Go to National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa
Volume 85, 1957-58
This text is also available in PDF
(321 KB) Opens in new window
– 53 –

The Indigenous Flora of the Taupiri Range

[Read before the Auckland Institute, October 8, 1956; received by the Editor, October 17, 1956.]

The Taupiri Range is seven miles long, beginning with Taupiri Mount (944ft) in the south and running almost N.N.E. to Pukemore (925ft), six miles away, and extending another mile beyond that. Between these two peaks there are a number of others over 700ft high, grouped for the most part on a ridge about 500ft high, but there are some outlying peaks. The greatest width, 2½ miles, is in the south, just north of Taupiri Mount.

This range, mainly of greywacke rock, has been subjected to great denudation by the Mangawara, Waikato and other rivers, so that valleys, ravines and amphitheatres are numerous. Some of these are bush-clad from, their base (70ft above sea-level) to the crest of the range. Between them are dry spurs which bear a heath association and finally pass down into bogs or swamps.

Taupiri Mount is a domain. To the north of it there are several areas of bush leased on terms which allow farmers to cut timber for their own use, and permit the entry of stock.

There has been a continual shrinkage of the bush, due to accidental fires (as on Taupiri Mount) and to the clearing of bush for grass farming.

The variation in height, contour and aspect of the Taupiri Range has favoured different types of plants, but the chief vegetational aspect is of the mixed rain forest of the hills rather than that of the lowlands. For example, some of the usual ferns of the Waikato lowlands seem to be absent—e.g., Pellaea rotundifolia, Doodia media, Hypolepis tenuifolia.

The influence of altitude is quite marked.

  • (a) As the height increases, Olearia rani, Weinmannia racemosa, O. furfuracea, Cyathodes acerosa and Quintinia serrata become more numerous.

  • (b) Between the 300ft level and the crest of the range Nothofagus truncata is found, a rare occurrence, for the only other habitats of this species in the Middle Waikato Basin are the Tauhei and Upper Mangawara districts.

  • (c) On the main ridge and on a short one which runs almost N.N.W. from Taupiri Mount, the following plants are found: Cordyline pumilio, Dracophyllum latifolium, Pseudowintera colorata.

Though Mt. Pirongia is only 30 miles south of Taupiri Mount, their florulas present some striking differences. The following are apparently absent from Pirongia but are found on parts of the Taupiri Range: Peperomia urvilleana, Corynocarpus laevigata (karaka), Agathis australis (kauri), Carmichaelia australis, Cyathodes acerosa, Nothofagus truncata (hard beech).

Some Special Features

  • 1 The profusion of Phyllocladus trichomanes (some trees up to 2ft 9in diameter), Rhabdothamnus solandri, Alseuosmia quercifolia, Alseuosmia macrophylla, Schizaea (3 spp.), Pteris macilenta, Lygodium articulatum, Rhopalostylis sapida, Freycinetia banksii, Gahnia xanthocarpa, Pterostylis trullifolia gracilis, Corybas (2 spp.).

  • 2. The heath association, including the following: Leptospermum scoparium (now being killed by coccid insects, the so-called “manuka blight”), L. ericoides,

– 54 –
  • Leucopogon (2 spp.), Epacris pauciflora, Dracophyllum urvilleanum, Dianella intermedia, Pomaderris phylicifolia, Haloragis procumbens, Lycopodium (3 spp.), Schizaea (3 spp.), Gleichenia microphylla, Lindsaea (2 spp.), Drosera auriculata, 10 species of ground orchids, and various sedges and grasses.

  • 3. Agathis australis, in all stages from seedlings to trees 4½ in diameter.

  • 4. The large number of species and individuals of Metrosideros and of Coprosma.

  • 5. The occurrence of Libocedrus doniana on Taupiri Mount.

  • 6. This area is virtually the northerly limit for Dicksonia fibrosa and Weinmannia racemosa.

Acknowledgments

I wish to thank the following for advice or help with the identification of specimens: Dr. H. H. Allan, Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, Miss M. Crookes, Mr. E. D. Hatch, Mr. C. M. Smith, Mr. V. Zotov, Miss L. Moore. I wish also to thank Mr. A. C. A. Caldwell for his assistance and support in the field for the last nine years during this and other botanical researches.

Nomenclature

In most cases I have followed the nomenclature of Cheeseman's Manual of the New Zealand Flora (1925), but by the advice given to me by Dr. H. H. Allan two years ago I have adopted the changes made in the genera Metrosideros, Astelia and Rubus, and in all the ferns except the genera Hymenophyllum and Trichomanes.

The Species

The abbreviations following the names have these meanings: A = abundant; C = common; O = occasional; R = rare.

  • Filices

  •  Leptopteris hymenophylloides (A. Rich.) Presl—C

  •  Schizaea fistulosa Labill.—O

  •  Schizaea fistulosa var australis Hook. f.—O

  •    bifida Willd.—O

  •    dichotoma (L) Smith—O

  •  Lygodium articulatum A. Rich.—A

  •  Gleichrnia microphylla (R. Br.) C. Christen.—O

  •  Hymenophyllum sanguinolentum Swartz—A

  •    dilatatum Swartz—O

  •    demissum Swartz—C

  •    flabellatum Labill.—O

  •    tunbridgense Smith—O

  •    multifidum Swartz—R

  •  Trichomanes reniforme (Forst. f.) Presl—O

  •    venosum R. Br.—A

  •    elongatum A. Cunn.—R

  •  Dicksonia squarrosa Swartz—A

  •    fibrosa Col.—R

  •    lanata? Col.—R

  •  Cyathea dealbata Swartz—A

  •    medullaris Swartz—A

  •    smithii (Hook, f.) Domm—A

  •  Lindsaea linearis Swartz—O

  •    cuneate (Forst. f.) C. Christen–O

  •  Paesia scaberula (A. Rich.) Kuhn—A

  •  Ptendium esculentum (Forst f.) Diels—A

  •  Pteris tremula R. Br.—O

  •    macilenta A. Rich—C

  •  Adiantum affine Willd.—R

  •    fulvum Raoul—R

  •  Arthropteris tenella (Forst f.) J. Smith—R

– 55 –
  •  Polystichum richardi (Hook.) J. Smith—R

  •  Rumohra adiantiformis (Forst, f.) Ching—C

  •    hispida (Sw.) Copeland—A

  •  Ctenitis glabella (A. Cunn.) Copeland—R

  •  Cyclosorus penniger (Forst. f.) Copeland—A

  •  Athyrium australe (R. Br.) Presl—O

  •  Blechnum filiforme (A. Cunn.) Ettingsh.—A

  •  patersoni (R. Br.) Mett.—R.

  •    vulcanicum (Blume) Kuhn—R

  •    minus (R Br) Cockayne—A

  •    lanceolatum (R Br.) Sturm—O

  •    membranaceum (Col.) Mett.—R

  •    procerum (Forst. f.) Labill—A

  •    fluoiatile (R. Br.) Salom.—A

  •    discolor (Forst. f.) Keys—A

  •    frasert (A. Cunn) Luerss.—R

  •  Asplenium falcatum Lam.—A

  •    lucidum Forst. f.—A

  •    bulbiferum Forst f—A

  •    flaccidum Forst. f.—A

  •  Pyrrosia serpens (Forst f) Ching—A

  •  Microsorium pustulatum (Forst. f.) Copeland—C

  •    diversifolium (Willd.) Copeland—A

  •  Grammitis billardieri Willd.—O.

  •  Anarthropteris dictyopteris (Mett.) Copeland—O

  •  Ctenopteris grammitidis (R. Br.) J. Smith—C

  • Lycopodiaceae

  •  Lycopodium varium R. Br.—R

  •    billardieri Spring.—O

  •    densum Labill.—C

  •    fastigiatum R. Br.—O

  •    volubile Forst. f.—C

  •  Tmesipteris tannensis Bernh—C

  • Pinaceae

  •  Agathis australts Salisb.—O

  •  Libocedrus doniana Endl.—R

  •  Taxaceae

  •  Podocarpus totara D. Don—R

  •    hallu T. Kirk—C

  •    ferrugineus D. Don—A

  •    spicatus R. Br.—R

  •    dacrydioides A. Rich.—C

  •  Dacrydium cupressinum Sol—A

  •  Phyllocladus trichomanoides D. Don—A

  • Typhaceae

  •  Typha angustifolia Linn.—C

  • Pandanaceae

  •  Freycinetia banksii A. Cunn.—A

  • Gramineae

  •  Ophsmenus undulatifolius Beauv.—O

  •  Microlaena stipoides R. Br.—C

  •    avenacea Hook. f—C

  •  Echinopogon ovatus Beauv.—R

  •  Arundo conspicua Forst. f—O

  • Cyperaceae

  •  Mariscus ustulatus C. B. Clarke—C

  •  Scirpus aucklandicus Boeck.—O

  •    inundatus Poir.—O

  •  Cladium teretifolium R. Br—R

  •  Gahnia pauciflora T. Kirk—R

  •    xanthocarpa Hook. f—A

  •    lacera Steud.—O.

  •    setifolia Hook. f.—R

  •  Uncinia riparia R. Br—A

  •    caespitosa Boott—R

  •    filiformis Boott—R

– 56 –
  •  Carex virgata Sol.—C.

  •    ternaria (Forst.) var. gracilis Cheesem.—C

  •    testacea Sol.—R

  •    dissita Sol.—C

  • Palmae

  •  Rhopalostylis sapida Wendl. & Drude—A.

  • Juncaceae

  •  Juncus vaginatus R. Br.—C

  •    polyanthemos Buchen.—C

  •    bufonius Linn.—C

  •    prismatocarpus R. Br.—C

  • Liliaceae

  •  Ripogonum scandens J. R. & G. Forst.—A

  •  Cordyline banksii Hook. f.—C

  •    australis Hook. f—O

  •    pumilio Hook. f.—R

  •  Astelia solandri A. Cunn.—A

  •    nervosa Banks & Sol. ex Hook. f.—C

  •    trinervia T. Kirk.—C

  •  Collospermum hastatum (Col.) Skottsberg—A

  •  Dianella intermedia Endl.—C

  •  Phormium tenax Forst.—O

  • Orchidaceae

  •  Dendrobium cunninghamii Lindl.—O

  •  Bulbophyllum pygmaeum (Smith ex Banks & Sol.) Lindl.—O

  •  Earina mucronata Lindl. ex Banks & Sol.—A

  •    autumnalis (Forst. f.) Hook. f.—C

  •  Sarcochilus adversus Hook. f. ex Banks & Sol.—C (in parts)

  •  Thelymitra longifolia Forst.—C

  •    pauciflora R. Br.—O

  •  Microtis unifolia; (Forst. f.) Reichb. f.—C

  •  Pterostylis banksii R. Br. ex A. Cunn.—A

  •    trullifolia Hook. f. var. gracilis Cheesem.—A

  •  Acianthus fornicatus (R. Br.) sinclairii Hook. f. Hh.—R

  •  Caladenia minor Hook. f—R

  •  Chiloglottis cornuta Hook. f.—O

  •  Corybas trilobus (Hook. f.) Reichb. f.—O

  •    macranthus (Hook, f.) Reichb. f. var. macranthus—C

  • Piperaceae

  •  Macropiper excelsum Mig.—C

  •  Peperomia urvilleana A. Rich.—C (in parts)

  • Fagaceae

  •  Nothofagus truncata Col.—O

  • Moraceae

  •  Paratrophis microphylla (Raoul) Cockayne—O

  • Urticaceae

  •  Elatostema rugosum A. Cunn.—C

  • Proteaceae

  •  Knightia excelsa R. Br.—A

  • Santalaceae

  •  Mida salicifoha A Cunn.—R

  • Polygonaceae

  •  Muehlenbeckia australis (Forst, f.) Meissn.—O

  •    complexa (A. Cunn) Meissn.—R

  • Ranunculaceae

  •  Clematis indivisa Willd.—O

  •    hexasepala DC.—C

  •  Ranunculus hirtus Banks & Sol. ex Forst. f.–A

  • Magnoliaceae

  •  Pseudowintera colorata (Raoul) Dandy—R

  • Monimiaceae

  •  Hedycarya arborea J. R. & G. Forst.—C

  •  Laurelia novae-zelandiae A. Cunn.—C

– 57 –
  • Lauraceae

  •  Beilschmiedia tawa (A Cunn.) Benth. & Hook. f.—A

  •  Litsaea cahcaris Benth. & Hook. f.—A

  • Cruciferae

  •  Cardamine heterophylla O. E. Schulz.—C

  • Droseraceae

  •  Drosera spathulata Labill.—R

  •    binata Labill.—R

  •    auriculata Backh.—C

  • Saxifragaceae

  •  Quintmta serrata A. Cunn.—C

  •  Carpodetus serratus J. R. & G. Forst.—C

  • Pittosporaceae

  •  Pittosporum tenuifohum Banks & Sol ex Gaertn.—O

  •    corntfolium A. Cunn.—O

  •    eugemoides A. Cunn.—R

  • Cunoniaceae

  •  Wemmannia sylvicola Sol ex A. Cunn.—R

  •    racemosa Linn. f.—C

  • Rosaceae

  •  Rubus squarrosus Fritsch.—O

  •    schmidelioides A. Cunn.—O

  •  Acaena sanguisorbae Vahl.—C

  • Leguminosae

  •  Carmichaelia austrahs R. Br.—O

  •  Sophora microphylla Ait.—O

  • Oxalidaceae

  •  Oxahs corniculata Linn.—O

  • Rutaceae

  •  Melicope simplex A. Cunn.—O

  • Meliageae

  •  Dysoxylum spectabile Hook. f.—A

  • Coriariaceae

  •  Cornana arborea Lindsay.—O

  • Corynocarpaceae

  •  Corynocarpus laevigata Forst.—A (in parts)

  • Icacinaceae

  •  Pennantia corymbosa Forst.—O

  • Sapindaceae

  •  Alectryon excelsum Gaertn.—O

  •  Dodonaea viscosa Jacq.—C

  • Rhamnaceae

  •  Pomaderns edgerleyi Hook. f.—R

  •    phylicifoha Lodd.—C

  • Elaeocarpaceae

  •  Elaeocarpus dentatus Vahl.—A

  •  Anstotelia serrata (J. R. & G. Forst)., W. R. B. Oliver—A

  • Malvaceae

  •  Hohena populnea A. Cunn.—O

  •    sexstylosa (?) Col.—O

  • Violaceae

  •  Melicytus ramiflorous J. R. & G. Foist.—A

  •    micranthus Hook. f.—O

  • Passifloraceae

  •  Tetrapathaea tetrandra (Banks & Sol) Cheesem.—R

  • Myrtaceae

  •  Leptospermum scopanum J. R. & G. Foist.—A

  •    encoides A. Rich.—C

  •  Metrosideros umbellata Cav.—R

  •    scandens (J. R.& G. Forst.) Druce.—A.

  •    albiflora (?) Sol. ex Gaertn.—R

  •    carminea W. R. B. Oliver.—C

– 58 –
  •    diffusa (Forst. f.) W. R. B. Oliver.—C

  •    robusta A. Cunn.—O

  •    perforata (J. R. & G. Forst.) Rich.–A.

  •  Myrtus bullata Sol. ex A. Cunn.—O

  •  Eugenia maire A. Cunn.—O

  • Onagraceae

  •  Epilobium rotundifolium Forst. f.—O

  •    nerteroides A Cunn.—O

  •  Fuchsia excorticata Linn. f.—C

  • Haloragidaceae

  •  Haloragis erecta (Murr.) Schindler.—C

  •    procumbens Cheesem.—O

  • Araliaceae

  •  Nothopanax arboreum (Linn. f.) Seem.—C

  •    laetum Cheesem.—R.

  •  Schefflera digitata J. R. & G. Forst.—A

  •  Pseudopanax crassifolium (Sol.) C. Koch.—C

  • Umbelliferae

  •  Hydrocotyle elongata A. Cunn.—C

  •    americana Linn.—C

  •    novae-zelandiae DC.—C

  •  Centella uniflora (Col.) Nannfeldt.—C

  •  Daucus glochidiatus (Labill.) Fischer.—O

  • Cornaceae

  •  Griselinia lucida Forst f.—C

  • Ericaceae

  •  Gaultheria antipoda Forst. f.—C

  •    depressa Hook. f.—O

  • Epacridaceae

  •  Cyathodes acerosa R. Br.—O.

  •  Leucopogon fasciculatus (Forst. f.) A. Rich.—C

  •    fraseri A. Cunn.—R

  •  Epacris pauciflora A. Rich.—O

  •  Dracophyllum latifolium A. Cunn.—O

  •    urvilleanum A. Rich—O

  • Myrsinaceae

  •  Suttonia salicina (Heward) Hook. f.—O

  •    australis A. Rich.—A

  • Oleaceae

  •  Olea cunninghamii Hook. f.—O.

  •    lanceolata Hook. f.—O

  •    montana Hook. f.—O

  • Loganiaceae

  •  Geniostoma ligustrifolium A. Cunn.—A

  • Apocynaceae

  •  Parsonsia heterophylla A. Cunn.—O

  •    capsularis (Forst f.) R. Br.—O

  • Convolvulaceae

  •  Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br.—O

  •    tugurorum (Forst. f.) R. Bi.—R

  • Solanaceae

  •  Solanum nigrum Linn.—O

  •    aviculare Forst. f.—O

  • Scrophulariaceae

  •  Hebe salicifolia (Forst. f.) Pennell.–C

  • Gesneriaceae

  •  Rhabdothamnus solandri A. Cunn.–C

  • Rubiaceae

  •  Coprosma australis (A. Rich) Robinson.–A

  •    lucida J. R. & G. Forst.–A

  •    robusta Raoul.–A

  •  X. cunninghamii Hook. f.—O

  •    arborea T. Kirk.–C

– 59 –
  •    spathulata A. Cunn.—C

  •    rotundifolia A. Cunn.—O

  •    areolata Cheesem.—C

  •    tenuicaulis Hook. f.—C

  •    rhamnotdes A. Cunn.—C

  •    parviflora Hook. f.—O

  •    rigida Cheesem.—O

  •    propinqua A. Cunn.—O

  •  Nertera depressa Banks & Sol. ex Gaertn.—O

  •    dichondraefolia (A. Cunn.) Hook. f.—O

  •  Galium umbrosum Sol. ex Forst. f.—O

  • Caprifoliaceae

  •  Alseuosmia macrophylla A. Cunn.—A

  •    quercifolia A. Cunn.—C

  •    banksii A. Cunn.—O

  • Campanulaceae

  •  Pratia angulata Hook. f.—A

  •  Wahlenbergia gracilis Schrad.—O

  • Compositae

  •  Lagenophora pumila (Forst. f.) Cheesem.—O

  •  Olearia furfuracea Hook, f.–A

  •    rani (A. Cunn.) Druce.–A

  •   var. colorata (Col.) T. Kirk.–O

  •  Brachyglottis repanda J. R. & G. Forst.—C

  •  Gnaphalium keriense A. Cunn.—O

  •  Senecio kirkii Hook. f.—O

  •  Centipeda orbicularis Lour.—O

  •  Sonchus oleraceus Linn.—A

Bibliography

Gudex, M. C., 1955. The Native Bush Flora of Pirongia Mountain. Trans. Royal Soc. N.Z., Vol. 83, Part 2.

M. C. Gudex, 6 Union Street, Hamilton.