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Volume 85, 1957-58
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Some Rotifers from Malaya

[Received by the Editor, September 2, 1957.]

Abstract

Approximately thirty species of Rotatoria are listed from Singapore, Malaya, mostly tropical forms, though a few of them are also found in temperate zones. One comparatively rare Asplanchnoid rotifer does not appear to have been reported from tropical waters hitherto.

Introduction

This paper lists the rotifers collected by Dr. Marshall Laird and Mrs. Laird, with the assistance of Mr. C. A. Caldwell from the environs of the Singapore Air Port, Paya Lebar, Singapore, and was part of an entomological survey conducted for the Ministry of Health by the Department of Parisitology of the University of Malaya.

Many of the loricated rotifers found were similar, except in size, to those found in Ghana, West Africa, Russell (1956), and from the South Sea Islands, Russell (1957). An interesting specimen is Asplanchna sieboldi, which is comparatively rare, and has an erratic distribution. No new species were found, but a large number of Bdelloidal and sessile rotifers were examined, a few of which appeared to be new, the condition of which prevented complete identification. A few of the loricated forms were species often found in New Zealand waters. The specimens of Platyias patulus examined appear to be the smallest that so far have been reported.

In the systematic list species have been listed in alphabetical order, and the genera Lecane and Monostyla have been retained, although combined under Lecane.

Genus Asplanchna

Asplanchna brightwelli Gosse. 1850. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2, Vol. 6, p. 23.

Locality. Transient pool, 25° C. pH 7·2. Not common. Typical specimens 600 microns in length.

Asplanchna sieboldi (Leydig)

Notommata sieboldi Leydig. 1854. Zeit. Wiss. Zool., Vol. 6, p. 24.

Locality. Manhole, bottom debris. 30°C pH 6·8. Common. Males also present. Average length of specimens (female) 700 microns. The males being about 300 microns in length. Both mictic and amictic females were present, and the mictic females were smaller in length by about 100 microns. A departure from the type is an auxiliary tooth on the outside of each ramus.

Genus Asplanchnopus

Asplanchnopus multiceps (Schrank)

Brachionus multiceps Schrank. 1793. Naturforscher, Vol. 27, p. 30.

Locality. Fish pond. Not common. 26° C. pH 7·0. Typical specimens having a length of 700 microns.

Genus Brachionus

Brachionus bidenta Anderson. 1889. Jour. Asiatic Soc., Bengal, Pt. 2, p. 357.

Locality. Permanent pond. 29° C pH 7 2. Common. Length (total) 220 microns, width 146 microns. Anterior spines: Lat. 26 microns. Int. 12 microns.

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Median 18 microns. Posterior spines: Left 24 microns. Right 36 microns. Small specimens. Many empty loricas. Also in pond 23° C. pH 6·8. Not common.

Brachionus quadridentatus Herman. 1783. Helminth. Naturf. Halle. Vol. XIX, p. 47.

Locality. Permanent pond. 29° C., pH 7·2. Abundant. Maximum total length 210 microns. A large variety of sizes was found, and also all stages of cyclomorphic variation. Also in permanent pond. 23° C. pH 6·8. Very common. Also in fish pond. 24° C. pH 6·8. Not common. Same pool. 26° C. pH 7·0. Abundant.

Brachionus rubens Ehrenberg, 1838. Die Infus., p. 513.

Locality. Transient pool. 25° C., pH 7·2. Body length over spines 170 microns. Found commensal on Daphnia. Also pig pond. 29° C. pH 7·4. Small specimens having total length over spines of 100–120 microns, commensal on Daphnia. Same pond, 26° C., pH 6·8, commensal on Daphnia.

Genus Cephalodella

Cephalodella gibba (Ehrenberg)

Furcularia gibba Ehrenberg. 1832. Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 130.

Locality. Ponded stream. 29° C. pH 7·2. Not common. Loricas only. Length of body 150 microns. Length of toes 70 microns.

?Cephalodella tantilla Myers. 1924. Rotifer Fauna Wisconsin, Pt. 3, pp. 486-7.

Locality. Permanent pond. 23° C. pH 6·8 Rare. Length of body 76 microns. Length of toes 28 microns. Specimens in poor condition with slight variation of the mastax, but are considered to come within the range of the species.

Genus Colurella

Colurella obtusa (Gosse)

Colurus obtusus Gosse. 1886. The Rotifera, Vol. 2, p. 105.

Locality. Permanent pond. 23° C. pH 6·8. Moderately common. Length of body 56 microns. Length of foot and toes 29 microns.

Genus Conochilus

Conochilus hippocrepis (Schrank)

Linza hippocrepis Schrank. 1830. Fauna Boica, Vol. 3, Pt. 2, p. 314.

Locality. Edge of flowing stream. 26° C. pH 6·4 Moderately common. Colonies about 300–400 microns in diameter. Also manhole 30° C. pH 6·8, decomposed colonies considered to be of this species. Also in marsh 27° C. pH 6·8.

Genus Euchlanis
Sub-Genus Dapidia

Dapidia calpidia Myers. 1930. Rotifer Fauna Wisconsin, Pt. 5, pp. 371–2.

Locality. Fish pond. 24° C., pH 6·8. Rare. Empty loricas. Length of body 240 microns. Length of toes 90 microns.

Genus Euchlanis

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?Euchlanis lucksiana Hauer. 1930. Zool. Anz, Leipzig. Bd. 92, Heft 7/8, pp. 219–222.

Locality. Permanent pond. 23° C. pH 6·8. Not common. Length of body 280 microns. Length of toes 80 microns. Animals were stained black, and there is an element of doubt in this identification.

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Genus Floscularia

Floscularia ringens (Linnaeus)

Serpula ringens Linnaeus. 1758. Syst. Nat., edition 10, p. 788.

Locality. Fish pond. 26° C. pH 7·0. Common. A few individuals but many cases.

Genus Lecane

Lecane curvicornis (Murray)

Cathypna curvicornis Murray. 1913. Jour. R. Micr. Soc., p. 346.

Locality. Permanent pond. 29° C. pH 7·2. Common. Length of dorsal plate 128 microns; of ventral plate 134 microns. Width of dorsal plate 108 microns; of ventral plate 112 microns. Width of anterior points 68 microns. Length of toe and claw 60 microns. Length of claw 10 microns. Also found in permanent pond at 23° C. pH 6·8. Not common. Fairly common on edge of flowing stream at 26° C. pH 6·4, and in a permanent pond at 30° C. pH 6·8. These specimens were similar in almost all respects to those found on the Gold Coast by Russell (1956) apart from minor differences in size.

Lecane papuana (Murray)

Cathypna papuana Murray. 1913. Jour. R. Micr. Soc., p. 551.

Locality. Permanent pond 29° C. pH 7·2. Common. Length of lorica 110 microns. Maximum width 90 microns. Width of anterior points 66 microns. Length of toes 40 microns. Also found in the following habitats: A permanent pond at 23° C. pH 6·8. Not common. In fish pond at 24° C. pH 6·8. Fairly common; and in fish pond at 26° C. pH 7·0. Common. In ponded stream at 29° C. pH 7·2. Not common. Together with the typical forms was found a variety having a deeper ventral V sinus without lobes, the anterior dorsal edge being higher than the lateral edges of the sinus. In some cases the dorsal edge was convex. The common variety is shown in the Text-figure. Russell (1957) suggests that Lecane papuana may be only a variety of Lecane luna caused by the partial contraction of the anterior edges of the animal due to the preservative. Although the figure shows that the anterior edges of L. papuana are flexible there is nothing to indicate from the animals examined in this instance that it is a variety of Lecane luna, which was not found in any of the habitats.

Genus Lepadella

Lepadella aspida Harring. 1916. Proc. U.S. Nat. Museum, Vol. 51, pp. 536–7.

Locality. Permanent pond 29° C. pH 7·2. Rare. Typical specimens 80 microns in length, the head opening as well as the animal itself being almost circular.

Lepadella imbricata Harring. 1914. Proc. U.S. Nat Museum, Vol. 47, p. 549.

Locality. Permanent pond. 29° C. pH 7·2. Rare. Length of lorica 88 microns. Width 56 microns. Width of anterior points, 36 microns. Length of foot and toes 56 microns. Specimens differ from the type in having a slight dorsal sinus, and in the dimensions. They appear, however, to come within the range of the species. Also found in the same habitat at 23° C. pH 6·8; and in ponded stream 29° C. pH 7·2, in small numbers.

Lepadella patella (Muller)

Brachionus patella Muller. 1786. Anim. Infus., p. 541.

Locality. Permanent pond. 29° C. pH 7·2. Not common. Length of body 80

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microns. Length of toes 22 microns. Maximum width of body 54 microns. Typical specimens.

Lepadella triptera Ehrenberg. 1832. Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 71.

Locality. Permanent pond. 29° C. pH 7·2. Not common. Typical specimens. Body 64 microns in length. Width 48 microns. Length of toes 10 microns.

Genus Limnias

Limnias ceratophylli Schrank. 1803. Fauna Boica, Vol. 3, Pt. 2, p. 311.

Locality. Permanent pond. 30° C. pH 6·8. Few extended animals in poor state of preservation, but many tubes. Pond. 29° C. pH 6·8. Not common. Also in same pond 26° C. pH 6·8. Not common.

Genus Monostyla

Monostyla closterocerca Schmarda. 1859. Neue Wirbell. Thiere, Vol. 1, p. 59.

Locality. Permanent pond. 29° C. pH 7·2. Not common. Length of dorsal plate 60 microns; of ventral plate 64 microns. Width of dorsal plate 60 microns; of ventral plate 56 microns. Length of toe and claw 24 microns. There were slight differences from the type in the shape of the plates possibly due to uneven contraction.

Monostyla decipiens Murray. 1913. Jour. R. Micr. Soc., p. 360.

Locality. Permanent pond 29° C. pH 7·2. Not common. Length of dorsal plate 73 microns; of ventral plate 78 microns. Width of dorsal plate 56 microns; of ventral plate 46 microns. Anterior points 30 microns. Length of toe and claw 26 microns. Specimens differed from the type in the larger first foot joint, and the reduced posterior segment.

Monostyla hamata Stokes. 1896. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6. Vol. 16, p. 21.

Locality. Permanent pond. 29° C. pH 7·2. Not common. Length of dorsal plate 73 microns; of ventral plate 80 microns. Width of dorsal plate 58 microns; of ventral plate 49 microns. Length of toe 30 microns. Typical specimens. Also found in same pond at 23° C. pH 6·8. Rare.

Monostyla pyriformis Daday. 1905. Maths. Term. Estes, Vol. 23, p. 330.

Locality. Permanent pond. 29° C. pH 7·2. Rare. Length of body 54 microns, width of body 48 microns. Length of toe 20 microns. Typical specimens.

Monostyla quadridentata Ehrenberg. 1832. Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 130.

Locality. Permanent pond. 29° C. pH 7·2. Fairly common. Length of dorsal plate 90 microns; of ventral plate 110 microns. Width of dorsal plate 64 microns; of ventral plate 74 microns. Length of toe and claw 60 microns. Length of claw 18 microns. Typical specimens except for slight differences in dimensions. Also in same pool at 23° C. pH 6·8. Not common.

Monostyla styrax Harring and Myers. 1926. Rotifer Fauna Wisconsin, Pt. 3, pp. 389–390.

Locality. Permanent pond 29° C. pH 7·2. Fairly common. Length of body 106 microns. Maximum width 70 microns. Length of toe and claw 60 microns. Length of claw 20 microns. Also found in fish pond at 26° C. pH 7·0. Not common.

Genus Mytilina

Mytilina ventralis (Ehrenberg)

Salpina ventralis Ehrenberg. 1832. Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 133.

Locality. Permanent pond. 29° C. pH 7·2. Rare. Total length 116 microns. Length of anterior spines 4–6 microns Length of posterior spines 18 microns. Length of toes 40 microns. Typical specimens except for the longer lumbar spine.

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Genus Platyias

Platvias patulus Muller. 1786. Anim. Infus., p. 361.

Locality. Permanent pond. 30° C. pH 6·8. Not common. Length of body over spines 135 microns. Length of spines (from left to right in dorsal view) occipital 20–18–40 microns; pectoral spines 20–14 microns; posterior spines 10–18–14–10 microns. Empty loricas only were found in poor state of preservation. Specimens were smaller than the type and differ in the relative length of spines.

Platyias quadricornis (Ehrenberg)

Noteus quadricornis Ehrenberg. 1832. Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 143.

Locality. Edge of flowing stream. 26° C. pH 6·4. Fairly common. Length of body over spines 360 microns. Width of body 220 microns. Length of anterior spines 70 microns. Length of posterior spines 60 microns. Typical specimens.

Genus Rotaria

Rotaria neptunia (Ehrenberg)

Actinurus neptunis Ehrenberg. 1832. Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 145.

Locality. Edge of flowing stream. 26° C. pH 6·4. Moderately common. Typical specimens.

Genus Testudinella

Testudinella patina (Hermann)

Brachionus patina Hermann. 1783. Naturf., Vol. 19, p. 48.

Locality. Fish pond. 24° C. pH 6·8. Not common. Mostly decomposed specimens. Length 210 microns.

Genus Trichocerca

Trichocerea ornata Myers. 1934. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nov. No. 700, pp. 10–11.

Locality. Permanent pond. 29° C. pH 7·2 Rare. Length of body approximately 42 microns. Length of left toe 48 microns. Length of right toe 10 microns. The mucrones were less developed than in the type. The trophi were normal.

Notes on the Material

In addition to the species listed there were a large number of Bdelloids in a contracted or other condition making a specific identification impossible. These appeared to belong to the genera Philodina and Rotaria. The remains of colonial and sessile rotifers were also noticed, some belonging to the genera Lacinularia and Colletheca.

Acknowledgments

I have to thank Dr. Marshall Laird, Mrs. Laird, and Mr. C. A. Caldwell for the opportunity to study the material they collected, and for the mounted slides. This has enabled another blank gap in the distribution of the Rotatoria to be filled in. The fact that temperature and pH records have been made for all habitats has been extremely valuable, as not only has it been possible to correlate them with the life cycle of the animals, but has assisted in the diagnosis of the specimens.

Literature Cited

Russell, C. R., 1956. Some Rotifers from the Gold Coast. Jour. West African Science Association, Accra, Ghana. Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 139–144.

Russell, C. R., 1957. Some Rotifers from the South Pacific Islands and Northern Australia. Trans. Royal Society of New Zealand, Vol 84, Pt. 4.

C. R. Russell, M.Sc. (Eng.), F.R.M.S.,
Hon. Keeper of Rotifers

,
Canterbury Museum,
Box 606, Christchurch, N.Z.