New Zealand Hepaticae (Liverworts)—X
Marsupial Genera of New Zealand
With Amendments and Additions to Paper V (Jungermanniaceae) (1946)
[Received by Editor, September 27, 1957.]
Key to 8 marsupial genera. Descriptions of species belonging to these genera, with keys to species of Balantiopsis, Tylimanthus and Marsupidium. Two new genera listed for New Zealand, Jackiella with new species Jackiella curvata, and Pseudomarsupidium (not marsupial) with the combination Pseudomarsupidium piliferum (Steph.) Herzog. One new species of Tylimanthus described. Four new combinations listed—Tylimanthus rotundifolius (Berggr.) comb. nov., syn. Marsupidium rotundifolium Berggr; Marsupidium perpusillum (Col.) comb. nov., syn. Tylimanthus perpusillus Col.; Lethocolea squamata (Tayl.) comb. nov., syn. Lethocolea Drummondii Mitt.; Jungermannia grandifolia (Berggr.) comb. nov., syn. Lethocolea grandifolia Berggr. Exclusion of Marsupidium piliferum Steph. Mitten's genus Lethocolea restored in place of Symphyomitra Spruce of later date Eight species sunk in synonymy Jamesoniella acinacifolia (Tayl.) Steph. of Campbell Island recorded from Stewart Island. A Latin diagnosis of Jamesoniella pseudocclusa Hodgson in Paper V. One new citation, Marsupidium Urvilleanum (Mont.) Mitt. changed to Marsupidium Urvilleanum (Mont.) Hodgson, owing to a wrong identification by Mitten and Taylor.
The marsupial hepatic genera of the world with the sporophyte sunk in a descending fleshy sac, are not as one might suppose, lumped into a family of their own. Though in the very remote past their ancestors must have had something in common, either inherent or environmental, to induce the evolution of this distinct characteristic, it is not now considered of sufficient fundamental importance to assure their retention in a separate family. No one, I think, would insist that the common possession of this peculiarity in Balantiopsis, and say, Tylimanthus should outweigh the very obvious affinities of Balantiopsis with Schistochila. Even so, it is not too clear why Tylimanthus should be placed in a separate family from Marsupidium, for the vegetative characters of these two genera overlap considerably; also Acrobolbus cinerascens is very close to Tylimanthus.
Both genera and species are more numerous in the Southern Hemisphere than in the Northern.
Key to Marsupial Genera
|1.||Leaves conduplicately bilobed, the dorsal lobe smaller than the ventral||1||Balantiopsis|
|Leaves not conduplicately bilobed||2|
|2.||Stems with underleaves||3|
|Stems without underleaves (minute in Acrobolbus cinerascens)||4|
|3.||Leaves and underleaves deeply bifid, resembling a Lophocolea||2||Geocalyx|
|Leaves ovate, entire, underleaves bifid||3||Saccogyna|
|4.||Plants very small, pale or brownish, leaves round, not greater than 0.7 mm, margined (in our species)||4||Jackiella|
|Leaves of plants more than 0.7 mm, except in Tylimanthus rotundifolius, never brownish||5|
|5.||Stems erect or sub-erect, marsupium not longly prostrate||6|
|Stems prostrate, marsupium terminal long, cylindrical, more or less buried in the ground||7|
|6.||Marsupium terminal, androecia leafy, terminal or intercalary on the main stem resembling Lophocolea||5||Tylimanthus|
|Marsupium basal, androecia whitish, spicate on long or short branches||6||Marsupidium|
1. Genus Balantiopsis Mitten
Gottschea Nees in G. L. et N. Synopsis Hepaticarum p. 13, 1844, p. 619, 1846.
Balantiopsis Mitt. in Hook. Handb. N. Z. Fl. Appen. pp. 750–756, 1876.
Plants medium to large, often rose-tinted, terrestrial. Stems procumbent, mostly simple with sub-floral innovations, branches from leaf-axils, rarely postical. Leaves succubous, horizontally to obliquely spreading, conduplicately bi-lobed, ventral lobe often decurved, oblong or ovate, apex emarginate to bind, margins more or less dentate-ciliate, apical cells hexagonal, mid-cells usually elongate-rectangular with pointed apices and bases, arranged in undulate rows, with cell-contents usually but not always clustered at the ends; dorsal lobe smaller than the ventral, not broader than tall, usually ciliate or dentate. Underleaves present, bified, rounded or ovate, margins ciliate or toothed. Involucral leaves in 5–6 pairs, becoming progressively larger and covering the marsupium; margins variously incised and crispate, and in parts reflexed Marsupium terminal, fleshy, often tinted rose, clothed with few or many tinted rhizoids, more or less descending, hollow with archegonia in the rounded base. Capsule valves spirally twisted Androecia on lateral branches in many pairs, bracts shorter than the ordinary leaves, with one antheridium in each inflated base.
A beautiful but small genus found in New Zealand and South America (two known species in Australia) with the centre of distribution apparently in New Zealand.
The genus Gottschea Nees which was extended to include Taylor's Jung. diplophylla and Jung. erinacea was invalid from the start because it contained Dumortier's type of his genus Schistochila.
Balantiopsis is a difficult genus with much overlapping of the species.
The type of the genus is Balantiopsis diplophylla (Tayl.) Mitt.
|1.||Leaves, lobules and underleaves all ciliate||2||rosea|
|Leaf margins entire or only sparsely ciliated or dentate||2|
|2.||Plants usually prostrate, common on banks at low levels, leaves commonly broadly ovate, apex 2–3 ciliate, apical cells 30–40μ||1||diplophylla|
|Plants more tufted, leaf-lobes more dentate than ciliate, apical cells less than 30μ||3|
|3.||Dorsal lobes oval to narrow oval, suberect, sparsely toothed, apical leaf cells may be as small as 20μ||4||tumida|
|Dorsal lobe rounded, directed straight forward, regularly 5–6 toothed, (teeth few in some southern plants), ventral lobe decurved at apex||3||convexiuscula|
Balantiopsis diplophylla (Tayl.) Mitt. Text-fig. II, Fig. 15.
Jungermannia diplophylla Tayl. Lond. Journ. of Bot. 377, 1844.
Gottschea diplophylla Nees Syn. Hep., 624, 1846.
Gymnanthe diplophylla Hook. Handb. N.Z. Fl., 519, 1867.
Balantiopsis diplophylla (Tayl.) Mitt. Appen. to Handb. N.Z. Fl. ii, 753, 1867, Steph., Spec. Hep. iv, 107, 1909; Rod. Trans. Roy. Soc. Tas. 77, 1916.
Balantiopsis glandulifera Col. Trans. N. Z. Inst., 21, 64, 1888.
Balantiopsis Hockeni Berggr. N.Z. Hep. 1898.
Plants dioicous, medium, in layered mats, extremely variable, pale green to whitish, occasionally tinted with rose. Stems to 2 cm, flexuous or straight, prostrate, mostly simple, all lying in one direction, often radicellose with rose-red rhizoids. Leaves contiguous to a little imbricate, sub-horizontally spreading, sometimes decurved, conduplicate; ventral lobe (appearing as the leaf) ca. 1.2 mm long, ovate-oblong to narrow-oblong, bilobed, bidentate or biciliate at apex, sinus variable in shape and size, lower margin mostly entire, straight or concave at the keel, upper
margin 1–2 dentate or ciliate towards the apex; dorsal lobe not crossing the stem, folded upwards on the ventral to which it is attached for its whole length, forming the keel; apex bifid, 2–4 dentate or ciliate, 0.8 mm tall including the teeth, ca. 0.4 mm wide, may be imbricate. Cells rounded-hexagonal at the apex and in the dorsal lobe, ca. 30μ, lower much longer, to 90μ, often in undulating rows visible with a hand lens, and with cell contents clustered at the tapering end walls. Underleaves bilobed, segments ± diverging 2—ciliate-dentate, cilia may be compound. Invol. leaves large, in several pairs, imbricate, progressively larger to 2 mm with laciniate, undulate-crispate margins, fertile innovations sometimes arising from their bases. Marsupium fleshy, 2 mm × 1.3 mm, tinted rose, hairy with soft pinkish rhizoids. Archegonia all at the base of the hollow marsupium, capsule valves seen as spirally arranged. ♂ branches with bracts much shorter than the ordinary leaves, closely imbricate, sub-erect, biciliate. Antheridia large, single.
B. glandulifera Col. no. a1428 is a specimen with ± flaccid leaves, with apex and ventral margin sparsely ciliate, cells large. It was collected on Mt. Tongariro by H. Hill.
Whether or not B. Hockeni Berggr. should be sunk in B. diplophylla has been a matter of long consideration. Admittedly there are the two extremes, one with ovate to broadly ovate leaves, with a 4–5 ciliate apex and with one or two cilia on the ventral margin; “foliis ciliato-dentatis … ventrali (lobo) late ovato, obtuso”. This is the original B. diplophylla (Tayl.) Mitt. Of B. Hockeni Berggren writes: “The typical form has distant or contiguous leaves with dorsal lobe very small, short, directed straight forwards, and either lobe oblong with apex almost truncate and bidentate. This form passes through intermediate ones into such as have the lobes 3–4 dentate, and the dorsal not far from half the size of the ventral”. The size of the dorsal lobe varies greatly and counts for little as a specific criterion, as do also the size and shape of the cells. If B. Hockeni is upheld, numerous specimens must go unidentified or referred to either species, as broad-leaved forms may be simply bidentate, and narrow-leaved forms may be multi-ciliate. Moreover stems with both broad and narrow leaves may be in the same specimen.
Common throughout on shady earth banks in grassland and bush from Three Kings to Stewart Island.
The type was from Auckland Island coll. Hooker. In a type fragment received from Mitten's Herbarium there was a stem of B. convexiuscula.
Balantiopsis rosea Berggren. Text-fig. II, Fig. 16.
B. rosea Berggr. N.Z. Hepaticae, 1898.
Plants dioicous, variable, medium to large, beautiful, often rose-coloured, mostly in closely packed mats, terrestrial. Stems to 3 cm, straight, or flexuous, procumbent. Leaves to 2 mm, narrow-oblong, scarcely contiguous to imbricate, conduplicate, a little convex, sometimes decurved, ventral lobe shortly bifid at apex, margins fringed with glossy cilia from a base of 2–4 cells, carina very short, dorsal lobes imbricate, a little decurrent on the stem, rounded-quadrate, 5–6 ciliate-lobed, flat. Underleaves quadrate nearly 1 mm, bilobed, lobes ciliate or ciliate-lobed in the margins, upper ones, with the involucral leaves following the growth of the marsupium downwards Cells irregularly hexagonal at the apex to 30μ, becoming more elongated towards the base to 60μ, in undulate rows, minutely punctate, walls thin to firm. The undulate rows can be seen with a hand lens Involucral leaves in several rows, becoming larger towards the marsupium, longly laciniate-ciliate. Marsupium descending, rose-red, densely setose, 3 mm × 1.5 mm, upper part hidden by the involucral leaves. Androecia as in B. diplophylla.
Typical plants have long and numerous cilia along the leaf-margins, mostly based on 2–4 cells, while some have fewer and become intermediate between B. diplophylla and Berggren's type. A handsome plant from Jackson's, Westland, 10616 W. M., has branched cilia on the margins.
Berggren has the following note: “Stems much longer and stiffer and more equally foliated than in B. diplophylla. The pink hue and felty covering from the densely ciliate leaves and amphigastria mark this species.” Generally speaking this is correct, but the plants are not always pink, and are sometimes even smaller than B. diplophylla. Moreover B. diplophylla is occasionally tinged with pink. Apparently B. rosea does not come down to such low level altitudes as does B. diplophylla. The direction of the leaves is normally more oblique in B. rosea than in B. diplophylla.
North Island: Kaitaia, H. B. Matthews; Russell-Whangarei Rd., 1326, Bay of Islands, 676, Waipoua Forest, 1327, V. W. L.; on tracks, Waipoua Forest, 21679, 24680, Bot. Div. Herb., Hunua Ranges, H796, Waitakere Ranges, 24678, subalpine scrub and modified forest Te Moehau, L. B. M.; numerous specimens from earth banks, Trounson Kauri Park, Waipoua forest, Ruapehu, Mt. Ngongotaha, H565, Paeroa Range, 1280, K. W. A.; Coromandel Range, 790, A. L. H.; 1324, E. O. Campbell; Waitomo, 9562 (all leaves separate, light brown in packet), W. M.; headwaters of Rangitikei River, 1302, 1260, H. M. H.; Waikaremoana-Waikare-iti track (near to B. diplophylla), 9291, E. A. H.; Mt. Egmont, 1335, A. P. D.; 680, G. O. K. S.; 10184, 10164, E. A. H.; Wharite South Ruahines, 245, R. M. Greenwood; Kapakapanui, 900, Mangaroa, 693, A. P. D.
South Island: Takaka, Nelson, 673, Glen Hope, Nelson, 650, I. Haskell; South Westland, 4952, Lake Mapourika, 6547, Jackson's, 10616, W. M.; Fox Glacier, 697, Mrs. Knight; Head of Lake Manapouri to Wilmot Pass, H826, G. S.; descent of Mt. Hercules, H5608, A. M. & L. Jack.
Freshly gathered specimens from Egmont showed small oval oil bodies,-mostly at the ends of the cells.
Also recently collected in S.E. Queensland on bank in rain forest, 2,600ft, H44 Nat. Herb, N.S.W., comm. J. H. Willis.
The type was from Bealey River, with Isotachis Lyallii coll. S. Berggren.
Balantiopsis convexiuscula Berggren. Text-fig. II, Fig. 17.
B. convexiuscula Berggr., N.Z. Hepaticae, 1898.
B. aequiloba Berggr., N.Z. Hepaticae, 1898.
Plants small to large, variable, pale green in layered mats, rarely tinted. Stems to 8 cm, simple or sparsely branched, appearing convex with the leaf-apices incurved, a little flexuous, mostly lying in the same direction, apices nodding in one specimen. Leaves oval-rectangular, decurved, imbricate to 1.5 mm, apex bidentate sinus small, obtuse, ventral margin entire or with a few teeth; dorsal lobes rounded in outline, imbricate, direction straight forward or slightly oblique, medium to large, to 1.2 mm, according to the size of the plant, usually 6–8 lobate-dentate or lobate-ciliate, but often less, may be almost entire, carina variable, with dorsal lobes almost free in some cases, but tending to become longer in smaller plants Cells to 30μ, but mostly shorter, narrow, compact, apical ones small, quadrate crowded. Underleaves ovate-quadrate with an apical sinus and margins spinous-toothed. Invol. leaves with incurved margins and strongly and irregularly laciniate. Marsupium to 3 mm long × 1.5 mm wide, deeply rose, strongly setose.
This species is recognized by its rounded dorsal lobes, more dentate than ciliate, and the smaller, more compact cells. The dorsal lobes are usually flat and regular, but may at times have the margins somewhat decurved. Two specimens from Stewart Island, 480 and 411 W. M. show a tendency for the lobes to become entire.
Dr. Lyall's specimen referred to a Falkland Island species B. erinacea by Mitten in the Appendix to the Handbook also belongs here, but without further specimens from Falkland Islands, I would not go so far as to say that our B. convexiuscula is indeed B. erinacea and that Berggren's name is a synonym. Berggren (1898) stated that there was little difference between B. erinacea and B. diplophylla.
B. aequiloba Berggr. is this species. The type was submerged and it is more or less flaccid and a poor specimen.
North Island: Kaeo-Manganui Rd., 514, Bay of Islands, 1268, 10666, V. W. L.; Great Barrier Island, T. Kirk, 6068, P. R. B. Herb., wrongly identified by Stephani as B. diplophylla; shady stream bank, Waipoua Forest, H691, Trounson Kauri Park (approaching B. rosea), K. W. A.; N. W. Ruahines. 3518, A P. and H. M. D.; Mt Hector, 7478, Bot. Div. Herb., Akatarawa Saddle, 9207, Ruamahanga, 9252, V. D. Z.; common on banks and paths, Mt. Egmont, 10165, 10174, bank in bush, Mangahao Dams, Tararuas, 10636, E. A. H.; bog, Mt. Maungapohatu, Urewera, 4,600ft, 9674, 9692, A. P. D.
South Island: On rocks by small forest stream near Bealey Glacier, 100, Kelly Range, 9608, Avalanche Peak, 120, W. M.; bush near Greymouth, 690, M. Berry;
Silver Peak, Dunedin, 24653 in part, 24677, G. S., 17419, H. H. A.; Teremakau, Westland, 3185, S. Berggren; damp stream bank above Leith Stream, Dunedin (very large dorsal lobes), H901, K. W. A.; Lake Manapouri to Wilmot Pass, H825, G. S.; Wilmot Pass to Lake Manapouri, 9460, W. M.; growing in shallow water in beech forest, near summit of Haast Pass (approaching B. tumida) ca. 1,800ft, H5947, K. W. A.
Stewart Island: Coastal bank near Freezer, Pegasus 713, forest floor, Tin Range, 501, on ground near stream, Glory Harbour, 318, W. M.
The type is given as from Coromandel and Bay of Islands.
Balantiopsis tumida Berggr. Text-fig. II, Fig. 14.
Plants variable, usually robust, tufted, pale or dingy green to brightly rose-tinted or dull purplish rose. Stem to 8 cm, sometimes curved at the apex, straight or flexuous, simple or more or less fastigiately branched, tumid with crowded conduplicate leaves Leaves usually closely imbricate, to 3 mm × ca. 0.8 mm at the widest part, narrow-oblong or narrow-oval, convex, erecto-patent, apex 2–3 dentate or 2–3 ciliate, sinus small, ventral margin entire or sparsely toothed, dorsal lobes imbricate, narrow-oblong or ovate-oblong, taller than broad, 2–6 dentate or ciliate, apical sinus small, usually oblique but sometimes straight forward, carina variable, ⅓ the length of the ventral lobe in the type. Underleaves to 1.5 mm long, ovate, bifid, sinus small, segments entire or a little toothed or ciliate. Cells often punctate, apical as small as 20μ, quadrate-hexagonal or slightly elongated, mid-leaf ca. 30μ, mostly rectangular, about twice as long as broad, with cell contents at the pointed ends, but sometimes empty. Marsupium not seen.
Tufted, narrow-leaved forms of B. diplophylla impinge on B. tumida and make decisions very difficult. Typical B. tumida has narrow-oval, crowded leaves and lobules, with entire or sparsely toothed margins, and small apical cells, and very narrow lower ones, the dorsal lobe obliquely set. Rounded, usually regularly toothed dorsal lobes distinguish B. convexiuscula from B. tumida.
North Island: Bog on north side of Mt. Egmont, 3,000ft, all separate localities, 1250, 1334, 1339, 1340, bog, Tararuas, 4,500ft, 962, A. P. D.
South Island: Arthur's Pass, 1313, H. M. H.; Okarito, 4862, P. R. B. Herb.; Preservation Inlet, on slip, H. H. A.; damp bush floor on W. face of Mt. Cargill, H856, K. W. A.
Stewart Island Boggy patch on tram line, Tin Range, 532, covering large area on slip with Oligotrichum tenuirostre near Freezer, Port Pegasus 526, on side of track, Tin Range to Pegasus, 525, landing at Pegasus end of track to Tin Range, 602, on logs in dense forest, Port Pegasus, 437, W. M.
All the Stewart Island specimens except 532 have the larger cells and colouring of B. rosea.
The type was from wet rocks by small stream. River Teremakau, Westland, Berggren, 1874.
2. Genus Geocalyx Nees
Geocalyx Nees Naturgesch. der eur Leb. 1, 102, 1833; G. L. et N. Syn. Hep, 194, 1845.
Plants with the habit and appearance of Lophocolea. Stem simple or slightly branched Leaves succubous, alternate, bilobed, dorsal margin decurrent. Underleaves rather large, deeply bifid, sometimes connate at the base on one side with the leaf. Marsupium on a short postical branch, oblong, fleshy, pendulous, bearing near its mouth a few scale-like bracts. Perianth absent Calyptra shorter than the marsupium and connate with it for ⅔ of its length Sterile archegonia situated near the base of the free portion Capsule cylindrical, 4-valved to the base, valves erect and straight Androecia on short postical branches, bracts 6–8 pairs. shortly bilobed, monandrous—Adapted from Macvicar.
A small genus consisting of G. graveolens, cosmopolitan in the Northern Hemisphere, G. caledonicus St. from New Caledonia, and G. orientalis from Réunion Island.
Geocalyx novaezelandiae Herzog. Text-fig. II, Fig. 13.
G. novaezelandiae Herz. Trans. Roy. Soc. N. Z., 65, 355, 1935.
Plants small, monoicous, usually sterile, in flattened loose mats often with other hepatics, mostly yellowish green. Stems 1–1.5 cm., straight or curved, little branched, branches postical, rhizoids may be present. Leaves ca. 1.2 mm long to 0.7 mm wide, sub-rectangular, wider at the base, lobes subequal to equal, triangular-acute, may be hamate or conniving, dorsal margin concave near the base and decurrent. Cells from ca. 20μ at apex to nearly 40μ at the base of the leaf, rounded with trigones, cuticle smooth. Underleaves 0.6 mm long, narrowly connate with the leaf on one side, 2-fid to ½ or sometimes more, segments entire, narrow-lanceolate, acute. Marsupium almost lateral, basal, pendent, fleshy. Androecia spicate, near the ♀, erect, 1.5 mm.
This species differs from Saccogyna australis in its deeply bifid leaves with smooth cuticle and rounded cells, and in the longer ♂ spikes.
North Island: Bay of Islands, 3806, S. Berggren (1874); shady bank of Waipoua River, Waipoua Forest, H792, steep dry bank under manuka, Kaingaroa Plains. 5002, on rotten log, Roto-a-kui bush. E. of Taupo, 5003, K. W. A.; on dead wood, Waitakeres, 3501, J. Langridge; bank by track, Waikaremoana, 2,000–3,000ft, 5001, 9267, by path in bush, Pinehaven, Hutt Valley, 7033. roadside cutting in bush, Mangahao Dams, Tararuas, 10568. E. A. H.; hills west of Silverstream, 4999. H. M. H.; Wilton's Bush, Wellington, R. Mason; forest floor. Waikaremoana, N. J. Butler.
South Island: Karamea, 280, Miss Foot.
Stewart Island: 5006, Mrs. J. D. Smith, 5005, M. E. Hodgson.
The type (fruiting) was from wet shaded bank, near Atiamuri, ca. 1,000ft, coll. K. W. Allison. The species was first collected by Dr. S. Berggren in 1874.
3. Genus Saggogyna Dumortier
Saccogyna Dum. Comm. Bot. 1822.
Plants with the habit and appearance of Chiloscyphus. Stems prostrate, a little branched, branches postical. Leaves succubous, entire, a little decurrent, sub-alternate. Underleaves deeply bifid: both leaves and underleaves often minutely papillose. Marsupium basal cylindrical, sparsely radicellose, crowned with involcural leaves. Calvotra adnate with the marsupium in the lower part, free above, bearing sterile archegonia Androecia spicate on short semi-postical branches, bracts in 4–6 pairs, imbricate, saccate. Antheridia large, solitary.
A small genus, mostly tropical, with one well-known northern species S. viticulosa (L.) Dumort.
Saccogyna australis Mitt. Text-fig. II, Fig. 12.
S. australis Mitt. Handb N.Z. Fl. Appen. p. 75, 1867; Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 145, 1855.
Plants dioicous, dingy green (when dry), mostly in depressed, loose mats on earth in bush, and on tree-fern caudices and tree roots. Stems to 3 cm. prostrate, little branched, often with rhizoids. Leaves ca. 1.2 mm, oblong to oblong-ovate, sub-alternate, convex when dried with margins recurved, more so towards the apex, with a triangular effect, minutely apiculate or sub-bidenticulate or obtuse. Cells to 40μ, hexagonal, punctate with minute papillae, trigones small but distinct, triangular. Underleaves free, bipartite, often deflexed, segments lanceolate-acuminate, with or without a small lateral tooth. Marsupium on a very short sub-postical branch, to 3 mm, cylindrical, sparsely radicellose, with a ring of hyaline bidentate leaves at the mouth; seta very long, capsule valves only 2, 2.5 mm long, twisted when dry. Androecia spicate, very small, sub-postical, quite hidden from the dorsal aspect, bracts to 6 pairs, imbricate, erecto-arched, bidentate.
North Island: Bay of Islands, 6493. V. W. Lindauer; damp bank, heavy, wet bush, H700, rotten tree-fern stump. H1602. Waipoua Forest, in bush between L. Rotoehu and Coast. Bay of Plenty, H617, 6442, K. W. A; in bush, Waitakere, 5008, Titirangi, 6437, E. D. Swanberg; Horokino Bush. Manganehi. 6438, V. W. L.; common in bush between Lake Waikaremoana and Lake Waikare-iti, 2.000ft to 3.000ft, Morere bush, 6425, bush by Cricklewood Road. 6429 bank in bush. Pinehaven, Silverstream, 6802. E. A. H.; near New Plymouth (1923) 6424. Mrs. J. Meiklejohn; Wakanui Ridge, S. Rimutakas, 1.000ft to 2.300ft. 756, H. M. H.
South Island: Mt Cargill, Dunedin, 9544, W. M.; wet bush, floor above saddle between Dunedin and Waitati, H884, K. W. A.
Stewart Island: 08292, L. Cockayne.
The type was from the Tararuas coll. Colenso. Also recorded from Tasmania (Rodway, 1916).
Saccogyna trilobata Steph. (1909) is identical with Chiloscyphus Knightii Steph. (1909) which, if the identification of Colenso's No. 3136 in Herbarium Mitten is correct, is Chiloscyphus tridentatus Mitt.
Were it not that Stephani describes a chiloscyphoid perianth on his C. Knightii and one has also been found on a plant from N.W. Ruahines, I would be inclined to agree with Stephani that it is a Saccogyna, for it certainly bears resemblance to that genus.
4. Genus Jackiella Schiffner
Plants dioicous, small to medium, green or brownish, terrestrial on clay. Stem mostly procumbent, sometimes branched, branches postical. Leaves alternate, succubous, entire, concave. Cells with thickened walls and often pigmented. Underleaves absent (in New Zealand species) ♀ inflorescence terminal on very short postical branches; involucral leaves in 2 series, small, entire, concave, Marsupium cylindrical, the mouth crowned with sterile archegonia, the sporogonium inserted on the base; capsule cylindrical or ovate, bivalved to the base, valves shortly divided. Androecia spicate on postical branches, bracts monandrous crowded, saccate, antheridia large.
This description is adapted from Stephani (1909).
A small tropical genus containing the following species: J. Ceylanica Schiff. (Ceylon); J. Javanica Schiff. (Java, Sumatra, Japan, Tahiti); J. renifolia Schiff. (Sumatra); J. Singapurensis Schiff. (Singapore); J. unica Steph. (Caroline Islands); J. angustifolia Herz. (Sarawak).
K. W. Allison's discovery of the following New Zealand species is of much interest and importance.
Jackiella curvata Allison & Hodgson. Text-fig. II, Fig. 11.
Planta dioica, parva, pallida vel fusca. Caulis 1–2 cm, simplex, decumbens. Folia imbricata, erecto-patentia, ovato-orbicularia, parum concava, integerrima, marginata, cellulis 30μ, trigonis magnis. Marsupium parvum, basale, radiculosum, cylindricum, obtusum. Androecia spicaeformia, ventralia, bracteis 5–15 jugis, concavis, hyalinis; antheridia 2, magna, ovata, pedicellata.
Plants dioicous, small terrestrial, pale to dark brown. Stems 1–2 cm, mostly simple, decumbent, radicellose at base. Leaves imbricate, erecto-patent, 0.35–0.7 mm, round to broadly ovate, a little concave, margin and apex entire, cells rounded-hexagonal to 30μ, walls often thickened, trigones large, marginal cells rounded-quadrate and distinct. Marsupium basal, small, 1½, attached near the apex, apical leaves hyaline, large-celled. Androecia spicate, ventral, ♂ bracts small, hyaline, concave in 5–15 pairs. Antheridia large ovate, stalked.
This species may be distinguished from Lophocolea strongylophylla by the absence of underleaves, and the pigmented leaves.
North Island: On clay, Russell, V. W. Lindauer; swampy ground near Atiamuri, H397, K. W. A.; damp roadside cutting, Mangahao Stream, Tararuas, 10627, clay bank by Zigzag, Pinehaven, Upper Hutt, 7035, E. A. H.
South Island: Roadside bank, Scenic Drive, Haldane to Tokonui, 8533, W. M.
The type was from shady bank, overhung by ferns on bush road, Ngongotaha Mt., ca. 2,000ft, Rotorua, 6386, Herb. E. A. H., coll. K. W. Allison, 6/4/36.
5. Genus Tylimanthus Mitten
Tylimanthus Mitt. in Hook. Handb. N.Z. Fl, Appen, pp. 750–756.
Taylor's name of Gymnanthe Tayl. in Syn. Hep. 192, 1845, precedes Mitten's name of Tylimanthus, but owing to its great similarity to Gymnanthes Sw. 1788 (Euphorbiaceae), I have been advised that it would be against the rules to use it.
Herzog's corrected name of Tylunanthus (1953) is also not sustained. Regarding this, Mr. J. H. Willis, of Melbourne National Herbarium, sends the following note: “Mitten deliberately chose this spelling (Tylimanthus) and stuck to it consistently—probably because he thought the name more euphonious than any other…. It is distinctly laid down in the Code that only printing slips or unintentional spelling errors may be corrected.”
Plants dioicous, medium to robust, usually terrestrial, in loose clumps. Stems simple or sparsely branched, often bare of leaves towards the base, rhizoids sometimes plentiful. Leaves succubous, obliquely inserted, rounded-ovate or oblong, entire, denticulate, or bilobed or bidentate with the antical lobe the smaller, smaller and more remote towards the base, under-leaves absent. Cells medium to large, walls thick, trigones present, contents often clustered round the walls, smooth or minutely asperate. Invol. leaves in several pairs, similar to the cauline, but larger, archegonia terminal on the stem or branch, remaining on top of the marsupium, the fertilised one growing downwards within the marsupium as it lengthens, but its mouth apparently always remaining on a level with the tip of the marsupium (as observed by K. W. Allison). Marsupium terminal, pendulous, often inclined towards the stem, usually setose, but smooth in T. saccatus. Perigonial bracts leafy in few or many pairs, either terminal or median on the stem, squarrose, inflated at the base, containing more than one antheridia.
This genus differs from Marsupidium in the pendulous, terminal marsupium, and in the androecia being along the stem as in Lophocolea, and not spicate. Stephani lists 56 species of Tylimanthus, 42 being attributable to himself, and all of them are sterile.
The type of the genus is Tylimanthus saccatus (Hook. senr.) Mitt.
|1.||Leaves pale green rounded, not bilobed, less than 1 mm (in type)||3.||rotundifolus|
|Leaves not rounded, more than 1 mm||2|
|2.||Leaves not bilobed, ventral margin serrulate for the entire length, marsupium smooth||1.||saccatus|
|Leaves bilobed, somewhat narrowed to the base, marginal teeth if present near the apex only (except in small form of diversifolius), marsupium setose in tenellus, not seen in diversifolius||3|
|3.||Leaves bright yellow-green, variable in shape and size on the same stem, more flat than convex||4.||diversifolius|
|Leaves not bright yellow-green, convex from recurvation of the dorsal margin||2.||tenellus|
Tylimanthus saccatus (Hook. Senr.) Mitt.
Jungermannia saccata Hook. Musci Exotici, t. 16, p. 22, 1818.
Jung. (subgenus Gymnanthe) saccata Tayl. Fl. Ant. 1847.
Gymnanthe saccata Tayl. in G. L. et N. Syn. Hep., 193, 1845; Mitt., Fl. N.Z., 1855, Hook. Handb. N.Z. Fl., 520, 1867.
Tylimanthus saccatus (Hook.) Mitt., Appen Handb. N.Z. Fl., 1867; Steph., Spec. Hep., iii, 5, 1909; Rod., Pprs. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., 34, 1916.
Tylimanthus furfuraceus Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 285, 1886.
Tylimanthus novae-zelandiae Col. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 21, 63, 1888.
Plants dioicous, robust or medium, pale or dull green, tufted, with the appearance of a Plagiochila, corticolous or terrestrial, rarely fruiting. Stems to 6 cm, but usually shorter, simple or branched, without rhizoids except at the base, flexuous. Leaves distant, to 3.5 mm, small or absent on the lower part of the stem, oblong-quadrate, truncate or slightly emargmate, with a shallow sinus, dorsal margin decurrent, recurved at the base, entire, ventral margin and apex serrulate. Cells ca. 30 × 20μ, walls thickish, trigones minute or absent. Marsupium terminal, pendulous, glabrous, from between 2 small narrow leaves, cylindrical, narrowed to the base, to 7 mm, long, not quite 2 mm broad, seta 3 mm, capsule valves narrow-linear, 6 mm long × 0.5 mm wide. Perigonial bracts in few pairs at or near the apex of the stem, saccate-amplexicaul at the base, antheridia numerous to as many as 10.
The serrulate ventral leaf-margin is a good identification character of this species Stephani and Rodway are not correct in stating that the marsupium is setulose or clothed with coarse hairs, nor does Hooker mention it or show any signs of it in his excellent plate. This species was the type of Taylor's genus Gymnanthe, but, as stated elsewhere, that name is too similar to an earlier name Gymnanthes, to be retained.
North Island: On ground in bush, Lake Waikaremoana to Lake Waikare-iti, 2,000ft to 3,000ft, 3582, 9272, 6335, 3642, E. A. H.; Oroua Valley, Ruahines, 6032, H. M. H.; Pohangina, 6045, A. P. D.; Orongorongo River, 7147, P. R. B. Herb., V. D. Z.; Ruahines, 6037, N. M. Elder; Ohau Stream (near Otaki), H207, L. B. M.; South Ruahines, 773, A. P. D.
South Island: Westland, 6041, M. Berry; Paparoa Range, 3571, H. W. Wellman; Greenstone, L30, E. B. Ashcroft; Fox Glacier, 6034, Mrs. Knight; tree trunks, Lake Mathieson, 10618, trees, Waiho, 10607, track from Lake Te Anau to Wilmot Pass, 10613, W. M.; Milford Track, 145, A. Purchas; Haast Pass, M. P. Matthews; Bligh Sound, H870, Leith Saddle, 303, G. S.; Franklin Mts., Lake Te Anau, 4281, W. A. Thomson; fiordland excursion, 6031, H. H. A.; bush, on soil, on log, Mt. Cargill, 40672, P. R. B. Herb., G. S.
Stewart Island: Ulva, 6039, P. R. B. Herb., T. Kirk; Paterson's Arm, 2669, Glory Harbour, 6032, W. M.
Stephani also mentions as collectors Colenso, Helms, Dall, Beckett. Also reported from New South Wales, Tasmania, Norfolk Island by Stephani.
The type was from Dusky Sound, collected by Dr. Archibald Menzies, 1791.
Tylimanthus tenellus (Tayl.) Steph. Text-fig. I, Fig. 2.
Jungermannia tenella Tayl. Lond. Journ. of Bob., 377, 1844.
Jungermannia (Subg. Gymnanthe) tenella Tayl. Fl. Ant., 1847.
Gymnanthe tenella G et L. in Lehm. Pug. viii, G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 192, 1845.
Tylimanthus tenellus Steph., Spec. Hep. iii, 9, 1909; Rod., Pprs. & Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., 35, 1916.
Tylimanthus flaccidus Berggr. N.Z. Hep. 1898.
* Gymnanthe (Marsupidium) hirsutum Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xiv, 340, 1881.
Plants variable, with creeping radicellose rhizomes spreading in patches, dioicous, on logs, bases of trees and ground, bright green when fresh. Stem to 3 cm, flexuous, simple or branched, often from the base. Leaves small and distant on the lower portion of the stem with few rhizoids, remote to contiguous higher up, to 2.5 mm, often shorter, convex, bilobed, dorsal margin mostly recurved, nearly straight, decurrent, ventral arched, serrate near the apex, and often acuminate, leaf-apex variable, ventral lobe larger than the dorsal, sinus often serrated to where the dorsal lobe starts. Cells hexagonal, 30–40μ, walls thickish. Marsupium 3 mm from between 2 small leaves, narrowly obovate, setose, clothed with bristly hairs. ♂ bracts leafy, in few pairs, usually on mid-stem, basal portion saccate, upper portion as in ordinary leaves.
This species is omitted from the Flora Novae Zelandiae and the Handbook, as Mitten, also Taylor (1847) considered it to be a form of T. saccatus. But the authors of the Synopsis would not accept this, nor did Stephani. It differs from T. saccatus in the shorter leaves, which in most cases have a more arched ventral margin. The apex of T. saccatus is more truncate with a very shallow sinus, and the ventral margin and apex are entirely serrulate, while the marsupium is long and narrow and not setose, but very rarely found fruiting.
Dr. Arnell agrees that T. flaccidus Berggr. is T. tenellus.
North Island: Papa cutting, Nihutapu Valley, Auckland, E. D. Hatch; logs and stumps in bush and under manuka, Rotorua County, 8 specimens; on earth near Rangitaiki River, Murupara, damp bush Otanepu, earth bank under heavy manuka, E. of Taupo, K. W. A; Maungapohatu H140, Ohau River, L. B. M.; Toa Toa, Bay of Plenty, 4278, I. Haskell; Waiotaka Valley, Kaimanawas, 6024, 10457, Northern Ruahines, 6334, H. M. H.; Whakapunake, Wairoa, c. 3,000ft, A. P. D.; Mangahao Dams, 6336, E. O. Campbell; Waikaremoana, 3042, 6023, roadside bank in bush, Mangahao, 10569, edge of track in bush, Dawson Falls, Mt. Egmont, 3,000ft, 10261, on ground, Silverstream Bush, 9649, E. A. H.; Orongorongo River, 7133, P. R. B. Herb., V. D. Z.; a1323, a1016, a1898 Herb. Colenso, the last two from the Melbourne Herbarium, also No. 352, Colenso, New York Herbarium.
[Footnote] * Colenso realised that this species was similar to T. tenellus, but was confused by the wrong description of its marsupium, “elongate, obconico, striato”—a description which applies to the marsupium of T. saccatus, T. tenellus being considered a form of T. saccatus.
Text-fig. I.—Fig. 1—Tylimanthus diversifolius; a, ventral; b, dorsal. Fig. 2—Tylimanthus tenellus. Fig. 3—Tylimanthus rotundifolius. Fig. 4—Tylimanthus saccatus. Fig. 5—Marsupidium Knightii. Fig. 6—Marsupidium epiphytum. Fig. 7—Acrobolbus cinerascens; a, portion of stem; b, ♂ bract from apex of stem
South Island: Glen Hope, Nelson, 6043, Pelorus Bridge, Nelson, 6026, I. Haskell; Karamea, 279, Miss Foot; Bealey River, 3685a, 3882 p.p. S. Berggren; Wilmot Pass to Lake Manapouri, 9461, Doubtful Sound, 6698, W. M.; Dunedin, S. Berggren (type of T. flaccidus Berggr.); on open bank of Makarora River, at bottom of Haast Pass, Central Otago, H 5998, K. W. A.
Antipodes Island: On earth with other hepatics, 26559, Auckland Museum Herb., E. G. Turbott.
Campbell Island, “Cape Expedition”.
The type was from Tasmania, Herb. Taylor and Gottsche ex Herb. Greville, also from Auckland Island, coll. Hooker.
Tylimanthus rotundifolius (Berggren) comb. nov. non. T. rotundifolius Steph. (1924). Text-fig. I, Fig. 3.
Marsupidium rotundifolium Berggr. N.Z. Hepaticae, Lund, 1898.
Plants dioicous, mostly sterile, small, variable, prostrate or tufted, pale or dull olive green, sometimes fading to whitish, terrestrial or corticolous, Stems simple or branched, to 1.5 cm, may be flexuous but not nodding, branches lateral from the axils of the leaves, often from below the apex of the old stem, rhizoids numerous when the stems are prostrate. Apical leaves of fruiting stems to 1.2 mm, ordinary cauline leaves ca. 0.5 mm rounded, entire, sometimes a little retuse at apex, often caducous, remote to imbricate, plano-distichous to erecto-patent. Cells ca. 30μ, quadrate to sub-hexagonal, cell contents mostly round the walls, trigones small Marsupium terminal on main stem or branches, to 2 mm long, 0.9 mm wide at mouth, obconic descending, a little tuberculate, scarcely setulose, seta short, capsule walls appearing granulate. ♂ bracts in few pairs, mostly at the apex of the stem, saccate-concave, imbricate, sub-erect.
The important discovery of the terminal marsupium by K. W. Allison leaves no doubt as to the genus to which this species belongs. It is the same colour as Marsupidium abbreviatum but is smaller.
North Island: On Weinmannia trunks in shade, ravine at base of Rainbow Mt., Rotorua region, 6339, within two feet of base of larch tree at edge of swamp, Ngapuna, near Rotorua, 6340, dry shady bank under manuka near Atiamuri, H396, on upper limbs of standing totara, bush near Oruanui, North of Taupo, H394, base of manuka on steep hillside in shade, E. of Taupo ca. 2,200ft, H562, on bare trunks of Nothofagus fusca, 4282, Lower trunks of Nothofagus fusca, 6341, Pukerimu Bush, E. of Taupo, all coll. K. W. A.; edge of track with Chandonanthus squarrosus, Dawson Falls, Mt. Egmont, 10204, E. A. H.
South Island: Bush near Queen Charlotte Sound, 6345, J. H. McMahon; Arthur's Pass, 6347, F. M., 6344, H. M. H.; log in bush on upper slopes, Bethune's Gully, Mt. Cargill, Dunedin, ca., 1,800ft, H4469, K. W. A.; Fiordland, 5319, V. D. Z.
The type was collected by Berggren on tree trunks, Maungaroa, North Island, 1874.
Tylimanthus diversifolius Hodgson spec. nov. Text-fig. I, Fig. 1.
Planta sterilis, parva vel media, flavo-virens Caulis ad 2 cm, e caudice repente, simplex vel ramosus, ramis posticis. Folia 1–2 cm, imbricata, contigua vel remota, fragilia siccata, valde irregularia, plerumque oblongo-obovata, biloba, lobis acutis, lobo antico minore, margmibus vulgo nudis. Cellulae 20–30μ, basales ad 40μ, maculatae an papillis minutissimis?
Plants small to medium, sterile, yellow-green, closely tufted or with stems creeping amongst other hepatics. Stems to about 2 cm, from a creeping rhizome, simple or branched, branches postical, sometimes with very small remote leaves, rhizoids sometimes present but not common. Leaves imbricate to remote, yellow-green, older and broader ones paling sometimes to whitish, brittle when dry, irregular in size, shape and armature, rectangular to rectangular-obovate, ventral margin usually more arched than the dorsal, usually bilobed with the ventral lobe larger than the dorsal, margins usually entire, but on some small states spinose. Cells opaque, speckled, 20–30μ, trigones present.
The bright yellow green colour and irregularly shaped leaves distinguish this species from Tylimanthus tenellus. It is the species which was identified by Berggren as T. viridis Mitt. But having examined the type kindly sent from Mitten's Herbarium, I am convinced that this is not so. Mitten's description also bears this out—Leaves “oblong-quadrata”, sinu irregulari, late subtruncato, bilobata, lobis obtusis”.
In his review of Colenso's species (1892), Stephani tentatively named a specimen Tylimanthus spinosus, suggesting at the same time that it may be a form of the variable T. tenellus, but it was more likely a form of T. diversifolius. I cannot use Stephani's name as he applied it later on to a Tylimanthus species from Norfolk Island.
North Island: Panekirikiri Bluff, Waikaremoana, 2110, N. J. Butler; Ruamahanga Valley, 6029, in part with Balantiopsis diplophylla, V. D. Zotov.
The type of T. diversifolius is from Bealey River, coll. S. Berggren, 1874, under the name of T. viridis Mitt., and is in the Lund University Museum, with a duplicate in the Riksmuseum.
6. Genus Marsupidium Mitten
Gymnanthe Hook. Handb. N.Z. Fl. ii, 1867.
Marsupidium Mitten. Handb. N.Z., Fl., ii, Appendix, 1867.
Plants apparently dioicous in New Zealand, medium to robust, terrestrial or corticolous, loosely tufted. Stems from a creeping network of rhizomes, scarcely branched, but with postical flagella, bare of leaves about the base, often with rhizoids. Leaves succubous, obliquely inserted, rounded or oblong, entire or variously armed, often concave. Cells rounded-hexagonal with small trigones, opaque or with contents clustered round the edges. Underleaves absent. Archegonia on a stem protuberance, remaining on top of the marsupium which grows downwards, the fertilized archegonium growing downwards inside it with the calyptra remaining free (observation by K. W. Allison). Capsule long, cylindrical (in M. perpusillum), seta very long. Marsupidium lateral, near the base of the stem bearing rhizoids. Perigonial bracts whitish, spicate on short or longish branches, usually basal, containing two antheridia.
A small genus of about 9 species, mainly in the Southern Hemisphere.
The type of the genus is Marsupidium Knightii Mitt.
|1.||Leaves and stems setulose, leaf-margins spinulose, often undulate||4.||setulosum|
|Leaves and stems not setulose, margins not undulate||2|
|2.||Leaves longer than broad, ventral lobe toothed near the apex and narrowed to an apical spine||5.||epiphytum|
|Leaves not narrowed to an apical spine||3|
|3.||Leaves concave, toothed, imbricate||1.||Knightu|
|Leaves scarcely toothed||4|
|4.||Leaves almost round, dorsally appressed||2.||abbreviatum|
|Leaves obscurely bidentate with a broad shallow sinus, not dorsally appressed, ventral margin arched, dorsal straighter||3.||perpusillum|
Marsupidium Knightii Mitt. Text-fig. I, Fig. 5.
M. Knightii Mitt. Handb. N.Z. Fl., 753 (Append.) 1867; Berggr. N.Z. Hep, 1898; Steph. Spec. Hep., iii, 386, 1908.
Plants apparently dioicous (Stephani gives monoicous) medium, ± tufted in mats on ground but more often on trunks of trees, often covering considerable areas Stems 1–2 cm, flexuous, from intricately creeping rhizomes, lower portion often bare or with minute leaves, whitish, distant; mostly simple, rhizoids usually few, but sometimes plentiful. Leaves imbricate, broadly oblong to rounded-quadrate, 1–1.5 mm, insertion oblique, concave, obliquely spreading to sub-erect, dorsal margin entire or nearly so, ending in a spinous tooth, ventral with few to many teeth or ciliate, apex sub-truncate. Cells hexagonal, opaque Invol. leaves round or lanceolate, hyaline, bifid, toothed Marsupia oblong-obconic, pale, 0.3 mm, on a very short basal branch, 2 side by side (Stephani gives 3–4 consecutva), smooth, attached near the mouth Androecia basal or median on branches hairy with rhizoids, bracts swollen and compacted, in few to many pairs, whitish, spiniferous at apex.
This species is recognized by its patent to subvertical imbricate, concave leaves with a broad apex and spinous-toothed ventral margin.
North Island: Whangaroa, 3162, Waima, Otaua, 3169, Berggren, 1874; Rangitoto Island, 4865, W. Millener; lower trunk of small tree in bush, Waipoua Forest, H786, mainly on tree trunks, Rotorua Co. five specimens, rotten log in bush between Lake Roto-ehu and the coast, Bay of Plenty, K. W. A.; Mokau-iti Valley, 20 miles South
of Te Kuiti, A. J. Allison; Mt. Ruapehu, 6408, E. Tamakis, Dannevirke, 6411, A. L. H.; mostly on tree trunks, Waikaremoana, Morere and local bush remnants, 12 specimens, E. A. H.; Pohangina Valley, 327, grasslands, Wellington, 7031, A. P. D.; Mt. Bruce, Wairarapa, 9587, W. M.; Mt. Egmont, on trees, 10185, 10181, E. A. H.
South Island: Essom's Valley, Picton, 955, W.M.; Cobb V., Nelson, 6418, A.L.H.; Maruia Springs, Nelson, 305, J. H. McMahon; Kelly's Hill, Arthur's Pass, 9607, W. M.; Arthur's Pass, 6410, Mrs. Vere, damp bush floor above Leith Saddle Stream Saddle to Waitati, 888, tree trunk in beech forest, Haast Pass, ca. 1,800ft, H5981, K. W. A. (fruiting).
The type was collected by Knight, no locality stated. Other collectors, Colenso, Kirk. Also from Australia (Ferd. von Mueller) and Chile (Corral), Stephani (1908).
Marsupidium abbreviatum (Tayl.) Steph. Text-fig. II, Fig. 9.
Jungermannia abbreviata Tayl, Lond. Journ. of Bot., 374, 1844.
Plagtochtla abbreviata G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 646, 1847.
Jung. (Gymnanthe) Urvilleana (Mont.) Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot., 468, 1844.
Gymnanthe Urvilleana Mitt., Fl. Tas., 1860.
Marsupidium Urvilleanum (Mont.) Mitt., Append. to Hook Handb. N.Z. Fl., 1867.
Scapanta surculosa Nees in G. L. et N., Syn. Hep., 62, 1844.
Gymnanthe surculosa G. L. et N., Syn. Hep. 712, 1847.
Marsupidium surculosum (Nees) Schiff., Pfl. Fam., Hep., 100, 1893; Steph., Spec. Hep., iii, 602, 1909; Rod., Pps. & Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., Hep., 36, 1916.
Marsupidium abbreviatum Steph., Spec. Hep., in, 385, 1908, Rod., Pps. & Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., Hep., 36, 1916.
Tylimanthus homomallus Steph., Spec. Hep., VI, 248, 1922.
Plants pale green tufted, from interwoven rhizomes. Stems to 4 cm, but usually shorter, flexuous nodding, bare of leaves for often half the length. Leaves subrotund, barely 2 mm in diameter, vertical, very concave, amplexicaul, dorsal margin a little decurrent, insertion otherwise transverse, a short tooth may be present on the upper margin, or the margin may be slightly wavy in outline, imbricate to sub-remote. Cells rounded-quadrate, more or less opaque with contents, marginal cells regular and distinct. “Marsupium 4 mm, seta nearly as long as the stem, thick” (Rodway, in describing M. surculosum). Marsupia seen were undeveloped, the swollen apex of a short basal branch, with one or two pairs of small leaves, and ventral rhizoids.
I am indebted to Dr. S. Arnell for the identification of this plant as Marsupidium surculosum. Dr. Arnell compared it with Sieber's and Frazer's original specimen from Nova Hollandia (Australia) in the Riksmuseum. There is no doubt that Hooker's and Sieber's plants are the same species. The early descriptions and Stephani's drawings of the originals correspond.
South Island: Lead Hills, near Rainham, Nelson, 6404, G. S. & J. S. T.; Revolver Cove, Preservation Inlet, 6393, 6414, H. H. A.
Stewart Island: Forest trees, Pryse's Peak, 9522, Summit rocks, Tin Range, 584, Table Hill, 5411, W. M.
Antipodes Island, L. Cockayne, Auckland Museum Herb., type of Tylimanthus homomallous Steph. The plant from Antipodes Island collected by G. Einar du Rietz in the Riksmuseum, Sweden, wrongly labelled Tylimanthus homomallous is Plagtochila radiculosa.
Also from Henty River Bridge, Tasmania, O. Selling, det. S. Arnell as M. surculosum; Flinders Island, Bass Strait, det. P. Bibby as M. surculosum; Auckland Island, Herb. Sonder labelled Scapania Urvilleana, the last two from Melbourne Herbarium.
The type of M. abbreviatum was from the Auckland Islands, coll. Hooker, and the type of M. surculosum was from Nova Hollandia coll. Sieber and Frazer.
Marsupidium perpusillum (Col.) comb. nov. Text-fig. II, Fig. 8.
Tylimanthus perpusillus Col. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19, 286, 1886.
Tylimanthus tenellus Steph. Spec. Hep., iii 9, 1909.
Marsupidium Urvilleanum Mitt. Append. Handb. N.Z. Fl., 1867.
Tylimanthus flaccidus Berggr. forma, Steph. Icones Hep. ined.
Plants dioicous, in spreading ± tufted mats, often greyish green Stems to 2½ cm, but often shorter, erect or ascending, a little flexuous, not much branched, lower portion with rhizoids and smaller leaves, branches from the base of ventral margin of a leaf, but not truly
ventral. Leaves imbricate to remote, sub-horizontally spreading or twisted, 1–2 mm long, rounded-quadrate, clearly or obscurely bilobed, ventral lobe larger, rounded or with an apical tooth, leaf-apex variable, sub-truncate with a shallow and broad sinus, or occasionally deeper and acute, small marginal teeth sometimes present, dorsal margin fairly straight, decurrent, ventral margin more arched. Cells ca. 30μ more or less rounded, somewhat obscure by contents variously arranged. Marsupium descending from a short basal branch, to 4 mm, obconic, light coloured, seta very long, capsule cylindrical, to nearly 2 mm. What might be undeveloped marsupia on an Atiamuri specimen are only 2 mm long and pitcher-shaped. ♂ bracts on basal branches to eight pairs or more, imbricate, saccate, large-celled, upper portion free, entire probably truncate, antheridia 1 to each bract.
This species, together with Marsupidium abbreviatum were wrongly identified by Mitten as M. Urvilleanum (Mont.), from South America, and this has led to much confusion.
M. perpusillum is distinguished from Tylimanthus tenellus by its shorter and more rounded leaves, and its greyish green colour if this is present. T. tenellus, generally speaking, has leaves longer than broad, with the ventral lobe triangular-acute.
North Island: Mostly on banks and under manuka, Taupo and Rotorua regions, 10 specimens, K. W. A.; Ohakune Track, Mt. Ruapehu, 3,000ft to 4,000ft, 757, Northern Ruahines, 6377, H. M. H.; bog, Maungapohatu (Urewera), 4,600ft, grasslands, Wellington, ca. 1,500ft, 7029, A. P. D.; grassy hillsides and slips near Wairoa, 831, 271, 6376, roadside cutting, Tauruarau Gorge, Napier-Taihape Road, 6375, 6379, Otupae, N.W. Ruahines, 6380, damp bank by path, Wilton's Bush, Wellington, 7010, E. A. H.; also 830 Colenso, and Col. Bolton, both in New York Herbarium sub nomine Gymnanthe Urvilleana, and in Lund Botanical Museum, from Lyttelton, det. Berggren as Marsupidium Urvilleanum.
South Island: Bealey River, two specimens, Lyttelton, S. Berggren; Ashburton River Gorge, 1383/a, Moonlight Track, Ben Lomond, Queenstown, 771/b, J. D. Lovis; soil on rocks, The Caves, Lake Te Anau, 5608, W. M.; Mt. Maungatua, 5263, Morrison's Creek, Dunedin, 40784, p.p. G. S.; amongst tussock on hillside, Berwick State Forest, Dunedin, open roadside bank S. of Dunedin, Bethune's Gully, Dunedin, H5738, K. W. A.; Pine Hill, Dunedin, 5544, W. M.
Campbell Island, Lyall Ridge, R. L. Oliver.
Colenso's type was from damp shady niches on high hill, Porangahau, Waipawa, coll. H. Hill.
Marsupidium setulosum Mitt.
Gymnanthe setulosa Mitt. Fl. Nov. Zel., 1855, Fl. Tas.; 1860; Hook. Handb. N.Z. Fl., 519, 1867.
Marsupidium setulosum Mitt. Append. Handb. N.Z. Fl., 1867; Steph Spec. Hep., iii, 386; 1908; Rod. Pps. & Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., Hep., 36, 1916.
Plants dioicous, tufted, terrestrial or on rotting logs, bright yellow-green when fresh. Stems to 3 cm, erect, densely setulose, much or little branched; basal part bare or with few or many pairs of minute, bifid leaves. Branches ventral, long or medium, basal part bare or with minute leaves, or with minute leaves for the whole length, densely setulose and whitish, rhizoids numerous. Leaves 1.2 mm, imbricate, ovate to broadly ovate, unequally bi-lobed or with dorsal lobe reduced to a minimum, margins waved, hyaline, crenate or dentate, spinulose toothed, sometimes all round, insertion oblique, dorsal margin may be recurved, cuticle papillose. Marsupium not yet discovered. ♂ bracts whitish, closely imbricate, terminal on short basal branches, or terminal or repetitive in short lengths on long white branches, not necessarily basal.
Easily distinguished by its white setulose stems and papillose, margined, undulate, spinulose or toothed leaves.
North Island: Coromandel Pen., 55L, J. Matthews, H927 Herb. K. W. A.; Mt. Manuoha (Waikaremoana), 433, G. O. K. S.; E. Tamakis, Dannevirke, 6356, A. L. H.; Mt. Kapakapanui (Tararuas), 834, Mt. Climie (Rimutakas) ca. 2,000ft, 638, 2678, with Radula sp. A. P. D. On rotting log with Bazzania sp. 3,100ft, Mt. Egmont, 10276, E. A. H.
South Island: In bush near Greymouth, 639, H. M. H.; Long Island, North Port, Head of Long Sound, Preservation Inlet, H. H. A.
The type, with Adelanthus falcatus was from the Tararuas, coll Colenso.
Text-fig. II.—Fig. 8—Marsupidium perpusillum. Fig. 9—Marsupidium abbreviatum. Fig. 10—Marsupidium Urvilleanum (Type). Fig. 11—Jackiella curvata. Fig. 12—Saccogyna australis. Fig. 13—Geocalyx novaezelandiae. Fig. 14—Balantiopsis tumida. Fig. 15—Balantiopsis diplophylla. Fig. 16—Balantiopsis rosea. Fig. 17—Balantiopsis convexiuscula. Fig. 18—Jamesoniella pseudocclusa. Fig. 19—Jungermannia grandifolia.
Marsupidium epiphytum Col. Text-fig. I, Fig. 6.
M. epiphytum Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 21, 64, 1888.
Plants dioicous, medium, mainly on tree trunks, dark green when fresh, one plant gemmiferous. Stems to 2 cm, simple or branched at the base, ascending from an intricate tangle of woody procumbent rhizomatous stems at or below the substratum. Leaves contiguous to imbricate, sub-horizontally to obliquely spreading, sometimes decreasing towards the apex, variable at times but mostly rectangular with parallel margins, bilobed, the ventral lobe much larger, dentate or denticulate towards the apex and ending in an apical spine, the dorsal lobe often reduced to a narrowly triangular spine, both margins flat or nearly so, dorsal margin never reflexed. Cells 20–30μ, irregular in shape, obscure with contents like minute cellules, trigones small. A developed marsupium has not been seen, but Colenso (1888) describes it as follows: Involucre at bases and forks of branches, small, triangular-ovoid. 1 line long, brownish, glabrous, hairy at top, with a few scattered hairs below; hairs white. Androecia a white basal spike; bracts 3–6 pairs, antheridia in pairs in each axil. Gemmae dark, opaque, of various shapes and sizes.
This species is distinguished from M. Knightii by its narrow and longer leaves. When Berggren wrote that the ♂ plant of M. Knightii had bifid and narrower leaves than the ♀, he most probably had this species. It differs from Tylimanthus tenellus in the rectangular flattish leaves of a deeper colour, and its arboreal habitat.
No. 10198 from bush near Dawson Falls, Mt. Egmont (Hodgson), has surface leaf-gemmae, some of which have developed into minute stems with leaves.
North Island: Log on bush floor, Waipoua Forest, H788, K. W. A.; Mt. Archeria, Little Barrier Island, R. E. N. Matthews; Whakapapa, 449, Mt. Ruapehu, 6352, G. O. K. S.; on Podocarpus Hallii, c. 2.400ft, Hauhangaroa Range, 7012, A. P. D.; Horokino Bush, 1,200ft, Mangapehi, 6367, V. W. Lindauer; tree trunk, Ngongotaha Mt., 6364, rock in gully near Taupo, 6371, dry bank in Roto-a-kui Bush East of Taupo, 6365, K. W. A.; Urewera National Park, 6354 B, Teague; base of tree between Ruatahuna and Te Whaiti, 9374, tree trunks, Morere and Waikaremoana, four specimens, on trees, Mangahao Dams, Tararuas, 10602, E. A. H.
South Island: Westland, 6350. H. M. H.; Facile Harbour, Dusky Sound, H. H. A.; Franklin Mts., Lake Te Anau, 6422, W. A. Thomson.
Stewart Island: On forest trees, Pegasus, 404; on tree-ferns on island, Port Pegasus, 490, trees, Freezer Falls, Pegasus, 5412, W. M.
Colenso's plant was from trunks of tree-ferns, low wet woods near Norsewood, Waipawa County, 1885.
Marsupidium Urvilleanum (Mont.) Hodgson non Marsupidium Urvilleanum (Mont.) Mitt.
Syn. Plagiochila Urvilleana Mont.
Marsupidium Urvilleanum is a South American species and does not grow in New Zealand. It resembles Tylimanthus saccatus in the marginal serrations, but the leaves are much rounder in shape (see Text-fig. II, Fig. 10), and with the dorsal margins more or less incurved, it does seem to be a Marsupidium.
The reason for the change in the citation is as follows: In the Appendix to the Handbook Mitten stated that Plagiochila Urvilleana Mont. had been confused with Gymnanthe saccata, but that the new genus Marsupidium included the true Plagiochila Urvilleana. What he considered to be the true Plag. Urvilleana was Jungermannia abbreviata Tayl. and he made Marsupidium abbreviatum (Tayl.) Mitt a synonym of his Marsupidium Urvilleanum (Mont.) Mitt. In describing the so-called Marsupidium Urvilleanum (Mont.) Mitt. (Jung. abbreviata) he lumped with it another undescribed species, later Colenso's Tylimanthus perpusillus, which provided the marsupium for the description, and the mixture of these two comprised Mar Urvilleanum (Mont.) Mitt. Therefore as far as Mitten is concerned Montagne's plant is still Plagiochila Urvilleana. Hence the new citation for the combination.
*Marsupidium capillare Berggren.
This is a meagre specimen consisting of a few small stems from Castle Hill, Canterbury, but I am not satisfied that they are not minute stems of Plagiochila Simpsonii Hodgson.
Marsupidium piliferum Steph.
This species is now elevated to a genus of its own and is now known as Pseudomarsupidium piliferum (Steph.) Herzog (1953) on account of its fructification, which consists of a calyptra only, surrounded with involucral leaves without marsupium or perianth Fruiting plants were found in quantity by Otto Renner (presumably) in West Patagonia, and the new publication is dedicated to his 70th birthday by Dr. Herzog. A fruiting plant is in the collection of K. W. Allison, H5880, from Beech trunk amongst mosses, bush, 2,500ft, E. of Taupo, 7/11/34. This specimen has a capsule quite intact, and it is spherical, not cylindrical, as in M. perpusillum Dr. Herzog's description is illustrated with many figures, including a beautiful habit drawing of the plant.
In the Melbourne National Herbarium is a specimen of the same thing collected in 1870 by D. Sullivan from Mt. William, Grampians, Victoria, and labelled Gymnanthe surculosum var. biciliata Gottsche type. But this variety was never published.
The species is recognized by its piliferous or biciliate leaves.
Other New Zealand localities are: North Island, Russell, 6399, V. W. Lindauer; on trunk of Fusanus Cunninghamii Gt. Barrier Island, 40, R. Lloyd; Moehau Mt., ca. 2,000ft, rain forest or sub-alpine scrub, also 2,950ft on ground, H229, L. B. M.; rotten log, Motukiore Bush, Taupo, 9469; amongst moss on earth on rock summit Mt. Tauhara, 6389; on earth under manuka, near Atiamuri, H231; dry slope under manuka, E. of Waiotapu Valley, 6395; on earth, Rainbow Mt., Rotorua, and five others from Rotorua and Taupo regions, K. W. A.
South Island: Lead Hills, near Rainham, Nelson, 6406, G. S. and J. S. T.; near Fox Glacier, 6394, Mrs. Knight.
Stewart Island: Boggy ground, Table Hill Top, 2637, 8509, lower slopes of Mt. Rakiahua, 9629, W. M.
The first known gathering of this plant in New Zealand was made by K. W. Allison, and identified by W. E. Nicholson. It is recorded from New South Wales and Chile by Stephani, and is also found in Tasmania.
Amendments to Paper V (Jungermanniaceae)
Marsupial genera dealt with in Paper V (1946) were Acrobolbus, and Lethocolea under the name of Symphyomitra. Two other genera dealt with were Jungermannia and Jamesoniella. Amendments or additional notes on these four genera hereby follow.
7. Genus Acrobolbus Nees
Acrobolbus cinerascens (L. et L.) Steph. Text-fig. I, Fig. 7.
Jung. cinerascens L. et L., Pug. iv, 46, 1832, in G. L. et N., Syn., Hep., 178, 1845.
Gymnanthe cinerascens Mitt. Fl. Tas., 229, 1860.
Acrobolbus (sub-genus Marsupellopsis) cinerascens Schiff. Hep., Eng-Prantl Natürl. Pflanzenf., 1893.
Marsupellopsis cinerascens Berggr. N.Z. Hep., 1898.
Acrobolbus cinerascens Steph. Spec. Hep., ii, 176, 1906 Rod., Tas. Bry., ii, Pps. & Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas; Hodgson, N.Z. Hep. V, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 76, 83, 1946.
[Footnote] * Two gatherings of this species have now been received from Professor W. R. Philipson, of Canterbury University, collected by L. Visch at Misery Creek, Cass, North Canterbury, 22/2/58, Nos. B14 and B36. It is a Plagiochila, but not P. Simpsonii, nor any other New Zealand species. The following new combination therefore appears necessary: Plagiochila capillaris (Berggren) comb. nov. The stems are small, leaves rounded, entire or lobate-dentate.
This species is recognized by the pale-coloured, unequally bilobed leaves, on creeping rhiziferous stems with minute underleaves, both leaves and stem being covered with papillae. The ♂ inflorescence, as seen on specimens from Port Pegasus, Stewart Island, W. Martin, 627 and C. Smith, 47, consists of 2–3 pairs of terminal, saccate, leafy bracts, each containing 1 antheridium 0.15 mm across, the sac being formed by the smaller dorsal lobe being folded upwards. Some of these antheridia are tinted pink.
Another new locality is. on dead wood, Hari Hari, Westland, coll. J. B. Langridge, comm. K. W. Allison, H3059.
8. Genus Lethocolea Mitt.
Lethocolea Mitt. Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, Appen, 750–755, 1867.
Podanthe Tayl. Lond Journ. of Bot., 413, 1846; Syn. Hep., 789, 1847.
Mitten's type of Lethocolea was the Australian and New Zealand plant Podanthe squamata Tayl. (1846). Mitten's name of Lethocolea does not give way to Taylor's name, because Podanthe is considered to be an orthographic variant of Podanthes Haw. 1812, and therefore illegitimate. Later (1906) Stephani displaced Mitten's name Lethocolea by Spruce's name Symphyomitra, the type of which genus was a South American species S. glossophylla (1888), and was followed by Rodway (1916). Spruce's name must therefore be considered a synonym of Lethocolea, at any rate as far as New Zealand plants are concerned.
Lethocolea squamata (Tayl.) comb. nov.
Podanthe squamata Tayl. Lond. Journ. of Bot., 413., 1846; Syn. Hep., 789. 1847.
Jungermannia pansa Tayl., Lond. Journ. of Bot., 275, 1846; Syn. Hep., 1847.
Gymnanthe Drummondii Mitt., Fl. Nov. Zel., ii, 144, 1855; Handb. N.Z. Fl. ii, 1869.
Lethocolea Drummondii (Mitt.) Mitt., Handb. N.Z. Fl. ii, Appen., 1867; Berggr. N.Z. Hep. 1898.
Symphyomitra Drummondii Steph. Spec. Hep., ii, 106, 1906; Rod., Tas. Brv., Pps. & Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., 34, 1916; Hodgson Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 76.84, 1946.
The recognition of the New Zealand plant as being identical with Drummond's from the Swan River, West Australia, was made by Mitten himself and is accepted, the type fragment in the Melbourne Herbarium being too small and poor to dispute Mitten's identification.
A new station for this species is Mt. Eden, Auckland, M. Strange.
9. Genus Jungermannia L. ex parte
Jungermannia grandifolia (Berggr.) comb. nov. Text-fig. II, Fig. 19.
Lethocolea grandifolia Berggr. N.Z. Hep., 26, 1898.
Symphyomitra grandifolia Steph. Spec. Hep., ii, 167, 1906; Hodgson, N.Z. Hep. 5, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 76, 85, 1946.
Several specimens of this species have been found with a typical Jungermannia perianth, hence the new combination. The perianths are large, to 3 mm, and broad at the apex when mature: mouth deeply 6-plicate, toothed, with the teeth alternating with the ridges. Invol. leaves large, almost circular, deeply concave, free, or adnate with the base of the perianth.
The species can be recognized by the prostrate stems ventrally clothed with long rhizoids, and the large rounded, regularly alternate, sometimes undulate, concave leaves.
Additional localities recorded are:
North Island: Waiotaka Valley, Kaimanawas (fruiting), 6263, H. M. H: track from Plateau to Manganui Hut, 4,000ft to 4,300ft, Mt. Egmont, 10396, E. A. H.
South Island: Covering yards of clay banks with Polytrichadelphus, Otira, 9634, in forest fringe near Lake Mapourika, South Westland, 6546 (fruiting), roadside banks, Lake Iolanthe, South Westland, 5049, W. M.; Bealey, S. Berggren; on road to glacier, descending Mt. Hercules, A. M. and L. G. Jack (fruiting); near Franz Josef Glacier, E. O. Campbell.
Stewart Island: Rocky banks near Oban, 9594, on earth, Kaipipi Track, 640 (fruiting), tramline to Tin Range, 2778 (fruiting), coastal bank near freezer, Port Pegasus, 548, W. M.
The Egmont plants are a little smaller, but appear to be the same thing.
Berggren's type was from Teremakau.
10. Genus Jamesoniella Spruce
Jamesoniella flexicaulis (Nees) Schiff.
J. Kirkii Steph. Hedwigia 47, 1895; Spec. Hep., ii, 94, 1906; Hodgson, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 76, 80, 1946.
J. scolopendrina Berggr., N. Z. Hep. i, 16, 1898.
There is now no doubt that Stephani's J. Kirkii is indeed J. flexicaulis, a Javan species, as determined by Hooker in the Handbook. With its flexuous stem, closely imbricate, secund, obliquely ovate leaves, it is distinct and interesting.
Additional localities are—North Island: On bark of silver beech and totara, Raukumara Range, 4,000ft, 5343, A. P. D; Silverstream Bush, track in Pinehaven Bush, near Silverstream Bush, 6784, E. A. H.
South Island: On stump in beech forest. Haast Pass, 1,800ft, H5748, H5962, K. W. A.; head of Hollyford River, 2,000ft, 10374, W. M.
Jamesoniella acinacifolium (Hook. & Tayl.) Steph.
Gymnomitrium acinacifolium (Hook. & Tayl.) G. L. et N. Syn. Hep. 616, 1846, Handb. N.Z. Fl., ii, 501, 1867.
This species discovered by Hooker, creeping among moss and on rocks, Campbell Island, was discovered in Stewart Island, on ground, summit Table Hill, 5/2/47, by W. Martin and first identified by K. W. Allison. The specimen is dark brown to blackish and is well distinguished by its ligulate leaves, somewhat smaller than those of J. flexicaulis.
Jamesoniella occlusa (Tayl.) Steph.
In Species Hepaticarum vol. ii, p. 102, 1906, Stephani places Taylor's Alicularia occlusa (1844) from Campbell Island (Hooker) in Jamesoniella as J. occlusa (Tayl.) St., although Mitten had already referred the specimen to his genus Adelanthus, a form of A. falcatus, as he thought, and the name had been dropped from the Handbook. In Vol. iii, p. 598, 1908, Stephani lists the specimen, together with one from New Zealand (Kirk), under Adelanthus magellanicus (Lindenb.) Spr. This is doubtless correct. Therefore the two plants listed under Jamesoniella occlusa in a footnote to p. 79 of Paper V, together with another from near Taupo (Allison) 6012, must now be considered as Adelanthus magellanicus.
Jamesoniella pseudocclusa Hodgson
A Latin description omitted from the footnote of p. 79 Paper V, is here supplied. Planta magna, sterilis, fusca, erecta. Caulis ad 10 cm, sub-flexuosus, simplex parum ramosus. Folia imbricata, erecta, appressa, sub-reniformia, 1.2 mm × ca 1.9 mm, secunda dorsale, marginibus ventralibus valde et constanter reflexis. Cellulae apicales ca 10μ, mediae ca. 20μ, basales ad ca. 40μ × 15μ, cum trigonis magnis, sub-nodulosis.
The species can be recognized by its tightly reflexed ventral margins. As the leaves are secund and their dorsal surfaces appressed, the reflexed margins of the ventral part are most noticeable. J. Sonderi has a plane ventral margin or maybe slightly incurved.
In addition to Ohakune and Tararuas previously mentioned, the following stations have been recorded:
North Island: Mokai Patea, Ruahines, 5,000ft, 5912, A. P. D.
South Island: Leslie Clearing, Caswell Sound, V. D. Z.; Wilmot Pass to Lake Manapouri, 5634, W. M.; waterfall, Long Island, Dusky Sound, H. H. A.; damp bank at roadside, Haast Pass, ca. 1,800ft, K. W. A. Also five specimens from Stewart Island, W. M.
The type is from near Ohakune Mountain Hut, 4,500ft, coll. G. O. K. Sainsbury, December, 1929. No. 126, Herb., E. A. Hodgson.
I wish to express my thanks for courtesies received, to Madame Jovet-Ast of the Museum National, Paris; to Dr. Sigfrid Arnell; to Dr. Herman Persson, of the Riksmuseum, Stockholm; to Dr. Tycho Norlindh, of the Lund University Museum; to Dr. C. E. B. Bonner, curator of Stephani's Herbarium; to Dr. D. P. Rogers and Miss Rosalie Weikert, of New York National Herbarium; to Mr. J. H. Willis, of Melbourne National Herbarium; to Dr. Fr. Verdoorn; and to Mr. K. W. Allison, of the New Zealand Forest Service, whose observation notes and numerous collections have made this paper possible.
Berggren, S., 1898. N.Z. Hepaticae, Lund
Buck, H., Evans, A., & Verdoorn, F., 1937 A preliminary check list, including a complete enumeration of all genera of the Hepaticae, Annales Bryologici 10, 4–8, Leiden
Colenso, Rev. W., 1881. Trans. N. Z. Inst, 14, 340, Wellington
Colenso, Rev. W., 1886. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19, 285, Wellington.
Colenso, Rev. W., 1888. Trans. N.Z Inst., 21, 63, Wellington.
Evans, A. W., 1939. Classification of the Hepaticae, Botanical Review 5, 90
Gottsche, C. M., Lindenberg, J. B. G, et Nees, C. G. ab Esenbeck, 1844–1847, Synopsis Hepaticarum, Hamburg.
Herzog, Th., 1935. Description of New Species of N. Z. Hepaticae, Trans. Roy. Soc. N. Z. 65, 355.
Herzog, Th., 1953. Eine neue Lebermoosgattung aus Westpatagonien. Svensk Botanic Tidskrift 47, 1, Uppsala.
Hodgson, E. A., 1946. New Zealand Hepaticae V. Trans. Roy. Soc. N. Z., 76, 68–86.
Hooker, Sir J. D., 1867. Handbook N. Z. Flora, ii, London
Hooker, Sir W. J., 1818. Musci Exotici i, London.
Macvicar, S. M., 1927. Students' Handbook British Hepatics, London.
Mitten, W., 1855. in Flora Novae Zelandiae ii, London
Mitten, W., 1860. in Flora Tasmaniae London.
Mitten, W., 1867. in Handbook N.Z. Fl. ii, Appendix, London
Mitten, W., 1876. Hepaticae collected on Kerguelen Island, Challenger Expedition, Journal Linnean Society, Botany, 15, London
Rodway, L., 1916. Tasmanian Bryophytes ii Pprs and Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania
Stephani, Fr., 1892. Colenso's N. Z. Hepaticae, Journ. Linnean Society, Botany, 29, 263–280
Stephani, Fr., 1905–1908. Species Hepaticarum iii, Geneva.
Stephani, Fr., 1924. Species Hepaticarum vi, Geneva.
Stephani, Fr., Icones Hepaticarum, unpublished drawings of species.
Taylor, T., 1847. in Flora Antarctica, London
Verdoorn, Fr., 1932. De Levermosgeslachten van Java en Sumatra, Nederlandsch Kruidkundig Archief, Amsterdam.
Mrs. E. Amy Hodgson, F.L.S., Kiwi Valley, R.D., Wairoa, Hawke's Bay.