hodgkins, 1939 (22595, 22596), and subsequently by the same collector from the Upper Waikareao Valley, Tauranga district, 1953 (81374); Hodgkins noted that the species “… has grown for many years locally around the edges of some stretch of bog in the Upper Waikareao Valley.” Mr. Hodgkins reports recently (March, 1955) that the plant occurs along a ditch at Te Puna, just west of Tauranga.
Erigeron bonariensis L. (Compositae). The name E. crispus Pourret (syn. E. linifolius Willd.) has been used in the past in New Zealand and elsewhere to cover two distinct plants, with the name E. bonariensis being used occasionally in the same broad sense.
While it has been apparent for some years in New Zealand that this position obtained, it was not possible, until the publication of Burtt's researches (1948: 369–72), to clarify the situation.
The name, E. bonariensis L. was first applied to New Zealand material by Hayward and Druce (1919: 94), apparently based on data given by Cheeseman (1906 1076), under E. linifolius Willd., and the plant illustrated is the true E. bonariensis L.
The species is characterized as follows: stems 0.25–1 m tall, the whole plant conspicuously greyish hispid-hairy; rosette and cauline leaves usually narrow linear, with undulate margins: plant normally much-branched above, the lateral branches over-topping the central axis: the capitula are the largest in the species of this section of the genus adventive in New Zealand, 1 cm or more diam. in sicco, involucral bracts often reddish externally, whitish internally; pappus of fruit white or reddish tinged.
This plant occurs as occasional to locally abundant in scattered North Island localities, and in the north of South Island: less common than E. canadensis L. and the other species with which it was previously included, it is usually associated with one or other of these species. It is commonly found in waste land (railway yards, permanent way, roadsides, about wharves and adjacent waste areas), but never forms extensive communities on river beds or dried out swamp areas as does the next species.
Erigeron floribundus (H.B.K.) Sch.-Bip. (Compositae). This species constitutes the other entity of the E. crispus complex in New Zealand, and is the more abundant of the two species, occurring through both islands, locally abundant in many localities.
It is recognised by the tall, stout habit, stems to 2 m tall, basal and lower stem leaves distinctly oblanceolate, less densely hairy than in E. bonariensis, usually distinctly toothed, margins flat, not undulate; branched above, the lateral branches not overtopping the central axis, the resultant inflorescence being dense and pyramidal; involucres ca. 0.75 cm diam. in sicco, involucral bracts greenish, occasionally reddish-tinged externally, chestnut-brown when reflexed in mature capitula; pappus usually straw-coloured.
Euphorbia exigua L. (Euphorbiaceae). European in origin, this annual spurge has been collected from cultivated land, Culverden, F. C. Allen, 1956 (33261).
Galinsoga bicolorata St. John et White (Compositae). A native of Mexico, and reported as adventive at Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A., this species has been gathered recently from a plantation, Cornwall Park, Auckland, P. Hynes, 1954 (89527). This species is readily distinguished from the abundantly established G. parviflora Cav. by the ligula of the ray florets, which is distinctly 3-toothed and purplish in colour.
Geranium purpureum Vill. (Geraniaceae). Distinguished from the abundantly naturalized G. robertianum, this Mediterranean species was collected on scoria near Onehunga, H. Carse, 1929 (5510), and edge of wood, lava flat, Penrose, Auckland H. Carse, 1929 (5509).
Hieraceum pratense Tausch (Compositae). A green, tall-growing (to 0.75 m tall) scapose species with long, slender rhizomes, this European plant is thoroughly established, with Hypericum montanum, on shady faces of rough hill country, near Langley Dale Station, Wairau Valley, Marlborough, 1955 (92097).
Holosteum umbellatum L. (Caryophyllaceae). This small European chickweed was found (September, 1952) on shallow stony soils in North Canterbury: autumnsown pasture, Horsley Downs, near Hawarden (78736, 78743); in sparse Danthonia pasture, Hawarden (78735); in lucerne crop, Medbury, Hurunui River (78750).
The thorough establishment and widespread distribution of this species in the Hawarden and Medbury districts indicates that it must have been in the country for many years prior to its being observed. Its non-discovery earlier is probably due largely to its being an early spring annual of an ephemeral nature. Its behaviour here indicated that during a normal season it would complete its life cycle in a short period, similar in nature to the indigenous Myosurus novae-zelandiae W. R. B. Oliver and the adventive Brachycome perpusilla (Steetz) J. M. Black, which grow in similar habitats in Marlborough and Canterbury, and are rarely noted.
In the run-out lucerne stands, Medbury, the species was prominent, forming a dense glaucous carpet in the pre-flowering stage, and a whitish carpet during sunny periods at the flowering stage.
The associated species are worthy of record: in autumn-sown pasture, Hawarden—Cerastium arvense L., Papaver argemone L., Valerianella locusta (L.) Betche (previously known only from Akaroa, in South Island, Allan, 1924: 313), Veronica verna L.; in lucerne stands, Medbury—Moenchia erecta (L.) G. M. et S., Myosotis discolor Pers. and Veronica verna L.
Hypericum pulchrum L. (Hypericaceae). This species was recorded incidentally from the Wairarapa by Cunningham (1956: 483), who reported that it failed to produce photosensitivity symptoms when fed to sheep under experimental conditions.
Closely related to the abundantly naturalized H. perforatum L., this species is distinguished by the more slender habit, narrower cymes, reddish-tinged petals, and sepals fringed with prominent marginal black glands. It is well established in bracken fern, blackberry, and stunted scrub on hill country and on rocky banks, Speed's Valley, near Koromiko, Marlborough, 1947 (70200), and on sides of road cuttings and over reverting hill country, Mt. Bruce, north of the Ruamahanga River, between Masterton and Eketahuna, 1950 (70202).
When revising the adventive Hypericae in the Botany Division herbarium, I found an earlier collection of this species from Blenheim, collected by Scott, 1926 (5537), and laid it under H. perforatum. Endeavours to trace the exact locality in the Blenheim district have been unsuccessful, so that it could have come from the Speed's Valley locality cited above, or from some, as yet unknown new locality.
Examination of the Mt. Bruce occurrence in February, 1953, showed an increase in total area of infestation and in density of the stand over the three-year period since the original discovery. It is abundantly established on the shady aspect of hill country, and demonstrates its ability to compete successfully, temporarily at least, with a heavy bracken fern (Pteridium esculentum) infestation. The plant was
thriving in bracken fern up to 1 metre tall, flowering and seeding, and appearing little affected by the competition.
While the species appears to have significance as a weed of pasture on secondclass hill country in once forested districts, it seems that, unlike its congener, H. perforatum, this species will not produce photosensitivity symptoms (hypericism) in sheep.
Lactuca spp. It is evident that there has been confusion in the definition of the species of Lactuca adventive in New Zealand, in large measure owing to the presence of a hitherto unidentified variety of L. serriola L.
The adventive species may be distinguished thus:
|1. Achene about half as long as beak of fruit||L. saligna|
|Achene about as long as beak of fruit||2|
|2. Achene purplish-black, bordered, not muricate in upper part||L. virosa|
|Achene grey to light black, scarcely bordered, muricate in upper part||3|
|3. Leaves deeply lobed||L. serriola|
|Leaves entire or nearly so||L. serriola var. integrata|
The distribution of the two species and one variety particularly involved may be seen from the following specimens in the Botany Division Herbarium: Lactuca virosa L.
Whakatane, 1945 (33806); east of Taupo, K. W. Allison, 1935 (17698); between Wanganui and Raetihi, collector not stated, 1930 (3898); Wanganui, V. D. Zotov, 1928 (1247); Rewa, Rangitikei River, 1942 (36291); Paekakariki, R. Mason, 1946 (54446); Upper Hutt, 1946 (58784); Blenheim, T. C. Carter, 1927 (5711).
This species is thoroughly established along railway reserves, about forest margins, and on logged and deteriorated country in the Central North Island between Ohakune and Te Kuiti.
Lactuca serriola L.
Onehunga, H. Carse, 1929 (5731, 5732); Masterton, 1949 (65361); Weka Pass, North Canterbury, H. H. Allan, 1941 (48383, 48384); Waikari, 1941 (33614). This species has been observed (1956) near Alexandra and Roxburgh, Otago.
Lactuca serriola L. var. integrata Gren. et Godr.
Waimana Gorge, Bay of Plenty, 1948 (82132); Napier, 1945 (33929); Hastings, collector not cited, 1936 (18440); Picton, J. H. McMahon, 1943 (36276); Blenheim, 1942 (36334); same locality, H. H. Allan, 1943 (33683); Middleton, Christchurch, 1955 (91490); Ashburton, G. Gibson, 1945 (58785); same locality, 1955 (89484); Ophir, Central Otago, 1956 (89651); Pisa Flats, Central Otago, H. H. Allan, 1944 (48380).
Lamium hybridum Vill. (Labiatae). Distinguished from the allied L. purpureum L. by the irregularly incised leaves and corolla-tube naked or with faint ring of hairs within, this species has been found as a garden weed at Herbert, Otago, K. W. Allison, 1954 (91449).
Lens culinaris Med. (syn. L. esculenta Moench.) (Papilionaceae). The name, L. esculenta Moench. was, as indicated by Healy (1946: 400) applied erroneously by Cheeseman (1883: 281) to record Vicia disperma DC. A patch of the true L. culinaris was found on a cinder and rubbish dump on a railway reserve between Upper Hutt and Mangaroa, 1950 (78762), associated with Lolium temulentum L. and Phalaris paradoxa L.
Lotus tenuis Waldst. et Kit. (Papilionaceae). Noted as established in pasture and cultivated land, Lakeside, Lake Ellesmere, Canterbury, F. G. Fergusson, 1956 (89662).
Lupinus albus L. (Papilionaceae). Established at Diggers' Valley, Kaitaia, H. G. Halliwell, 1954, (89457, 89458). I am indebted to H. G. Halliwell, Department of Agriculture, Kaitaia, for the following information—“The plant is established in several distinct communities on alluvial land adjoining a stream running through
Diggers' Valley itself. The clumps are up to one acre in area. The communities are dense, the rate of spread is fairly slow, and appears to be per medium of odd floods from the original source.” The species is stated to have been introduced to Kaitaia from Portugal some twenty years earlier.
The Kaitaia specimens come closest to var. termis (Forsk.) Couthino.
Madia sativa Molina (Compositae). It is stated that this American species was first recorded for New Zealand from Otago by Thomson in 1871, but the first published record that I can trace is that of Kirk (1878b: 415), where he states the plant to have been found “About three miles from Balclutha, by the Mataura-road. Our plant is the M. viscosa, Car.” Thomson (1922: 429) does state that the species was introduced about 1871 with railway material from Chile and appeared on more than one railway line under construction in Otago, but he does not list the species in his earlier paper of 1875 on the naturalized plants of Otago, although subsequently (1885: 574) he reports it as “Common to the north of Invercargill”. In the absence of specimens confirming the first mentioned record of Thomson, it is proposed to accept Kirk's record of 1878 as the first for the species in New Zealand.
Two distinct entities within the species occur in New Zealand: M. sativa Molina—the typical form, slender, with small capitula (5–6 mm long), and ray florets about 5 in number.
Specimens examined: Blenheim, H. deo Chamberlain, 1935 (17821); same locality, H. H. Allan, 1943 (48333); Pendle Hill, Greta River, North Canterbury, 1941, (35120, 35125); Hurunui, North Canterbury, Dept. of Agriculture, 1952 (82914).
M. sativa Molina var. aggregata Torrey et Gray—tall growing (to 1.75 metres), robust, densely glandular, capitula large (9–13 mm long and as broad), usually in clusters at end of main stem and branches, ray florets 8–11.
Specimens examined: Blenheim, R. Mason, 1952 (74017); Ethelton, North Canterbury, H. H. Allan, 1941 (48334, 48335); Amberley, 1956, (89672); Lincoln College, L. W. McCaskill, 1951 (71228); Ashburton, H. H. Allan, 1920 (3013, 3366).
Malva nicaeensis All. (Malvaceae). Allied to M. sylvestris L, this Mediterranean species has been in New Zealand for over fifty years, but has been mis-determined as one or other of the other adventive species of Malva. It differs from M. sylvestris L. in the epicalyx segments ovate-lanceolate, petals whitish and only twice as long as calyx-segments, and nutlets more strongly reticulate rugose.
Specimens examined. Dominion Museum, Wellington: Kaikoura, T. Kirk 5/12/1889 (two collections); a further specimen, labelled “Queere Coal Yard, 15/12/93” in the Kirk Herbarium is probably a Wellington gathering by T. Kirk. Botany Division, D.S.I.R., Christchurch: Helensville, R. Mason and N. T. Moar, 1949 (65763); Auckland, M. Hodgkins, date not stated (8432); Te Aroha, 1947 (81410); Whakatane, 1945 (33809); Pakowhai, Hawke's Bay, 1950 (81436); Hastings, V. D. Zotov, 1943 (58552); Kakariki, Rangitikei County, 1950 (81405); Masterton, 1953 (81407; 81408); Greytown, 1953 (81403); Upper Hutt-Mangaroa, 1950 (68059); Wallaceville, 1952 (81411); Petone, A. L. Poole, 1949 (81435); Kaiwhara-whara, Wellington, 1949 (83235); Wellington, E. H. Atkinson 1921 (5520); Nelson, 1946 (81400); Culverden, 1946 (81401)—form with hairy carpels.
Medicago falcata L. (Papilionaceae). Occurs on dry roadside, near Bottle Lake. Christchurch, associated with scattered plants of M. sativa L., 1949 (81427).
Medicago scutellata Mill. (Papilionaceae). Appeared spontaneously in a garden, Swannanoa, Canterbury, W. Matson, 1956 (92082).
Minuartia tenuifolia (L.) Hiern. (Caryophyllaceae). Occurs on dry roadside and on dirt in cracks of wharf, Whitianga, Coromandel Peninsula, 1947 (78761); these specimens come closest to var. brachypetala Fenzl.
Plantago arenaria Waldst. et Kit. (Plantaginaceae). A Eurasian species, distinguished from the indigenous and adventive species in New Zealand by the
elongate stem and branches with cauline leaves. Collected from a garden, Tara Hills Research Station, Omarama I. A. McNeur, 1956 (89618), the plant was presumed to have been introduced as an impurity in night-scented stock seed.
Polygala verticillata L. (Polygalaceae). North American in origin, the species was first collected from dry open situations in fire-break, Whakarewarewa State Forest near Rotorua, K. W. Allison, 1923–24 (89459). The species appears to have persisted in the locality, and has been found on roadsides in the same locality, K. M. Bibby, 1949 (78744).
Potentilla anglica Laicharding (Rosaceae). Some of the material previously placed under P. reptans L. in New Zealand agrees more nearly with P. anglica, a species of European origin. The material examined showed all 4-merous flowers, 11–18 mm diameter, epicalyx segments linear, acute, shorter than sepals; sepals ovate-lanceolate, petals about one and a-half times as long as calyx; carpels 18–25, individual flowers showing maturation of 50–75 per cent. of carpels. The species has been collected: Upper Kaimai, Kaimai Range, Bay of Plenty, 1948 (92098); Lake Waikawa, Forest Lakes, near Manakau, Wellington, R. Mason, 1953 (81723); near Lake Brunner, Westland, W.Mackay, 1924 (60242).
Prunella vulgaris L. (Labiatae). A distinct, pink-flowered variant of this species occurs in the Wairarapa district, being locally abundant about Greytown (82010), Masterton, and near Mt. Bruce, Ruamahanga River. This variant, which grows with the normal purple-flowered form of the species agrees well with the North American forma rhodantha Fern. of var. lanceolata (Bart.) Fern.
Ranunculus ophioglossifolius Vill. (Ranunculaceae). Distinguished from the already naturalized R. flammula L. by the erect habit, the ovate-cordate basal leaves, and achenes tuberculate on the faces, this Eurasian species has been collected from Te Kuiti, H. H. Allan, 1928 (98, 447); Pukenoi, east side of Kawhia Harbour, 1947 (68042); Mairoa, Te Kuiti district, 1947 (68043).
Raphanus maritimus Sm. (Cruciferae). This European species occurs on roadsides, in waste sections, and in cultivated land in the Silverstream-Upper Hutt district, 1953 (7969), and on coastal waste land, Eastbourne, Wellington Harbour, 1953 (81358).
Examination of the populations of Raphanus in the Hutt Valley and Eastbourne localities showed R. maritimus to be the more common species, often a troublesome weed of cultivated land and disturbed roadsides. R. raphanistrum L. was considerably less common, usually a weed of waste places, infrequent in cultivated land, while R. sativus L. proved to be rare, as a casual in waste places about deposits of garden debris.
Rhynchelytrum roseum (Nees) Stapf et Hubb. (Gramineae). A single gathering of this South African species from an unspecified locality in North Auckland, H. B. Matthews, 1909 (20568) has been examined. Plants of this species have been grown from soil on salvaged World War II material from South Pacific theatres, brought back to New Zealand in 1949 for disposal.
Rorippa amphibia (L.) Besser. (Cruciferae). Perennial in habit, European in origin, this species has proved persistent and troublesome to remove when once established. Difficulty was experienced in securing mature fruits, and it was only after a five-year search that S. Hewitt, Department of Agriculture, Whakatane, secured fruits at Thornton, Bay of Plenty, in 1953.
Auckland Institute and Museum, Auckland: Domain, Auckland, L M. Cranwell, 1931 (28739, 28741, 28746); same locality, L. M. Cranwell, 1936 (28734, 28737, 28738); same locality, B. E. G. Molesworth, 1944 (28736).
Botany Division, D.S.I.R., Christchurch: Domain, Auckland, 1945 (73148): abundantly naturalized on swampy flats, Waikawau Stream, south of Port Waikato, 1947 (84333); Thornton, Bay of Plenty, E. R. Marryatt, 1951 (81371); same locality, S. Hewitt, 1952–53 (81372, 81373).
Rorippa sylvestris (L.) Besser. (Cruciferae). A European species confused in New Zealand herbaria with the indigenous R. islandica (Oeder) Borbas, from which it is distinguished by the stout rootstock and linear fruits.
The species has been in New Zealand for over twenty years, though it was only recently that the species could be said to be recorded. The name was given, with R. islandica, in the list of seeds offered by the Botany Division, D.S.I.R., Wellington, in the Index Seminum (1952: 7*), within the category “Introduced Plants” which includes cultivated in addition to adventive species. Since the seed offered was obtained from plants in the wild or ruderal state at Moutoa Swamp (see below) this listing could be accepted as the first formal record of the species from New Zealand. The species was recorded incidentally with locality (Upper Hutt) by the writer in a general paper on weed introduction and dispersal (Healy, 1953: 14).
Auckland Institute and Museum, Auckland: Manawatu River, Ashhurst Bridge, L. M. Cranwell 1937 (28742); same locality, H. H. Allan and L. M. Cranwell, 1937 (28744, 28745). [Sheet 28745 bears a pencilled note “sylvestre sugg. Hodg.?,” indicating that Mr. M. Hodgkins had apparently queried the original determination as Nasturtium palustre DC.]
Botany Division, D.S.I.R., Christchurch: Tutira, Hawke's Bay, H. Guthrie Smith, 1937 (19126); Palmerston North, N. R. Foy, 1946 (54304); Easton Area, Moutoa Swamp, Shannon, A. L. Poole, 1939 (21757) same locality, H. H. Allan, 1939, (23278); Bunnythorpe, near Feilding, collector not stated [V. D. Zotov?], 1928 (541): Upper Hutt, 1950 (81397): Hutt River, near Upper Hutt, 1953 (81995). Immature material from Nelson, R. Inch, 1955, and Temuka, W. Hadfield, 1955, almost certainly belong to this species.
Sagina ciliata Fries (Caryophyllaceae). Closely allied to the widely established S. apetala L., this species has been found in dry places in both islands in Hutt River, near Upper Hutt, 1952 (91540); Wainuiomata, near Lower Hutt, 1950 (82804); Pendle Hill, Blythe River, North Canterbury, 1950 (82098). Port Hills, above Corsair Bay, Lyttelton Harbour, 1954 (91527); Waimakariri River, near Courtenay, 1955 (91527); Cromwell, Otago, H. H. Allan, 1934 (33870). The Hutt River material agrees well with this species, but the other specimens show a variation in the calyx members, sometimes only one of the outer pair of sepals being pointed. A specimen from dry roadside between Opaki and the Ruamahanga River, Wairarapa, 1953 (82006) agrees well with S. filicaulis Jord., a close ally of S. ciliata.
Salvia reflexa Hornem. (Labiatae). A small patch of this species was noted in waste land, Christchurch, 1954 (85740). This plant has proved a troublesome weed in many parts of Australia, where it is known as “mintweed” (Roe and Shaw, 1947).
Scleranthus annuus L. (Caryophyllaceae). Well established as weed of nursery area, Forest Research Institute, Whakarewarewa, near Rotorua, 1950 (70265); arable land, Lincoln, F. C. Allen, 1953 (84332). The species appears to have been present for some years at Rotorua prior to collection, but was confused with Spergularia rubra (L.) J. & C. Presl and Spergula arvensis L., from both of which it is readily distinguished by the lighter aspect and extreme hardness, almost woodiness, of the fruiting calyces. This species could be expected to occur elsewhere, but be confused with the two species cited above.
Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae). A tropical species now adventive in many countries, this plant has been found on coastal sands, Taipa Beach, near Mangonui, North Auckland, H. G. Halliwell, 1955 (89531), 1956 (92077). Halliwell writes (March, 1956) that the weed occurs over “½–¾ acre, assoc. with Rhodes Grass: exact means of introduction not known, but suspected of Australian origin.” An
[Footnote] * The name also used in cyclostyled “Index Seminum” (1951: 4), in category “General,” as Roripa sylvesbris (L.) Besser.
earlier gathering, almost certainly this species, is from Mariner's Block, near Dargaville, W. B. Wards, 1951 (72009).
Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. var. leiocarpum DC. (Cruciferae). Characterized by the green, not hoary stems and leaves and by glabrous fruits, this distinct variety of hedge mustard occurs with the common hoary form, and is occasionally locally abundant: Palmerston North, V. D. Zotov, 1928 (93386): Upper Hutt, 1950 (81426); Bryndwr, Christchurch, 1954 (85760); Addington, Christchurch, 1954 (85741); Invercargill, 1956 (89626).
Stachys olympica Poir. (Labiateae). Closely allied to the earlier recorded S. germanica L., this species is distinguished by the more lanate leaves and stems, and the calyx-teeth hidden in a dense mass of woolly filaments. A specimen from dry soils near Christchurch [ex Herbarium T. Kirk], date not stated, belongs to this species and an immature specimen from the Maungatoroto district, North Auckland, appears to belong here also.
Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. (Verbenaceae). Tropical in origin, this species appeared in cultivated land, Silverdale, North Auckland, F. W. Bartlett, 1953 (84343). A number of plants appeared initially, but subsequent cultivation killed all. It is feasible, as suggested by Mr. Bartlett, that the fruits were accidentally introduced to New Zealand with Seychelles guano, this fertilizer being used to topdress the particular paddock prior to appearance of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis.
Torilis japonica (Houtt) DC. (Umbelliferae). Closely related to the earlier recorded T. arvensis (Huds.) Link and Anthriscus neglecta Boiss. et Reut. (syn. A. vulgaris Pers. non Bernh.), this Eurasian species occurs in scattered localities: Awakino Gorge, Taranaki, H. H. Allan, 1928 (425); Totara Reserve, Pohangina, H. H. Allan, 1935 (48307, 48308); Ruahine Mts., V. D. Zotov, 1943 (33905); Hapuka River, Maungamaunu, north of Kaikoura, 1946 (70269).
Vicia dasycarpa Ten. (Papilionaceae). A Mediterranean species closely related to the already recorded V. cracca L., and differing in the longer flower, upper side of calyx gibbous, lower teeth of calyx glabrate, limb of standard much shorter than claw, seed larger than in V. cracca, and hilum in length about one-sixth of circumference; established in grass and scrambling over a fenceline and marginal trees of a plantation (stems to 3.5 metres long), Tauwharenikau Valley, Wairarapa, 1953 (91539).
C.—Species to be Removed from Adventive Flora
Sagina nodosa (L.) Fenzl (Caryophyllaceae). In an earlier paper (Healy, 1948: 176), I recorded the species as new for New Zealand, based on specimens from Naseby, Central Otago (33869). On further examination, I am certain that the specimens are depauperate Stellaria gracilenta Hk. f., an indigenous species. The name, Sagina nodosa (L.) Fenzl should therefore be removed from the adventive flora.
I wish to thank the Director, Auckland Institute and Museum, for permission to borrow specimens of Rorippa; the Director, Dominion Museum, Wellington, for permission to borrow specimens of Malva spp.; Mrs. P. Hynes, Auckland, for permission to publish the occurrence of Ballota nigra and Galinsoga bicolorata; Mr. Frank Bartlett, Silverdale, for permission to publish the occurrence of Stachytarpheta; Mr. V. D. Zotov, Botany Division, D.S I.R. Christchurch, for examination of specimens of Chloris truncata; and Mr. H. Talbot, Springfield, for material of Tragopogon pratensis L.
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A. J. Healy,
Department of Scientific and Industrial Research,