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Volume 85, 1957-58
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The Royal Society of New Zealand

Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council, Held on May 22, 1957.

The Annual Meeting of the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand was held on Wednesday, May 22, 1957, in the Council Room, Victoria University College, Wellington, commencing at 10 a.m.

Chair. The President, Professor L. H. Briggs, was in the chair.

Representation and Roll Call. The following responded to the roll call: President, Professor L. H. Briggs; Vice-Presidents, Professor R. S. Allan and Professor L. R. Richardson, Immediate Past President, Dr. D. Miller; Government Representatives—Dr G. Archey, Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. C. A. Fleming; Auckland Institute—Mr. S. G. Brooker, Professor K. B. Cumberland; Wellington Branch—Mr. K. R. Allen, Dr. M. A. F. Barnett; Canterbury Branch—Mr. B. W. Collins, Professor E. Percival; Otago Branch—Miss B. Brewin, Mr. O. H. Keys; Waikato Scientific Association–Mr. R. R. White; Rotorua Philosophical Society—Dr. J. K. Dixon; Hawke's Bay Branch—Mr. N. L. Elder; Nelson Philosophical Society—Dr. H. O. Askew; Co-opted Member—Dr. J. T. Salmon; Honorary Treasurer, Mr. S. Cory-Wright; Fellows' Representatives—Professor C. A. Cotton, Dr. F. G. Soper.

Apologies for Absence. His Excellency the Governor-General, Lord Norrie, regretted he was unable to attend as he was in residence in Auckland.

The Minister, the Hon. R. M. Algie, regretted that as he was leaving for Auckland he would be unable to attend.

Mr. R. W. Willett, representative of the Southland Branch, apologised for absence as he had to attend another meeting.

The Late Dr. W. R. B. Oliver. The President, Professor Briggs, referred to the death of Dr. W. R. B. Oliver on the 17th day of May, and paid a tribute to his work for the Society, of which he had been President from 1952–54, a member of the Council for many years, a former editor of the Transactions, and a Fellow of the Society. Professor Briggs spoke of Dr. Oliver's scientific attainments, for which he was internationally known, and of his academic achievements. In 1928 he graduated M. Sc. with first class honours, and in 1934 he received from the University of N.Z. the degree of D. Sc. for studies on the genus Coprosma, a thesis embracing the whole of the Pacific. He had been awarded both the Hector and Hutton medals.

Dr. Oliver was the author of many publications and shortly before his death there appeared a second edition (revised and enlarged) of his “New Zealand Birds”.

Members of the Council stood in respect to his memory.

President's Remarks. The President briefly referred to outstanding events of the year in the scientific world as they affected New Zealand, such as the I.G.Y. programme, for which the thanks and appreciation of the Society should be extended to the Government for its liberal financial support; the Antarctic Expedition, and the proposed expedition to the South Pacific to commemorate the Darwin centenary.

He then went on to welcome back Dr. Barnett, who took his seat at the Council table as one of the representatives of the Wellington Branch in place of Professor Richardson, who had resigned on being elected a Vice-President of the Society, Professor E. Percival, who represented the Canterbury Branch in place of Professor Allan, Vice-President, who had likewise resigned, and Mr. R. R. White who had been appointed to represent the Waikato Scientific Association succeeding Dr. E. B. Davies.

Professor Briggs thanked Dr. Davies for his work while on the Council.

Notices of Motion were called for.

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Nominations Committee. The sub-committee consisting of the President, the two Vice-Presidents, and Dr. Archey, set up to consider the rules governing the Special Nominations Committee, reported that there are no rules, but the following resolutions had been passed at the annual meeting of the Council in May, 1948:

“That the Council approve of the setting up of a Special Nominations Committee of six to consider nominations received for the positions of President and Vice-Presidents and to report to the annual meeting.”

“That the rules be altered to allow the Special Nominations Committee to have the right to make nominations for the offices of President and Vice-Presidents.”

At the annual meeting in 1956 an ad hoc committee reported that under the rules it was not possible for it to make nominations regarding the two offices and that a ballot must be held on the nominations received from the Member Bodies.

In speaking to the report, Dr. Archey stated that the resolution framed at the 1948 annual meeting expressed the views of the Council then in office and the previous method of electing the President on the recommendation of the Standing Committee, or other committee set up for this purpose, was a more dignified procedure for a body such as the Royal Society of New Zealand.

After some discussion it was resolved, on the motion of Profesor Richardson, seconded by Professor Allan—

“That the Standing Committee arrange for a revision of the rules governing the election of President and Vice-Presidents according to the resolution of Council of May, 1948, and reaffirmed at this meeting.”

It was further resolved that the Nominations Committee be Dr. Falla, Dr. Archey, Mr. Callaghan, Professor Briggs, and Dr. Miller.

Hector Award. The following report was received from the Hector Award Committee:—

“I have to report that the Committee consisting of Dr. Marwick, Professor F. J. Turner (co-opted member) and myself recommends an award of the Hector Medal 1957 to Dr. H. W. Wellman for his work on New Zealand geology.


C. A. Cotton.

On the motion of Professor Briggs, seconded by Professor Richardson, the Hector Award Committee's report was adopted and the Hector Medal and Prize awarded to Dr. H. W. Wellman.

On the motion of Mr. Cory-Wright, seconded by Dr. Archey, it was resolved that the amount of the Hector Prize of £50.

E. R. Cooper Memorial Award. Dr. M. A. F. Barnett, Convener of the E. R. Cooper Award Committee, presented the following report:—

“The members of the E. R. Cooper Memorial Award Selection Committee after careful consideration recommend that no award be made this year.


M. A. F. Barnett

, Convener, Selection Committee.”

On the motion of Professor Briggs, seconded by Professor Richardson, the Award Committee's report was adopted, and it was further resolved–

“That the E. R. Cooper Memorial Award be considered again in 1958.”

Fellowship R.S.N.Z. No vacancies in the Fellowship were declared.

Honorary Membership. As there was some uncertainty as to whether a vacancy had occurred in the Honorary Membership, the matter was referred to the Standing Committee with power to act.

Vote of Thanks. On the motion of the President the Award Committees were thanked for their work during the past year.

T. K. Sidey Summer-time Award. As there would be sufficient accumulated interest in the T. K. Sidey Summer-time Fund in two years to meet the amount of the prize money required it was resolved to make an award in 1959.

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Report of the Standing Committee for the Year ended 31st March, 1957.

The Standing Committee presents its report for the year ended 31st March, 1957.

Meetings. Ten regular meetings and one special meeting were held during the year, the attendance being as follows:–

Professor L. H. Briggs, President, Auckland, 3; Professor R. S. Allan, Vice-President, Christchurch, 1; Professor L. R. Richardson, Vice-President, Wellington, 10; Mr. K. R. Allen, Wellington, 10; Dr. M. A. F. Barnett, Wellington (appointed July), 8; Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Wellington, 9; Mr. S. Cory-Wright, Wellington, 10, Professor C. A. Cotton, Wellington, 10; Dr. J. K. Dixon, Wellington, 7; Dr. R. A. Falla, Wellington, 5; Dr. C. A. Fleming, Wellington, 9, Dr. J. T. Salmon, Wellington, 10, Mr. R. W. Willett, Wellington (appointed June), 8.

Council Half-Yearly Meeting. The Half-yearly Meeting of the Council was held on Thursday, November 22, 1956, in Wellington.

The only invitation to hold this meeting outside Wellington had been received from the Rotorua Philosophical Society. Although initially it was decided to accept this invitation, on investigation it was considered that the amount which would have to be incurred in travelling expenses in holding the meeting in Rotorua was not justified at that time, and it was therefore decided to hold the meeting in Wellington.

However, at the November meeting, when the matter was discussed it was considered that rotation of meeting place was one of the objects of this meeting, and the Standing Committee was authorised to bring down a report on future half-yearly meetings. At the December meeting of the Standing Committee a sub-committee consisting of Dr. Salmon (convener), Professor Richardson and Dr. Dixon was set up to report.

Council. Mr. R. W. Willett was appointed to succeed Dr. G. H. Uttley as representative of the Southland Branch on the Council. In view of his election as a Vice-President, Professor Richardson resigned as representative of the Wellington Branch, and he was succeeded by Dr. M. A. F. Barnett. Dr. E. B. Davies, representative of the Waikato Scientific Association, resigned, and Mr. R. R. White was appointed in his place and later, Professor R. S. Allan, Vice-President, resigned as representative of the Canterbury Branch, and he is succeeded by Professor E. Percival.

In March a resolution of sympathy in his illness was conveyed to Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, a Past President and for a long period a member of the Council.

Meeting with the Minister of Scientific and Industrial Research, the Hon. R. M. Algie. At the June meeting of the Standing Committee, Professor Richardson reported that he, Mr. Callaghan, and Dr. Salmon, had waited on the Minister to acquaint him with matters of importance arising from the annual meeting. The Hon. Mr. Algie evinced keen interest in such matters as the Transantarctic Expedition, the International Geophysical Year, and the Fuel and Power Sub-committee's difficulties in obtaining Government support, and he expressed his willingness to meet the latter. He was also interested in the proposed Darwin Centenary South Pacific Expedition and the invitation extended to the Royal Society to participate in this event. He extended his best wishes to the Society, briefly suggesting ways in which he may be able to assist it in this project.

Financial. At the Minister's request that he be advised before November of the Society's financial requirements for the forthcoming year it was decided to prepare a budget which should include a grant for sending representatives to the Ninth Pacific Science Congress in 1957. A statement of the finances up to that date and a budget for 1957–58 was forwarded to the Minister, who stated that he was referring it to the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research This acknowledgment was made in February and no further word has been received although an endeavour has been made to arrange a time for a deputation to wait on the Minister.

Pacific Science Congress Account. By agreement with the Minister and the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research an allowance of £600 was made for administration expenses in connection with the publication and distribution of the Proceedings of the Pacific Science Congress and the amount of £2,500 was transferred from that Account to the Royal Society as part payment of the annual grant of £4,000. Also, by agreement, subsequent sales of the Proceedings were to be credited to the Royal Society and by this means approximately £264 has been added to the Society's Account.

At 31st March there was still approximately £290 outstanding from sales of the Proceedings involving 50 orders, including nine from New Zealand members of the Congress In some cases accounts have been repudiated, in others they have been ignored or returned unclaimed. Amounts are still coming to hand, however, from accounts rendered in November, and it is proposed to render them again with a stronger demand for payment.

The Pacific Science Congress Account is now closed.

Publication Matters. The Geological Society of New Zealand raised the question as to whether the Transactions could be made available for the publication of comments and criticism on geological papers published in the Transactions Following a report on this request by the Hon. Editor, the Standing Committee rejected the proposal, replying that it would.

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constitute a new departure for the Transactions, which are for the publication of original research and to create a precedent in this direction could lead to a large correspondence and much additional expense.

Associate Editors. In June, Professor C. A. Cotton was appointed Associate Editor, and in February, 1957, because of his impending departure to Canberra, Mr. R. G. Robbins resigned as Honorary Editor. The Standing Committee expressed to Mr. Robbins the Society's regret at his resignation and its appreciation of the work he had done while in office.

Sales of Publications. Sales of Bulletin 5 (Handbook of N.Z. Mosses, by Sainsbury) and of Bulletin 6 (Studies of Mosquitoes, by Laird) are continuing steadily, and there has been a demand for the Transactions. Regular annual orders for Transactions have amounted to £94 10s, while the sale of partial set and odd copies brought the total for Transactions, etc., to £190. Recently, Progressive Books Ltd., of Auckland, ordered on account of a Book Agency in Peking, 34 copies of the current volume of the Transactions, presumably for his clients in China.

Sales of Bulletin 5 for the year were £78 4s, making the total amount to date for this Bulletin, £164 18s 10d.

Sales of Bulletin 6 for the year amounted to £95 5s 7d, making the total sales to date £196 13s 11d. In addition the Medical Services contributed £162 towards the cost of Bulletin 6.

Library. The work in the Library has been quite heavy, the demand for interloans totalling 209 volumes, and in all 689 volumes were on loan during the year.

The preparation of volumes for binding has taken up much time. The preparing of these runs for binding has necessitated tracing or endeavouring to replace many of the missing numbers. Some of these losses date back to days when there was no one in regular attendance in the Library, and the Loan Register requirements were not strictly recognised. Taking a long view, losses in the Society's Library have been comparatively small, and when approached overseas institutions have been most co-operative in replacing missing numbers. This co-operation has been reciprocated on the part of the Royal Society. There are, however, missing numbers which are now out of print and irreplaceable, and it is these which occasion unsightly unbround volumes on the shelves with the newly-bound volumes. It is probable that some of these losses may be attributed to doubtful ownership in other libraries. Before the Royal Society of New Zealand transferred its Library to Victoria University College as a safeguard against a very real fire hazard in the old Dominion Museum building behind Parliament Buildings it was housed in a room together with the library of the Wellington Branch, then the Wellington Philosophical Society, and some of the books of the Museum library. In the sorting of these books it is possible that misplacements occurred. Indeed, it would appear from the more recent Union List of Periodicals that this did happen. A Library Conference between these libraries on their holdings might result in mutual satisfaction.

There are numerous applications for exchange awaiting a meeting of the Library Committee.

Owing to pressure of other work it has not been possible to reassess the financial value of the Library for insurance purposes.

Binding. Duirng the year, approximately 300 volumes were bound or are with the binder. This is as much as the binding firms would take.

The majority of these volumes have been bound under the Lumbeck process, but the current numbers of the more valuable periodicals which have been bound in buckram are being continued in this binding. There is no comparison in the appearance of this binding with the cheaper Lumbeck process with the stencilled black lettering on the spine. At the best it keeps the parts of a periodical together, but the lasting properties of the cover boards and lettering seem rather doubtful.

Exchange List. Arising from a request made by a member at the last annual meeting of the Council, the outgoing and incoming exchange lists were published in the Appendix of Volume 83. Reprints of this list are available on request. It was decided to print the list annually.

Fellowship. No vacancies in the Fellowship of New Zealand were declared at the last annual meeting, so there was no occasion to call for nominations.

Honorary Members. There were no vacancies in the Honorary Membership to be filled.

Hector Award. The presentation of the Hector Medal and Prize for 1956 was made to Dr. Roger S. Duff by Professor R. S. Allan, Vice-President of the Royal Society, at a special meeting of the Canterbury Branch held on the 20th September, 1956.

The presentation of the 1954 award of this Medal and Prize was made to Mrs. Lucy Cranwell Smith, who was visiting New Zealand, at the annual meeting of the Auckland Institute by Professor Briggs, President of the Society, in May, 1956.

Hutton Medal. Owing to the supply of Hutton Medals being exhausted, the presentation to Dr. Fleming was deferred until the next supplies came to hand. This presentation will now be made to Dr. Fleming at the June meeting of the Wellington Branch. This is considered an appropriate occasion as Dr. Fleming that evening is to give an address to the Branch on New Zealand fossils.

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T. K. Sidey Summer-time Medal and Prize. The Auckland Institute undertook to present the Summer-time Medal and Prize to Dr. H. A. Whale, and this presentation was made by the President, Professor Briggs.

Hector and Hutton Medals. Supplies of these medals having been exhausted, new supplies were ordered from the makers, Messrs John Pinches Ltd., of London. The price of these medals was three times that of the last order, in 1938.

E. R. Cooper Memorial. The fund handed over to the Royal Society of New Zealand by the E. R. Cooper Memorial Committee of the D.S.I.R. at the November meeting of the Council has been deposited in the Post Office Savings Bank. A decision as to what amount should be capitalised and invested is necessary. At this meeting the Standing Committee was authorised to take the necessary steps to have the proposed rules governing the E. R. Cooper Trust Fund adopted and gazetted. In order that the first award may be considered in 1957 as specified in the Rules, a committee consisting of Dr. M. A. F. Barnett and Mr. C. E. Fenwick, representing the Royal Society, one member to be appointed by D.S.I.R. and two members to be appointed by the University of New Zealand was set up; Dr. Barnett to be convener of the committee.

Subsequently Mr. I. D. Dick was appointed to represent D.S.I.R., and Dr. G. A. Currie and Professor D. Walker were appointed to represent the University of New Zealand on the award committee.

At its December meeting the Standing Committee appointed a sub-committee consisting of Dr. Barnett, Mr. Callaghan, and Mr. Cory-Wright to bring down rules suitable for adoption and gazetting regarding the administration of the fund and the making of awards. Applications for the first award were called for in December.

Hutton Grants. Two applications for Hutton grants were received during the year, and these were recommended by the Research Grants Committee as follows:—

In July, the Standing Committee approved a grant of £25 to Mr. J. C. Yaldwyn towards travelling expenses involved in a study of the bottom fauna of the Bay of Plenty area with particular reference to a possible prawn fishery. In December it approved a grant of £26 18s 10d to Dr. R. W. Balham meteorologist and biologist to the Transantarctic Expedition, for the purchase of Kodachrome films for use in the Antarctic.

Member Bodies. The following reports and balance sheets have been received:—

Auckland Institute, for the year ended 31st March, 1956.

Wellington Branch for the year ended 30th September, 1956.

Canterbury Branch, for the year ended 31st October, 1956.

Otago Branch, for the year ended 31st October, 1956.

Nelson Philosophical Society for the year ended 30th September, 1956.

Southland Branch, for the year ended 31st March, 1956.

Waikato Scientific Association, for the year ended 30th September, 1956.

Rotorua Philosophical Society, for the year ended 30th September, 1956.

Hawke's Bay Branch (Balance Sheet only), for the year ended 31st December, 1956.

Special Nominations Committee, Following some doubt as to the powers of the Nominations Committee, the December meeting of the Standing Committee set up a sub-committee consisting of the President, the two Vice-Presidents, and Dr. Archey to report.

Finances and Activities of Branches. This matter was dealt with at length in the November meeting, and acting on the resolutions carried at that meeting, the sub-committee submitted the following recommendations to the February meeting of the Standing Committee—

1 That the existing Rule A (3) be revoked and replaced by the following:–

“Every member body admitted as aforesaid shall pay towards the extension and maintenance of the Royal Society of New Zealand in each year whichever is the greater of either one-sixth of its revenue received in the preceding year from the subscriptions of full members excluding life members or one-quarter of the residue of the revenue aforesaid after any sum expended in the same year by the member body on the formation or support of any local library, museum, observatory, or other institution approved by the Council and any sum paid in that year towards the cost of publishing the Proceedings and Transactions of the Society under Clause (e) of these rules have been deducted.”

That the existing Rule A (4) be revoked and replaced by the following:—

“Any member body which shall in any one year fail to pay to the Royal Society of New Zealand any sum required from it under Regulation 3 shall cease to be a member body of the Society unless it satisfies the Council of the Society that special circumstances have justified a temporary delay in making the payment.”

That the following words be added to Rule H (e):—

“Any such contribution shall not form part of any payment towards the extension or maintenance of the Royal Society of New Zealand required from a member body under Rule A (3)”.

The Standing Committee has given notice to amend the rules as specified above.

Board of Trustees National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum. In July the Standing Committee nominated for a further term of four years Dr. C. A. Fleming and Mr. H. C. McQueen, and they were thanked for their past services as representatives of the Society on.

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the Board of Trustees. The appointment of these nominees was made by the Board as from the 4th September, 1956.

Following a resolution of the last annual meeting of the Council that scientific representation on the Board of Trustees be increased the Minister of Internal Affairs, to whom the Society's representations had been referred by the Prime Minister, replied:

“I have carefully considered the Council's views on this matter. As you know, the Board of Trustees already consists of 18 members, and it is proposed to bring down legislation this year to give the N.Z Returned Services' Association direct representation on the Board in view of that Association's interest in the National War Memorial, one of the institutions administered by the Board of Trustees. A Board of 19 members is to my mind quite sufficient to administer the institutions which come under its control, and I would not be prepared to agree to any further increase in membership.

When regard is had to the necessity to give representation to those sectional interests concerned in various ways with the institutions under the Board's control and to the bodies which provide the finance for administration, I do not think it can be said that scientific interests are inadequately represented with two nominees as representatives of the Royal Society out of a total of 19 members…”

The Minister was thanked for his letter, which was referred to the Society's representatives.

Museum Management Committee. The term of office of the Society's representatives on the Museum Management Committee having expired, and Mr. D. W. McKenzie and Mr. T. Roptha having indicated that they did not seek renomination. the following were nominated:—Dr. C. A. Fleming, Mr. R. A. McLennan, Mr. H. C. McQueen, Dr. C. G. F. Morice and Professor H. A. Murray (present representatives) and Mr. F. R. Callaghan and Dr. W. M. Hamilton.

International Council of Scientific Unions. At the end of February, Dr. L. V. Berkener. President of ICSU and a Vice-President of the International Geophysical Year (IGY), visited New Zealand at the conclusion of a tour to the Far East and Australia. As Dr. Berkener had expressed a wish to meet members of the Royal Society of New Zealand, which is the adhering Society in New Zealand to ICSU, a special meeting of the Standing Committee was held on the 1st March, when every Wellington member of the Council was present, and in addition Professor R. S. Allan, Vice-President, attended from Christchurch.

The President, Professor Briggs, who was unable to attend, sent a message of welcome to Dr. Berkener, and Professor Richardson presided at the meeting.

A report of that meeting is attached.

At a meeting of the Standing Committee of the 22nd March the following recommendation to the annual meeting was approved:—

“That it be a recommendation to the annual meeting that it appoint a National ICSU Committee with representatives from the Royal Society of New Zealand and from the New Zealand national bodies already affiliated with Unions attached to ICSU and also leading scientists in other fields which are not yet affiliated to Unions”

Scale of Subscriptions to ICSU. The General Secretary of ICSU wrote asking if the proposed scale of subscriptions was acceptable to the Royal Society of New Zealand. As the proposed new scale was determined by the number of national societies in a country affiliated with their national unions under the aegis of ICSU, and the Royal Society had no official knowledge of what New Zealand societies were so affiliated, the general secretary of ICSU was asked for information. He replied that New Zealand organizations adhered to the Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, the Union of Geography, the Scientific Radio Union, and the Union of Biochemistry.

In view of the calculation of annual subscription to ICSU it was considered that the Royal Society as the adhering body should have some knowledge and jurisdiction over the New Zealand societies seeking to join the Unions under ICSU. While not wishing to unduly limit affiliation with these Unions some measure of control was essential by the Society in order that its own financial liability could be kept within its means. In this connection an application has been received from some New Zealand crystallographers who desire to become affiliated with the Union of Crystallography, one of the Unions adhering to ICSU.

Conservation Committee. During the year the following matters have been before the Standing Committee and have been referred to the Conservation Committee:—

  • (a) Heather on Tongariro National Park: A letter from Mr. J. H. Rose, a former representative of the Royal Society of New Zealand on the Tongariro National Park Board, with a memorandum by the Botany Department of DSIR indicated that heather was spreading rapidly in the Park.

  • (b) Plant Quarantine Regulations: The Director-General of Agriculture had forwarded a copy of the proposed amendments to the Plant Quarantine Regulations 1953/127 for comment. The convener of the Conservation Committee wrote signifying approval of the amendments proposed.

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  • (c) Urewera Forest: The N.Z. Forest and Bird Protection Society called attention to the felling taking place in the Urewera Forest and asked the Royal Society to be represented at a meeting in Rotorua of representatives of Ruatahuna and of interested organisations. The Conservation Committee discussed the matter and sent its findings to Mr. W. J. Wilson, of the N.Z. Forest Service, who was suggested by Mr. J. Healy, of the Rotorua Branch, as a suitable representative of the Society at the meeting there.

  • (d) Holiday Resorts: Dr. Salmon reported to the Standing Committee on the lack of amenities and facilities for the disposal of rubbish in many of the camping grounds and reserves in the North Island. The Standing Committee felt it could take this matter up by reason of its interest in Reserves and scenery preservation. Dr. Salmon made certain recommendations and these were referred to the Conservation Committee to be embodied in a suitable memorandum which should be sent to the Minister of Scientific and Industrial Research, the Director-General of Health, the Local Bodies' Commission, the Director-General of Lands and Chairman of the National Parks Authority. the Automobile Association, the Federated Mountain Clubs and the Travel Association.

Chatham Islands. Following a circular letter from the Nature Protection Council intimating that it had approached the Crown Lands regarding the protection of areas in the Chatham Islands, it was agreed to support the recommendations made. Later, definite suggestions by the Nature Protection Council regarding the areas it was proposed should be scenic reserves were received It was also reported that a soil survey report on the Islands had been prepared.

Pacific Science Council. Notification was received that at the Ninth Pacific Science Congress, to be held in Bangkok, Thailand, November 18 to December 2, 1957, the name of Australian Academy of Science would be substituted for the Australian National Research Council in Article 4 (a) of the Constitution. This amendment to the Constitution follows the fact that the Australian National Research Council was dissolved in August, 1955, and the Australian Academy of Science was appointed to be the representative body for Australia on the Pacific Science Council.

At the request of Miss Bishop, secretary to the Pacific Science Council, a set of the Proceedings of the Seventh Pacific Science Congress was presented to the Organising Committee for the Ninth Pacific Science Congress in Thailand, a set not being available there.

Calendar of Meetings. At the instigation of Mr. Callaghan, who referred to the conflict in dates of meetings of scientific societies, it was decided to prepare a Calendar. The secretary approached all appropriate societies in New Zealand for fixed dates of meetings, and a Calendar has been prepared and distributed to members of the Council, Member Bodies, and all other bodies concerned. The Calendar sets out the dates of annual, bi-annual and tri-annual conferences based on the year 1955–56, as well as regular monthly meetings in the year.

It is hoped that this Calendar will assist in the setting of future dates for meetings.

A.N.Z.A.A.S. The President, Professor Briggs, and the two Vice-Presidents, Professor Allan and Professor Richardson, were appointed to represent the Royal Society at the Dunedin meeting of A.N.Z.A.A.S.

International Geophysical Year. At the last annual meeting comment was made on the apparent absence of glaciology in the IGY programme, and the IGY Committee was advised accordingly Dr. Barnett, chairman of the IGY Committee, replied as follows:—

“In connection with the inclusion of glaciology in the IGY programme. I would like to explain that this subject has not been overlooked. It was not included in our report on the New Zealand programme because no final details have yet been worked out. The subject is, however, under study by the committee, and some work will certainly be carried out during the Geophysical Year.”

The IGY Committee presented to all members of the Council a booklet containing the New Zealand programme for IGY 1957–58. The committee was heartily congratulated on the production of the booklet.

Darwin Centenary and South Pacific Expedition. Following the report by Dr. Falla to the November meeting of the Council on his attendance in London at the discussions with the Royal Society of London and its representative committee, he further reported to the Standin Committee at its meeting in March on the negotiations which the Society's sub-committee had undertaken regarding a vessel for the proposed expedition. Dr. Falla stated that the Committee was to meet the Hon. R. M. Algie and the Hon. T. L. McDonald in the near future. All Member Bodies had not yet signified their attitude to the proposed expedition, especially in regard to personnel Dr. Falla stated that it was essential to know what support would be forthcoming before more definite action could be taken. It was decided to place the matter before Member Bodies and ask for early consideration.

Visit to Antarctica. Dr. Falla reported to the Standing Committee on a recent flying visit he had made to the Antarctic, when he was able to see at first hand what was being done there. He expressed himself as greatly impressed by the good work in the biological and geological fields that was being accomplished. The biological team was doing extraordinarily well under difficult conditions at Pram Point.

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In comment on this report it was stated that the Ross Sea Committee is prepared to consider the Society's Antarctic Research Committee's advice on projects and personnel for next year.

Science Centre, San Francisco. Professor Richardson, liaison officer of the Society with the Science Foundation in San Francisco, reported to the Standing Committee that already the Foundation was proving of value Recently it assisted a New Zealand professor going on refresher leave to the United States by offering to arrange a lecture tour for him, thereby solving the difficulty of obtaining dollar funds.

Visiting Scientists. In order that Member Bodies might be able to take advantage of visits to New Zealand of eminent scientists, the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research was asked to reinstate a service in acquainting the Royal Society of New Zealand of such visits as become known to it, and the Department has agreed to do so.

Walter Burfitt Prize. Two nominations were sent to the Royal Society of New South Wales for the 1956 award of the Walter Burfitt Prize. Advice was later received that Professor J. C. Eccles, late of the University of Otago, had been awarded the prize for his outstanding contributions in the field of neurophysiology.

Mechaelis Memorial Award. Professor D. Walker, Victoria University College, Wellington, was appointed to represent the Royal Society of New Zealand on the Mechaelis Award Committee.

UNESCO Science Exhibition. The National Commission of UNESCO approached the Roval Society for its opinion as to whether New Zealand would wish to make use of a travelling UNESCO Science Exhibition on the theme “Energy and Transformation”. It was suggested to the National Commission that it might approach the Society's Member Bodies in the four centres as to their attitude.

Biological Effects of Nuclear Radiation. The International Council of Scientific Unions circulated a memorandum to all its National Members on the effects of atomic radiation.

The Standing Committee decided to distribute copies of this memorandum to interested scientists. These copies will be available at the annual meeting in May.

Membership of the Royal Society of New Zealand. Arising, from a suggestion that an effort might be made to increase the membership of the Royal Society of New Zealand by means of a brochure or circular setting out the advantages to be gained by membership through the Branches, it was decided to pass on the suggestion to Member Bodies. It is a coincidence and of interest to learn through a Newsletter (No. 1) just issued by the Canterbury Branch the following note:—

“The membership of the Branch having remained relatively static for some years the Council has instituted a drive to increase it by circulating information and application forms to persons believed to be interested in joining the Society. The response is already gratifying and the Council is pleased to record the names of the following recent new members:”

Here follows a list of eighteen names.

On the motion of Professor Richardson, seconded by Dr. Salmon, the report of the Standing Committee was received.

Matters Arising Out of the Report

Pacific Science Congress Account. Comment was made about the amount outstanding from the sale of the Proceedings of the Seventh Pacific Science Congress. It was reported that a large part of this amount would be recoverable as it was on account of recent sales, but some of those who had originally ordered the volumes had since died and the addresses of some others had apparently been changed for invoices sent out had been returned unclaimed. It was hoped that another strong demand for payments might considerably reduce the amount outstanding.

Associate Editor. A resolution of appreciation of the work done by Mr. R. G. Robbins was carried unanimously.

Library. Some discussion on the binding that had been completed under the Lumbeck process took place, and while it was recognised that the cover boards and printing did not appear to have the lasting qualities of the buckram, at least this binding kept the parts of the periodical together and was adequate for some of the lesser used periodicals.

A.N.Z.A.A.S. The President conveyed to Dr. Soper, chairman of the Organizing Committee for the Dunedin meeting of ANZAAS, the congratulations of the Royal Society of New Zealand on the outstanding success of the meeting. It was magnifi-

– ix –

cently arranged, a spirit of friendliness pervaded the meetings and functions, and the President asked Dr. Soper and his committee to accept the thanks of everyone for a tremendous job well done.

Dr. Soper thanked the President and paid a warm tribute to his Organizing Committee, which had been “magnificent”.

Science Foundation. Mr. S. G. Brooker mentioned that he had found the International Science Foundation in San Francisco most helpful. He asked whether action had been taken to send a replica of the Society's seal. Professor Richardson, liaison officer for the Society and the Foundation, reported that the matter had not been overlooked, but the artist who had undertaken to do the work had left the Zoology Department, and the only other one competent to do it had been with the Antarctic Expedition.

An assurance that the matter would be dealt with at an early date was given.

Walter Burfitt Prize. On the motion of the President it was resolved to congratulate Professor Eccles on the award of the Walter Burfitt Prize.

Membership. In commenting on the drive for members by some of the Branches, Mr. Collins mentioned that a total of 80 new members had joined the Canterbury Branch.

On the motion of Professor Briggs, seconded by Professor Richardson, the report of the Standing Committee was adopted.

Hon. Treasurer's Report for Year ending 31st March, 1957.

I have the honour to present the Balance Sheet and Statement of Accounts as circulated, subject to audit, for the year ending 31st March, 1957.

Our Government Grant has been continued at £4,000 for the past year (including £2,500 from Pacific Science Account subsequently repaid), increased by the special grant of £2,000 to cover the large back-log on publications.

The balance carried forward to meet current expenses for the year just commencing is £4,762, being some £2.500 above the average amount in the past Against this we have a back-log of £1,244 due for printing and an unusually large income of £607 from sales of publications, and income of £600 for past administration of 7th Pacific Science Congress matters.

This means we have the anticipated Government grant as before of £4,000 and about another £1,000 in hand, making say £5,000 as prospective income for the coming year. Until some further income becomes available I must point out that expenditure on publications should not greatly exceed £3,000.

Member Bodies' contributions are satisfactory.

The Trust. Accounts are satisfactory, and a new account for the Cooper Memorial Fund has been added. The Endowment Account shows a balance of income of £179, and I seek direction of the Council as to its application.



Hon. Treasurer.

– x –

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Statement of Receipts and Payments for the Year Ended 31st March, 1957.
Receipts. Payments
£ s. d. £ s. d.
Balance at 31st March, 1956 2,176 8 6 Printing, Otago Daily Times Co., Ltd., Bulletin 6,
Annual Government Grant—£2,500 from P.S.C. Vol. 83 (3, 4), 84(1) 3,276 16 5
Account; £1,500 from D.S.I.R. 4,000 0 0 Stationery 51 2 5
Special Government Grant 2,000 0 0 Salaries 1,232 0 11
Levy on Transactions, Vol. 84 352 17 6 Honoraria (Editors) 75 0 9
Sales of Publications—Transactions, etc., £212 5s 9d; Library Binding 64 9 0
Bulletin 5, £65 17s 1d; Bulletin 6, £159 5s 11d 437 8 9 Darwin Centenary: Representative to London Com-
Favourable exchange on above 0 5 0 mittee 574 19 4
Publication Expenses met by Air and Marine Departments 312 0 0 Int, Council Scientific Unions: Subscription 71 0 3
Travelling Expenses: Member Bodies' Share 105 8 3 Pacific Science Council Secretariat 120 1 8
Darwin Centenary: Grant from Royal Society of London towards Reprsentative's Expenness on account 150 11 3 Hector and Hutton Medal Supplies 58 3 3
Hector Prizes (two years and Exchange) 100 0 6
Travelling Expenses 178 5 6
T. K. Sidey Summer-time Prize 100 0 0
Authors' Corrections 16 18 0 Engraving Medals 2 19 6
Contributions from Member Bodies 11 6 8 Hutton Grants 119 3 10
Administration Expenses allowed on P.S.C. Account 600 0 0 Imprest 56 19 5
Balance of Pacific Science Cong. Account transferred 7 11 5 Charges 32 7 10
Interest on Pacific Science Cong. Account Fixed Hon, Editor, postages, etc 10 0 0
Deposit 17 10 0 Trust Funds Audit Fee 6 0 0
Sales of Proceedings Pacific Science Congress since Interest paid direct to Trust Accounts 45 17 0
transfer 257 16 1 E. R. Cooper Memorial Fund to P.O.S.B, Trust A/c. 181 15 0
“Fragments of N.Z. Entomology” sold on account of owner 8 10 6 Transfer from General Account to P.O.S.B. Trust A/cs. 28 13 9
Balance as Under 4,762 8 2
Endowment Fund, Interest 153 11 9 £ s. d.
Hector Memorial Fund, Interest 50 3 5 Bank of New Zealand 631 3 11
Hutton Memorial Fund, Interest 61 2 1 Less Unpresented Cheques 176 3 3
T. K. Sidey Summer-time Fund, Interest 25 11 11
Plant Diseases Trust, Interest 29 15 0 455 0 8
Cockayne Memorial Fund, Interest 14 17 11 Post Office Savings Bank 4,288 4 3
Carter Library Legacy, Interest 7 16 0 Cash in Hand 14 4 2
Hamilton Memorial Fund, Interest 6 0 9
E. R. Cooper Memorial Fund, Interest 183 2 2 4,757 9 1
Hutton Grant, overestimated and refunded 2 5 1 Petty Cash in Hand 4 19 1
Trust Funds transferred to General Account 159 6 6
£4,762 8 2
£11,148 4 6 £11,148 4 6
– xi –

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Statement of Income and Expenditure for the Year Ended 31st March, 1957.
Expenditure. Income
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Printing Vol. 83 (3 and 4), 84 (1,2) 3,225 13 10 By Balance at 31st March, 1956 471 17 5
" Salaries 1,232 0 11 " Annual Government Grant 4,000 0 0
" Editorial Honoraria and Expenses 85 0 9 " Special Government Grant 2,000 0 0
" Imprest 56 19 5 " Administration Expenses allowed on Pacific Science Congress Proceedings 600 0 0
" Travelling Expenses 72 17 3 " Balance of Congress Account transferred to R.S.N.Z. 7 11 5
" Stationery 51 12 11 " Sale of Proceedings since closing Account 257 16 1
" Charges (Telephone, Audit, Insurance, etc,) 32 2 10 " Interest of P.S. Cong, A/c. Fixed Deposit 17 10 0
" Subscription Int. Council Scientific Unions 71 0 3 " Interest Endowment A/c, allocated 1956 Annual Meeting 88 19 0
" Subscription Pacific Science Council Secretariat 120 1 8 " Manawatu Philosophical Society's A/c. to Revenue 33 18 3
" Allocation Binding Fund 50 0 0 " Trust Funds Administration Expenses 5 2 6
" Allocation N.Z. Science Congress Fund 50 0 0 " Levy, Vol. 84 354 15 0
" Balance 3,397 13 6 " Sales of Publications 607 13 8
£8,445 3 4 £8,445 3 4
– xii –
Statement of Assets and Liabilities as at 31st March, 1957.
Liabilities. Assets.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
Hector Memorial Fund, Capital Account 1,184 18 1 Hector Memorial Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £1,270) 1,184 18 1
Hector Memorial Fund, Revenue Account
Hutton Memorial Fund, Capital Account 1,506 8 6 Hector Memorial Fund: Post Office Savings Bank, owed to Royal Society 89 2 4
Hutton Memorial Fund, Revenue Account 172 6 1 Hector Memorial Fund: Debit Balance in Revenue Account 6 2 1
Sidey Summer-time Fund, Capital Account 567 3 11 Hutton Memorial Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £1,580) 1,506 8 6
Sidey Summer-time Fund, Revenue Account 61 16 3 Hutton Memorial Fund: Post Office Savings Bank 172 6 1
Plant Diseases Trust, Capital Account 542 13 5 Sidey Summer-time Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value £520) 500 2 6
Plant Diseases Trust, Revenue Account 274 16 3 Sidey Summer-time Fund: Post Office Savings Bank 128 17 8
Cockayne Memorial Fund, Capital Account 249 12 0 Plant Diseases Trust: Inscribed Stock (Face Value £500) 500 0 0
Cockayne Memorial Fund, Revenue Account 166 7 6 Plant Diseases Trust: Post Office Savings Bank 317 9 8
Carter Library Legacy, Capital Account 162 19 0 Cockayne Memorial Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £260 249 12 0
Carter Library Legacy, Revenue Account 84 19 0 Cockayne Memorial Fund: Post Office Savings Bank 166 7 6
Hamilton Memorial Fund, Capital Account 190 7 4 Carter Library Legacy: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £160) 162 19 0
Hamilton Memorial Fund, Revenue Account 3 12 6 Carter Library Legacy: Post Office Savings Bank 84 19 0
E. R. Cooper Memorial Fund, Revenue Account 183 2 2 Hamilton Memorial Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value £60) 60 0 0
Endowment Fund, Capital Account 2,780 7 3 Hamilton Memorial Fund: Post Office Savings Bank 133 19 10
Endowment Fund, Revenue Account 179 15 9 E. R. Cooper Memorial Fund: Post Office Savings Bank 183 2 2
Research Grants 35 7 4 Endowment Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £2,685) 2,636 2 5
Library Fund 215 4 0 Endowment Fund: Part Post Office Savings Bank 324 0 7
N.Z. Science Congress Fund 253 7 10 Sundry Debtors 229 0 10
Overseas Congresses Fund 5 5 0 Expenses Delegate South Pacific Expedition London Committee 424 8 1
Accounts in Credit 0 10 6 Bank of New Zealand 455 0 8
Otago Daily Times Co. 1,244 0 7 Post Office Savings Bank 3,964 3 8
Contributions from Member Bodies 27 1 8 Cash in Hand 14 4 2
Fragments of N.Z, Entomology on A/c. 8 10 6 Imprest Account in Hand 4 19 1
Balance of Assets over Liabilities 3,397 13 6
£13,498 5 11 £13,498 5 11

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Property Assets: Estimated and Insured Value.
Nominal Insured
Value. Value.
Library and Stack Room, V.U.C. 11,592 12 0 5,800
Furniture and Library Fittings 1,540.0 0 2,000
Stock in Store Room, Parlt, Bldgs 500
Carter Library, Dominion Museum 500

S. Cory-Wright

Honorary Treasurer.

– xiii –

The Royal Society of New Zealand Trust Funds for the Year ended 31st March, 1957.

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Hector Memorial Fund
Dr. Cr
£ s. d. £ s. d
To Prizes (2) 100 0 0 By Capital Invested 1,184 18 1
" Engraving Medals 2 0 6 " Balance Revenue A/c, 31/3/56 86 11 6
" Administration Expenses 2 1 0 " Interest 50 3 5
" Supplies of Medals 38 15 6
" Balance 1,178 16 0
£1,321 13 0 £1,321 13 0
" Balance Revenue A/c. owed to R. S.N.Z. 6 2 1 By Balance Capital A/c. 1,184 18 1

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Hutton Memorial Fund
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d
To Administration Expenses 2 0 0 By Capital Invested 1,506 8 6
" Grants 119 3 10 "Balance Revenue A/c., 31/3/56 226 8 6
" Supplies Medals 19 7 9 " Interest 84 4 1
" Balance 1,678 14 7 "Refund Balance Hutton Grant 2 5 1
£1,819 6 2 £1,819 6 2
By Balance Capital Account 1,506 8 6
" Balance Revenue A/c. 172 6 1

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T. K. Sidey Summer-time Fund
Dr. Cr.
£ s d £ s d
To Prize 100 0 0 By Capital Invested and P. O. S. B 564 12 9
" Engraving Medal 0 18 6 " Balance Revenue Account 31/3/56 141 14 0
" Administration Expenses 2 0 0 " Interest Revenue A/c, £23 Os 9d, Capital A/c., £2 11s 2d 25 11 11
" Balance 629 0 2
£731 18 8 £731 18 8
By Balance Capital A/c. 567 3 11
" Balance Revenue A/c. 61 16 3

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Plant Diseases Trust
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s d.
To Administration Expenses 0 12 6 By Capital Invested 542 13 5
" Balance 816 19 8 " Balance Revenue A/c, 31/3/56 245 13 9
" Interest 29 5 0
£817 12 2 £817 12 2
By Balance Capital A/c. 542 13 5
" Balance Revenue A/c. 274 6 3
– xiv –

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E. R. Cooper Memorial Fund
Dr. Cr.
£ s d.
By Amount from D.S.I.R Committee 181 15 0
" Interest 1 7 2
£183 2 2

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Cockayne Memorial Fund
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Expenses 0 12 6 By Capital Invested 249 12 0
" Balance 415 19 6 " Balance Revenue A/c. 152 2 1
" Interest 14 17 11
£416 12 0 £416 12 0
By Balance Capital A/c. 249 12 0
" Balance Revenue A/c. 166 7 6

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Carter Library Legacy
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Administration Expenses 1 0 0 By Capital Invested and P.O.S.B. 162 19 0
" Balance 247 18 0 " Balance Revenue A/c., 31/3/56 76 7 0
" Interest 9 12 0
£248 18 0 £248 18 0
By Balance Capital A/c. 162 19 0
" Balance Revenue A/c. 84 19 0

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Hamilton Memorial Fund
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d £ s. d.
To Administration Expenses 0 12 6 By Capital Invested and in P.O.S.B. 187 7 0
" Balance 193 19 10 " Balance Revenue Account, 31/3/56 1 4 7
" Interest: Revenue, £3 0s 4d; Capital, £3 0s 5d 6 0 9
£194 12 4 £194 12 4
By Balance Capital Account 190 7 4
" Balance Revenue Account 3 12 6

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Endowment Fund
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
To Interest wrongly credited 24 18 0 By Capital Invested and in P.O.S.B. 2,680 7 3
" Administration Expenses 2 5 0 " Balance Revenue Account, 31/5/56 242 6 0
" Revenue A/c. allocated Annual Meeting, 1956 88 19 0 " Interest 153 11 9
" Balance 2,960 3 0
£3,076 5 0 £3,076 5 0
By Balance Capital Account 2,780 7 3
" Balance Revenue Account 179 15 9
– xv –

The Hon. Treasurer, Mr. Cory-Wright, presented his report, in which he stated “Until some further income becomes available I must point out that expenditure on publications should not greatly exceed £3,000 per annum.”

On the motion of Professor Briggs, seconded by Professor Richardson, the Hon. Treasurer's Report, the Statement of Receipts and Payments, the Statement of Income and Expenditure, the Statement of Assets and Liabilities, and the Statement of Trust Accounts were adopted.

Dr. Salmon drew attention to the fact that a Publications Account which had been approved for inclusion was not with the other statements. He moved that in the next year's statements a Publications Account be included. Carried.

Endowment Fund Revenue Account. The Hon. Treasurer had asked for instruction regarding the allocation of the interest accrued last year in the Endowment Fund On the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Dr. Fleming, it was resolved:

“That, seeing the Hector Fund already owes £6 2s 1d to the Royal Society's general account and that a prize of £50 has also to be paid this year, the 1956–57 interest in the Endowment Fund be allocated as follows:—£38 15s 6d to the Hector Fund, £19 7s 9d to the Hutton Fund, for new supplies of Hector and Hutton medals, £50 for the 1957 Hector Prize, and the balance of the interest to the Capital Account.”

It was later announced that an anonymous donor had contributed £5 to the Endowment Fund in lieu of sending a wreath to the funeral of Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, and the meeting expressed its thanks for this gift.

Report of the Honorary Editor

Due to the financial difficulties which beset the Society early in 1956, a gap of six months occurred between the issue of Volume 83, Part 3, in January, 1956, and the issue of Part 4 in July. Since then, two parts of Volume 84 have appeared, Part 1 in October and Part 2 in December I had hoped to have part 3 issued in March, but through various minor delays this Part will not now appear until late May. During the current year, however, the Society has issued 665 pages of Transactions and 51 pages of Proceedings. Volume 84, Part 3, which is almost ready for issue, contains approximately a further 248 pages, which means that the Society embarked on a printing programme during the current year amounting to 913 pages of Transactions, the estimated cost of which is £3,415 16s 9d.

The 665 pages issued this year represents an increase of 88 pages over the number of pages issued in the same period last year, but at the present time the Editor is holding manuscripts approved for printing which will amount to about 353 pages, and which are estimated to cost £1,089 16s 4d From these figures Council members will realise that the publications position as disclosed in my report last year has not improved. If the Royal Society of New Zealand is to continue its publication programme additional financial support is a matter of some urgency.

The new type format used for the last published Bulletin (Bulletin 6, Laird's Mosquito Studies) is now in use for all Parts of the Transactions, appearing first with Volume 84, Part 1.

With the issue of Part 4 of Volume 83, the Appendix was expanded to include a list of Institutions to which the Transactions are sent, and a list of serial publications which are received by the Library of the Royal Society of New Zealand in Wellington As the Editor anticipates that these lists will be of considerable use to members of the Society, it is proposed to keep them up-to-date and to incorporate them as a permanent section of the Appendix issued with Part 4 of each volume of the Transactions. The lists of awards, Honorary Members, Fellows, Past Presidents, and officers have been revised also and brought up-to-date with this issue.

In Volume 84 Part 1, there appeared the second paper in the Cockayne Memorial Series, “The Genus Aciphylla,” by Dr. W. R. B. Oliver.

No Bulletin has been issued during the year just closed.

Mr. R. G. Robbins relinquished his appointment as Associate Editor in Botany following his acceptance of a position with C.S.I.R.O. at Canberra, and Professor C. A. Cotton was appointed Associate Editor in Geology.

Finally, I must record my appreciation of the help I received from the Associate Editors, the many persons who act as referees of papers, and from the Manager and Assistant Manager of the Printing Department of the Otago Daily Times Co., Ltd.

John T. Salmon

Honorary Editor

– xvi –

Dr. Salmon presented the report of the Hon. Editor.

In discussing the report, Dr. Archey stated that 75–80% of the papers printed in the Transactions came from workers in Government institutions or in the University. In reply to a question as to what reaction there had been from the University of New Zealand on a statement made at the last meeting on the number of papers by University staffs and research workers published in the Transactions it was stated that the Society's letter to the University had been “received”.

In reply to a question, Dr. Salmon stated that the Index to the Transactions was in course of preparation. It was suggested that the Standing Committee could perhaps expedite matters by getting the Index done as a project of the National Library Association.

Professor Richardson referred to the immense amount of work done by the Hon. Editor, involving a sacrifice of time from his own personal research work. Professor Richardson's remarks were endorsed by other members, and on the motion of Professor Richardson, seconded by Dr. Archey, it was resolved:

“That the Hon. Editor's honorarium be increased from £50 to £100 per annum.”

Report of Honorary Librarian

Pressure of work in the Library has been heavy during the year Progress is at last being made with binding, and 202 volumes have been bound by the Lumbeck method and another 80 volumes are in the binders' hands. Another 54 volumes are being bound in £ quality finish binding to maintain the standard forms of several senior publications of which we have a long series.

There were 689 borrowings during the year, of these 209 volumes were borrowed through the library inter-loan service.

My information is that the original library was housed and cared for along with the library of the Colonial Museum. With the splitting off of the Geological Survey, and later with the separation of the Dominion Museum and Royal Society libraries there was apparently some confusion in the division of holdings, so that now the Royal Society holds long but broken runs of various journals. The missing volumes are mostly listed in the Dominion Museum library. This situation has existed for many years. The extent of the matter is not known, but it is my duty to report this to Council for its consideration.

L. R. Richardson

Honorary Librarian.

Professor Richardson presented the Hon. Librarian's report, which was adopted.

Reports of Hutton Grantees

Dr. R. W. Balham was granted £26 18s 10d in December, 1956, for the purchase of Kodachrome films for the scientific work of the two biologists (Dr Balham and Mr. R. E. Barwick) in the Antarctic Expedition In making the application Dr. Balham explained that the Expedition is supplying a limited amount of film (colour and black and white) as personal issue to members of the main party, but no film had been set aside for scientific work It was felt that this would lessen the value of certain phases of scientific work to be undertaken Kodak Ltd. made an allowance on the film purchased and refunded an amount of £2 5s 1d on the purchase.

Dr. Barwick was attached to the summer party and has returned, but Dr. Balham is with the main party in the Antarctic.

Messrs. W. C. Clark and E. W. Dawson were in 1954 granted £15 for an investigation of the breeding biology of the white-fronted tern. Mr. Dawson is still in Cambridge, and Mr. Clark reported on April 29 that the past season had been a poor one for the breeding of the white fronted tern in the South Island Only one small colony near Christchurch was found. Fourteen chicks were colour banded at this colony on Garibaldi Island in Lake Ellesmere. A paper covering the work was published in “Notornis” Observations on the pre-egg behaviour of these birds are nearing completion, but it is considered that another good season's work is desirable Grantees have not yet called upon the grant.

Dr. R. C. Cooper, who was granted £50 to continue study of Metrosideros in North Auckland areas has reported that later he wishes to visit Taupo and Mayer Island, where this tree is said to grow. During the last season he did some field work and will take in North Cape in the summer of 1957 Grantee has so far claimed £25 from his grant.

Dr. Maxwell Gage was granted £50 in 1954 for research in the Pleistocene history of Canterbury On the 17th April, Dr. Gage reported that.

– xvii –

“Terrace heights in the Waimakariri gorges were observed with the object of linking the glacial deposits of the upper regions of the valley with the Canterbury Plains region. It is now possible to confilm that the Waimakarm segment of the Canterbury Plam surface is the upper surface of a spread of glacier outwash discharged by the Waimakarim glacier during the last ice age advance to reach as far as the mountain front—that is, in the middle of the ‘Last Glaciation’ Vestiges of an ancestral Canterbury Plain, built during the previous ice advance but largely destroyed by river erosion in the interval, are recognizable near the outlet of the gorge. Gravel deposits produced during two later ice advances survive as lower terrace remnants in the gorges, but the gradients of their surfaces carry them below the level of the Canterbury Plain Considerably older gravel deposits in the Avoca district are ascribed to a distinctly earlier glaciation.”

With Mr. R. P. Suggate grantee worked out a tentative chronological classification of the glacial deposits of the South Island, and this was presented in a paper to Section C of A.N. Z. A. A. S. at Dunedin.

Other field work in the Cameron Valley has been done during the year. Total expenditure to date has been £25 14s 11d.

Miss V. Jolly in 1952 was granted £90 for research on the plankton of New Zealand lakes reported on the 30th April that the apparatus for which the grant was made to her is still in use in the Rotorua-Taupo area. There was no expenditure in connection with the grant during the past year.

Miss L. B. Moore, who was granted £10 for research on marine algae reported on the 24th April that she was unable to utilise the grant and wishes to surrender it.

Dr. J. T. Salmon, who was granted £25 in 1954 for payment towards translation of foreign papers required in connection with his research on Collembola reported on the 29th April that a certain amount of the grant was expended last year and further expenditure will be entailed during the coming year.

Mr. J. C. Yaldwyn was granted £25 for study of the bottom fauna of the Bay of Plenty-East Cape area in July, 1956. Grantee reported that in spite of bad weather 23 stations were worked One interesting haul was made with a commercial trawl in a depth of 150 fathoms This produced a number of Echinoderms, Crustacea and Coelenterates new to the fauna of New Zealand He detailed other collections made and stated that no supplies of commercial prawns were found, although information of value was obtained on the occurrence of prawns of possible commercial value. The whole of the grant was expended in travelling expenses and of transport of gear.

On the motion of Professor Briggs, seconded by Dr. Falla, the reports of the Hutton grantees were adopted.

Report of Representatives on the Board of Trustees of the National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum

The past year has not seen very much progress in a matter with which we are both much concerned—an improvement in the staffing of the Dominion Museum. Although the Board is in favour of a revision of the establishment laid down some years ago, it has had no success in its endeavours to improve the situation We think that the reason lies mainly in the cumbrous administrative structure that is prescribed by the statute governing the affairs of the Board. It is pleasing to be able to report, however, that on the initiative of Mr. E. E. Muir (representing the Carillon Society) there has now been set up a special committee to review the constitution of the Board. Both of us are members of the committee, with one of us its convener.

As both of us are also members of the Committee of Management of the Dominion Museum, we are able to report with pleasure that the Royal Society has now been given further recognition of its interest in that institution by the appointment of one of its representatives (we believe for the first time) as Chairman of that Committee. The appointment is a preiogative of the Board of Trustees, which asked the Committee of Management to make a nomination. That Committee has unanimously nominated Mr. McQueen.

It is fitting that in recording this nomination we should express our regret at the retirement from the Committee of Mr. W. H. Price. For fifteen years he had presided over meetings, and we should like to pay tribute to his constant interest in Museum affairs and to his courtesy to newer members like ourselves who have not always been as patient and understanding as he has been.

C. A. Fleming


H. C. McQueen

Representatives on the Board of Trustees

Dr. Fleming presented the report of the Society's representatives on the Board of Trustees of the National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum, and on his motion, seconded by Dr. Salmon, the report was adopted.

– xviii –

Report to the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand re Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture

Conference. Having met at Invercargill in 1956, the Institute held its annual conference this year at Whangarei, on 28th February, 1957 In the evening Mr. R. H. Michie, of Kaitaia, delivered the Banks Lecture on “Distinctive Features of the Flora of the Far North”

Publications. For some years the Institute had been publishing its journal as part of the monthly “New Zealand Gardener,” but had expressed its intention to publish an independent journal. This was launched in December, 1955, under the title of “New Zealand Plants and Gardens”. Its first year was beset with difficulties, both financial and editorial Now the editorship has been taken over by Mr. G. A. R. Phillips, of Paraparaumu, who has produced two excellent numbers, and the Institute has raised its membership subscriptions by 5/- a head, specifically for the publication fund, and has ceased to distribute “The New Zealand Gardener” gratis to members. With these arrangements the future of the journal appears hopeful.

Membership and Finance. During the year ended September 30, 1956. there was little change in membership, the final figures being 2,102. Expenditure exceeded income by £197. but it is hoped the increased subscription and other arrangements mentioned in the last paragraph will put the Institute's house in order.

Public Affairs. Committees of the Institute have been enquiring into such matters as soil conservation, the milling of timber in the Urewera district, and the possibility of encouraging commercial production of Christmas trees to prevent the present destruction of trees for this purpose. In such matters the Institute co-operates with other bodies of kindred interest, and with Government departments.

Examinations. I have continued to serve on the Institute's Examining Board, which has recently revised the prescriptions for the National Diploma in Horticulture and the National Diploma in Fruit Culture, so as to achieve a closer co-ordination of questions on theory and practice. A number of subsidiary examinations are conducted for certificates in special fields of horticulture, and I think it can fairly be said that the examining work of the Institute is an important service to horticulture in New Zealand, and that it is being kept sound and satisfactory.

Dominion Secretary. Mr. J. H. McIvor, who had been Secretary of the Institute for about 10 years, resigned during the year, and was succeeded by Mr. K. J. Lemmon, public accountant, of Wellington.

Period of Absence. As anticipated in my report in 1955, I was on leave and absent from the country from August, 1955, till May, 1956, so that I did not submit a report last year.

H. D. Gordon


Representative on the Dominion Council of the Royal N.Z. Institute of Horticulture.

On the motion of Professor Richardson, seconded by Dr. Fleming, the report by Professor H. D. Gordon, the Society's representative on the Council of the Royal N.Z. Institute of Horticulture, was adopted, and Professor Gordon was thanked for his excellent and informative report.

Report of Representative on New Zealand National Committee on Oceanography

The Committee proposed to hold a meeting in Auckland in November, 1956, but this had to be postponed In view of the opportunities for oceanographeis to meet and discuss at the A.N.Z.A.A.S meeting in Dunedin (January, 1957) and as there were no urgent matters for attention, no meeting has been called. The committee as a whole acts on a UNESCO advisory panel on the marine sciences, and has received from UNESCO its Marine Science Newsletters.

The N.Z. Oceanographic Institute, a branch of the Geophysics Division, D. S.I R, has continued its programme of physical and biological oceanographic work on New Zealand seas, using the H. M.N.Z.S. Tui, which was commissioned as a research vessel to be shared by Naval Research laboratory and the Oceanographic Institute. On one of its cruises, the Tui called at the Kermadec Islands to pick up a party of botanists from Auckland University College.

With the establishment of the N. Z. Oceanographic Institute, the work of the N. Z. National Committee is likely to decrease, and the responsibility for initiating meetings and business should fall more and more on the members of the committee who are working in Universities and Museums, in order to ensure that their diverse problems and viewpoints are not neglected during the development of governmental organization which they helped to found.

C. A Fleming


Representative of Royal Society of N. Z. on N. Z. National Committee on Oceanography.

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The report presented by Dr. Fleming gave rise to some discussion as to the functions of the committee and the use made of it as an advisory committee to the Council of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. It was explained that the Oceanographic Committee is a Committee of D.S.I.R., its membership being drawn from University Departments and Museums and Oceanographic Departments.

In summing up the discussion it was stated that it would appear that the mechanism is there to enable it to fulfil its functions, but much of its usefulness depends on the enthusiasm and initiative of the members themselves.

Dr. Falla stated that he hoped Dr. Fleming, as representative of the Society on this Committee, will feel that the Royal Society of New Zealand supports the Committee.

On the motion of Dr. Fleming, seconded by Dr. Falla, the report was adopted.

Report to the Council Ol the Royal Society of New Zealand on the Work of the Medical Research Council for the Year 1956–7.

This report covers the third year of the second triennial period in the history of the Medical Research Council, as established by the Act of 1950.

In the six years that the Council has been operating in its present autonomous form, a considerable expansion has occurred in the scope and intensity of research undertaken. Initially the chief research activities of the Council were directed by eight research committees, employing a total of 16 full-time professional workers During the current year, 11 research committees have been operating, employing 28 full-time professional workers, as well as 24 technicians and other assistants. The expenditure for the year has risen to approximately £75,000, of which about 64% represents salaries, 27% materials and equipment, and 5% grants in aid for research. It is anticipated that natural growth and expansion of approved activities will, during the next triennium, require a sum of the order of £100,000 annually, and the Hon. Minister has been approached and appraised of the plans and aspirations of the Council in this direction At this interview, your representative took the opportunity of voicing on behalf of the Royal Society your Council's sympathetic support of the work of the Medical Research Council and its wish to see medical research accorded due financial support, as occasion demands—in line with sentiments expressed at a former Annual Meeting.

The current year has witnessed no spectacular new developments in the research field, but steady and encouraging progress is reported from all committees. A healthy output of publications is recorded, and an ambitious programme of work has been approved for the next three years.

Mention should be made of the reappearance of the problem of hydatid disease. A committee to investigate this problem worked for many years under the old departmental M.R.C. The solution to the problem then evolved, while proving objectively sound, has shown itself in operation to be unacceptable to the community. The present serious state of the disease has called for a fresh approach to the problem, and the Council, in collaboration with a number of other interested bodies, has established a fresh Hydatid Research Committee to study the problem anew. It is anticipated that a special fund will be established for this work, as it has wide industrial as well as medical implications.

L. Bastings

The report by Dr. Bastings, representative on the Medical Research Council, was received. Mr. Callaghan said it was pleasing to learn of the increased Government grant to the Medical Research Council. He referred to the research on hydatids and the special organization being set up under Sir Charles Hercus. It was hoped that this organization would combat the serious economic loss to the country and the loss in human lives from this disease.

On the motion of Mr. Keys, seconded by Professor Richardson, it was resolved:

“That the Council of the Royal Society express its pleasure to the Government that positive steps have recently been taken for the intensification of research and methods of combatting the menace of hydatids.”

On the motion of Professor Briggs, seconded by Professor Richardson, it was resolved that the report be adopted, and Dr. Bastings thanked for his work on the Medical Research Council.

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Report of Representatives on Carter Observatory Board

Board. The constitution of the Board at the end of the year was as follows:—Royal Society of N.Z. members: Dr. M. A. F. Barnett, O.B.E, Professor D. Walker. Wellington City Council members: Mr. E. P. Norman, Mr. M. A. Castle. N.Z. Government members: Mr. R. G. Dick, I.S.O., Mr. R. C. Hayes, Mr. J. T. Martin, C.B.E., Professor F. F. Miles, Mr. W. Pilliet Pringle.

Mr. E. P. Norman continued in office as Chairman, and Dr. Barnett as Vice-Chairman Professor D. Walker was nominated by the Royal Society of New Zealand to fill the vacancy caused by the departure from New Zealand of Dr. G. L. Rogers.

Regular meetings of the Board have been held for the purpose of conducting the routine business.

Buildings and Equipment. These have been maintained in a satisfactory condition.

Educational Work. The Observatory has been open to the public every Friday evening except in the months of December, January and February. The time of ending of twilight in those months prevents the use of the telescope until too late in the evening. Telescope demonstrations have been given on all clear public evenings, and on all occasions lectures illustrated by lantern slides have been delivered.

Attendances for the year totalled 3,318, giving a total of 23,940 since 1946. Interest in the planet Mars produced large attendances during its opposition, with a record of 560 people on September 7, 1956. This overtaxed the capacity of the Observatory by a factor of seven, but the staff managed commendably.

Many external lectures and addresses have been given to various institutions, and newspaper articles and information to the press have been supplied on request.

Editorial duties have been carried out for the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand, and assistance given to amateur societies and individuals whenever possible.

For instructional purposes, 3-inch refracting telescopes were on loan to four secondary Schools in New Zealand.

Solar Work. By projection and photographic methods, 327 observations of the photosphere were obtained. Observations collected from selected amateurs brought the total number available for reduction to 688 for the year. This makes a running total of 8,342 observations since 1945. Owing to pressure of increasing work, regular routine observations with the spectrohelioscope had to be temporarily suspended.

Solar activity continued to show an increase, but there has as yet been an absence of very large sunspots.

Auroral Work. From New Zealand, Campbell Island, Tasmania, Australia and Antarctica (Scott Base) a total of 413 auroral reports were received on 132 displays.

Although no duplicate photographs for parallax work were obtained 24 single station photographs were taken at Taieri and nine from Invercargill meteorological stations.

Studies based on the recently produced Auroral Catalogue, and financed by contract with the U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Centre are under way. With the assistance of this same contract, New Zealand has been enabled to obtain on loan three All-Sky Cameras, an auioral patrol spectrograph, a high dispersion auroral spectrograph and photographic materials for setting up auroral stations at Invercargill, Campbell Island and Scott Base, Antarctica. It is also expected that the contract will enable a highly qualified physicist to be employed at the Invercargill station.

These developments will allow the New Zealand region to take full advantage of its unique position for auroral studies during the International Geophysical Year.

Instruction in auroral work has been given to all personnel proceeding to these special I. G.Y. stations.

Radio Disturbance Forecasts. As in previous years, short term forecasts of ionospheric disturbances have been supplied to the Post and Telegraph Department, the New Zealand Broadcasting Service and the Royal New Zealand Navy.

General Astronomy. Observations have been collected from various sources of occultations, comets and bright meteors.

During the 1956 opposition of Mars, 66 drawings were made by three observers with the 9-inch telescope.

Information Supplied. Information on the phases of the moon, eclipses, sunrise and sunset, and positions of the sun for certain localities and times were supplied to calendar printers, architects, solicitors and Government Departments as requested.

Staff. The staff consisted of Mr. I. L. Thomsen (Director), Mr. K. D. Adams (Assistant), Miss M. O. Jones (Clerk). Under the U.S.A. contract, Messrs. G. W. McQuistan and B. L. Frankpitt were employed on auroral research. To assist on public demonstration evenings, Messrs. G. A. Eiby, R. B. Orton and P. A. Read acted as Honorary Assistants.

At the moment the staff is the minimum under which the Observatory can effectively operate, but within the present financial framework it does not seem possible to make the desirable increases.

M. A. F. Barnett

D. Walker

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Dr. Barnett presented the report of the representatives of the Society on the Carter Observatory Board.

Mr. Callaghan commented on the interest taken by the people of Wellington as revealed in the report. On the motion of Professor Briggs, seconded by Mr. Callaghan, the report was adopted, and the representatives were thanked for their work.

National Historic Places Trust

The Trust has acquired its own offices in Wakefield House in The Terrace. The secretary has a full-time assistant Seventeen Regional Committees of the Trust have been set up. These Committees are to assist the Trust by carrying out local surveys and by advising the Trust on all matters concerning projects in their districts. The boundaries of the regions are defined by those of the twelve Land Districts. In four cases, North and South Auckland, Wellington and Canterbury, the districts have been divided into two or three regions. The Chairman and the Secretary have attended the inaugural meetings of all the Regional Committees, to explain their functions and their relationship to the Trust. The responsibility for, and the initiative in, all undertakings remain with the Trust.

With the completion of the Trust's organization, it will be possible to devote more attention to specific projects. The index of places of historical interest has been considerably extended.

With the help of the Ministry of Works, full records were made of rock-paintings in a shelter at Waipapa, and the most important parts removed and deposited in the Auckland Museum. These paintings were to have been destroyed in the course of hydro-electric works on the Waikato River.

A great deal of consideration has been given to the possibility of preserving intact the Cathedral Church of St. Paul, in Wellington, and efforts are now being made to find a means whereby this may be done.

J. S. H. Buchanan

The report of the representative, Mr. J. H. D. Buchanan, was received and adopted, and Mr. Buchanan was thanked for his work on the Trust.

In reply to a question on the preservation of rock paintings throughout the country, it was stated that no comprehensive collection had been made.

Dr. Salmon stated that in 1938, at the request of the Department of Internal Affairs, he had photographed most of the known rock paintings in the South Islands with the exception of the Upper Waitaki Gorge. Dr. Archey reported that a good wire protective fence had been placed round the paintings at Kaingaroa.

Report of Representative on the Committee of the Transantarctic Expedition (N. Z.) Ltd.

The Expedition is now adequately housed and established in its headquarters In spite of the many difficulties arising from the establishment of the base, scientific programmes were commenced during the summer. Dr. R. W. Balham has embarked on a seal-marking programme and also undertaken marine studies at the ice-edge, and more recently through the ice. In this work he was assisted by Mr. R. Barwick and Dr. J. Findlay, of the summer party, who also were active in the field on their own behalf. There was some opportunity for fieldwork from the “Endeavour,” bottom sampling and set-lines were successfully attempted in depths down to 280 fathoms. The geologists, Mr. B. Gunn and Mr. G. Warren, undertook a geological field study of the Skelton Glacier area. Biological material has been returned to New Zealand. Plans for scientific work in the next summer seasons must be formulated at the earliest possible date.

L. R. Richardson


Representative on the Committee of the Transantarctic Expedition (N.Z.), Ltd

The report on the Transantarctic Expedition was presented by Professor Richardson. In reply to an earlier question, Dr. Falla outlined the difficulties which the teams of scientific workers encountered at Pram Point. He stated that Dr. Finlay was engaged for some time in attendance on the Medical Officer of the Expedition, who was ill; Dr. Finlay was therefore unable to assist for some time to any great extent on the biological side of the work.

On the motion of Professor Richardson, seconded by Professor Briggs, the report was adopted.

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Report of Representative on Great Barrier Reef Committee

The 100th General Meeting of the Committee was held at Brisbane on November 15, 1956.

Improvements to the Heron Island Marine Biological Research Station buildings have been continued during the year, the laundry workshop having been completed and the laboratory nearly so, and a bench for the use of visiting scientists installed there. The Library was increased by about a dozen volumes and showcases containing the commoner molluscs were placed in position. About 30 scientific workers and students used the laboratory during 1956 and three papers incorporating results were published.

There was some dissatisfaction in regard to the internal work of the Committee and its officers, and the Station was closed and expenditure on development and maintenance stopped until a decision could be reached about its future. Some reorganization took place, and the Station was reopened in October, 1956.

Dr. O. A. Jones was elected Chairman for the year 1956–57.

General Research and Heron Island Station Accounts. General Research Fund Balance at 31/10/56, £987 Is 8d; Heron Island Station Account Balance at 31/10/56, £1,628 4s 2d Total, £2,615 5s 10d.

W. R. B. Oliver


On the motion of Professor Briggs the report of the Great Barrier Reef Committee submitted by the late Dr. Oliver was adopted.

Report by Representative on National Parks Authority

During the year ended March 31, 1957, the Authority held five meetings and visited two National Parks.

My present illness prevented my attending the 5th meeting of the 20th March and going on the second visit, which was to the Chateau Tongariro, during the week-end February 8–11.

In order to develop the parks to the best advantage and as fully as possible year by year, the Authority works along two lines of acquiring first-hand knowledge by visits of inspection and encouraging the local boards and committees where there are such bodies to co-operate with the Authority in forming and implementing long-term plans. Still only in its fourth year, the Autharity has not yet appointed park boards for Urewera, Fiordland, and Nelson Lakes. which are controlled by the local Commissioners of Crown Lands.

In addition to the perennial problems of park maintenance such as noxious weeds and vermin control, the rapidly increasing popularity of the eight parks under the Authority's control imposes considerable strain on its time, energies and finances in the need to provide more and more facilities for the public—roads, tracks, huts, motor camps, shops and tea-rooms picnic places, shelters, conveniences, signs and so on.

Specific matters commanding the Authority's attention during the year are touched on in the following outline of the work and state of the individual parks.

1. Urewera National Park (119,614 acres): Some track work is being done; fouiteen honorary park rangers have been appointed for a term of five years, all of them having acted as rangers during a previous two-year term. The Authority has approved the erection by the Wairoa Angling Club of a hut on the Mokau landing at Lake Waikaremoana, subject to certain restrictions.

2. Tongariro National Park (161,538 acres): Members of the Authority met the Park Board at the Chateau Tongariro on the 8th February. The visit included a close inspection of popular parts of the Park and a day trip across to Ketetahi Springs, and members gained a first-hand idea of how the orderly development of the Park as a whole can proceed hand in hand with provision of facilities for its most popular part, the ski-ing grounds. An important decision that will be strictly implemented is that all future reticulation of the Park must be underground for aesthetic reasons. Furthermore, recent blizzard damage to power lines pointed to the wisdom of this principle, and club huts having electricity by overhead wires are to change to underground reticulation within a set period.

The chair lifts are operating successfully in spite of storm damage to the upper one. A high altitude shelter is being built, a temporary safety fence to prevent skiers overshooting Hut Flat into Whakapapa Canyon was erected at the top of the Canyon, and a permanent high altitude patrol for accident and emergency is planned for the coming season. Twenty-five club huts accommodate 586 skiers—there may be 1,500 skiers on a good day. The chair lift has sold up to 600 single trip tickets, mostly to people who visit the mountain for the day. These day visitors must be catered for, apart from the Chateau. Two shops and a ski-room are open to the public, and the question of public conveniences is an important one.

Roads have been widened and parking areas improved and extended.

A village for permanent workers is being built near the Chateau. The road to Mangatepopo Hut is to be metalled, half of it (about two miles) being completed. The track from the Hut across Mt Tongariro to Keketahi Springs is also to be completed. When finished this will.

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make possible a splendid day's round trip. Tea-rooms are being run by lessees of an attractive park site on the Desert Road, 22 miles north of Waiouru A motor-camp there is envisaged.

3. Egmont National Park (80,455 acres): The Authority members visited this Park during November 2–5, staying at two or three hostels at Dawson Falls and North Egmont and inspecting also buildings, water and power supplies, and adjacent bush tracks and meeting the four committees and the Egmont National Park Board. The purpose of the visit was to gather knowledge with a view to helping committees and Board to form an overall long-term plan for the Park which could be fitted into the Authority's long-term plans for all parks. Two of the basic general principles applying to the administration of National Parks are the need to preserve the forest cover vegetation in its natural state and to encourage the proper use of parks for recreation and for education.

The subject of the leasing of the hostels, providing facilities for trampers and picnickers. maintenance, formation of roads and all the other important questions including that of finance were all studied.

The subject of the hostels is a contentious one, and is still under consideration. In the Carrington Road area 119 acres have been added to the Park, and steps have been taken to preserve the interesting Maori oven at Stratford An information board has been placed at the Mountain House.

4. Abel Tasman (about 41,000 acres): During the year there have been additions to park lands, some of which increase the coast line boundary most desirably. The Wainui-Totaranui road is to be improved and made safe for traffic.

5. Tararua National Forest Park: An excellent report was submitted by the Forest Service which is administering the area for conservation and recreation.

6. Nelson Lakes National Park (about 1,240,000 acres): Following the March. 1956, visit to Mt. Robert and Lake Rotoiti by the members of the Authority, it was resolved to recommend to the Minister that the area be declared a National Park. Members considered it would be one of the most handsome in the Dominion. By-laws have been adopted and a ranger is being appointed. The name Nelson Lakes National Park was fixed by the Authorit as by far the most suitable and most popular among the many names suggested by correspondents and through the press publicity.

7. Arthur Pass (239,118 acres): Last year nearly 11,000 people visited the park by rail excursions alone, and to cone with the increasing use of the park, extra fireplaces, shelters and conveniences are being provided A second ranger has been appointed, and the former boarding house bought and renovated for his use. A track to the Temple Basin ski-field is being improve–it should be useful in summer for access to a wonderful botanical spot.

8. Mt. Cook (151.800 acres). The Mt Cook National Park Board has plans for the development of a motor camp area. The erection of a permanent park ranger's house has been approved and a permanent ranger is being advertised for.

A track has been constructed for vehicle access from the junction of Ball Hutt and Main Roads to the Foliage Hill hut site where there are already two huts. An air-strip has been formed in front of the Hermitage, from which scenic flights are run.

Thar and chamois remain a problem.

9. Fiordland National Park (2,734,340 acres). During the year a block of 15,000 acres, part of Routeburn Scenic Reserve, was incorporated in the park, and various improvements have been carried out. The Milford Sound hydro-electric scheme now lights streets and floodlights, Bowen Falls as well as providing electricity for the hotel. The grounds at Milford and the airstrip have been improved. The Track to “The Chasm,” Milford, is now completed and in good order.

Predators in the Park remain a serious problem, stoats being present throughout. The agreement with the N.Z. Deerstalkers' Association, which has resulted in a reduction in the numbers of browsing animals was extended in 1956 for a further year, following which the whole system will be further looked into. Publicity had helped to check vandalism such as the destruction of native birds and sea birds and seals were reported to be reappearing in Milford Sound.

The Authority invites reports from expeditions into its parks, and during the vear was glad to receive one on the geology of Doubtful, Thompson, Bradshaw, and Smith Sounds, also two others, excerpts from which are appended.

An expedition to the Daggs Sound area over New Year by botanists from Auckland University College and N.Z. Alpine Club reported “Luxuriant growth of the alpine flora suggested that deer were not so plentiful though their tracks were seen . The dangerously precipitous country, extreme wet and enormous sandfly population may make conditions too severe for survival of large herds of deer, or it may be that the deer have only just penetrated to the area and may be on the increase. This area may be unique in that it is one of the few areas of alpine New Zealand not despoiled by deer… and may prove of vital interest in ecological studies on high country management.”

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Of general interest is the passing in 1956 of wilderness area legislation relating to lands other than National Parks.

Finally, work has progressed on the 32 page booklet describing National Parks which it is expected will be published in the near future.

W. R. B. Oliver

Representative on National Parks Authority.

When the report by the late Dr. Oliver, representative on the National Parks Authority, was presented, the President referred to a tribute paid to Dr. Oliver by the Chairman of the National Parks Authoirty at the completion of Dr. Oliver's first term of office.

Members referred to the interesting and comprehensive report submitted by the late Dr. Oliver in the closing stages of his illness stating that it contained much useful information about all the National Parks under the Authority's administration.

After some discussion on points raised, on the motion of Professor Briggs, seconded by Professor Allan, the report was adopted.

Professor Richardson read a letter from the Chairman of the National Parks Authority regarding the collection of protected flora and fauna for scientific purposes and a refusal by the Authority to grant an application for a permit to take specimens from Fiordland National Park. The letter stated that the general question of taking specimens from National Parks is to be further examined by the Authority at its next meeting.

After some discussion the matter was referred to the Standing Committee to deal with.

Member Bodies' Reports. The annual reports and balance sheets of the Member Bodies were laid on the table. The suggestion was made and noted that the names of the officers of the Member Bodies should be printed in the Proceedings with the reports.

Dr. Archey raised the question as to whether the Wellington Branch was fulfilling its financial liability towards its Library.

In reply it was stated that the Wellington Branch had been given dispensation in 1954, and this was extended for another year in 1956.

National Collections Mr. Callaghan presented the report on National Collections.

Natural History Collections

At the November meeting of Council, the following resolution was carried: “That an enquiry be initiated to provide a complete factual statement of the holdings, housing and curation of natural history collections in New Zealand, with an accompanying statement of the professional and technical staff working on them”.

No action has yet been taken on this resolution because (1) the role of Museums was to be discussed at the A.N. Z. A.A.S meeting in January; (2) the Museums Association had not advised their reactions to the papers already circulated by the Royal Society; (3) the report summarising the results of enquiries already made had not received full discussion by the Council of the Royal Society.

Although a paper seeking information along the lines of the November resolution was prepared; it was felt advisable to postpone its circulation to organizations controlling museums, pending fuller consideration being given by the Council of the Royal Society to the results secured from the two approaches already made.

F. R. Callaghan

Dr. Archey referred to the report sent out to collectors and museums. In some quarters strong exception was taken to the implied criticism of administration by Museum staffs, which were doing extraordinarily good work under sometimes difficult conditions of lack of space, a state of affairs which promised to be overcome by building extensions already planned in some of the museums.

Dr. Fleming stated that the National Collections Committee had done much to stimulate interest and perhaps some “soul searching” investigation by museum authorities.

Dr. Soper questioned that the Committee's activities should be dropped.

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Mention was made that the Museum and Art Galleries Association had discussed the National Collections Report at its recent Conference and that certain resolutions had been framed.

Finally, on the motion of Professor Allan, seconded by Dr. Archey, it was resolved:

“That the Committee on the National Collections of Natural History be thanked for its activity and that the matter be deferred pending the receipt of a report by the Art Galleries and Museums Association.”

Report of Conservation Committee

The Committee has held one meeting in Wellington of the Wellington members, and pursued other investigations by means of correspondence. During the year the following questions were referred to this Committee:

  • (1) The question of the regulation of the use of powerful insecticides.

  • (2) Submission on the part of the Society to the Forest and Bird Protection Society Conference on the Urewera Bush, held at Rotorua.

  • (3) Heather at Tongariro National Park.

  • (4) Disposal of litter in scenic reserves, etc.

(1) This matter has entailed a considerable amount of correspondence with other interested bodies and Government Departments, and is still under investigation. An attempt has been made to collect evidence pointing to damage occasioned to animals and crops by the use of powerful insecticides as aerial sprays, and also of the effects of these insecticides and fungicides on human beings handling them. From the evidence so far gathered, it would appear that control of their use by regulation is not warranted, particularly as the Civil Aviation Department in co-operation with the Department of Agriculture is endeavouring to get voluntary co-operation from aerial operators in the use and application of these substances to crops.

The other matter, concerning the effect of these substances on human beings, is still under consideration by the Committee, and it is hoped to bring down a final report for the next meeting of Council in November.

(2) With regard to the conference called by the Forest and Bird Protection Society in Rotoiua, the Royal Society was asked to send a representative. Mr. W. J. Wilson, a member of the Rotorua Branch, attended on behalf of the Society. The Conference was called by the Forest and Bird Protection Society in an attempt to have the whole of the Urewera Bush Reserve pronounced a national park. The Standing Committee asked the Conservation Committee to consider this matter, and make recommendations for our representative to place before the conference. The members of the Conservation Committee, after consultation with Forestry Department representatives and other interested bodies, felt that they could not wholeheartedly support the Forest and Bird Protection Society's aims in this matter, and accordingly the following recommendations were forwarded to our representative, who placed them before the Conference:

  • (a) That the Royal Society should not support any proposal to reserve the whole of the Urewera country as a national park.

  • (b) That the Royal Society should support any proposal for the consolidation of the Urewera National Park boundaries designed to eliminate intruding blocks and to extend the present Park boundaries so as to form a natural boundary around the park. (By “natural boundaries ” the Committee considers that the boundary line should follow ridges or river-beds or other natural features, and should not simply follow an arbitrary line drawn on a map.)

  • (c) That the Royal Society support the Land and Forestry Departments' scheme for group classification of land use as between agriculture, timber forests and protection forests, and urge that immediate steps be taken to finalise plans delineating these categories.

  • (d) That the Royal Society support all steps to ensure that timber producing forests are managed to eliminate wastage of usable timber and secure the most effective regeneration. (The leaving of timber debris which provides breeding grounds for such serious insect pests as Ambeodontus, etc., constitutes a real menace to the regenerating forest.)

  • (e) That the Royal Society support any scheme whereby a strip reservation of untouched native forest may be preserved along roadsides provided that such strips are bounded on their distant edges by a reasonable area of managed forest.

The views of the Society were apparently accepted in part by the Conference, which decided to send a deputation to the Ministers of Forests, Lands and Maori Affairs to urge the Government to buy for National Park purposes all Urewera forest land unsuitable to clear for farming, to add further Crown land to the Urewera National Park, and to seek an assurance that all milling in the Urewera will be supervised by the Forest Service.

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(3) While the Conservation Committee feels that it would be desirable to eradicate heather from the National Park area, it cannot at the moment see how this could be done and the area maintained free from heather without considerable expenditure, and therefore the Committee has no recommendation to make in this matter.

(4) This was considered by the Standing Committee and referred to the Conservation Committee for the preparation of a report to be circulated to interested bodies. This report is as follows:

The Conservation Committee is concerned at the despoliation which often occurs in scenic reserves, national parks, camping grounds, beaches, and along highways generally through the scattering of rubbish and scraps of food and other litter, which members of the travelling public are responsible for. In certain popular areas this litter left by visitors is becoming a real problem largely, the committee feels, through the failure of the local authorities and governing bodies to provide adequate facilities for its disposal. If this problem is allowed to continue unchecked, many of the scenic reserves of the country will be spoiled through the accumulation of rubbish. The problem has been tackled and solved in other countries, notably the United States, Great Britain and the Scandinavian countries, and the committee feels that it is time the problem was properly tackled on a national basis in New Zealand.

Many motor campers dispose of their litter by digging holes and burying it. In some of the popular resorts where no rubbish disposal facilities are available, so much rubbish has been buried that it is now becoming difficult to dig a hole without turning up someone else's rubbish. This is a state of affairs which should not be allowed to continue.

In some parts of New Zealand interested bodies have provided rubbish disposal facilities at picnicking grounds and scenic reserves, notably in North Auckland and near Wellington at the Ohau River.

In many of these reserves no provision is made for toilet facilities for the travelling public An example of what can and should be done in this respect can also be seen at the Ohau River, near Wellington.

The Committee recommends, therefore, that the Society should bring this matter before other interested organizations with the following special recommendation:

That legislation be introduced calling upon local bodies such as County Councils, Domain Boards, Road Board, etc., to provide in suitable places where they are required:

  • (1) Reasonably adequate toilet facilities.

  • (2) Safe incinerators for burnable rubbish.

  • (3) Pits or other receptacles for non-burnable rubbish such as bottles, tins, etc.

  • (4) Such incinerators and receptacles to be clearly indicated by signposts on the roadside or within the reserves.

  • (5) Non-burnable rubbish to be periodically removed and disposed or by the responsible local body.

  • (6) That it be made an offence to throw rubbish from a moving vehicle.

The Conservation Committee of the Royal Society of N.Z. considers that measures along these lines are necessary to ensure the preservation in a clean and attractive state of New Zealand's highways, scenic reserves, national parks, picnic resorts, beaches and camping grounds.

J. T. Salmon

Convener, Conservation Committee, Royal Society of New Zealand.

Dr. Salmon, Convener of the Conservation Committee, presented the report of his Committee.

Dr. Falla congratulated the Committec, particularly in regard to its common sense submission to the Conference in Rotorua on the Urewera Bush organised by the Forest and Bird Protection Society.

On the motion of Professor Briggs, seconded by Mr. Allen, the report was adopted.

Report of the National Committee for I.G.Y. on the N.Z. I.G.Y. Programme

Last year the National Committee was able to report that the New Zealand programme, fully approved and financed by the Government, was being implemented, and a booklet giving full details of the programme was circulated to all members of the Council. The National Committee now has pleasure in reporting that, with the exception of minor aspects, the programme in its entirety will be ready to start at the beginning of the International Geophysical Year on July 1 We may take pride in what has been achieved through the wholehearted cooperation and enthusiasm of all concerned with the planning for the I.G Y.

In the Antarctic Dr. Hatherton, Chief Scientist of the I. G. Y. Antarctic parties. with his foun colleagues at Scott base, had all his scientific equipment installed and operating in April This noteworthy achievement is all the more gratifying when it is realised that the I. G. Y. team played a considerable part in the physical establishment of Scott Base. They, in fact. erected the buildings which house their equipment. At the joint U. S./N.Z station at Cape Hallett the three New Zealand scientists, led by Mr. C. E. Ingham, are working in very close.

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and happy co-operation with their American colleagues, of whom the scientific leader is Professor James Shear. We understand that the American equipment which the New Zealand men will operate is installed in readiness for the I.G.Y.

The main New Zealand station at Invercargill has proved a larger undertaking than was onginally planned. The cost of establishment and operating is over £7,000 apart from the salaries of the seven staff, led by Mr. R. S. Unwin of the Dominion Physical Laboratory. The station will be occupied and installation of equipment will commence early in May. This station will be an important link in the North/South chain of stations from the Antarctic making auroral observations.

Preparations are well ahead for the installation of equipment at the latitude and longitude station to be established at the Seismological Observatory, Kelburn. The seismological stations at Roxburgh, Raoul Island and Apia will be equipped and operating by the beginning of the I.G.Y The panoramic ionosonde equipment for the ionosphere station at Rarotonga is ready to leave New Zealand, and will be installed and operating by July 1. The meteorological programme, which comprises mainly an intensification of observations at a large number of New Zealand stations, is well ahead in its preparations for the I.G.Y.

All other aspects of oun varied programme are in a similar stage of preparation.

M. A. F. Barnett


G. W. Markham

Secretary, National Committee of the I. G. Y

The report of the I.G.Y. Committee presented by Dr. Barnett, Chairman of the National Committee, was adopted.

On the motion of Professor Briggs, seconded by Dr. Soper, it was resolved:

“That a letter be sent to the Government expressing the Society's appreciation of the way it had supported New Zealand's effort in the I.G.Y. programme.”

Report of Antarctic Research Committee

For an account of the first six months' work of this Committee see report to the 1956 Annual Meeting of Council.

The reports of the Committee's specialist panel, consisting of 21 reports on the biology and seven reports on the geology and glaciology of Ross Dependency (listed below as an appendix) were cyclostyled during October, 1956, and distributed to scientific members of Trans-antarctic Expedition (N.Z) Inc. and the I.GY. parties for the Cape Hallet and McMurdo Sound stations, before their departure from New Zealand, and to the London headquarters of the Trans-antarctic Expedition, to scientists attached to the U.S. parties in Ross Dependency and on the Knox Coast, and to several libraries (including the Royal Society of New Zealand) In response to an invitation from the Ross Sea Committee, the A.R.C submitted the following general recommendations for the scientific programme of the New Zealand expedition:

(1) That the scientific work of the expedition be given as important a place in the expedition's activities as is compatible with the primary objectives.

(2) That all members, not only scientists, be encouraged by the Ross Sea Committee, by the leader of the expedition, and by the expedition's scientists, to co-operate and take part in scientific work, so that all may contribute and share the achievements in this field This may be aided by winter lectures and discussions by the scientists on their problems and programmes for the coming summer.

(3) That during the first season, scientific activities close to base be planned at an early stage (base lines established, observation points and datum points set up for later surveys–eg, of ice movements). The value of continuous or periodic observations (glaciological and biological) may be impaired by failure to begin them at an early date.

(4) That the scientific members of the expedition, both wintering and summering, be required to furnish a written report of their activities, observations, station lists, and collections within a stated period (say three months) of their return to New Zealand, as part of then contracts.

(5A) That collections and recoids made in the sphere of operations of the New Zealand expedition by its members be deposited in New Zealand national institutions.

(5B) That the N. Z. Trans-antarctic Exped. Inc take steps to ensure that scientific records and collections are not permitted to pass into private ownership or to be dissipated in local collections. In view of the national scale of the expedition, it is recommended that all such collections be initially deposited in N. Z. national repositories, with appropriate arrangements for extended loans during working up of reports for publication–eg, weather.

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records to N. Z. Meteorological Service; geophysical records to Geophysics Division (D.SI.R); plant and animal specimens and biological records to Dominion Museum; rocks and fossils to N.Z. Geological Survey.

(6) That the expedition be instructed to take a responsible attitude towards conservation of the natural resources of the area of its operations, particularly to avoid irresponsible and unrestricted killing of seals, penguins, etc. In respect to seals, which are required for dog food, even the approximate population of McMurdo Sound and its replacement potential are insufficiently known to state the number that may be taken on a “sustained yield” basis. As their continued availability will be important for succeeding years' expeditions, every effort should be made by the biologists to keep records of the numbers of seals observed and taken, both by the N.Z and other expeditions throughout the period of occupation, with a view to reaching some conclusions on the population size and its ability to withstand exploitation. Use of aircraft for seal census work is recommended.

The last six months have seen the successful establishment of Scott Base at Pram Point. McMurdo Sound, and a profitable beginning to the work of the scientists attached to the party. The geologists have profited from the revised access route to the Polar Plateau, which has enabled them to reconnoitre the completely unknown area of the Skelton Glacier. The biologist attached to Scott Base for the 1956–57 summer reported on his return to New Zealand on the collections made, which are at present deposited in the Dominion Museum. Dr. R. A. Falla, a member of this committee, visited Scott Base in February, and reported that the information compiled by the A.R.C. was proving useful to the expedition.

The A R.C. has been requested by the Ross Sea Committee to make recommendations.

(1) for the 1957–58 summer programme of scientific work at Scott Base (apart from the I.G.Y programme); (2) on the desirable qualifications of personnel to undertake the 1957–58 programme, (3) for the scientists to whom this summer's collections be submitted for report, and (4) for the publication of results of N. Z. research in Antarctica.

C. A. Fleming



(Reports on the Geology and Biology of Ross Dependency.)

Geological Reports.


Preliminary Bibliography of the Geology of Ross Dependency (7 pp.).


Supplement No. 1, Bibliography of Ross Dependency Geology (3 pp.).


Suggestions for Glaciological and Glaciation Studies by Geological Members of the N.Z. Antarctic Expedition, by R. P. Suggate and M. Gage.


Pleistocene Geology, by C. A. Fleming.


The Beacon Sandstone, by G. Warren.


The Metamorphic and Intrusive Basement Complex of South Victoria Land: Summary of Published Works, by W. A. Watters.


Cenozoic Volcanoes of Ross Dependency and their Petrology, by H. J. Harrington.

Biological Reports.


Cyclostomes and Fishes of the Ross Sea, by J. A. F. Garrick and J. M. Moreland (3 pp.).


Recent work on Seals (Pinnipedia) with special reference to the Ross Sea, by E. G. Turbott (7 pp.).


Rotatoria of Ross Dependency, by C. R. Russell (8 pp.).


Gastrotrichia of Ross Dependency, by C. R. Russell (3 pp.).


Polyzoa of Ross Dependency, by D. A. Brown (14 pp.).


Mollusca of Ross Dependency, by R. K. Dell, with appendix by A. W. B. Powell (7 pp.).


Freshwater Ciliata, by B. M. Bary (1 p.).


Zooplankton, by B. M. Bary (5 pp.).


Antarctic Parasitic Protozoa, by M. Laird (5 pp.).


Antarctic Decapod and Stomatopod Crustacea, by J. C. Yaldwyn (3 pp.).


Checklist of Scientific Expeditions to Antarctica, by J. C. Yaldwyn (8 pp.).


Echinoderms, by H. B. Fell (2 pp.).


Birds, by R. A. Falla (3 pp.).


Knowledge of Marine Algae in Ross Dependency, by K. J. Chapman (3 pp.).


Antarctic and Subantarctic Brachiopoda, by R. S. Allan.


Amphipoda, Isopoda and Tanaidacea, by D. E. Hurley (5 pp.).


Lower Chordates in the Ross Dependency, by B. I. Brewin (1 p)


Pycnogonida of the Ross Sea Region, by J. W. Hedgpeth (Scripps Institution, California), (2 pp.).


Coelenterata, by P. Ralph.


Research on Cetacea in Ross Sea Area, by W. Dawbin.


Identification of Birds at Sea, by R. A. Falla.

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Dr. Fleming, Chairman of the Society's Antarctic Research Committee, submitted a report. Professor Richardson moved, and Dr. Fleming seconded:

“That the words ‘which were adopted with only minor alterations by the Ross Sea Committee’ be added to the second paragraph.”

The report as amended was adopted, and Dr. Fleming was thanked for his Committee's work.

Report of Darwin Expedition Sub-Committee Proposed Darwin Anniversary Expedition, 1958

In June, 1956, the Royal Society of London issued an invitation to the Royal Society of New Zealand to send a representative to a meeting convened to discuss a memorandum drawn up by Mr. C. F. A. Pantin. This memorandum proposed that the Royal Society, in coniunction with similar representative societies in the British Commonwealth, should organise a scientific expedition in a manner suitable to commemorate the anniversary of the publication of Charles Darwin's work on the “Origin of Species”, and the related broad generalisations. The Standing Committee appointed Dr. R. A. Falla, and he attended the meeting held in London on July 26 and 27, remaining in England for a further two weeks to continue the discussions and details.

The outline scheme was approved subject to the agreement and co-operation of the scientific bodies represented at the meeting, and an outline of this was approved by the Standing Committee for circulation to member bodies of the Royal Society of New Zealand (refer Document 7c of Agenda for half-yearly meeting, November, 1956).

Negotiations have continued and the project has narrowed down to plans for a South Pacific Expedition in which the Royal Society and the Royal Society of New Zealand will be mainly responsible. It has become clear that the expedition is practicable only if the New Zealand contribution, in lieu of direct financial appropriation, can be in the form of making available a ship already in commission, as all inclusive charter costs for the period required would be beyond the funds available to the Royal Society.

Representations to this end have been made to New Zealand Government through the Ministers of Scientific and Industrial Research and of Defence, but no final reply has been received at the date of this report.

The position was placed before member bodies in a further circular of April 8, 1957, in which it was pointed out that the field of likely personnel should be tentatively explored. Latest communications from the Royal Society indicate that the progress of the plans depends almost entirely on the availability of a suitable ship in New Zealand. They have also asked that an expedition leader from New Zealand should assume early responsibility for planning and have forwarded a nomination.

R. A. Falla


Convener Darwin Expedition Sub-Committee, Royal Society of New Zealand.

Dr. Falla, in speaking to the report, asked that his remarks be taken in committee as negotiations were proceeding and no final action could yet be reported. At the conclusion of his remarks and the discussion thereon, it was resolved that the report and the verbal statement by Dr. Falla be received.

The invitation made by the Royal Society of London to Dr. Falla to act as Organizing Leader of the Expedition was endorsed by the meeting.

Visit of Dr. L. V. Berkner, President of the International Council of Scientific Unions

In order that Dr. L. V. Berkner, President of the International Council of Scientific Unions (I.C.S.U.) might meet members of the Royal Society, which is the adhering body of I.C. S. U. in New Zealand, Dr. M. A. F. Barnett had tentatively arranged a meeting with him on the day on which he was to be in Wellington. Dr. Barnett's action was approved at a meeting of the Standing Committee on the 22nd February, and a special Standing Committee meeting was called for Friday, 1st March, 1957, when there was a full attendance of members as follows:–

Professor L. R. Richardson, Vice-President, in the Chair; Professor R. S. Allan, Vice-President; Mr. K. R. Allen, Dr. M. A. F. Barnett, Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Mr. S. Cory-Wright, Professor C. A. Cotton, Dr. J. K. Dixon, Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. C. A. Fleming, Dr. J. T. Salmon, and Mr. R. W. Willett.

Professor Richardson extended a cordial welcome to Dr. Berkner, and conveyed to him a telephoned welcome from the President, Professor L. H. Briggs, who regretted his inability to leave Auckland at the present time and be present at the meeting.

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Dr Berkner expressed his pleasure at meeting so many members of the Royal Society of New Zealand. During his period of office he was endeavouring to visit as many as possible of the countries which adhered to I. C. S. U. He was returning from the Far East, where he had been in connection with this and with I. G.Y, on which he was Vice-President of the Special Committee set up by I.C.S.U.

Dr. Berkner outlined the history of I.C S.U which, he said, was formed in 1919 as the International Research Council to provide a base for the organization of various fields of research and the systematic organization of the Unions concerned. In 1932 the International Research Council was re-organized and became the International Council of Scientific Unions.

In 1951 some major changes took place, and the Union of Geodesy and Geophysics was also reorganised. This Union was the earliest of the Unions attached to I.C. S. U., being developed from a Mid-European Geodetic Association formed in Germany in 1861.

The Objects of I.C.S.U. are chiefly

  • (a) To co-ordinate and facilitate the activities of the International Scientific Unions in the field of the Natural Sciences.

  • (b) To act as a co-ordinating centre for the National Organizations adhering to the Council.

Further Objects are

  • (a) To encourage international scientific activity in subjects which do not fall within the purview of any existing international organizations.

  • (b) To enter through the national adhering organizations, into relations with the Governments of the countries adhering to the Council in order to promote scientific investigation in these countries.

  • (c) To maintain relations with the United Nations and its Specialised Agencies.

  • (d) To make such contacts and mutual arrangements as are deemed necessary with other International Councils or Unions, where common interests exist in the field of the national sciences covered by the Council.

J.C.S U. Comprises

(1) National Organizations which are usually the leading academic or scientific body in a country such as the Royal Society in New Zealand or the Academy of Science in Australia or where this is not practicable the Government itself–e g., India is represented by its Government. These are known in the Council as National Members.

(2) International Scientific Unions, of which at the present time there are thirteen, and there are known as Scientific Members of the Council.

I. C. S. U. is administered by

(a) The General Assembly, which meets as infrequently as possible, usually about every three years since 1919.

Whenever votes are required a National Member has one vote, a Scientific Member, three votes and a Specialised Union, two votes.

(b) The Bureau (comprising the officers of I. C.S U)

(c) The Executive Board, consisting of officers and representatives of the Scientific Members.

Dr. Berkner went on to point out the benefit of General Assemblies–they provided for discussion on the standard and nomenclature in the Sciences and consequent decisions, and provide opportunities for scientists to meet and make themselves conversant with the radical changes in science and scientific thought.

He went on to elaborate this point, stating that it was at the Rome Conference of I. U. G. G., a Union of I.C.S.U., that the Special Committee of I. C. S. U. developed the I.G.Y. programme. This programme is bearing directly on New Zealand and making the world acutely interested in its unusual physical features. The active oceanographic programme in Australian and New Zealand regions is necessary for the whole field in the area.

The field of biology is equally important.

Such world-wide problems as these led to the growth of Union structure, and in the political field to bodies such as U. N. E. S. C. O.

The difference between I. C.S U. and U.N.E.S.C.O. is that in the former, countries adhere through their chief academic or scientific societies, in U.N.E.S.C.O. it is through their political affiliations.

National Committees of I.C.S.U. are set up in their countries, their function being to promote and co-ordinate branches of sciences according to their requirements.

In 1951 I. C.S U. was reorganized from top to bottom and its finances were placed on a firm basis Finances accrue from subscriptions from adhering bodies and countries, recently altered from a flat rate to a graduated scale according to population, and from subscriptions from Member Unions. It also administers certain funds provided by U.N.E.S.C.O. Later, in referring to finances. Dr. Berkner referred to the strict control of finances, and mentioned that the accounting administrators were under bond.

Where required by two or more Unions, I. C. S. U. must be in a position to generate research in any specific field.

Dr Berkner referred to the findings of a group of economists which estimated that 80% of the economic stability of the US.A. was due to the advance in scientific thought.

– xxxi –

Specific mention was made of I.G.Y., which Dr. Berkner said initiated no research, but

  • (1) It provided a basis of organization.

  • (2) It asks the nations themselves to do the research required.

  • (3) It would not act or negotiate between two nations.

Its finance is handled by I.C.S U. and U.N. E. S. C.O.

Dr Berkner then went on to envisage other work which may eventuate–a special committee of oceanographic research is likely to begin about 1960 or 1961.

Some nations want to push forward, while others want to hold back. In some countries he had found that science was still being taught at the 1880 time level, and it is I. C.S U's endeavour to bring it up to the 1957 level.

Symposia have been found to be invaluable means of developing new text-book standards.

In conclusion, he stated that I.C.S.U. provides the only avenue for National Unions and the representatives of adhering bodies to come together.

Professor Richardson thanked Dr. Berkner for his talk, which he stated had been of inestimable value and was the answer to a great deal of uninformed thought on the nature of I.C.S.U. For one thing they had learned that day that the organization known in New Zealand and in the Royal Society as I.C.S.U. was termed “Icsu”!

Professor Richardson added that it seemed that in New Zealand a committee representative of the Royal Society as the adhering body, of the four Unions to which New Zealand sections of science are already attached, and of the other major fields of science should be set up to debate policy matters concerning New Zealand and I.C.S.U. The four Unions concerned are the Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, of Radio Science, of Biochemistry, and the Union of Geography. Possibly in the near future another Union would be included as an application for the New Zealand section to join the Union of Crystallography had been received.

Replying to question by Dr. Fleming. Dr. Berkner enumerated the thirteen International Unions under the aegis of I. C.S.U. as follows:–

International Astronomical Union.
International Union of Biological Sciences.
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
International Union of Crystallography.
International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics.
International Union of Geography.
International Union of History of Science.
International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics.
International Union of Pure and Applied Physics.
International Radio-scientific Union.
International Mathematical Union.
International Union of Physiological Science.
International Union of Biochemistry.

Dr Berkner stated that a Union of Nuclear Science will probably be recognised in the near future.

In reply to Dr. Dixon, Dr. Berkner said that there was an International Society of Soil Science, but it is not yet a Union. He had been impressed with the advance of soil science as he had seen it in the South, and he thought the New Zealand Soil Science Society could be linked to I. C. S. U. through many of the existing unions.

Dr Salmon asked if the Union of Biological Science had not been found to be too large and whether some sub-division was called for Dr. Berkner replied that it was the aim of I. C. S. U. to restrict as far as possible the number of Unions.

Mr. Callaghan stated that the active work of I.G.Y made a success of that particular Union, and he asked if major activities were envisaged in any of the other Unions. Professor Allan stated that efforts to establish a Chair of Geophysics in the University of New Zealand had not been fruitful, and he wondered if I.C.S.U in any indirect way could assist. Dr. Berkner stated that they had had the same difficulties in the States. He thought the most effective way would be by interesting some leading people in the proposal.

Dr Salmon said that Dr. Berkner's talk had been most informative, and he referred to the difficulty of obtaining published matter relating to the history of I.C.S U. and its scope. Dr. Berkner replied that this had been one of the difficulties confronting him when he had taken office and wished to acquaint himself with the work. However, there were now published a booklet of “Statutes” which gave an outline of I.C.S.U., a Year Book, and a Quarterly Bulletin. At the present time this merely gives a calendar of events, but it is proposed to enlarge the Bulletin with relevant material. In addition, after each General Assembly, a “Report” is published.

Mr. Cory-Wright mentioned that he thought the General Assemblies were important and that the Royal Society should seek to be represented whenever they are held. He had represented the Society at the Fifth General Assembly in Copenhagen, and Dr. Marsden had represented the Society at the Sixth General Assembly. He understood the next General Assembly (8th) was to take place in Washington. This was confirmed by Dr. Berkner.

– xxxii –

Professor Richardson then conveyed to Dr. Berkner the warm thanks and sincere appreciation of the members of the Standing Committee of the Royal Society of New Zealand for his interest in coming to New Zealand to meet its adhering body to I.C.S.U. and for his most interesting and informative talk, which had ironed out a number of worries brought about through lack of knowledge. This was carried by acclamation.

On the motion of Professor Richardson, seconded by Dr. Salmon, it was resolved that the report of the meeting with Dr. Berkner be received and that the Standing Committee be empowered to set up a National I. C.S.U. Committee.

An application from some crystallographers that they be authorised to apply for affiliation with the International Union of Crystallography was received and discussed. Mr. Collins supported the application.

Dr. Barnett stated that the Royal Society has no power to approve or disapprove of scientific bodies in New Zealand affiliating with their International Unions. The fact that the subscription of the Royal Society of New Zealand to I.C.S.U is based on the number of national bodies in the country should not be allowed to prejudice national scientific bodies in New Zealand who desire to affiliate with their International Unions.

After some further discussion, on the motion of Dr. Barnett, seconded by Mr. Collins, it was resolved:

“That the Council endorse the application of the crystallographers to affiliate with the International Union of Crystallography.”

Overseas Meetings. Invitations to the following overseas meetings were noted, and the President asked representatives of Member Bodies to advise the Secretary if members were likely to be attending any of the meetings.

Overseas Meetings and Congresses

Invitations have been received to the following meetings and Congresses to be held during the next two or three years:–

III Congress International de L'U. I. E.I.S. Paris July 9–13, 1957.

Fourth General Assembly and International Congress International Union of Crystallography. Montreal. July 10–17, 1957.

General Secretary: D. W. Smith, Laboratory of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, 10 Bloemsingel, Groningen, The Netherlands.

International Geographical Union: Regional Conference in Japan. (Notified through Under Secretary, Internal Affairs, Wellington.) Tokyo and Nara, August-September, 1957.

Ninth Pacific Science Congress. Secretary General: Department of Science, Ministry of Industry, Bangkok, Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand. November 18 to December 9, 1957.

Fiftieth Anniversary L'Academie Royale Nearlandais des Sciences et des Lettres. Amsterdam. May 6–9, 1958.

Eighth General Assembly I.C.S.U. Secretary General: H. Spencer Jones, 29 Tavistock Square, London, W.C 1. Washington 25 D.C. September 25 to October 5, 1958.

The question of representation at the Ninth Pacific Science Congress was discussed. Dr. Archey stated that he thought the President of the Society should attend and that he should be appointed to represent the Royal Society on the Pacific Science Council.

On the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Mr. Keys. it was resolved:

“That if funds available will permit of only one representative being appointed to attend the Ninth Pacific Science Congress, it should be the President and that he be appointed to represent the Society on the Pacific Science Council.”

Amendment To Rules: Contributions From Member Bodies.

At the November meeting of Council the following resolutions were carried:


That Branches should make an obligatory contribution to the funds of the Royal Society.


That this contribution should not be allocated to any specific purpose.


That expenditure by a Branch on a library, museum, observatory, etc., or by levy towards the cost of the Transactions, should be deducted before assessing the contribution, provided that this does not reduce the contribution below a fixed minimum level.


That the contribution should be calculated as a proportion of the subscription income.


That the percentage should be calculated on income from full members excluding life members.


That the contribution should be one-quarter of subscription income after deductions have been made or one-sixth of total subscription income, whichever is the greater.

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That no expendituie on library, museum, etc. should be obligatory on Branches.


That payment towards the cost of the Transactions under Rule H (e) shall not form part of the contribution.


That the Standing Committee be requested to submit the proposed new rules to Member Bodies in time for their March meetings.

To give effect to these resolutions and pursuant to No 9, the Standing Committee recommends the amendments to the Rules set out below and gives notice that this will be moved at the next meeting of the Council.

Any comments on, or amendments to these proposals which member bodies wish to be circulated in advance of the Council meeting must be in the hands of the Secretary by Tuesday. April 23, 1957.

Notice of Motion

Notice is hereby given on behalf of the Standing Committee that at the Annual Meeting the following amendments to Rules A3, A4, and H (e) will be proposed:–

  • 1. That the existing Rule A (3) be revoked and replaced by the following:–

    “Every member body admitted as aforesaid shall pay towards the extension and maintenance of the Royal Society of New Zealand in each year whichever is the greater of either one-sixth of its revenue received in the preceding year from the subscriptions of full members excluding life members or one-quarter of the residue of the revenue aforesaid after any sum expended in the same year by the member body on the formation or support of any local public library, museum, observatory, or other institution approved by the Council and any sum paid in that year towards the cost of publishing the Proceedings and Transactions of the Society under Clause H (e) of these rules have been deducted”

  • 2 That the existing Rule A (4) be revoked and replaced by the following:—“Any member body which shall in any one year fail to pay to the Roval Society of New Zealand any sum required from it under Regulation 3 shall cease to be a member body of the Society unless it satisfies the Council of the Society that special circumstances have justified a temporary delay in making the payment.”

  • 3 That the following words be added to Rule H (e):—“Any such contribution shall not form part of any payment towards the extension or maintenance of the Royal Society of New Zealand required from a member body under Rule A (3)”.

Notice of Motion having been duly given in accordance with the requirements, Mr. Allen formally moved that amendments to Rule A3 be adopted. In moving this motion. Mr. Allen outlined the steps leading up to the proposal for amending the Rules, standing that the November Meeting of the Council had authorised the Standing Committee to proceed in this direction.

Mr. Brooker, seconded by Professor Briggs. moved the following amendment:–

“That the words ‘excluding life members’ be deleted and the words ‘on whose behalf the branch has in the previous year ordered copies of the Transactions' be inserted in their place.”

After much discussion, to which practically all members contributed, the amendment was put to the meeting and carried on a show of hands.

It was then put as the substantive motion and was lost on a show of hands.

The motion to amend Rule A 3 was then put and was lost on the casting vote of the Chairman. As a consequence the proposals to amend Rules A 4 and H (e) were not proceeded with.

E. R. Cooper Memorial Fund. Dr. Barnett moved the adoption of the following proposed rules for the E. R. Cooper Memorial Fund:—

E. R. Cooper Memorial Fund

Notice of Motion to Members of the Council. At a meeting of the Standing Committee held on Friday, May 3, 1957, Dr. M. A. F. Barnett, Convener of the E. R. Cooper Memorial Fund Rules Committee, seconded by Mr. K. R. Allen, gave notice to move the following Rules at the annual meeting of the Council on May 22, 1957:–

Rules of the Royal Society of New Zealand E. R. Cooper Memorial Fund.


Dr. E. R. Cooper was the first Director of the Dominion Physical Laboratory from 1939 to 1950. He subsequently held the position of Assistant Secretary (Physics and Engineering) of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research till his untimely death in 1952.

– xxxiv –

On the initiative of the Technical Advisory Committee of the Dominion Physical Laboratory a fund was collected for the purpose of establishing an E. R. Cooper Memorial Award, which would take the form of a bronze medal and book or books, to be awarded every two years to the author of the best account of research work carried out in New Zealand in physics or engineering.

At its meeting on November 22, 1956, the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand received the sum of £181 15s from the organisers of the fund, together with six bronze medals, and formally accepted responsibility for the administration of the award.

Rules Under Which the R. E. Cooper Memorial Fund and Award Shall be Administered.



The fund placed in the hands of the Council of the Society by the Technical Advisory Committee of the Dominion Physical Laboratory shall be called the “E. R. Cooper Memorial Fund” in memory of the late Edmund Roy Cooper. Such fund shall consist of moneys subscribed and granted for the purpose of the memorial and all other funds which may be given or granted for the same purpose.


The fund shall be vested in the Society. The Council shall have the control thereof and shall invest the same in any securities proper for trust moneys.


The memorial shall be an award to be known as the “E. R. Cooper Memorial Award,” the object of which shall be the encouragement of scientific research in New Zealand in the fields of physics or engineering. The award shall be in two parts:

(a) A bronze medal of approved design suitably inscribed.

(b) A book or books of value decided from time to time by the Council and suitably inscribed. The books may be selected by the winner of the award and shall remain his property.


The annual costs shall be met only from interest accruing from moneys invested in the “E R. Cooper Memorial Fund”.


The Council shall appoint a Selection Committee to recommend to the Council to whom awards shall be made. The Selection Committee shall consist of five members as follows.

(a) One representative of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research.

(b) Two representatives of the University of New Zealand.

(c) Two representatives of the Royal Society of New Zealand.


The award shall be made every two years, but the Council shall have the right to withhold an award in any year should it consider the contributions of insufficient merit.


The award shall be made to the person or persons who in the opinion of the Selection Committee have published the best account of research work carried out by them in New Zealand in physics or engineering. Preference shall be given to contributions to the development of the natural resources of New Zealand Contributions published within the three years preceding April 1, of the year of an award shall be considered.


Applications or nominations for the award shall be in writing and must reach the secretary of the Society not later than April 1 of the year of an award, but the Council may waive this condition if it deem fit. Such applications or nominations shall be supported by copies of the publications to be submitted for consideration of the Selection Committee.


The Council shall not amend the conditions of the award without having first obtained the approval of the permanent head of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research and the Director of the Dominion Physical Laboratory.


Whenever possible the award shall be presented in some public manner.


There shall be published in each volume of the Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand a complete list of awards of the “E R. Cooper Memorial Award”.

On the proposal of Dr. Archey it was resolved that the following clauses be amended as follows:–

3. (b) be amended to read:

“A book or books selected by the winner of the award and of value decided from time to time by the Council and suitably inscribed.”

5. be amended to read:

“The Council shall appoint a Selection Committee to adjudicate on the applications and nominations received and recommend to the Council the person to whom an award shall be made.”

7. be amended as follows:

“The words ‘or persons’ be deleted in the last paragraph and the date ‘1st April’ be ‘1st January’”.

11. be amended by substituting the term “recipients” for the term “awards”.

On the motion of Professor Briggs, seconded by Professor Richardson, the Rules as amended were adopted.

– xxxv –

Budget and Finance

December 12, 1956

The Honourable Minister of Scientific and Industrial Research, Wellington.

Dear Mr. Algie,—I enclose herewith Statement of Income and Expenditure of the Royal Society of New Zealand covering the period April-October, 1956, and the estimated expenditure to the end of March, 1957.

During this period, with the assistance of the extra grant of £2,000 which you were able to secure for the Society, we have been able to maintain the publication of the Society's Transactions at the same level as for last year. Manuscripts to the total publication cost of £3,710 6s are at present being printed, and the estimated cost of publishing manuscripts at present in the Editor's hands is £1,120 6s 6d. These manuscripts will be forwarded to the printer before December 31, making a total estimated amount of £4,830 12s 6d for publication of the Transactions during the current year. To this must be added £700 held to cover the cost of the projected Bulletin. The total estimated expenditure on publications for the 1956–7 period will then amount to £5,530 12s 6d. In submitting a statement to you in 1954 it was estimated that publication would absorb £3,900. The above figures therefore show the extent of the steadily increasing demand for publication in the Transactions in that period—namely. £1,680 12s 6d. This amount of £5,530 12s 6d is £130 12s 6d above the estimate made by the Finance Committee when it discussed these matters with you in March last. These figures do show that the Hon. Editor's estimates of publication expenses are very close to the actual cost, and the Finance Committee considers that these estimates are sufficiently close to actual costs to be regarded as a sound basis for estimating future requirements.

From these figures it becomes clear that the 1954 estimate of £4.700 made by the Budget Committee of the Council and placed before you by a deputation in March. 1955. was underestimated. The amount now estimated under this heading as required for 1957/58 is £5,600.

There are three other matters concerning the finances of the Society which we have discussed with you previously and which we would like to raise again. These are (1) the binding of the Society's library: (2) funds for enabling officers of the Society to attend overseas conferences: and (3) a £ for £ subsidy on the Hutton Fund for Research Grants.

(1) The binding of the library books and periodicals is an urgent matter if they are to be prevented from deteriorating and to be kept in a suitable form to avoid loss by misadventure. It is estimated that an amount of £500 spent annually for ten years would be required to bring the binding of the Society's library up to date, and accordingly we should be very grateful if you could give urgent consideration to a request for an annual sum to be used solely for binding the invaluable runs of scientific periodicals housed in the Society's library.

(2) Under this item we can take as an example the recent urgent visit to London of Dr. Falla to represent the Society at the conference organised by the Royal Society of London to discuss the 1958 “Beagle Expedition”. The Society has financed this by drawing on funds which should be used for other purposes, and it was assisted by a subsidy from the Royal Society of London. We feel that the Royal Society of New Zealand should be self-supoorting in such matters as these and would ask here for consideration of an annual amount of £770 for such purposes. The Ninth Pacific Science Congress is to be held in Bangkok. Thailand, during November and December, 1957, and it is considered that the Royal Society should have at least, two representatives there. This will involve an amount of £702, the actual travel expenses from New Zealand to Thailand by air.

(3) The Hutton Fund provides research grants open to all scientists in New Zealand whose interests lie in geology and biology to the total amount of not more than £64 per annum. In previous years the income from the fund has been sufficient to provide for all the worthwhile applications for assistance, but owing to the increasing costs for material and service over recent years, the income from the fund will not now cover worthy applications made for assistance.

It is suggested that the Society's annual grant should include sufficient to make a £ for £ subsidy on the Hutton Grant, thus increasing the amount available to the Council for distribution from £64 to £128.

On these figures it is estimated that the total expenditure of the Society for the 1957–8 period will amount to £8,694. It is estimated that the monies recoverable by the Society from sales, levy on Transactions, and from a contribution on a pro rata subscription basis from members of the Society which the November half-yearly meeting decided to impose, will amount to approximately £870, leaving a balance of £7.824, for which the only source open to the Society is the annual Government grant. An increase in the amount of levy to be paid by members who take the Transactions was also authorised by the November meeting, but this cannot come into effect until the 1958–59 period.

Accordingly, we respectfully request that an amount of £8,000 be made available to the Society by Government grant for the period 1957–58.

I am,
Yours truly,
L. R. Richardson,

– xxxvi –

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

The Royal Society of New Zealand, Statement of Income and Expenditure (Actual) for the Period to 22/10/56 and (Estimated) to 31/3/57.
Expenditure Income
Acutal Estimated Acutal Estimated
£ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d.
Otago Daily Times Co. Ltd. Vol. 83 (3) 616 11 0 Balance at March 31, 1956 471 17 5
Bulletin No. 6–Postages 27 9 6 Special Grant for Printing Back Log 2,000 0 0
Reprints November Meeting 5 5 0 Annual Government Grant 4,000 0 0
Stationery 7 15 7 Transferred from Pacific Science Congress Account Administration Allowance, £s600; Subsequent Sales, £8513s 4d 685 13 4
Salaries 492 3 5 Interest on Pacific Science Congress Account, £2,000 on fixed deposit 17 10 0
Travelling Expenses: Annual Meeting 101 7 9 Sales of Publications 88 19 0
Charges 10 13 9 Interest from Endowment Fund voted for General Purposes 88 19 0
Int. Council of Scientific Union: Subscription 71 0 3 Quota and Levy from Member Bodies 24 5 0
Imprest: Secretary 51 18 6 Levy Vol. 84 from Member Bodies 360 17 0
Hon. Editor 5 0 0 Sels 80 0 0
South Pacific “Beagle” Expedition Committee Meeting–Dr. Falla's Expenses to London, less Grant from Royal Society, London 424 8 1 Travelling Expenses: Member Bodies' Share 105 2 9
Printing 83(4) with Proceedings, etc. 707 13 9 Cockayne Memorial Vol. from Trust Fund 105 0 0
84(1) 1,091 0 0 Trust Funds Administration 5 2 6
84(2) with Proceedings Annual Meeting, 1956 1,005 4 0 Royal Society's Grant from Dr. Falla 50 0 0
84(3) 821 17 0
Bulletin No. 7 700 0 0
Salaries 717 3 5
Honoraria (Editorial) 100 0 0
Stationery 20 0 0
Charges 15 0 0
Travelling Expences, November Meeting 101 0 0
Imprest 40 0 0
Allocation to Library: Binding Fund 50 0 0
Science Congress Fund 50 0 0
Library Equipment: Filing Cabinets 30 0 0
Balance Income over Expenditure 978 4 8
£1,813 12 10 £6,427 2 10 £7,534 13 5 £706 2 3
Total £8,240 15 8 Total £8,240 15 8
– xxxvii –

Professor Richardson reported that the budget for the year 1957–58 presented to the Minister had shown that the publications programme, provision for representation at important overseas scientific conferences, arrears for binding, etc., warranted an annual grant of £8,000. The Minister had invited the Society's Finance Committee to wait upon him in regard to this budget.

Report on Cockayne Memorial Fund

At a meeting of the Standing Committee on May 3, Mr. F. R. Callaghan, convener of the sub-committee set up, presented a report on the Cockayne Memorial Fund, and it was resolved that Notice of Motion be given to the members of the Council that these proposals be adopted at the annual meeting on May 22, 1957.

Dr. Leonard Cockayne Memorial

1. In 1935 the Royal Society issued an appeal for funds for a memorial to Dr. Leonard Cockayne, the appeal being based on the recommendations of a special sub-committee, whose convener was Mr. B. C. Aston. The recommendations were considered at the annual meeting of May, 1935, an important amendment made, but the printed report gives no indication of Council having adopted or approved the twelve clauses of these recommendations.

2. The recommendations, Clauses 1–7, dealt for the most part with machinery measures for collecting and establishing a fund, but Clause (8) defines the intended purposes of the fund. These purposes comprised the main amendment made by the Council to the Committee's report, which suggested an award of a medal to botanists who did outstanding work.

Clause (8) reads:

“The circular of the Standing Committee appealing for subscriptions shall clearly state that it is the intention of the Society to apply any subscriptions or bequests received, and the interest accruing (less out-of-pocket expenses incurred in collection) towards the establishment of a trust fund to be administered by the Royal Society of New Zealand to commemorate the life and work of Leonard Cockayne by providing for the publication of papers of special merit embodying the results of botanical research carried out by New Zealand workers. (It has been suggested that the papers so printed should eventually form a “Cockayne Memorial Volume”.)

The exact form of the memorial will, of course, depend on the total amount of money which is ultimately available for the purpose.”

Note.—The Italics were not in the original report.

The Italic portion of Clause (8) above is important in that it indicates what the Council of the Society in 1935 thought was a desirable form for the memorial to take and the basis upon which subscriptions to the fund were sought.

3. Subscriptions to the fund came in slowly and when closed the total amounted to some £249 12s. As the result of interest accumulations and no use having been made of the interest since 1945, the fund in May, 1956, stood at £402 4s 1d, the annual interest being £16 19s 6d.

4. The intentions of the Royal Society Council of 1935 have never been regularised. There is no indication that the recommendations were approved or adopted and no steps have been taken to establish a deed of trust or to frame regulations for its administration.

5. Dr. J. T. Salmon in his report on the Cockayne Memorial Fund, presented as a paper (6th) to the November, 1956, meeting of Council has already outlined the position and recommends–

  • (1) That the intentions of 1935 be adhered to and the interest from the Capital Fund be used for publication of botanical papers.

  • (2) That the idea of publishing a Memorial Volume of a collection of reprint papers be abandoned.

  • (3) That a sub-committee be set up to draw up rules and regularise other matters for the proper operation of a Cockayne Memorial Fund.

Dr. Salmon points out that two Cockayne Memorial papers have already been published:

(1) The Genus Carmichaelia, by George Simpson; and (2) The Genus Aciphylla, by Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, but these are unsuitable for binding together because of their different page size.

Dr. Salmon also suggests that in 1960 a Memorial Volume comprising papers written by invited authors be published as a Bulletin. As by 1960 the accumulated interest in the fund would be less than £200, this would provide for a very small publication, unless the Society decided to increase the amount available by an allocation from its own funds.

Council, at the November, 1956, meeting, carried a resolution: “That the Standing Committee look to the possibility of utilising the whole of the Cockayne Memorial Fund in the year 1960 for the Cockayne Memorial Volume.”

6. It is suggested that ideas be revised as to what would serve best as a memorial to Dr. Cockayne. The promoters of the Memorial were almost certainly disappointed at the small response to the appeal. The costs of publication have substantially increased in the interval since 1935. The suggestion is therefore made that the form of the Memorial be changed, and the following action be taken:—

– xxxviii –
  • (1) The cost of Dr. Oliver's paper be paid from the interest accrued to date.

  • (2) The remaining interest be added to the capital, the total to comprise the Capital of the Fund.

  • (3) The interest on this total fund to be used for regular (annual or biennial) memorial lectures, the frequency to be determined by the Council at its annual meeting.

  • (4) The interest to be given alternately to the Wellington and Canterbury Branches financing Cockayne Memorial Addresses.

  • (5) That consideration be given to the possibility of publishing these Cockayne Memorial Addresses.

7. An objection to this change arises from the fact that it is a departure from the proposal for which the subscriptions were sought in the Royal Society's circular of August, 1935.

In support of the new proposal, Memorial Addresses delivered at regular intervals seem to serve the purpose of a memorial better than the issue of a publication volume, especially if the text of the addresses themselves can be published.

Dr. Leonard Cockayne's associations with the Royal Society were mainly through the Canterbury and Wellington Branches, and this is the reason for suggestions that these Branches arrange for the Addresses.

Draft Rules for Cockayne Memorial Fund
F. VIII. The Leonard Cockayne Memorial Fund

The purpose of this fund is to commemorate Dr. Leonard Cockayne, C.M G., F. R. S, F. L.S, F. R. S. N. Z., who between 1881 and 1935 did much original research in the field of New Zealand botany, and whose writings between 1898 and his death covered comprehensively such a wide scope as to place him in the forefront both of New Zealand and of world botanists.

1. The Fund now vested in the Royal Society of New Zealand shall be called “The Cockayne Memorial Fund” in memory of Dr. Leonard Cockayne. The object of such fund will be the encouragement of botanical research in New Zealand, and such fund shall consist of the moneys subscribed as at May 22, 1957. The Council of the Society shall, prior to the date, meet any expenditure incurred in connection with the memorial and decide upon the amount of the capital fund.

2. The Council of the Royal Society shall have control of the moneys in the Fund and may invest the same upon any securities proper for trust moneys. It may accept for inclusion in the Fund any monies hereinafter subscribed by way of gift, bequest, or through any other channel.

3. The Fund shall be used for the purposes of grants in aid of addresses to be delivered or relating to botanical research carried out by New Zealand workers.

4. The Council of the Royal Society at its annual meeting each year shall determine the time, place and allocation of moneys for such addresses or publications as may be decided.

(It is suggested that addresses be given alternately and periodically in Canterbury and Wellington, the periods being such as to allow funds to be accumulated to provide for addresses or publications.)

5. There shall be published in each Volume of the Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand a complete list of the speakers and of the authors of publications who have received grants from the Cockayne Memorial Fund.

The report prepared by the sub-committee and approved by the Standing Committee to go forward as a Notice of Motion to frame rules to govern the Cockayne Memorial Fund was deferred pending consideration by Member Bodies.

Rotorua Philosophical Society. Dr. Dixon spoke to the following resolution submitted by the Rotorua Philosophical Society:—

“That provision be made for Branch representatives to have the power to appoint proxies to attend the meetings of the Standing Committee on their behalf.”

After some discussion the following amendment moved by Professor Richardson, seconded by Professor Allan, was carried:—

“That the Standing Committee be asked to enquire how provision can be made for Branch representatives to have the power to appoint proxies.”

On becoming the substantive motion it was carried.

Venue of Half-yearly Meetings. Dr. Salmon presented the report of the subcommittee set up to consider the venue of Half-yearly Meetings.

The members of this Committee, after consultation, have agreed to recommend that:

(a) This meeting should continue to be peripatetic. A peripatetic meeting will always be more expensive than a meeting in Wellington, but:

– xxxix –

(b) The extra cost is worth while in relation to (i) the increased publicity the Society obtains for its work through the Council meetings in other centres, and (ii) the stimulation such meetings are bound to bring to Branch activities.

(c) The final decision must rest with the Branches who must be prepared to contribute toward the extra cost.

(d) That in the future more attention should be given to the use of private transport as a means of organizing travel to centres difficult of access.

J. T. Salmon.

It was considered that this meeting should be peripatetic even if involving some additional travelling expense.

It was resolved that the Standing Committee should consider invitations from Member Bodies when they come to hand.

Publication of Science News. The Otago Branch forwarded a remit regarding the desirability of sponsoring a publication for the dissemination of scientific news in addition to the Transactions. On the motion of Professor Richardson, seconded by Mr. Keys, the remit was referred to the Standing Committee for consideration.

A.N.Z.A.A.S. A letter from the office of A.N.Z.A.A.S. concerning the nature of the Australian Journal of Science of the National Research Council was referred to the Standing Committee.

Travelling Expenses. On the motion of the Chairman it was resolved that travelling expenses be paid.

Election of Officers. Vice-Presidents: Professor R. S. Allan and Professor L. R. Richardson (re-elected). Hon. Treasurer. Mr. S. Cory-Wright (re-elected). Hon. Editor: Dr. J. T. Salmon (re-elected). Hon. Librarian: Professor L. R. Richardson (re-elected). Co-opted Member: Dr. J. T. Salmon (re-elected).

Appointment of Committees. Hector Award Committees: Dr. D. B. Macleod (convener), Professor H. G. Forder, Mr. K. E. Bullen. Library Committee: Hon. Librarian, Professor L. R. Richardson, Professor C. A. Cotton, Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Dr. J. T. Salmon. Conservation Committee: Dr. J. T. Salmon (Converner), Dr. G. Archey, Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. C. A. Fleming, Mr. N. H. Taylor. Research Grants Committee: Dr. R. A. Falla (convener), Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Dr. C. A. Fleming. Antarctic Research Committee: Dr. C. A. Fleming (Chairman) and Professor L. R. Richardson (Royal Society's representatives). E. R. Cooper Award Committee: Dr. M. A. F. Barnett (convener) and Mr. C. E. Fenwick (Royal Society's representatives). National Collections Committee: Mr. F. R. Callaghan (convener), Dr. D. Miller, Dr. J. T. Salmon. Fellowship Selection Committee: Dr. F. G. Soper, Professor E. Beaglehole, Professor C. A. Cotton, Dr. J. T. Salmon, Miss L. B. Moore. Rules Committee: Dr. G. Archey, Mr. F. R. Callaghan.

Election of Representatives. Royal N.Z. Institute of Horticulture: Professor H. D. Gordon. Great Barrier Reef Committee: Miss Beryl Brewin. Trans-antarctic Expedition (Ross Sea Committee): Professor L. R. Richardson. Oceanographic Committee: Dr. C. A. Fleming. National Parks Authority: Mr. F. R. Callaghan.

November Meeting. The Standing Committee was authorised to arrange venue.

Votes of Thanks. Votes of thanks were accorded to the Press, to Victoria University College Council, to the Hon. Editor and Associate Editors, to the Secretary, to the Hon. Treasurer.

On the motion of Professor Allan, a very cordial vote of thanks was conveyed to the President for the able way in which he had chaired the meeting.

The meeting closed at 6.20 p.m.

The President delivered his Presidential Address before the Wellington Branch at 8 p. m.

Confirmed. (Signed)

L. H. Briggs

June 28, 1957

– xl –

Reports of Member Bodies Otago Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.

Annual Report for Session 1956 (87th Session)

Officers of the Branch. President: Dr. F. G. Soper. Vice-Presidents: Miss B. Brewin and Mr. O. H. Keys. Hon. Secretary: Mr. J. B. Mackie. Hon. Treasurer: Mr. B. W. Campbell. Hon. Solicitor: Mr. J. M. Paterson. Hon. Auditor: Mr. J. G. Butler.

Council. Professors A. K. McIntyre, G. T. S. Baylis, D. S. Coombs, G. J. Williams, Mr. F. H. Rogers (resigned from Council and Branch, and now at Armidale, N.S.W.), Dr. B. H. Howard (Historical Section), Mr. J. Stuart, jun. (Astronomical Section) and Mr. H. S. Tily (Microscopical Section).

Membership. New members elected: Mr. G. C. Cossens, Mr. K. W. W. Double, Mr. M. Foord, Mrs. Hamel, Mrs. A. W. McDonald, Mr. J. H. Stubbs, Mr. M. M. Trotter and Dr. A. M. Veale. Resignations: Mr. Arthur Barnett, Dr. Alan Bell, Professor G. C. Billing, Mr. G. G. Couling, Dalgety & Co. Ltd., Mrs. J. L. Hobbs, Mr. F. H. Rogers and Mr. J. G. Smith. Transfers to Branch: Mr. S. S. P. Hamilton, from Auckland. Transfers from the Branch: Professor A. G. McLellan, to Canterbury; Dr. W. A. Watters, to Wellington. Transfer to Life Membership: Professor G. T. S. Baylis. Removed from the Roll: One person. Deceased: Messrs. H. Brash and T. Somerville. The roll now stands at 157, as against 161 for last session.

Distinctions Gained by Members. Professor W. E. Adams has been elected a Fellow of the Academy of Zoology of India. Dr. Elizabeth Batham, Dr. H. D. Skinner and Professor B. J. Marples were awarded the Galathea Medal for services rendered to the Galathea Expedition. Sir Charles Hercus has been elected a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, London Professor B. J. Marples was awarded the Bryce Prize of the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand, 1955, for work in connection with the observation of sun spots. Mr. L. H. Martin has been selected as a member of the New Zealand Antarctic team for International Geophysical Year operations. Professor A. K. McIntyre has been asked by the Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science to deliver the David Memorial Lecture at the 32nd Meeting in Dunedin next January. D. H. D. Skinner was awarded the C. B.E. by Her Majesty the Queen in the last New Year Honours list.

Representative on the Museum Trust Board. The Branch is entitled to one representative on the newly-formed Museum Trust Board which has replaced the Museum Management Committee. Professor Baylis was elected to this office early in the year.

Representatives on the Council of the Royal Society of N.Z—The two Vice-Presidents of the Branch, Miss B. I. Brewin and Mr. O. H. Keys, who were our representatives last year at the two Royal Society Council meetings have continued to hold office this year.

Conversazione. The Branch again joined with the Association of Friends of the Museum in the Annual Conversazione which was held in the Museum on September 26. There was a large attendance at this popular function which gives the members of both organizations the opportunity of meeting together socially to view recent acquisitions and special displays in the Museum. On this occasion there was on view a magnificent collection of English gilt silverware, together with some period furniture. An attractive supper served in the Maori House brought the evening to a close.

Main Branch Meetings. This year the Branch was very fortunate in obtaining as lecturers a number of eminent overseas visitors who delighted members with the quality and material of their addresses. Our local lecturers also provided talks of a very high standard.

The visitors were. Sir Charles Darwin, F.R.S., the Rutherford Memorial Lecturer, from England, Professor K. E. Caster, from U.S.A., Professor P. B. Medawar, F.R.S., from England, and Professor A. Beacham, from Wales. Unfortunately, Professor Beacham was indisposed on the date set down for his talk, but his paper was read by Mr. Blakey, of the Economics Department of the University.

Lectures given during the year were as follows. Tuesday, April 17, Sir Charles Darwin, F.R.S., Rutherford Memorial Lecturer, “Forecasting the Future”. Tuesday, May 1, Professor Gordon J. Williams, Dean of the Faculty of Mines and Metallurgy, University of Otago, “The Scramble for Uranium”. Tuesday, June 12, Dr. F. G. Sloper, C.B.E., Vice-Chancellor, University of Otago, Presidential Address, “Sources of Power and Energy”. Tuesday, July 10, Professor A. Beacham, Professor of Economics and Political Science at the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, William Evans Visiting Professor in Economics, University of Otago, “The Standard of Living in New Zealand”. Tuesday, August 14, Professor P. B. Medawar, F.R.S., Department of Zoology, University College, London, Chaffer Visiting Lecturer, University of Otago, “Graft Hybrids and Animal Chimeras”. Tuesday, September 11, Mr. John Carter, Senior Lecturer in Metallurgy, University of Otago, “Early Metal Culture”. Tuesday, October 9, Mr. W. S. Fyfe, Senior Lecturer in Chemistry, University of Otago, “Experiment and the Interior of the Earth”. In addition, a special meeting was held on August 7 to hear Professor K. E. Caster talk on “Glimpses of Peru and the Incas”.

Historical Section Meetings. Tuesday, June 12, Professor H. H. Rex, “The Concept of History in Continental Theology”. Tuesday, July 17, Mr. F. G. Hall-Jones, “Southland.

– xli –

Centennial”. Tuesday, September 18, “The Teaching of History in Secondary Schools”. A symposium. Tuesday, October 30, Mr. W. G. McClymont, “Kalamata: an Episode in the Greek Campaign.”

Original Papers. “Ecology of Southern New Zealand Sheltered Rocky Shore by Portobello Marine Biological Station, Otago Harbour”, by Dr. Elizabeth Batham. “A Review of the Copepod Genus Boeckella in New Zealand,” by Miss V. H. Jolly. “Ascidians in New Zealand, Part 10: Ascidians of North Auckland”, by Miss B. I. Brewin. “Care of Eggs by Octopus maorum, with Notes on Eggs, Larvae, Adult and Paroctopus zealandicus,” by Dr. Elizabeth Batham. “Comparative Morphology of the New Zealand Species of Pseudopanax and Nothopanax”, by Miss Kathleen Soper. “Ecology of Southern New Zealand Exposed Rocky Shore at Little Papanui, Otago Peninsula”, by Dr. Elizabeth Batham. “Contributions to the Mineralogy of New Zealand, Part IV”, by Professor C. O. Hutton (U S.A.).

Royal Society of New Zealand and the Otago Branch. During the year Professor L. H. Briggs was elected President of the Society, and Professors R. S. Allan and L. R. Richardson were elected Vice-Presidents.

As was mentioned in the Otago Branch Annual Report for 1955, the question of the Society's finances has been giving the Council much concern. The matter of contributions from Branches towards the administration expenses of the Society has, of course, come under consideration and, as a result, a questionnaire was recently prepared and sent to Branch Councils for answer.

Under Rule A 3 of the Rules of the Royal-Society of New Zealand, “every member body shall provide for the expenditure of not less than one-third of its annual revenue on or towards the formation or support of some local public museum or library or other institution approved by the Council, or otherwise shall provide for the payment of not less than one-sixth of its annual revenue towards the extension and maintenance of the Royal Society of New Zealand” Further, under Rule H (e), “a proportional contribution may be required from each member body towards the cost of publishing Proceedings and Transactions of the Society.”

These two rules which affect the finances of the Society and of Branches are now under review. Your Branch Council feels that contributions to library, museum, etc., were in order in the earlier years of this century, when the institutions supported, though usually small served a useful purpose in the community. Nowadays, however, with the very great quantity of library and museum material available, it is felt that the Branches which are almost all situated in cities, cannot offer anything like adequate support for large museums or libraries necessary to house desirable material. Therefore your Council is not in favour of contributing one-third of Branch income to such institutions but is of the opinion that this proportion of subscription income should be paid to the Royal Society of N. Z. to help with administration costs provided that no further contribution is required by the main body towards the cost of producing the Transactions and Proceedings.

At the present time the Branch is levied 7s 6d per member by way of assistance towards printing the Transactions.

Many members of the Branch will recall that we have an Auditorium Fund which will before long, be used to help with the provision and furnishing of an auditorium in the proposed new extension of the Otago Museum. This fund now contains about £2,400, and it is being augmented annually by about £60 of interest. Thus, by the time the money is paid over for the auditorium, the Branch will have made a very substantial contribution—representing approximately one-third of its total income for many years—towards the local museum.

Your Council does feel that Branches should make some contribution towards the expenses of the Royal Society of New Zealand, but at the same time it is concerned that there should be no increase in subscription arising out of such a contribution. At present Branch income is balancing expenditure, but if prices continue to rise Branch finances will have to be reviewed; this reviewing may be hastened by any recommendations made by the Royal Society in connection with Branch contributions.

F. G. Soper

, President.

J. B. Mackie

, Hon Secretary
November 7, 1956

Historical Section

During the year the society held only four meetings.

Unfortunately two speakers who had been included in the original programme were unable to give papers.

The subjects of the four meetings were diverse and the meetings were well attended by members.

Membership has remained the same as last year and again this year there have been no student members.

W. P. Morrell

, President.

D. G Esplin

, Hon. Secretary-Treasurer.

– xlii –

Astronomical Section

During the year one general and two Committee meetings were held.

Office-bearers. The following were elected at the last Annual Meeting: Chairman, Mr. G. G. Couling; Vice-Chairmen, Messrs. W. D. Anderson and J. C. Begg. Hon. Secretary-Treasurer, Mr. K. M. McIntyre; Hon. Observatory Director, Mr. A. J. Doig; representative on Royal Society Council, Mr. J. Stuart; Committee—Messrs. W. A. H. Drew, J. Riach, G. W. Broad. A. J. Symonds, R. N. Campbell and E. W. Chrisp.

Shortly after the last Annual Meeting, the elected Chairman, Mr. G. G. Couling, was transferred to Bluff and so had to resign the chairmanship. At this stage we would like to put on record the Section's thanks and great appreciation for all the work he did for the furthering of astronomy in Dunedin. During his years of association with the Observatory he occupied all the various offices and also did a great deal of work in the field of recording auroral phenomena and the timing of occultations. Mr. Couling is a man the Section will miss in the coming years, and while we are glad for his promotion we regret that he had to leave Dunedin.

Beverley-Begg Observatory. The winter observing season comprised 28 Saturday nights, from April 14 to October 20. The season was extended slightly because of the close opposition of the planet. Mars Of these nights approximately half were suitable for observation.

The sessions were as usual conducted by Committee members on a rota system. It is a matter for some concern that we have only three members on the committee who can guarantee being able to serve on this rota. The burden of work is devolving on too few. However, there seems to be no other way of conducting our public sessions, so we must hope that in ensuing years more will come forward to offer their services.

As well as the Saturday night sessions there have been many private parties entertained at the Observatory on other nights of the week—more so than was the case last year.

That this is becoming quite a feature of our work is amply demonstrated by the observatory collections. Last year we took £11 11s 9d, this year £17 8s 6d—a record for the Section. In all about 475 to 550 people visited the Observatory.

Occultations. The Observatory Director. Mr. Doig, has taken over from Mr. Couling the task of timing occultations and sending the figures forward to the compilers of the Nautical Almanac.

Equipment. All items of equipment have been carefully maintained and are in good condition.

The aluminium surfaces on the 12in and diagonal mirrors of the large reflector continue to stand up well to the atmospheric conditions. Mention was made last year of the problem of dust collecting on the mirror surfaces, which it does fairly readily.

Recently Mr. Doig washed the 12in mirror in a weak detergent solution and this operation has resulted in the removal of the dust and consequent better observations being made of the celestial phenomena.

During the past year our Orrery Planetarium was loaned to the Christchurch Branch for exhibition at the Christchurch Industries Fair. This we feel was a very worthwhile venture, as it was of great assistance to their exhibit and also, when demonstrated, aroused a great deal of interest.

Annexe. Since our last report work has proceeded apace with the construction of the Annexe. We have now reached the stage of laying the concrete blocks, and we are beginning to see something for our labours. However, laying bricks is a slow process when there are only a few people to do the work. It would certainly be appreciated by those who regularly work on the Annexe if more of our able-bodied members came along on fine Saturday mornings to lend a hand.

Publicity This year we have had a fair share of publicity. There have been articles in the local papers about the Observatory and about astronomy with particular reference to Mars. Much of the material for these articles was given by our Vice-Chairman, Mr. W. D. Anderson. The Secretary-Treasurer gave a further series of talks on astronomy in the Children's Session from 4YA, Dunedin.

Such publicity as this accounts in part for the large numbers of people who have visited the Observatory in the past year.

Vandalism. Once again we are suffering from the attacks of vandals. Over the past three or four months we have had a series of minor attacks by vandals who interfered with the building materials for the Annexe, and on one occasion with the lock of the Observatory door. These attacks were more of a nuisance rather than a cause of real damage. A complaint was made to the police some time ago, however, when it was discovered that they had broken some of the concrete blocks by dropping them on top of each other into the excavations.

It is hoped that this complaint will have the desired effect on those who are perpetrating the attacks We suspect that the vandals are school children on the way home between the hours of 3.30. p. m. and 5.0 p. m. during the week.

Membership. The roll stands at 14 full members and 34 Associate members.

K. M. McIntyre

, Secretary.

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Southland Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.

The annual report for the year ended March 31, 1957, was presented at the Annual Meeting on Wednesday, May 15, 1957.

Membership. At the end of the financial year the membership roll stood at 40 ordinary members and six life members. Three resignations were received during the year and one new member was elected. We could now recruit new members with advantage, and it is hoped that members will nominate interested friends.

Meetings. General meetings of the Branch were held as follows:—June 13, 1956, Dr. J. Hall-Jones, “Kakapo in Fiordland”. August 15, Mr. Irving, “Veterinary Work in New Zealand”. September 26, Dr. Jennings, “Early Photographs of Southland”, a collection of slides of historical interest.

The July meeting was held in conjunction with W.E.A., when Mr. R. S. Unwin addressed the gathering on the subject of the International Geophysical Year in Antarctica and New Zealand.

On October 31, members paid an evening visit to the Meteorological Office at the Invercargill airport, where, through the courtesy of Mr. Pollington, Officer in Charge, the method of operation of Met. radar and radiosonde equipment was explained with practical demonstrations.

We are very grateful to all those who took so much time and trouble in preparing addresses to the Branch.

While attendances at meetings have usually been rather small, we enjoyed the company of some 50 members and friends at one of our most successful lecture evenings.

Wellington Representative. At the May meeting of Council, we received with regret Dr. Uttley's resignation as our representative in Wellington. Mr. R. W. Willett, a life member of this branch, was elected in his place.

Transactions. In answer to a questionnaire distributed by post, some members stated that they would be willing to give up receiving the Transactions without reduction in subscription, thus assisting Branch funds. Thirty-two copies of Volume 84 have been ordered.

Research on Whero Island. Dr. Richdale, on his return to this country, has been able to spend a further period in the 1956–57 summer continuing his bird studies on Whero, and he reports that this season's work has been the most successful so far. He is most appreciative of the help he has received from Mr. and Mrs. Willa, of Stewart Island, who have performed the difficult and vital task of servicing him during his periods on Whero.

The hut is now in need of some repairs, and the Council have been giving some attention to this matter.

Library. Mrs. Sansom continues to act as honorary librarian for the branch, and books and periodicals are housed at the Southland Museum.

C. C. Anderson

, President.

I. C. Mc Kellar

, Secretary.

Hawke's Bay Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.

Annual Report for the Year 1956

The Council of the Hawke's Bay Branch of the Royal Society presents its 83rd Annual Report for the year ended December 31, 1956.

Meetings. The Annual General Meeting last year was addressed by Dr. Clark, who spoke on the archaeopteryx. A public meeting was held in July, at which Mr. Fielding spoke on the science of food preservation. Three members' meetings were held. Mr. Grant lectured on the recent changes of climate and forest composition in New Zealand, Mr. Brathwaite on the migration of New Zealand birds, and Dr. Crawford on automation.

Sections. Historical Section in Hastings: Eight meetings were held during the year. Three members of the Section have been appointed to the H. B. Regional Committee for the Preservation of Historical Sites. A collection of old photographs of the early days of Hastings was made by Mr. Rainbow, and these were displayed at the city celebrations in September. The photographs are now bound and have been lodged at the Hastings Library.

Ornithological Section carried on its field days and meetings. Mr. R. Williams, a member of the Branch, has successfully organised a group of junior field wardens in the district with the object of preserving local wild life.

Historical Section in Napier has held monthly meetings and has issued a pamphlet on the Taupo Road.

Meteorological Section held monthly meetings at which various subjects were discussed.

Library. It is felt that with the relatively small amount of money we can afford to spend on new books, we cannot hope to maintain a library comparable with a well selected municipal library with its much larger annual income. We have therefore bought no new books, but have set up a panel of four specialist members who are at the service of the two municipal libraries in an advisory capacity on the buying of new scientific books.

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The copies of Transactions that are held in the Napier Public Library are in the process, of rebinding.

Membership. During 1956 Mr. Sainsbury, for many years a member of the Branch, was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.

Membership of the Branch now stands at 86; not all members of the Sections are, of course, full members of the Branch.

Forest and Bird Society. The Branch was pleased to note the establishment of a branch of this Society in Napier.

Junior Naturalist Society. The Branch is also pleased that a Junior Naturalist Society has been formed under the direction of Mr. R. Williams.

Conclusion. Your Council feels that the work of Sections during the year was well work-while and, as it is in the Sections that the enthusiasm of members is applied, the Branch has had a successful year.

Charles Crawford

, Chairman

Nelson Philosophical Society

Annual Report for Year ended September 30, 1956.

The Annual Meeting was held at the Cawthron Institute on Friday, November 4, 1955, at 4 p.m.

The following officers were elected for the 1956 session:–President, Dr. W. Cottier; Vice-President, Mr. B. B. Given; Hon. Secretary-Treasurer. Mr. R. J. Monk; Committee—Miss J. Watson, Dr. G. S. Cone, Messrs. A. W. Bowman, G. M. Smart, E. Gourlay, R. S. S. Meredith. Representative on Council, Dr. H. O. Askew; Hon. Auditor, Mr. T. Christie.

Meetings. During the session seven meetings were held and the following addresses given:—“The Auckland Islands and the November, 1954, Scientific Expedition”, by Mr. E. Gourlay: “How Scientific Discoveries are Made”, by Sir Charles Darwin; “Skin-diving”, by Mr. D. Field; and “Coins”, by Mr. E. Gourlay, “How a Pest's Choice of Food Can Be Adapted to Its Control”, by Dr. W. Laidlaw; “The Development of Resistance to Insecticides of Insect Carriers of Human Diseases”, by Dr. W. Cottier; “The Planet Mars”, by Mr. E. Morley. One meeting was devoted to a showing of colour-slides by Mr. B. B. Given.

Membership. During the Session the deaths occurred of one member and one associate. One member and one associate resigned on account of ill-health, and two members resigned on leaving the district. The membership has therefore decreased to 40, consisting of 28 members and 12 associates.

Finances. The balance sheet shows a credit balance of £29 4s 3d in the P.O S.B. This is £2 16s ld more than was in credit the previous year, so the Society has profited by its year's activity.

Attendances. The attendance at the monthly meetings varied from 42 on the occasion of Sir Charles Darwin's lecture to 11 at the Annual Meeting.

Affiliation with the Royal Society. Your Committee has for several years worked to regulate the relationship between the Royal Society of N.Z., the Nelson Institute, and the Philosophical Society, and is now able to report that with the resignation of the Nelson Institute from membership of the Royal Society, the Philosophical Society has applied for affiliation to the Royal Society This is expected to be finalised at the November Council meeting.

Rotorua Philosophical Society

Annual Report for 1956

On behalf of the Committee I have pleasure in presenting the third annual report of the Rotorua Philosophical Society for the year 1955/56.

Officers. The following members held office during the year: President, Mr. J. Healy, Vice-President, Dr. W. J. Watt; Secretary, Mr. S. A. Cooper; Treasurer, Mr. L. Clark; Committee—Dr. R. N. Beale, Mr. E. D. Forester, Mr. R. S. Martin, Mr. I. J. Thulin.

The Committee met 10 times during the year. Towards the end of the period Dr. Beale resigned to take up an appointment in Australia.

Membership. Financial membership decreased from 77 in 1955 to 72 in 1956.

Meetings. Nine scheduled meetings were held in 1956 as follows: April 3, “Forecasting the Future”, Sir Charles Darwin; April 23, “Rambles in New Zealand”, Mr. M. C. Gudex; May 23, “The Pre-European History of the Arawa People”, Mr. D. M. Stafford; June 25, “The Soils of New Zealand”, Mr. N. H. Taylor; July 25, “Symposium on White Island”, Messrs. C. J. Banwell, J. Healy and G. E. K. Thompson; August 13, “An Economic Survey of the Whanau Apanaui Tribe”, Mr. M. Raureti; “Recent Eruptions in the Waiotapu Area”, Mr. D. Cross; August 29, “Potentialities of New Zealand Plants”, Dr. L. H. Briggs. September 24, Conversazione, South Auckland Branch N.Z. Institute of Engineers; October 24, “Modern Trends in Architecture”, Dr. R. H. Toy.

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The Society was privileged in having Sir Charles Darwin, who was in New Zealand to deliver the Rutherford Lecture, to give the opening address, which attracted the largest attendance of the year. The White Island symposium was arranged at short notice to replace a talk by Dr. L. R. Wallace, who was unable to come. The August 13 meeting was what is now regarded as the annual evening devoted to papers on original local research.

The Conversazione this year featured engineering, with sections on geothermal power, surveying, water supply, concrete, tele-communications and highway design in the hands of a panel of engineers introduced by Mr. R. S. Martin. This feature again proved a popular and profitable one.

At a well-attended extra meeting held on October 2, Mr. J. McCreary spoke on “Social Work in the United States”. Thanks are due to all the above speakers for their contribution to the year's programme.

As suggested last year, meetings were held on alternate Mondays and Wednesdays in the fourth week of each month. The Committee now feels that it would be more satisfactory to have one regular meeting night each month. The average attendance was 48, but was in fact somewhat irregular. It is neither possible nor desirable for the Society to confine lectures to those of purely popular appeal, and members are urged to give full support to all speakers.

Finance. A balance of approximately £100 carried forward from last year has been reduced to £90, and outstanding dues to the Royal Society and expenditure on books ordered amount to an additional £15. The apparent loss is due to a double expenditure this year on the library, to make up for last year's unexpended vote. The financial position can therefore be regarded as satisfactory.

Once again the Society has to thank the Rotorua High School authorities for permission to use the common room for meetings. This resulted in an appreciable saving in expense.

Library. Mr. R. W. McMillan was appointed as librarian at the last Annual Meeting. During the year a large number of New Zealnad publications were added, and recently a number of books have arrived. These were selected by the Library Committee, consisting of the President, Mr. W. G. Harwood, and Drs. T. C. Highton and W. J. Watt. Publications have been tabled at meetings, and there has been an increased interest taken by members in the library. It is now growing to the point where it will form an important part of the Society's activities, and members are urged to make free use of it.

Royal Society of New Zealand. The Society has again been well served on the Royal Society Council by Dr. J. Dixon, who visited Rotorua and reported to the Society on August 13. Thanks are due to Dr. Dixon for his able and conscientious representation.

During the year the Council circulated to member bodies a questionnaire on financial obligations and the relationship of the member bodies to the parent Society. This Committee favoured a compulsory payment of one sixth of subscription income to the Royal Society without a fixed rate of expenditure on any other obligatory activity such as support of a library or museum. The future policy of the Royal Society will be further considered at the November meeting of the full Council.

Borough Museum. An opportunity having arisen for the Rotorua Borough Council to divide its Museum exhibits, a meeting was held of the Council representatives and the Committee and those who prepared reports on the Museum last year. The Borough Council has now agreed to the Society reorganizing the Museum, and at present a visit by Dr. Archey is awaited to get things under way.

Historical Sub-Section. A request from Mrs. Enid Tapsell to the Borough Council for the formation of an organization for the preservation of local historical records was referred to the Society. The Committee met Mrs. Tapsell and his Worship the Mayor to discuss how the Society could help. It was decided to bring to the Annual Meeting a proposal to form a Historical Sub-Section, and to invite interested members of the public to attend.

More active participation by members by the formation of a sub-section could be regarded as a healthy sign, and is a logical development in any society of sufficient size.

Other Projects. A proposal for special lectures to High School pupils was discussed with the headmaster by the proposer, Mr. D. R. Gregg, and the secretary. The matter was deferred for further consideration early in the new year.

The provision of an annual prize for a scientific project among High School pupils has been approved and will be put into operation next year. As an immediate gesture, two books are being presented this year to the High School library.

The Society again owes a vote of gratitude to the headmaster, Mr. W. G. Harwood, for the use of the staff room and laboratories and facilities for general and Committee meetings. His kind co-operation at all times is gratefully acknowledged. To Mrs. Harwood and those other ladies who so regularly provide supper at the right time, special thanks are due from all members. The kind services of Mr. D. Holloway, who audited the financial statement, and the co-operation of the Rotoiua Post, are gratefully acknowledged.

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Waikato Scientific Association

Annual Report for the Year ended October 31, 1956.

I have pleasure in presenting on behalf of your Executive this, the eleventh Annual Report of the Association.

Executive. At the Annual Meeting on November 17, 1955, the following officers were elected:—President, Mr. K. J. McNaught; Vice-President, Mr. R. R. White; Secretary, Mr. A. G. Yarrall; Treasurer, Miss W. Tinsley; Committee, Messrs. M. C. Gudex and C. G. Hunt, Dr. E. B. Davies, Miss P. J. A. Post; Hon. Auditor, Mr. A. E. Greenslade.

Your Executive has met on eight occasions during the year.

Membership. This has remained static.

Lectures. As in the past, the main activity has been arranging for a series of lectures of general interest to the public. Seven lectures were given as follows: March 15, Mr. K. J. McNaught (Presidential Address), “Plant Ntuntion”. April 19, Mr. D. Kear (Geological Survey), “Recent Advances in Waikato Geology.” May 17, Mr. G. B. Bolt (T.E.A.L.), “As It Was in the Beginning”. June 21, Dr. R. A. Falla (Dominion Museum), “Antarctic Wild Life”. July 19, Mr. C. Price (Technical College), “Language and Languages”. August 16, Mr. F. H. van der Elst (Rukuhia), “The Development of Peat Soils”. September 20, Mr. H. A. Swarbrick, “The Food of the Maori”.

The usual attendance at monthly meetings was about 30, but although the meetings were advertised, public support was disappointing. About 120 people heard Dr. Falla's address, to which the Forest and Bird Society, the Waikato Tramping Club, and the secondary schools were specially invited. In place of the usual monthly meeting, a Demonstration Evening was organized for October 18 at the Galloway Laboratories of the Soil Research Station. We are indebted to the following exhibitors: P. and T. Department (private automatic telephone exchange), State Hydro Department (telephone line and power line fault finder), Waikato Hospital (blood typing and transfusion service); Hamilton Astronomical Society (telescopes and optical equipment); Hamilton Amateur Radio Society (radio transmitters for local amateur station and for Search and Rescue Organizations; Geiger counter, etc.); Hamilton Tomo Group (cave exploration equipment, moa bones, etc, and screening of coloured slides); Mr. C. G. Hunt (Maori artifacts in the making), Mr. R. Hambling (native wood collection); Rukuhia Soil Research Station (spectrographic equipment) and Ruakura Animal Research Station (bomb calorimetry, automatic weighing machine, diagnostic service, stock poisons). We are pleased to report a record attendance of about 200.

Field Trip. An excursion planned for Bridal Veil Falls was cancelled because of wet weather.

Finance. Analysis of the Balance Sheet shows that when outstanding liabilities are met we end the year with a cash balance of £9 16s 9d, a decrease of approximately £7 on last year's figure. This decrease is largely due to a drop in subscriptions. Expenditure arising from membership of the Royal Society of New Zealand was £14 4s 3d this year from a subscription income of £30 10s. This amount is composed mainly of 1s 6d of our subscriptions and our share of travelling expenses of a delegate to two meetings a year of the Royal Society. Unless our membership increases or the subscription is raised the income next year will not be sufficient to pay the minimum expenses. Furthermore, a reduction in expenditure is considered impracticable. Consequently your executive is compelled to recommend to the Special General Meeting that the subscription be raised to 15s per annum.

At Dr. Falla's meeting an appeal for donations to help defray costs and for the Ross Sea Appeal enabled a contribution of £7 to the Ross Sea Appeal.

Royal Society. Dr. Davies, our delegate, attended the half-yearly meeting in November, 1955, and the annual meeting in May, also one meeting of the Standing Committee.

The outstanding talk of the year was the address by Dr. Falla. Affiliation with the Royal Society facilitated this visit.

An extensive questionnaire on the finances of the Royal Society and its Branches was fully considered at a special Executive meeting on October 9. On questions of contributions to the Royal Society your executive, in attempting to interpret the wishes of members, was not prepared to recommend any contributions in excess of the present commitment for one sixth of our subscription income.

Ruapuke Beach Wreck. Several unsuccessful attempts were made during last summer to locate the old mystery wreck buried in the sands at the mouth of the Toreparu Stream. Mr. C. G. Hunt has continued his investigations and has followed up many further clues which might have some bearing on the problem. Further interesting information has been brought to light.

K. J. McNauught

, President.

Wellington Branch Of the Royal Society of New Zealand

Annual Reportfor Year Ended September 30, 1956

Council. The Council has held six meetings during the year under review, and the previous Council held one meeting prior to the Annual General Meeting.

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Attendances at the six meetings have been as follows: President, Dr. E. Marsden (6), Vice-Presidents, Dr. J. F. Gabites (5), Dr. J. T. Salmon (2); Council—Mr. K. R. Allen (5), Mr. N. F. Barber (3), * Dr. M. A. F. Barnett (1), Mr. J. M. Brodie (6), Mr. P. C. Bull (6), Professor R. H. Clark (5), Mr. R. K. Dell (2), Dr. J. K. Dixon (3), Mr. N. de B. Hornibrook (5), Mr. H. C. McQueen (6), Miss L. B. Moore (5), Mr. A. L. Poole (3), Professor L. R. Richardson (3), Dr. F. B. Shorland (3), Mr. G. Maskill Smith (3), Mr. V. J. Wilson (5), Secretary-Treasurer, Mr. R. W. Willett (6); Assistant Secretary, Mr. G. C. Shaw (2).

On his election as Vice-President of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Professor L. R. Richardson resigned as Branch Representative, and his place was filled by Dr. M. A. F. Barnett.

Membership. The total membership of the Branch is (1955 totals shown in parentheses): 438 (383), made up as follows: Ordinary members, 318 (281); life members, 24 (23); life members of other branches now attached at Wellington, 11 (11); associates, 85 (68). Of this total, 242 (224) receive the Transactions.

Fifty-one (27) new ordinary members and associates were elected and 7 (3) transferred to the Branch; 4 members (19) resigned or died; 4 (4) transferred to other Branches; and 2 (2) were written off.

General Meetings. The following meetings were held: October 26, Annual General Meeting, 1955. November 18, “The Work of the Marine Physical Laboratory of Scripps Institution of Oceanography of California”, by Sir Charles Wright. March 8, “Prospects of Nuclear Energy”, by Professor C. N. Watson-Munro. April 26, “An Attempt to Forecast the Next Fifty Years”, by Sir Charles Darwin. May 15, Presidential Address to the Royal Society of New Zealand, by Dr. David Millar. June 27,” Power Probabilities”, by Mr. A. E. Davenport. July 25, “Deep Sea Research in Cook Strait”, by Professor L. R. Richardson. August 22, Hudson Memorial Lecture—“Moa Hunters, Maoris, and Morions”, by Dr. Roger S. Duff. September 26, Symposium on “Fuel and Power”, conducted by the Technology Section, speakers being G. Maskill Smith, C. H. Benney, A. E. Davenport, P. A. Toynbee, and Professor j. O. Shearer.

In addition, the Branch joined with the Wellington Branch, New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, on April 5, to hear Dr. Lea, R. F. Legget, and D. E. Parsons, Directors of Building Research in Great Britain, Canada and the United States respectively, speak on building research overseas.

On April 16, the Branch joined with the New Zealand Institute of Agricultural Science to hear an address, “The Chemo-Therapy of Plant Diseases”, by Dr. J. G. Horsfall, Director of the Connecticut Agricultural Experimental Station, Newhaven, Connecticut, U.S.A.

A joint meeting was held on May 2 with the Wellington Branch, New Zealand Geographical Society, and the New Zealand Antarctic Society. The speaker was Dr. T. Hatherton, New Zealand Observer on Operation Deepfreeze.

Section Meetings

Atronomy and Geophysics October, 1955: “New Zealand's Contribution to the Inteinational Geophysical Year”, by Dr. E. I. Robertson. April, 1956: Joint meeting with the Geology Section. May, 1956. “The Scientific Importance of Solar Eclipses”, by I. L. Thomsen. June, 1956. “Research in Engineering Seismology at Dommion Physical Laboratory, D.S.I.R.”, by Dr. G. N. Bycroft. July, 1956. “Whistlers—A Radio Method of Exploring the Outer Atmosphere”, by G. McK. Allcock. August, 1956: Joint Meeting with the Geology Section. September, 1956: “The Value of Hydrological Observations in Oceanography”, by Dr. R. W. Burling.

Biology Section. October, 1955: “Behaviour of Canada Goose in North America”, by Dr. R. W. Balham. November, 1955: Joint meeting with the Botanical Society; Symposium on Chatham Islands. April, 1956: “Some Facts and Theories on the Ecology of Wild Rabbits in New Zealand”, by P. C. Bull. May, 1956: “Antibiotics and Bacterial Sensitivity”, by Dr. P. P. Lynch. June, 1956: Symposium on “Plant and Animal Fossils as Climatic Indicators” July, 1956: “East and West of the Andes—Some Impressions of Peru”, by F. C. Kinsky. August, 1956: “Southern Mutton Bird Island”, by R. K. Dell September, 1956: “Modern Trends in Wildlife Management”, by Dr. K. Westerskov.

Geology Section. October, 1955: “Rates of Deformation in the Mesozoic and Cainozoic of New Zealand,” by H. W. Wellman. April, 1956: Symposium on “Earthquake Risk in the Wellington Region”. May, 1956: No meeting. June, 1956: “Penglaciation in England”, by Dr. M. Te Punga. July, 1956: “The Application of Geology to Recent Advances in Clay Mineralogy in New Zealand”, by I. McDowall. August, 1956: Joint meeting with Astronomy and Geophysics Sections—“The Nature of New Zealand to a Depth of One Hundred Kilometers”, by A. C. Beck, Dr. H. J. Harrington, Dr. E. I. Robertson and G. A. Eiby. September, 1956: “Tectonic Features in a Coastal Setting at Wellington”, by Professor C. A. Cotton.

[Footnote] * From Julv.

[Footnote] † Until June.

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Physics Section. October, 1955: “High-frequency Radio Observations of Waves on the Sea”, by D. D. Crombie. April, 1956: “Atmospheric Radioactivity”, by R. W. Humphrey. May, 1956: “The Transfer of Water Vapour in the Atmosphere”, by J. W. Hutchings. June, 1956: “A Visit to U.S.A.”, by C. J. Banwell. July, 1956: Joint meeting with the Technology Section. August, 1956: “A Method of Obtaining Ultra-High Temperatures”, by F. Knox. September, 1956: “Laboratory Devices for Frequency Analysis”, by F. N. Barber.

Social Science Section. October, 1955: “Fundamental Problems of the Social Scientist— Operational Research,” by Dr. F. G. Jacoby. April, 1956: “Current Research on Psychology in New Zealand”, by Dr. C. J. Adcock. May, 1956: “A Theoretical Framework for a Study of Entrants to the Teaching Profession in New Zealand”, by Dr. H. B. Low. July, 1956: “Dcvelopments in Social Statistics”, by J. V. T. Baker. August, 1956: “Trends in Research in Public Administration”, by R. J. Polaschek. September, 1956: “Authority and Leadership in a Maori Community”, by J. M. Booth.

Technology Section. October, 1955: “An Overseas Fuel Engineer Takes a Look at New Zealand's Existing and Future Fuel Supplies”, by B. G. Voisey. April, 1956: “Total Gasification—Its Possible Contribution to New Zealand's Power Supply”, by P. A. Toynbee. May, 1956: “The Utilization of New Zealand Ironsands”, by W. R. B. Martin. June, 1956: “Coal in Relation to the Power Resources of New Zealand”, by C. H. Benney. July, 1956: “Nucleai Physics Today”, by Professor D. Walker. August, 1956: “Modern Trends in Refining Petroleum”, by G. Rushworth. September, 1956: General Meeting conducted by Technology Section—A Symposium on “Fuel and Powel”.

Publications. The following is a list of papers published by members of the Wellington Branch in the Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand during the year under review:

Vol. 83, Part 2: Croker, B. H, “Comments on the Shingle Vegetation of the Horikiwi Stieam” Dellow, Vivienne, and Cassie, R. Morrison. “Littoral Zonation in Two Caves in the Auckland District”. Richards, Aola M. “The Anatomy and Morphology of the Cave-Orthopteran Macropathus filifer Walker, 1869. Waterhouse, J. B.: “An Isoclinal Fold on Hackel Peak, Southern Alps, New Zealand”.

Vol. 83, Part 3: Cotton, C. A.: “Coastal History of Southern Westland and Northern Fioidland”. Garrick, J. A. F.: “Studies on New Zealand Elasmobranchii: Part V—Scymnodalatias ng. Based on Scymnodon sherwoodi Archey, 1921 (Selachii)”. Marwick, J.: “Three Fossil Mollusca from the Hokonui System (Triassic and Jurassic)”.

Vol. 83, Part 4: Bell, Shona; Harrington, H. J.; and McKellar, I. C.: “Lower Mesozoic Plant Fossils from Black Jacks, Waitaki River, South Canterbury”. Campbell, J. D, and McKellar, I. C.: “The Otapirian Stage of the Triassic System of New Zealand Part I”. Cassie, R. Morrison: “Early Development of the Snapper, Chrysophrys auratus Forster.” Cotton, C. A.: “Hawke Bay Coastal Types”. Hurley, D. E.: “The New Zealand Species of Iais (Crustacean Isopoda).”

Papers Submitted for Printing in the Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand. Only papers submitted by non-members for publication in the Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand need be read before a branch meeting.

Papers read by title at General Meeting: 25/7/56, Hamlin, B. G.: “Studies in New Zealand Carices”. 22/8/56, Wright, C. W.: “Some Cretaceous Ammonites from New Zealand.”

Distinctions. Council is pleased to record the award of the Hutton Medal to Dr. C. A. Fleming and the election to Fellowship of Mr. N. H. Taylor.

Hudson Lecture. The Hudson Lecture for 1956 was given by Dr. R. S. Duff, Director Canterbury Museum, who spoke on “Moa-hunters, Maoris and Morioris—the Evolution of a Polynesian Culture in New Zealand.” The lecture is being printed in the N.Z. Science Review, and reprints will be distributed to members.

Library. Subscriptions to periodicals have been maintained as in previous years. A number of volumes have been bound. No change in library expenditure was made, the level of previous years being maintained. No decision has yet been arrived at by the Council of the Royal Society on the present rules referring to Branch library expenditure, but a fact-finding survey is at present being conducted by the Council of the Royal Society.

Auckland Institute and Museum

Annual Report for the Year 1956–57

President. It is pleasing to be able to record the fact that substantial progress is being made in the election of the new building. Ground floor level has already been reached and passed, and, at an impressive ceremony, the foundation stone was laid by the Prime Minister on the afternoon of Saturday, March 30. Among those present was the Chief Justice, Sir Harold Barrowclough, a foundation member of the War Memorial Executive Committee, who had made a special trip from Wellington in order to attend.

Membership. This now stands at 1,146 (including 316 life members). New members elected during the year numbered 123, while losses by reason of death, resignation, etc. amounted to 69.

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Obituary. It is with regret that the following names are recorded. They are those of members who have died during the year under review. Mrs. E. M. Blackwell, M.B.E., Sir George Elliott, O.B.E., Sir Alexander Johnstone, Q.C., O.B.E., B.A., LL.B., Lieut.-Colonel T. H. Dawson, C. M.G., C.B.E., Captain H. Dryden, Dr. E. D. Aubin, Dr. F. R. Smale, Dr. L. H. Whetter, Messrs. C. F. Bennett, M. B.E, N. W. H. Bonham, A. F. Burton, F. B. Cadman, T. Clements, L. J. Coakley, O.B.E., A. N. Cooper, Bertram Dawson, C. E. Jenkins, C. H. Moses, R. H. Neil, J. B. Paterson, M. B.E., E. J. Prendergast, H. Clinton Savage and Eruni Taipari.

Mr. T. Clements and Mr. J. B. Paterson both served for a time as Members of the Council—Mr. Clements as a representative of contributing local authorities, and Mr. Paterson as a member of the Auckland City Council.

Mr. L. J. Coakley will be long remembered as a former Deputy-Mayor of Auckland, and especially for the active and successful steps which he took to secure more playing fields and open spaces for the city. There were many occasions on which the Museum received the benefit of his specialised knowledge.

Mr. A. N. Cooper was also most interested in the work of the Museum, and, in conjunction with other members of his family, was the donor of an extensive natural history collection.

Sir Alexander Johnstone, one of the Dominion's most distinguished citizens, served the Institute and Museum selflessly for many years. At different times he held the offices of Member of the Council, Vice-President and President. As a further, and substantial, token of his interest, the Museum will benefit by a generous legacy in terms of his will.

Mr. Eruini Taipari, upon whom had been conferred the distinction of Honorary Life Membership, was the leader of the Ngati-Maru people of Hauraki, whose carved Meeting House “Hotunui” is such an outstanding item among the treasures displayed in our Maori Court.

Honours. A pleasing duty which fell to the lot of the Council was to send congratulations to those of our members whose names have appeared in recent Honours Lists. The Hon. Sir Joseph Stanton, Dr. E. G. Sayers, C.M.G, Mr. Douglas Hay, O.B.E., Mr. F. N. Ambler, O.B.E, and Mr. W. Calder Mackay, O. B.E., have all been honoured by Her Majesty.

The honorary degree of Doctor of Science has been conferred upon our Assistant Director by the University of New Zealand.

Professor L. H. Briggs has been elected to the distinguished office of President of the Royal Society of New Zealand, and, at our last annual meeting, formally presented the Hector Medal previously awarded to Mrs. Lucy Cranwell Smith, whom we were glad to welcome on an all too brief visit from her new home in the United States. Six members of the staff—i. e., Mrs. Turbott, Dr. Archey, Dr. Powell, Mr. Fisher, Mr. Turbott and Mr. Scobie have been elected to the newly instituted Fellowship of the Art Galleries and Museums Association of New Zealand.

Council. The usual regular meetings of the Council have been held, and a very considerable volume of business has been dealt with Owing to certain administrative delays over which the Council has no control, finality has not yet been reached as regards the proposed staff superannuation scheme. Mr. J. H. Luxford, C. M. G., Miss Rains, Mrs. M. M. Dreaver, and Mr. A. P. Postlewaite, O.B.E., ceased to be members of the Council during the year. The service they gave is much appreciated.

Western Springs. Representations have been made to the City Council with a view to ensuring, so far as possible, that pioposed development work at the Western Springs lake will not destioy the value of this small sheet of water as a wild-fowl sanctuary.

The Institute. The year's extended lecture syllabus apparently imposed no “attendance strain” upon members who gave full support throughout the series. Our thanks are due to the lecturers who provided such an interesting programme. Dr. R. G. Cooper, M.A., B.Com., Ph.D., “Taro Hunting in the Pacific”, Sir Charles Darwin, K.B.E., M.C., Sc.D., F.R.S, “How Scientific Discoveries are Made”; Mr. A. W. B. Powell, F.R.S.N.Z., “In Search of ‘Gloria Maris’ in Dutch New Guinea”, Commander G. S. Ritchie, D.S.C., R. N., “Hydrographic Surveying in New Zealand”; Rev. M. Walsh, “Wordsworth's Place in English Poetry”, Mr. Arthur Tandy, A.C.W.A., “Automation and the Office”. Mr. H. G. Lambert, F.N.Z.I.M., “Automation and the Factory”. Mr. D. McClure, A.F.N.Z.I.M., “Automation and the Man”; Mr. J. H. Rose, LL.B, “Nepal and Its People”; Mr. Elmer Nelson, “Rim Rock: The Story of Colorado Plateau, the Grand Canyon, Petrified Forest. A Boat Trip Down the Colorado River.”

Anthropology Section. Chairman, Mr. A. J. Woolston. To the interest in social anthropology that has been a feature of recent years is now added a growing attention to archaeology, stimulated by Mr. Golson's enthusiasm and the visit during the year of Professor R. E. Bell, of the University of Oklahoma. Contributions by our Maori members have also been a welcome feature of the evening discussions. The section membership is 96. The lectures and papers presented were: “Archaeological Work in New Zealand,” Professor R. E. Bell, M. A., Ph.D. (Ohio). “The Festival Exhibition of Food Bowls” at the Museum, Mrs. O. M.' Turbott Panel Discussion, “Dependent Peoples, Past and Present”, “Problems of Maori.

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Welfare”, Mr. M, Raureti; Auckland University College Students' Papers; Museums Week activities.

Astronomy Section. The Auckland Austronomical Society has enjoyed another year of vigorous activity and increasing interest both in its membership and from without the Society. The membership is now over 260, of whom about 40 are juniors.

The Society has held eight meetings all largely attended and some with an attendance up to 150. An excellent syllabus provided many distinguished speakers whose addresses were highly informative and greatly appreciated, and the exhibition night was a great success. The O'Sullivan prize was won for a second time by Roger Horrocks, who presented a most careful study of Lunar Rays.

The search for an observatory site and one for the proposed planetarium for Auckland has been pursued with the City Council, but so far no site has been granted. A Spitz school planetarium was purchased and used at the Western Springs Carnival this year; over 2,000 people passed through it.

For the field night on Mt. Eden, thousands went to the summit to view the planet Mars and other celestial bodies through telescopes provided by the Society's members. A special feature has been the printing of the Journal; we feel it was a big advance on previous publications and hope to publish two or three issues a year.

A telescope making class has commenced at Avondale College with three of our councillois as lecturers. This was a long felt need for years, and when the invitation came to form the class the council gladly accepted it.

Conchology Section. Chairman, Mr. N. W. Gardner. The keen interest shown in all activities has made the past year a sound one for the Section.

A number of new members have joined, and the monthly meetings in the Museum have been particularly well attended. These meetings have been divided into a number of periods, such as section business, identification of specimens and study group, both conducted most helpfully by Dr. Powell, and a lecture, usually by a member.

Field days were well attended and newer members gained much from these in learning of habitats and general ecology of marine organisms, land snails, etc.

Monthly newsletters were sent to all members in town and country giving information on Sections affairs, current research, on conchology and new discoveries.

Number 12 Bulletin was published, a larger issue with several extra illustrations and 12 original articles by members.

The land snail section of the Brookes' Collection of N.Z. mollusca which is housed in the Museum was catalogued and arranged in order.

Museum. For a full report of the Auckland War Memorial Museum activities for the current year reference should be made to the published report of the Auckland Institute and Museum for the year 1956–57.

Canterbury Branch of The Royal Society of New Zealand

Annual Report for the Year Ended October 31, 1956

Membership. At the end of the financial year the ordinary membership of the Society was 286, the same as last year. Eighteen new members have been elected, one member has been transferred to us from another Branch, and three associates have been transferred to us from another Branch, and three associates have been transferred to full membership Eight members have resigned, five have been transferred to other Branches, two have died, and the names of seven members have been removed from the register by order of the Council.

Associate membership has declined by four from 18 last year to 14 this year. One associate has been elected, one has resigned, and three have been transferred to full membership of the Society. The name of one associate has been removed from the register by order of the Council.

The retired list of membership has increased by one from six last year to seven this year. One former member has been elected to the retired list.

At the end of the financial year the resignation of one member will become effective, and one member will be transferred to the retired list On November 1, the commencement of the new year, the Society will have 284 ordinary members, 14 associates, and eight members on the retired list.

Obituary. The Society records with deep regret the death of two members Sir Hugh Acland, a well known Christchurch surgeon, and a very old member of the Society, died during the early part of the year Sir R. Heaton Rhodes, of “Otahuna”, Tai Tapu, another very old member of the Society, died during the middle of the year.

Council. Up to the end of the financial year ten meetings of the Council had been held Records of attendance are as follows (ex-officio members marked*): *Allan 2, Blair 7, B. W. Collins 7, C. W. Collins 8, Duff 3, Ellyett 7, Clark 7, Fenwick 6, Pilgrim 6, *Garlick 10, Labatt 7, Percival 8, *McLellan 7, Forster 5, Russell 9, Mangin 5.

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Dr. R. R. Forster left for the United States in May, taking up a Travelling Fulbright Scholarship which will enable him to do research at several American Museums. In the same month Mr. E. R. Mangin was appointed honorary assistant secretary. Mr. C. R. Russell, who has been honorary secretary since August, 1946, tendered his resignation to the Council, which was accepted in October. Mr. E. R. Mangin was appointed honorary secretary in his place.

In addition to routine business a considerable number of matters have been referred to the Council by the parent body. The general finances of the Royal Society of New Zealand are causing the Standing Committee some concern, and a questionnaire was recently sent to this Society asking for information upon our own finances and the general activities of the Branch. It would appear that the functions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, and the publications of the Transactions are mainly financed from Government giants. The question of national collections and their custody is another important matter that has been referred to this Society by the Standing Committee.

The Council has considered with some concern the increasing number of members and associates who either leave their place of residence without advising us of their new address or are reported by the honorary treasurer as unfinancial. This year seven members and one associate had their names removed from the register for one of these causes.

Early in the year the chairman of the Scientific Photography Section recommended to the Council that owing to a seriously declining attendance at Section meetings, and the loss of members, the Section should be abandoned A referendum of Section members was-heavily in favour of the Section being disbanded, and this was agreed to by the Council.

Field Club Section activities have been curtailed by lack of interest. This it is hoped will be remedied when more permanent quarters can be obtained.

The Mathematics and Physical Sciences Section is buoyant, their meetings being popular and well attended.

The Council extends its congratulations to Dr. Roger S. Duff on the award of the Hectoi Medal of the Royal Society of New Zealand—the premier scientific award in this country— “for his contributions to the science of anthropology, and in particular for his researches into the material culture of the moa hunters”. Dr. Duff is the first Canterbury recipient of this award since 1940, and only the third since 1922. The medal is awarded annually to workers in various branches of science in rotation, being given for anthropology and ethnology every sixth year. The medal and prize were presented to Dr. Duff by Dr. R. S. Allan, a member of the Council and a Vice-president of the Royal Society of New Zealand, at a special meeting of the branch on September 20.

Late in the year Mr. W. W. Sawyer tendered his resignation from the Society, owing to his impending departure to take up a position in the United States. Mr. Sawyer was one of the founders of the Mathematical and Physical Sciences Section and its first chairman. He gave valuable service on the Council for three years.

Mr. C. R. Russell, an Appreciation. It seems appropriate to include in this Annual Report a tribute to the work of the Society's former secretary, Mr. C. R. Russell, who resigned office in October this year. Mr. Russell was elected to this office in August, 1946, on the resignation of Mr. G. Guy, and so at the time of his resignation had completed more than 10 years of continuous secretaryship. This term is by far the longest of any of the Society's secretaries, the previous record being held by the first secretary. Mr. E. C. J. Stevens (1862–1868), next comes the late Professor R. Speight (1894–1896 and 1908–1911).

During Mr. Russell's term of office the Society's membership increased from about 220 to more than 300, and the work of the secretary was increased not only as a result of this gain, but also because of the incieasing amount of business referred to the Branch by the parent body in Wellington Mr. Russell overhauled the secretarial procedure of the Branch, instituted more efficient record systems, and was concerned in such matters as the revision of the constitution and the formulation of a set of rules. In the day to day business of the Society he was most conscientious and tireless, and when decisions had to be made by the Council his opinion was always valuable Routine business was far from being the whole of his work, however, as Mr. Russell frequently introduced original ideas at the Council table and at general meetings.

That a busy man, whose primary interests and activities lay outside the strict confines of science (in the fields of engineering and commerce), should be able to find time for the Society's affairs in the capacity of secretary for so long a period is remarkable It is more remarkable that during this time also he has continued his scientific studies of the rotatoria and made many significant contributions to science in this group of microscopic animals, on which he is recognized as the New Zealand authority He also played a not unimportant part in the Scientific Photography Section.

Though it will no doubt be a rehef to Mr. Russell to lay down the burden of the secretaryship, it is with pleasure that we are able to state he will continue to serve the Society as an ordinary member of the Council during the coming year.

General Meetings The following was the year's programme: December 7, 1955: Annual General Meeting; “A Visit to Australia and the Snowy River Project”, Mr. B. W. Collins. March 7, 1956: “The Influence of Forests on the Evolution of Terrestrial Animals” (Presidential.

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Address), Dr. R. R. Forster. April 12 (in conjunction with Canterbury University College): “Fifty Years Hence”, Sir Charles Darwin. May 2: “The Functions of a Botany Division”, Mr. C. M. Smith. June 6: “New Answers to Some Old Problems in Astronomy”, Mr. K. W. Roth. August 1: “Problems of the Use of Antibiotics in Medicine”, Dr. G. C. T. Burns. September 5: Chalklin Memorial Lecture, “Magnetism”, Professor A. G. McLellan. October 3: “Recent Trends and Developments in the Sheep Industry”, Professor I. E. Coop. November 7 (public meeting): “A Symposium on Water Pollution”, Dr. H. T. Knights, Mr. D. Hogan, Mr. A. Hirsch.

At an Extra General Meeting on September 20, Professor R. S. Allan, Vice-president of the Royal Society of New Zealand, acting on behalf of the President, Professor Briggs, presented Dr. R. S. Duff with the Hector Medal and Prize for 1956.

At the conclusion of the presentation Dr. Duff described his visit to the Chinese Republic, illustrating his remarks with colour slides.

At an ordinary meeting of the Society on July 6, the following papers were read: “Pleistocene History of the Waimakiriri Valley”, Dr. M. Gage (read by title); “The Trans-Tasman Dispersal of the White Fronted Tern Sterna striata”, Mr. W. C. Clark; “The Distribution and Growth of Fresh Water Eels”, Mr. A. M. R. Burnet; “The Origin of the Canterbury Plains: Some Alternative Hypotheses”, Mr. B. W. Collins.

The following paper was read by title on August 1, “Contributions to a Knowledge of the Adventitive Flora of New Zealand”, No. 5, Mr. A. J. Healy.

Honorary Treasurer's Report. The financial position at the end of this year is satisfactory. The Council decided to increase the C. F. Chalklin Fund by £20, the Research Fund by £10, and the Publication Fund by £10 out of the year's income Also the Administration Reserve is to be increased by £30. From this reserve, a typewriter for the use of the secretary was purchased during the year: £5 towards the cost was kindly donated by Mr. C. R. Russell. The Farr Memorial Fund investment was converted from 3% Government Stock to 4⅝% Government Stock in March, 1956.

Report of the Hon. Librarian. During 1956 continued use of the combined libraries of the Society and of Canterbury University College has been made by a proportion of our members. It is now almost certain that 1957 will be the last year during which the Library will have to operate under the appalling handicap of totally inadequate space for books, for readers, and for staff work. The scheme to take over the School of Art building nearby, and to link it to the present Library by a new circulation and catalogue hall and main entrance, has been finally approved. The provision of new premises for the School of Art on the College's future site at Riccarton is well advanced, and working drawings are now being prepared for the conversion scheme on the present site. The College Library is soon to have its own microfilm camera unit which will extend the usefulness of present interloan facilities and also be of benefit to members not living in Christchurch Binding has been done fairly steadily during the year. Among the donations received there have been periodicals presented regularly by Mr. D. B. Mulligan, Mr. C. R. Russell and Mr. C. E. Fenwick.

Report of Representative on the Canterbury University College Library Committee. Our representative, Mr. G. E. Roth, is at present overseas, and Dr. R. M. Allison is deputising.

Report of Representative on the Riccarton Bush Board of Trustees. Professor L. W. McCaskill, who has been our representative on the Board for many years, resigned during the year, and Professor W. R. Philipson has been appointed in his place.

Report of the Representative on the Canterbury Museum Trust Board. The most important of the developments of the Museum is the building extension which has been growing during the year. Considerable changes are taking place in the original structure, so that a fine, extensive, and convenient addition to the architecture of the city and province is assured. A grant of £30,000 from the Government has supplemented in a most satisfactory manner the contributions by the province, made during and after the Centenniel celebrations, towards the Museum extensions.


Field Club Section The past year has not been as successful as previous years. Only one trip was held, due to less support from a smaller membership on the one hand, and the higher cost of transport on the other. More support from members would be appreciated by the Committee.

The winter programme was reasonably well attended, six evenings being held Titles were: May, “Stewart Island”. A symposium by D. E. Crockett and I. Mannening. June: “Natural History Slides”, Dr. R. R. Forster. July: “Uranium Prospecting”, W. F. Heinz August, “Karamea to Collingwood”, W. Dukes. September: “Trip to China”, Dr. R. Duff (in conjunction with the Canterbury Branch) October: Films (after Annual General Meeting).

With the exception of the September meeting, which was held in Room 1 of the Geography Block, the meetings were held in Room 23 of the Music Department. For the use of this room we are indebted to the late Mr. J. Logic, Registrar of the College.

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The Museum Fund, which was carried on from last year, received little support, and will be continued next year.

During the year tentative arrangements were made to exchange notices with the W.E.A. Field Club. It was hoped that more support for both clubs would thus be obtained. We hope to continue this move in an attempt to increase our membership also.

The Club microscope saw more use during the year This is encouraging, and we trust that even wider use will be made of it in the future.

Funds are fairly low, due mainly to the large number of subscriptions in arrears. A grant was obtained from the Canterbury Branch of the Royal Society covering the costs of cyclostyled circulars.

Funds are: Cash in hand, £7 5s 4d; Museum Fund, £2.

The Section at present consists of 32 Section members and 28 Royal Society members.

Mathematics and Physics Section. The Section has now completed the third year of its existence, and it is pleasing to see continued growth, both of new members and of attendance at the meetings.

The following meetings were held during the year:–March 22: “Some Aspects of Biology of Interest to the Physicist”, Mr. M. C. Probine (Attendance 20.) April 13: “Atomic Number”, Sir Charles Darwin. (Attendance 170) April 26: “Oil Drilling in Borneo”, Professor H. J. Hopkins. (Attendance 34) June 7: “X-ray Research and the Solid State”, Dr. F. J. Llewellyn. (Attendance 55.) July 19: “Recent Advances in Diagnostic Radiology”, Dr. B. M. de Lambert, and “Non-destructive Methods of Testing Materials”, Mr. J. W. Lindsay (Attendance 23.) September 27: “Some Problems of Space Travel”, Professor D. F. Lawden. (Attendance 75.) The average attendance at the lectures was thus 63 members and visitors.

In addition, two visits were made: First, to the factory of the Associated British Cables Ltd., which was attended by 32 members on a Saturday morning, and secondly, to the new buildings of the Dominion X-ray and Radium Laboratory, when 26 attended a 5 to 7 p.m. demonstration.

The Planetarium Sub-Committee of the Section prepared a report during the year giving complete details and costs of a Planetarium installation. This was forwarded to the Canterbury Museum Trust Board and a reply is being awaited.

Officers elected for the year 1957 are: Chairman, Professor D. F. Lawden; Secretary, Dr. P. Schroeder; Committee, Dr. C. Ellyett, Mr. A. C. MacIntyre.

Report of Scientific Photographic Section A general lack of interest on the part of members resulting in poor attendances at meetings of both the section and the committee made it necessary to disband the Scientific Photographic Section.