Key to Species
|Spores elliptic-obovate, 7–9 × 4–5.5μ||1. D. fulva (Lev.) G. H. Cunn.|
|Spores fusiform, 12–20 × 5–7μ||2. D. fusispora G. H. Cunn.|
|Gloeocystidia present; spores globose or subglobose,|
|10–12 × 9–11μ||3. D. sphaerospora G. H. Cunn.|
|Hyphal system monomitic; gloeocystidia absent; spores|
|elliptical or suballantoid, 6–7 × 3.5–4.5μ||4. D. monomitica G. H. Cunn.|
1. Duportella fulva (Leveille) nov. comb. Text-fig. 1.
Thelephora (Stereum) fulva Lev., Ann. Sci. Nat, III, 5, 149, 1846.
Stereum schomburgkii Berk., Jour. Linn. Soc., 13, 168, 1873.
S. retirugum Cke., Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, 456, 1882.
Hymenochaete olivaceum Cke., Grev., 14, 11, 1885.
Stereum fulvum (Lev.) Sacc., Syll. Fung., 6, 570, 1888.
Peniophora atrocinerea Mass., Jour. Linn. Soc., 25, 141, 1889.
Hymenochaete schomburgkii (Berk.) Mass., Jour. Linn. Soc., 27, 115, 1890.
Stereum atrocinereum (Mass.) v.d. Bijl, Ann. Univ. Stellenbosch, 7, 44, 1929.
Hymenophore pileate, annual, coriaceous, appearing first as scattered orbicular colonies 2–10 mm diameter when sessile-umbonate with free margins, merging to form areas to 8 × 3 cm. Pilei either conchiform-umbonate when solitary or imbricated, or narrowly effused-reflexed, 2–10 cm wide, 1–5 cm long; surface tan, chestnut, or umber, tomentose, hairs sometimes arranged in concentric bands of different shades of brown, or imbricate and silky, sometimes with depressed or raised parallel concentric ridges and frequently radiately grooved or plicate; hymenial
surface at first bay, fulvous, smoky brown, chestnut or cinnamon, becoming darker when old. tardily creviced either in radiate series, or areolate; margin thinning out, fibrillose, crenate, at first pallid grey, becoming darker, finally concolorous, free. Context tan or ferruginous, 0.3–0.8 mm thick, intermediate tissue of parallel hyphae turning abruptly into the hymenial layer; hyphal system dimitic; skeletal hyphae 4–5μ diameter, walls 1μ thick, sparingly branched, sparsely septate; generative hyphae 2.5–4μ diameter, walls 0.2μ thick, hyaline, branched, septate, with prominent clamp connexions. Hymenial layer when fertile a close palisade of basidia, paraphyses and scattered pseudosetae; when sterile appearing as a loose palisade of pseudosetae. Basidia subclavate, 24–30 × 7–8μ, 4-spored; sterigmata erect, slender, to 6μ long. Paraphyses subclavate, shorter and narrower than the basidia. Pseudosetae filiform with slightly inflated apices, in sterile plants a few showing false septa, walls brown, thin and coated with minute crystals, in fertile specimens walls thickened to 2μ, seldom septate, coated either with fine or coarse crystals. Spores elliptical or elliptic-obovate, 7–9 × 4–5.5μ, walls smooth, hyaline, 0.1μ thick.
Type Locality: Cape of Good Hope, Africa.
Distribution: South Africa, Australia, New Zealand.
Habitat: On bark or decorticated dead wood of fallen trunks and stems.
Beilschmiedia tarairi (A. Cunn.) Benth. & Hook. f. Auckland: Te Moehau. Coromandel Peninsula, 500ft, December 1946, J. M. Dingley; Kawau Island, 50ft, December 1947, J. D. Atkinson.
Beilschmiedia tawa (A. Cunn.) Hook. f. & Benth. Auckland: Claudelands Reserve, Hamilton, 150ft, October, 1946, G. H. C. Wellington: Weraroa, 50ft. July 1919, G. H. C.
Pittosporum tenuifolium Banks & Sol. Wellington: Weraroa, 50ft, September 1919, G. H. C.
Podocarpus dacrydioides A. Rich. Hawke's Bay: Waipatiki Beach, November 1955, J. M. Dingley.
Collections match the type of Stereum schomburgkii in Kew herbarium, ex “Port Denison, Queensland”. Talbot (Bothalia, 6, 316, 1954) found this to agree with the type of Thelephora (Stereum) fulva in the herbarium of the Paris National Museum, ex “Cap-de-Bonne-Esperance, Drege, 9441” Although Talbot (Bothalia, 6, 47, 1951) discussed the species under Stereum fulvum, he suggested it would be more appropriately placed under Duportella. As it has the generic features of the latter, the species has been treated as a member of that genus herein.
Colour of the hymenial surface is at first cinereous, tan, or hazel; later, when pseudosetae replace the basidia, it becomes darker. D. monomitica resembles D. fulva in macrofeatures, differing mainly in form and colour of pilei. It differs appreciably in microfeatures; for in D. fulva the hyphal system is dimitic, clamp connexions are present in generative hyphae, pseudosetae are of different shape, appreciably thicker in the walls, usually verruculose, and spores are of different shape and slightly larger.
As has been pointed out by Talbot, the hymenium develops at an early stage, to be replaced by pseudosetae as plants age. In fertile plants the hymenium is composed of a dense palisade of basidia and paraphyses through which scattered pseudosetae project, most forming a dense palisade in the subhymenium. Later the hymenium disappears, when the palisade of pseudosetae takes its place, plants then becoming much darker on the hymenial surface. Some of the submerged pseudosetae become coated with coarse crystals, simulating cystidia of the pedicellate section of Peniophora. As they agree with typical pseudosetae in other features, and arise in the same way, they are regarded as such, rather than as cystidia.
2. *Duportella fusispora sp. nov. Text-fig. 2.
Hymenophorum resupinatum, membranaceum, perenne, adnatum, effusum, superficies hymenii cinnamomea vel rubro-brunnea, fertili cinerea vel ochracea, alte inaequaliter rimosa. Contextus ferrugineus vel umbrinus, hyphis radiatim ordinatis, ubi stratosus hyphis erectis in vallo compactis; hypharum systema dimiticum; hyphae skeletales 3–5μ diam, lumina paene
[Footnote] * Latin descriptions were kindly prepared by Miss Beryl Hooton, Librarian, Plant Diseases Division.
capillaria, brunnea; hyphae generatoriae 2.5–3μ diam., hyalinae, nodulosae. Pseudosetae 6–8μ diam., parietibus brunneis vel hyalinis, ad 2μ crassis, subtiliter apice verruculosae Basidia subclavata, 35–40 × 8–10μ, 2–4 sporis in tenuibus sterigmatibus. Sporae fusiformes, 12–20 × 5–7μ.
Hymenophore resupinate, perennial, membranous, adnate, at first developing as numerous scattered orbicular or irregular colonies 2–5 mm diameter, merging to form irregular areas to 9 × 5 cm; hymenial surface at first bright cinnamon, or reddish-brown, when old ochraceous, ferruginous or cinereous, even or velutinate, tardily deeply and irregularly creviced, sometimes lifting at edges of crevices; margin thinning out, or abrupt and cliff-like, fibrillose or even, concolorous, loosely attached, sometimes lifting slightly. Context ferruginous or umber, 0.3–1 mm thick, with an intermediate tissue of loosely intertwined hyphae arising from numerous points of attachment and radiating upwards, in perennial specimens loosely, intertwined below, compacted for the greater part into a palisade with numerous darker parallel bands formed from ends of pseudo-
setae; hyphal system dimitic; skeletal hyphae irregular in shape, tapering from apex to base, 3–5μ diameter, lumen almost capillary, rarely branched or septate, walls reddish-brown; generative hyphae 2.5–3μ diameter, walls 0.25μ thick, hyaline, freely branched and septate, with prominant clamp connexions. Hymenial layer a close palisade of basidia, paraphyses and pseudosetae. Basidia subclavate, 35–40 × 8–10μ 2–4–spored; sterigmata erect, slender, to 10μ long. Paraphyses subclavate, shorter and narrower than the basidia. Pseudosetae mostly submerged when slightly inflated apically, with walls brown and verruculose; many projecting to 35μ, when to 8μ diameter, with walls hyaline or coloured, 2–3μ thick, usually delicately verruculose. Spores fusiform with bluntly acuminate ends, 12–20 × 5–7μ, walls smooth, hyaline, 0.25μ thick.
Distribution: New Zealand.
Habitat: Effused on bark of dead standing trunks.
Phyllocladus alpinus Hook. f. Wellington: Maungatorotoro Stream, Mt. Ruapehu, 3,000ft, March 1948, J. M. Dingley; Whakapapa, Mt. Ruapehu, 3,500ft, October 1954, J. M. Dingley.
Phyllocladus trichomanoides Don. Auckland: Huia, 300ft, January 1955, E. E. Chamberlain. Wellington: Oturere River, Mt. Tongariro, 3,800ft, December 1946, G. H. C., type collection, P.D.D. herbarium, No. 4981.
Fructifications are resupinate and somewhat loosely attached to bark of dead standing trees, seldom to decorticated wood of the same. The species may be identified by the resupinate fructifications often arranged in small scattered orbicular colonies, arrangement of the context hyphae, large basidia and large fusiform spores. Pseudosetae vary appreciably in form. They arise from apices of skeletal hyphae, most forming a close palisade beneath the hymenium, then being brown, slightly inflated and verruculose. Those which project above the hyphal surface to 35μ, become thickened to 8μ and with walls 2–3μ thick; they may be brown or hyaline, verruculose or naked. In perennial specimens the greater part of the context is formed from a loose palisade of hyphae arranged in several strata, each delimited by a horizontal coloured zone of apices of pseudosetae, some coated with fine crystals, others naked. Spores are abundant in all collections, fusiform, either with bluntly acuminate ends, or apices bluntly rounded, and may attain a length of 20μ. Collections were taken from bark of standing dead trunks of two related species of Phyllocladus.
3. Duportella sphaerospora sp. nov. Text-fig., 3.
Hymenophorum resupinatum, ceraceum, annuum, adnatum, effusum; superficies hymenii pallide bubalina vel sordide griseo-brunnea, areolatae rimosa Contextus isabellinus vel alutaceus, angusto medio strato intertextarum hypharum et recto vallo pseudosetarum; hypharum systema dimiticum; hyphae skeletales 3–5μ diam., parietibus 1μ crassis, brunneis; hyphae generatoriae 1.5–2μ diam., hyalinae, nodulosae. Pseudosetae 4–6μ diam., parietibus brunneis vel hyalinis, tenuiter verruculosae interdum bifidae vel 1–3 ramulos a latere ferentes. Gloeocystidia clavata vel elliptica, 32–48 × 10–14μ, parietibus 0.5μ crassis, hyalinis. Basidia subclavata, 26–32 × 10–12μ, 4 sporis in tenuibus sterigmatibus. Sporae globosae vel subglobosae, 10–12μ diam., vel 10–12 × 9–10μ.
Hymenophore resupinate, annual, ceraceous, adnate, at first developing as scattered orbicular colonies 2–10 mm diameter, merging to form linear areas to 6 × 3 cm; hymenial surface pallid buff, dingy greyish-brown, or pallid ochre, rugulose, at length deeply areolately creviced; margins thinning out, free or adnate, concolorous Context isabelline or tan, 80–250μ thick, composed of a narrow intermediate layer of intertwined hyphae from which arises a vertical palisade of pseudosetae; hyphal system dimitic; skeletal hyphae 3–5μ diameter, walls to 1μ thick, dingy brown, aseptate, sparingly branched, sometimes slightly inflated in scattered hyphae, staining; generative hyphae 1.5–2μ diameter, walls 0.25μ thick, hyaline, branched, septate, with clamp connexions. Hymenial layer a close palisade of basidia, paraphyses, gloeocystidia and pseudosetae. Gloeocystidia clavate, subclavate, or elliptical, 32–48 × 10–14μ, walls 0.5μ thick, hyaline, crowded in the intermediate layer, subhymemum and hymenium Basidia subclavate, 26–32 × 10–12μ, 4-spored; sterigmata arcuate, slender, to 10μ long Paraphyses subclavate, shorter and narrower than the basidia. Pseudosetae forming a palisade beneath the hymenium when crowded, erect, cylindrical, 4–6μ diameter, finely verruculose, sometimes submoniliform and occasionally bifid; when projecting apices acute, sometimes bifid, many bearing 1–3 short lateral branchlets, verruculose, hyaline, staining. Spores globose or subglobose, 10–12μ diameter, or 10–12 × 9–10μ, walls smooth, hyaline, 0.25μ thick.
Text-fig. 3.—Transverse section of Duportella sphaerospora, showing projecting pseudosetae with some bearing apical branchlets, gloeocystidia and delicate generative hyphae, × 500; spores × 1000. Original.
Distribution: New Zealand.
Habitat: Effused on bark of dead trunks and branches.
Nothofagus menziesii (Hook, f.) Oerst. Auckland: Upper Mohaka River, Kaimanawas, 2,000ft, May 1953, J. M. Dingley, type collection, P.D.D. herbarium, No. 12572.
Specific features are the globose or subglobose spores, subclavate or elliptical gloeocystidia, delicate generative hyphae and unusual pseudosetae. In the type collection the hymenium is overmature so that most basidia and paraphyses have collapsed. A few are present, and spores abundant in all sections examined. It would appear that the hymenium is precocious, as in D. fulva, developing at an early stage, later collapsing to be replaced by a palisade of pseudosetae, which is present as a dense coloured palisade in the subhymenium. Pseudosetae are unusual in that they stain deeply in aniline blue solution, are sometimes bifid at apices, or bear from one to three brief lateral branchlets. All are coated in the apical region with sheaths of fine crystals. Pseudosetae and spores are nonamyloid. Generative hyphae are of appreciably less diameter than those of other species. They are copiously produced and form the bulk of the intermediate layer. Among them lie many pseudosetae, lying at various angles; some are bifid, a few branched, and others exhibit occasional inflated areas. They are finely crystal coated, as are those of the hymenial layer. Gloeocystidia, present also in the extralimital D. tristricula, are crowded in the hymenium, subhymenium and context. They vary appreciably in length and shape, most being subclavate.
4. Duportella monomitica sp. nov. Text-fig. 4.
Hymenophorum pileatum vel resupinatum; pileis effuso-reflexis, superficie castanea vel sepiacea, tomentosa; resupinatum orbiculatum liberis marginibus; superficies hymenii umbrina vel sepiacea, ubi fertilis cinerea, tarde rimosa. Contextus sepiaceus, hyphis fere parallelis in hymenio recurvatis; hypharum systema monomiticum; hyphae generatoriae ad 6μ diam., parietibus 0.2–0.5μ crassis, brunneis, enodulosis. Pseudosetae cylindricales leviter inflatis apicibus, parietibus brunneis, nudae. Basidia subclavata, 24–30 × 5–6.5μ, 4 sporis in tenuibus sterigmatibus. Sporae ellipticae vel suballantoides, 6–7 × 3.5–4.5μ.
Hymenophore pileate or resupinate, annual, sometimes reviving a second season, coriaceous, developing at first as numerous orbicular sessile-umbonate colonies 5–10 mm diameter, merging to form either broadly resupinate linear areas with reflexed margins, or remaining resupinate, to 20 × 5 cm. Pilei narrowly effused-reflexed, to 5 cm wide, extending the length of the upper margin of the fructifications, or sometimes imbricate; surface chestnut or more usually umber or sepia, tomentose or strigose; hymenial surface at first radially sulcate, fuscus, umber, or sepia, sometimes radiately rugose, at length tardily creviced, sometimes in radiate series, when fertile becoming cinereous; margin thinning out, fibrillose, crenate, at first broad and white or tan, becoming fawn, finally concolorous, free. Context sepia, shining in section, 0.3–0.6 mm thick, intermediate layer of mainly parallel hyphae turning abruptly into the hymenium; hyphal system monomitic; generative hyphae to 6μ diameter, walls 0.2–0.5μ thick, yellow brown, darker when old and towards the base, branched, septate, without clamp connexions. Hymenial layer a close palisade of basidia, paraphyses and scanty projecting pseudosetae; in sterile plants composed of pseudosetae arranged in a loose palisade. Basidia subclavate, 24–30 × 5–6.5μ, 4-spored; sterigmata erect, slender, to 6μ long. Paraphyses subclavate, shorter and narrower than the basidia. Pseudosetae subclavate or cylindrical, some with slightly inflated apices, walls usually naked, yellow brown, 0.25μ thick. Spores elliptical with lateral apiculi, or suballantoid, 6–7 × 3.5–4.5μ, walls smooth, hyaline, 0.1μ thick.
Distribution: New Zealand.
Habitat: On bark of dead standing stems and trunks.
Acacia dealbata Link. Auckland: Oratia, August 1948, D. W. McKenzie; Campbell's Bay, August 1950, E. E. Chamberlain.
Leptospermum ericoides A. Rich. Auckland: Huia, 100ft, November 1945, G. H. C., October 1953, J. M. Dingley; Manaia, Whangarei Heads, October 1947, J. M. Dingley; Rereatukahia Reserve, Katikati, 500ft, September 1950, G. H. C.; Great King Island, Three Kings, January 1952, E. E. Chamberlain, December 1955, P. J. Brook; White's Stream, Piha, January 1954, J. M. Dingley.
Leptospermum scoparium Forst. Auckland: Whakarewarewa, 1,200ft, October 1945, G. H. C.; Cascade Kauri Park, Waitakeres, 700ft, October 1945, J. M. Dingley; Wood's Bay, Titirangi, March 1946, J. M. Dingley; Mt. Te Aroha, 950ft, November 1946. G. H. C.; Mt. Albert, September 1948, D. W. McKenzie; Little Huia, 200ft, February 1949, Mrs. E. E. Chamberlain; Swanson, April 1949, P. M. Ambler; Walker's Bush, Waitakeres, August 1950, J. M. Dingley; Oratia, Waitakeres, 900ft, July 1951, J. M. Dingley; Cornwallis, 100ft, May 1952, J. D. Atkinson; Moturoa Island, Bay of Islands, 100ft, May 1956, J. D. Atkinson; Mt. Te Aroha, 1,100ft, October 1956, G. H. C., type collection, P.D.D. herbarium, No. 16644.
Leucopogon fasciculatus (Forst. f.) A. Rich. Auckland: Hunua Falls, 400ft, October 1946, G. H. C.
Phyllocladas trichomanoides Don. Auckland: Kauri Park, Birkenhead, July 1946, J. M. Dingley.
Pinus radiata Don. Auckland: Woodhill, 100ft, July 1953, J. M. Dingley.
Pittosporum tenuifolium Banks & Sol. Auckland: Konini Road, Waitakeres, 900ft, July 1947, J. M. Dingley.
Weinmannia racemosa L. f. Auckland: Mt. Te Aroha, 1,100ft, October 1956, G. H. C.
Separated from D. fulva, which it resembles most closely in macrofeatures, by the monomitic hyphal system, usually naked pseudosetae, differently coloured freely septate generative hyphae, and differently shaped spores. The hymenial surface is at first sepia or chocolate in colour because of the copious development of pseudosetae. When plants become fertile the colour changes to cinereous. The hymenium is tardily developed, at first appearing as scattered groups of basidia and paraphyses lying among the pseudosetae; later, basidia and paraphyses form a close palisade submerging the pseudosetae which then appear as a dense zone in the subhymenium with a few projecting. Hyphae are somewhat scantily branched; branches arise beneath septa, grow out at a wide angle, then turn parallel with the parent hypha. The effused-reflexed pilei develop only upon the upper margins of fructifications growing upon upright stems. They are uncommon, since most plants are either resupinate or umbonate-sessile with free plane margins. Plants possess a disagreeable odour, even after long keeping in the herbarium.
G. H. Cunningham, C.B.E, D.Sc., Ph.D., F.R.S.,
Plant Diseases Division,
Department of Scientific and Industrial Research,